inhibition of aldehyde reductase by acidic metabolites of the biogenic amines. 197516
the effects of processing of barley-based supplements on rumen ph, rate of digestion of voluntary intake of dried grass in sheep.1. in one experiment the effect on rumen ph of feeding with restricted amounts of whole or pelleted barley was studied. with whole barley there was little variation in rumen ph associated with feeding time, but with pelleted barley the ph decreased from about 7-0 before feeding to about 5-3, 2--3 h after feeding. 2. the rate of disappearance of dried grass during incubation in the rumens of sheep receiving either whole or pelleted barley was studied in a second experiment. after 24 h incubation ...197536
respiratory effects of h+ and dinitrophenol injections into the brain stem subarachnoid space of fetal lambs.mock cerebrospinal fluid (ph 5.37-8.38) or 2,4-dinitrophenol (dnp) (0.15-1.5 mg) was injected into the subarachnoid space of the ventral brain stem of exteriorized fetal sheep. changes in ph on the ventral surface of the medulla did not stimulate respiratory efforts or induce significant cardiovascular changes. the respiratory response to dnp injections ranged from no response to prolonged rhythmic ventilation that was independent of the peripheral chemoreceptors or the control arterial ph and b ...1975134
phenomenon of hot-cold hemolysis: chelator-induced lysis of sphingomyelinase-treated erythrocytes.staphylococcus aureus produces a phospholipase c specific for sphingomyelin (beta-hemolysin). erythrocytes with approximately 50% sphingomyelin in their membranes, e.g., from sheep, have been shown to have up to 60% of this phospholipid hydrolyzed by this enzyme at 37 c in isotonic buffered saline without hemolysis. cooling of sphingomyelinase c-treated erythrocytes to 4 c causes complete lysis of the cells, a phenomenon known as hot-cold hemolysis. the addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetate (e ...1975333
methods to improve detection of pneumococci in respiratory secretions.simple methods to enhance the detection of pneumococci in respiratory secretions are needed. sheep blood agar containing 5 mug of gentamicin per ml was more often positive (89%) than either standard sheep blood agar (54%) or mouse inoculation (65%) in recovering pneumococci from 62 adult and pediatric patients. in adults, the direct quellung test on sputum smear was a rapid, sensitive method for predicting subsequent pneumococcal isolation by culture (19 of 20 patients, 95%). the quellung test a ...1975421
renal response to acid loading in the developing lamb fetus, intact in utero.response of the fetal kidney to metabolic acidosis was studied in five fetal lambs, 115-125 days gestation, in order to evaluate the renal contribution to elimination of hydrogen ion during intra-uterine development. experiments were conducted on healthy unanesthetized fetuses, intact in utero, with catheters implanted at hysterotomy into a fetal femoral artery and vein and into the bladder via the urachus, four or more days prior to the study. a metabolic acidosis was induced by infusion of iso ...1975479
improvement of renin determination in human plasma using a commonly available renin standard in a radioimmunological method.a new method for the measurement of renin in human plasma is described. the method is based on the introduction of the internationally available renin standard of the medical research council (mrc) london, as a calibration system. thus, some principal disadvantages of methods expressing results in renin reaction velocity (angiotensin generation rate) only are avoided. both renins, unknown and standard, react with a sheep substrate preparation and are handled identically throughout the whole proc ...1975541
properties of solubilized prostaglandin synthetase from sheep vesicular glands. 1975571
significance of serum pepsinogen and abomasal ph levels in a field infection of o circumcincta in lambs.serum pepsinogen estimations from serially bled lambs grazing on pasture from spring to autumn showed correlations with the availability of ostertagia larvae on pasture, with faecal egg counts of o circumcincta, and with ostertagia worm counts in similar lambs slaughtered fort-nightly from the same pasture. in the slaughtered lambs correlations were recorded between worm count, serum pepsinogen level and abomasal ph. the value of serum pepsinogen estimations as a diagnostic test is discussed wi ...1975842
sympathico-adrenal system activity in a primary immune response.experiments were carried out on linear mice immunized with sheep erythrocytes; it was found that the primary immune respose developed against the background of significant changes in the state of the sympathico-adrenal system, whose activity was determined by the dynamics of catecholamines in the blood and in the tissues of a number of organs, including the thymus, the spleen and the lymph nodes. by comparing the value of specific and neurohumoral indices it was revealed that the neurohumoral sh ...1975877
use of the gvh reaction to investigate the regulation of the humoral immune response. 1975898
influence of the products of phospholipolysis of phosphatidylcholine on micellar solubilization of fatty acids in the presence of bile salts.1. the solubility of fatty acids in aqueous solutions containing bile salts and lysolecithin at ph values between 2-0 and 7-4 was studied. both the 1-acyl and 2-acyl isomers of lysolecithin increased the solubility of fatty acids to the same extent, the order of solubility being linoleic greater than oleic greater than elaidic greater than palmitic greater than stearic. 2. the influence of the products of phospholipolysis of lecithin on palmitic acid solubility was determined. on a molar basis, ...19761083
micellar solubilization of fatty acids in aqueous media containing bile salts and phospholipids.1. the solubility of fatty acids in aqueous media containing bile salts alone and in admixture with either lecithin (phosphatidylcholine) or phosphatidylethanolamine was determined. 2. over the ph range 2-0-7-4, the order of fatty acid solubility in aqueous solutions containing bile salts was linoleic greater than oleic greater than elaidic greater than palmitic greater than stearic. the solubility of each fatty acid increased as the ph of the miceus solutions of bile salts greatly increased the ...19761082
purification of 2-oxoaldehyde dehydrogenase and its dependence on unusual amines.1. 2-oxoaldehyde dehydrogenase was purified from sheep liver and gave one band on polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. 2. the enzyme was completely dependent for its activity on the presence of tris or one of a number of related amines, all of general structure: (see article). when more than one r group was hydrogen no enzyme activity was observed. 3. only one of these amines is known to exist in living tissues and large concentrations of all amines were required for maximum activity. l-2-aminopr ...1975998
the effect of neonatal rat graft-vs-host disease (gvhd) on fc receptor lymphocytes.the level of fc receptor rosette-forming lymphocytes (fc-rfl) was examined in spleen and lymph node cell suspension from neonatal da and bn rats inoculated within 24 hr of birth with either allogeneic l (experimental) or syngeneic (control) lymphoid cells. in addition, these levels were compared to fetal and neonatal animals that received no injection. the indicator cells (ea) were sheep erythrocytes sensitized with one-half concentration of the highest dilution of rabbit anti-sheep erythrocyte ...19761444
studies on the rumen flagellate neocallimastix frontalis.the vast increase in the population density of the rumen flagellate neocallimastix frontalis shortly after the host animal has commenced eating is caused by stimulation of a reproductive body on a vegetative phase of the organism to differentiate and liberate the flagellates. the stimulant is a component of the host's diet. the vegetative stage of n. frontalis bears a strong morphological resemblance to that of certain species of aquatic phycomycete fungi, and consists of a reproductive body bor ...19751462
effects of psychotropic drugs on prostaglandin biosynthesis in vitro. 19751505
cardiovascular effects of electrical stimulation of the forebrain in the fetal lamb.modified stereotaxic techniques were applied to fetal lambs during the latter third of gestation. electrical stimulation in the region of the hypothalamus in 10 acute experiments was associated with three patterns of arterial blood pressure and heart rate changes: a pressor-tachycardia response; a pure tachycardia response (abolished by propranolol); and a pure bradycardia response (abolished by atropine). the pressor-tachycardia response was examined in detail in 13 chronic preparations (115-13 ...19761704
study of the amniotic fluid of sheep in the normal course of pregnancy and in abortion.cytologic, biochemical and immunoelectrophoretic studies were carried out of amniotic fluids in 100 ewes with normal pregnancy and 40 ewes that had miscarried. each month of pregnancy a total of 20 and 8 animals of the two groups, respectively were studied. it was found that the biochemical and metabolic processes taking place in the fetus lead to changes in the amniotic fluids altering the ph value, the alkali reserve, the content of potassium, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase as well ...19751894
classification and biological distribution of histamine receptor sub-types.the distribution and classification of histamine receptors in mammalian and avian tissues have been summarized in tables 1-4. it is evident that histamine receptors are present on a number of morphologically distinct cell types and the proportion of cells bearing h1- and h2-receptors varies not only with the species but also with the cell source. the pharmacological receptors mediating mepyramine-sensitive histamine responses have been defined as h1-receptors. receptors mediating mepyramine-resi ...19751979
changes in the acid base status of sheep anaesthetised with a combination of atropine sulphate acepromazine and ketamine, paco2, pao2, standard bicarbonate, base excess and reduced ph were measured in sheep before and at regular intervals after administration of ketamine with and without atropine and acepromazine premedication. a decrease in ph and pao2 and a rise in paco2 was observed 15 minutes after administration of ketamine. administration of atropine with and without acepromazine had no significant effect on ph, paco2 and pao2. the values for standard bicarbonate, base excess and reduced ph were not signi ...1975986
antitumor and immunosuppressive activities of lankacidin-group antibiotics: structure-activity relationships.the antitumor and immunosuppressive activities of the lankacidin-group antibiotics were studied in mice. seventeen of 29 newly prepared lankacidin-group antibiotics, including 14-derivatives of lankacidin c, lankacidinol, isolankacidinol, and lankacidinol 14-acetate, possessed considerable antitumor activity against ascites 6c3hed/og lymphosarcoma. comparative studies on the antitumor activity of lankacidin c and eight of its derivatives against l1210 leukemia and solid 6c3hed/og lymphosarcoma d ...19751148
analysis of sheep blood serum haptoglobin.three types of haptoglobin (hp), differing in the number of bands of hp--hb complex on polyacrylamide gel electrophoregramm are found in sheep blood serum. hpa, hpb and hpc fractions included one, two-three and six-eight bands respectively. a modified procedure for the hpc isolation is described. effects of urea, sodium dodecylsulpate, beta-mercaptoethanol, ph and maleinization on the behaviour of hpc under polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is studied. the data obtained suggest that the hpc mol ...19752330
pah clearance, sodium excretion, and pah extraction ratio in acidotic near-term lambs treated with hypertonic sodium bicarbonate.the electrolyte changes and renal hemodynamic adjustment to hypertonic sodium bicarbonate (nahco3) correction of a metabolic acidosis were studied in 4 neonatal lambs and in 2 controls. pah clearance increased from 0.92 to 1.65 ml/min/kg (p less than 0.05), urine flow from 0.37 to 0.61 ml/min/kg (p less than 0.05), and na excretion from 8.4 to 23.7 mueq/min/kg (p less than 0.05) during the nahco3 infusion. these increases were transient and returned to pre-infusion levels following nahco3 infus ...19762340
gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase of sheep-kidney cortex. isolation, catalytic properties and dissociation into two polypeptide chains.gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase was isolated from sheep kidney cortex as an apparently homogeneous, highly active protein. at optimal ph and in the absence of acceptors, the enzyme catalyzes the release of about 510 mumol of p-nitroaniline per mg protein per min from the model substrate l-gamma-glutamyl-p-nitroanilide. polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in a sodium dodecylsulfate buffer system showed the presence of a large (mr approximately 65000) and a small (mr approximately 27000) polypeptide ...19761275
intermediates in the interconversion of acid and alkaline ferrihemoglobin. structural and kinetic aspects.the acid-alkaline ph-jump in suspension of crystalline sheep hemoglobin has been studied in the range of 5.95 to 8.94. crystals suspended in 3.8 m cs2so4 show a rapid optical transition of half-time equal to or less than 2 ms. as the ammonia concentration is increased in the cs2so4-suspended crystals, a second optical transition is observed as a pseudo-first-order reaction, with a rate constant of between 10 and 15 s-1. the alkaline-acid ph-jump proceeds through a very rapid shift of the alkalin ...19762464
ontogeny of tracheal fluid, pulmonary surfactant, and plasma corticoids in the fetal lamb.we examined fetal plasma corticoids and flow rate, electrolyte composition, and surfactant content of tracheal fluid in chronic experiments with eight fetal lambs. from 120 to 148 days of gestation the rate of fluid production was 4.5 ml/kg per h, and there was no change in mean fluid sodium (147.8 meq/1), chloride (153.1 meq/1), calcium (2.2 mg/100 ml), and ph (6.23). tracheal fluid potassium increased from 4.3 meq/1 at 120-130 days to 8.9 meq/1 at term, while plasma sodium, chloride, calcium, ...19752573
lymphocyte subpopulations. human red blood cell rosettes.human red blood cells (hrbc) even without prior neuraminidase treatment, could form rosettes with human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro. the optimum conditions for forming these rosettes were a ph of 7-0 and a medium with 5% bovine serum albumin (bsa). rosette proportions became much less at a different ph or using lower concentrations of bsa, or replacing bsa with foetal calf sera (fcs) or human sera. rosette formation was also promoted by prior treatment of hrbc or lymphocytes with neura ...19752404
possibilities and limitations of uterine contraction inhibiting agents. 19762884
effect of labor inhibitor th 1165 a (partusisten) on cardiovascular parameters, blood gases and ph values of mother and fetus in animal experiments. 19752133
quantitative removal of carrier ampholytes from protein fractions derived from isoelectric focusing. 19753125
the effect of disulfiram on the aldehyde dehydrogenases of sheep liver.1. the effect of disulfiram on the activity of the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenases of sheep liver was studied. 2. disulfiram causes an immediate inhibition of the enzyme reaction. the effect on the cytoplasmic enzyme is much greater than on the mitochondrial enzyme. 3. in both cases, the initial partial inhibition is followed by a gradual irreversible loss of activity. 4. the ph-rate profile of the inactivation of the mitochondrial enzyme by disulfiram and the ph-dependence ...19753167
purification of an immunosuppressive principle from ehrlich carcinoma immunosuppressive factor was purified from ehrlich carcinoma ascites by the combination of ultrafiltration and sephadex chromatography. the resulting product showed 50% reduction in the number of splenic plaque-forming cells in mice immunized with sheep red blood cells when as low as 50 mug dose was given twice intraperitoneally before erythrocyte injection. the molecular size of the product was between 30,000 and 100,000, and it was relatively heat unstable.19753452
the effects of some polypeptides on the systemic blood pressure of sheep (author's transl). 19753458
influence of protein restriction on immune functions in nzb mice.the influence of a low protein (6%) diet on the immunologic function of nzb mice was investigated. the low protein intake was associated with decreased weight gain in both male and female nzb mice. the mice fed the low protein diet did not develop splenomegaly, which generally occurs by 7 to 10 months of age in nzb mice fed a normal amount of protein. further, 7- to 10-month-old nzb mice fed the low protein(6%) diet, maintained: 1) more vigorous antibody production to sheep red blood cells; 2) g ...19763605
possibilities and limits of the intrauterine reanimation (author's transl).intrauterine reanimation means the removal of acute maternal or fetal distress. beside of maternal shock (traumatic, hoaemorrhagic, supine hypotension syndrome) all acute distress situation are seen during labour. the therapeutical possibilities and premises on the one side, the limits and dangers on the other are discussed. there are the change of position in bed, infusion of low molecular dextrane, o2- breathing, buffering of the mother, infusion of vasodilatators and beta-stimulators to the m ...19753899
partial purification and characterization of post-proline cleaving enzyme: enzymatic inactivation of neurohypophyseal hormones by kidney preparations of various species.the inactivation of the neurohypophyseal hormones arginine vasopressin and oxytocin, both 14c-labelled in the c-terminal glycine residue, by enzymes present in kidney homogenates of various species has been investigated, and some of the enzymes responsible have been partially purified and characterized. the leu-gly peptide bond of oxytocin is generally most effectively cleaved by kidney homogenates, although with certain species enzymic activity hydrolyzing the pro-leu bond is significant. degra ...19762300
17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase of the sheep ovary : purification, properties and substrate binding site.sheep ovarian 17 beta hsdh has been purified about 1000 fold to a specific activity of 0.5 iu/mg protein, using deae cellulose chromatography, affinity chromatography on estrone-amino caproate-sepharose and a second deae cellulose chromatography. the molecular weight is 70,000 ; the ph optimum for activity is 9.2 and the energy of activation is 16.5 kcal/mole. the kinetics of the oxidation of estradiol and many analogues have been studied at various concentrations and in the presence of differen ...19754149
characterization of the mannosyl and fucosyl transferases in the ovine anterior pituitary glands.ovine anterior pituitary glands contain mannosyl- and fucosyl-transferases localized in the microsomes and able to incorporate mannose or fucose as such from gdp-mannose or gdp-fucose into endogenous glycoproteins. the requirements and conditions necessary for maximum activity were investigated. the value of the km is very similar for the two enzyme systems, 3 x 10(-7) m in the case of mannosyl-transferases and 5 x 10(-7) m in the case of fucosyl-transferases.19754162
measurement and comparison of the proliferative and antibody response of neonatal, immature and adult murine spleen cells to t-dependent and t-independent antigens. 19764226
partial purification and properties of ovine liver echinococcus granulosus protoscolices phospholgucose isomerase.echinococcus granulosus protoscolex is the actual larval stage of the cestode causing echinococcosis both in man and animals. in the present report, certain properties of phosphoglucose isomerase from the ovine liver e. granulosus protoscolices have been studied and compared with those of the hydatid cyst fluid and the healthy ovine liver enzymes. the protoscolices enzyme prepared in a manner similar to the hydatid cyst fluid and the ovine liver enzymes exhibited the following properties: (1) ph ...19764246
a simple method for the cryopreservation of lymphocytes. retention of specific immune effector functions by frozen-stored cells.a simple, quick and inexpensive method for cryostorage of lymphocytes is discribed. when injected into appropriate normal recipients, frozen-stored rat and sheep lymphocytes caused gvh and nlt reactions respectively. sheep lymphocytes remained viable after several months storage and functioned satisfactorily as 51cr-labelled target cells in assays for cytotoxic antibodies. lymphocytes, including immunoblasts, drained from sheep efferent lymphatics during immune responses to injected murine p815 ...19764251
equine viral encephalitis.the most important neurotropic viral infections of the horse are the arthropod-borne encephalitides. these include venezuelan encephalitis (ve), eastern encephalitis (ee) and western encephalitis (we), which are found in the americas, and japanese b encephalitis which occurs in the far east. all the viruses cause encephalitis in man. between 1969 and 1972 an epidemic of ve occurred in central america. in 1971 the disease was reported in texas, where it was brought under control by the vaccinatio ...19764301
alpha-aminomethylglutarate, a beta-amino analog of glutamate that interacts with glutamine synthetase and the enzymes that catalyze glutathione synthesis.the glutamate analog, alpha-aminomethylglutaric acid, was synthetized by michael addition of ammonia to 2-methylene glutaronitrile followed by hydrolysis of the intermediate alpha-aminomethylglutaryl nitrile; the analog cyclizes readily on heating to 2-piperidone-5-carboxylic acid. sheep brain glutamine synthetase utilizes one isomer of dl-alpha-aminomethylglutarate at about 10% of the rate with l-glutamate. gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase uses both isomers of dl-alpha-aminomethylglutarate, pr ...19764441
a kinetic concepto of lipid transport in ruminants.summarization of the literature shows a strong correlation between dietary fatty acid intake and total lipid concentration in plasma in lactating cows whereas total milk fat secreted is related to neither of these. in the process of plasma triglyceride removal, chylomicra and very low density lipoproteins are converted to low density lipoproteins. limited kinetic data indicate that the fractional removal rates for chulomicra and very low density lipoproteins are rapid in lactating cows whereas f ...19764477
effect of copper status on brain neurotransmitter metabolism in the lamb. 19764581
the surface potential of and double-layer interaction force between surfaces characterized by multiple ionizable groups. 19764677
on the control of enzyme pathways. 19764678
the effect of carbonic anhydrase inhibition on bicarbonate reabsorption.renal reabsorption of bicarbonate was studied in merino ewes during carbonic anhydrase inhibition. bicarbonate reabsorption was directly proportional to plasma bicarbonate concentration. no tubular maximum for bicarbonate was demonstrated. elevation of arterial pco2 or depression of arterial ph caused slight increases in bicarbonate reabsorption. the data suggest that bicarbonate is reabsorbed by 2 distinct processes. the quantitatively more significant process may involve ionic reabsorption of ...19764767
functional assessment of the autotransplanted uterus and ovary in the ewe. 19764803
action of histamine and its receptor blockers on uterine circulation in sheep.effects of iv and ia administration of histamine and its h1 and h2 blockers (diphenhydramine and metiamide) on systemic arterial pressure, heart rate, and uterine and iliac blood flows were investigated in unanesthetized, chronically instrumented nonpregnant ewes. intravenous histamine produced tachycardia, hypotension, and decreased iliac and uterine blood flows. in contrast, ia injections produced a significant increase in blood flows in these vascular beds which was dose-dependent. evidence i ...19764813
the biological actions of thyrotropin. 19754827
study of cystinaminopeptidase heterogeneity in animal sera by the isoelectric focusing of the quantitative distribution of cystinaminopeptidase activity in the serum of pregnant and control animals (cow, sheep and rat) by the isoelectric focusing method showed heterogeneity of the cystinaminopeptidase activity of the animals' serum enzymatic system, which was well pronounced in the cow and rat and less pronounced in the sheep. the authors assume from their results that the principal difference between the pregnant and control animals is not the total increase in the level of ...19764848
the effect of mercuric chloride intoxication on urinary psi-glutamyl transpeptidase excretion in the sheep.the activity of the enzyme psi-glutamyl transpeptidase (psi-gt) was measured in the urine of sheep. in clinically normal animals the mean value was 6-3+/-0-6 mu/ml. in sheep with kidney damage induced by the administration of mercuric chloride there were marked increases in urinary concentrations of psi-gt, in some cases values in excess of 1000 mu/ml were recorded. this enzyme may be of value in the diagnosis of certain forms of renal disease.19764865
the role of aflatoxin metabolism in its toxic lesion. 19764903
influence of various carbohydrate or volatile fatty acid supplements on nitrogen metabolism in wethers. 19754934
studies on the eructation mechanism in sheep. iv. the influence of prolonged fasting on the composition of the eructated rumen gases volume per cent and the (ph) in the ruminoreticulum. 19764935
hormones, second messengers, and the mammalian spermatozoon. 19754967
partial purification and characterization of a reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-linked aldehyde reductase from heart. 19765092
the effects of grass and concentrate diets on the specific activities of some enzymes of hepatic carbohydrate metabolism in sheep.feeding sheep a concentrate diet compared with grass diets increased the hepatic specific activities of the three glycolytic enzymes studied, and that of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (ec and reduced the specific activity of d-fructose-i, 6-diphosphate i-phosphohydrolase (ec the specific activities of phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (ec and malate dehydrogenase (decarboxylating) (nadp) (ec were unaffected by diet.19765105
endogenous proteolytic activity and constituent polypeptide chains of sheep and pig 19 s thyroglobulin.porcine and ovine 19-s thyroglobulins prepared from frozen glands in several buffers using slice extraction or homogenization, ammonium sulfate precipitation and deae-cellulose chromatography or sepharose 6b gel filtration were contaminated with protease activity of ph optima 4.5 and 8.6, as shown by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. optimum temperatures of autodigestion were 37 degrees c at ph 4.5 and 25 degrees c at ph 8.6. thyroglobulins prepared from unfrozen glands ...19765135
glutathione s-aryltransferase as a model for the glutathione s-transferases. 19755274
interaction of cholera toxin and toxin derivatives with lymphocytes. ii. modulating effects of cholera toxin on in vivo humoral and cellular immune responses.the in vivo effects of cholera toxin on lymphoid organ structure and function in mice were investigated. it was found that within a day following intravenous injection of 1 mug of toxin, thymus as well as spleen weight decreased but the animals remained healthy. histological studies suggested that the involution of lymphoid organs was due to cell death. injection of cholera toxin into adrenalectomized mice was lethal within 36 h. in these animals no decrease in lymphoid organ weight was noted. t ...19765378
nitrogen metabolism and wethers as affected by dietary protein solubility and amino acid profile. 19765391
normal blood-gas values in lambs during neonatal development and in adult sheep.arterial oxygen (pao2) and carbon dioxide (paco2) tensions and ph were determined in 20 lambs during development from two weeks to five months of age and in 34 adult sheep. throughout the period the lambs' mean paco2 (33.1 mm hg) and ph (7.46) values were similar to those determined in the adult sheep (paco232.1 mm hg; ph 7.48). the lamb's mean pao2 increased from 63.3 mm hg at two weeks of age to about 80 mm hg at eight weeks and by 20 weeks was similar to the mean pao2 (88.0 mm hg) of adult sh ...19752962
experimental stimulation of cell-mediated immunity without concomitant stimulation of humoral immunity in graft-versus-host immunosuppressed mice.the immunosuppressive effect of the graft-versus-host (gvh) reaction was studied in cba x a f1 (caf1) mice which had been rendered immunologically unresponsive by the injection of parental a strain lymphoid cells (gvh mice). suppression of both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses was demonstrated by the prolonged survival of c57bl/6 (b6) skin allografts and by the inability of gvh mice to produce detectable antibody following stimulation with sheep erythrocytes (srbc). appropriate stimula ...19765793
comparative study of the optimum ph value of serum alkaline phosphatase in various species of farm animals.investigations were carried out on the alkaline phosphatase in the sera of cattle, horses, pigs, sheep, goats, and chickens, the ph value of the buffer used being 9.0-9.8-10.0-10.2-10.6 and 11.0, and the method applied--that of richterich. the ph value at which the serum alkaline phosphatase in the various farm animals and birds was most active was found to vary to a large extent. optimal values for the enzyme's activity usually range as follows: cattle, 10.2; pigs and goats, 10.0; sheep,--10.2; ...19755802
breathing patterns before death in fetal lambs.continuous observations in 16 fetal lambs over many days before death in utero from hypoxia, asphyxia, infection, and other causes have shown that death is preceded by variable changes in breathing movements. there was always a prolonged period of apnea succeeded by continuous abnormal breathing in six lambs and by gasping or brief episodes of abnormal breathing in the remainder. these abnormal patterns are described as a warning of what may be encountered in the human fetus.19765894
the role of the capsular polysaccharide in the activation of the alternative pathway by the pneumococcus.previous studies have shown that when pneumococci are incubated in normal, nonimmune serum, they activate the alternative pathway and opsonically active c3b is fixed to the surface of the organism. other studies have demonstrated that c3-dependent opsonization via the alternative pathway plays a significant role in the nonimmune host's defense against the pneumococcus. the present studies concern the role of the capsular polysaccharide in initiating the activation of the alternative pathway by t ...19762634
clinical experience with the teflo disposable membrane oxygenator.a simple, inexpensive, highly efficient disposable membrane oxygenator with low priming volume and a microporous membrane recently has become available. animal and clinical investigations of its use have been most satisfactory, and clinical experience now has been extended to include 285 patients. its primary advantage has been the ability to control oxygenation and carbon dioxide separately. disadvantages have included the somewhat increased complexity of the system as compared with bubble oxyg ...19765971
some observations on the nadp+-linked oxidation of methylglyoxal catalysed by 2-oxoaldehyde the oxidation of methylglyoxal by 2-oxoaldehyde dehydrogenase, the apparent km value for nadp+ was about 2.5 times lower than the corresponding km for nad+; the apparent km values for methylglyoxal and for the amine activator l-2-aminopropan-1-ol, with nadp+ as cofactor, were also different from those obtained with nad+. in the presence of nadp+, the enzyme was not activated by p1, in contrast with the activation of the enzyme when nad+ was used. the significance of the results is discussed.19766014
partial purification and study of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase from sheep cerebral capillaries.gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase was purified 53 times from sheep brain cortex capillaries. on gel filtration it appears homogeneous with a m.w. = 350 000. the enzyme is likely a glycoprotein, the properties of which are close to hog kidney gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase ; gamma-glutamyl aminoacid formation is assayed electrophoretically. the results obtained using several aminoacids are in favour of the existence of different units, specific of each group of aminoacids ; together with the data from ...19766068
enzymic hydrolysis of acetylcarnitine in liver from rats, sheep and cows.1. the enzymic utilization of o-acetyl-l-carnitine other than via carnitine acetyltransferase (ec was investigated in liver homogenates from rats, sheep and dry cows. 2. an enzymic utilization of o-acetyl-l-carnitine via hydrolysis of the ester bond to yield stoicheiometric quantities of acetate and l-carnitine was demonstrated; 0.55, 0.53 and 0.30mumol of acetyl-l-carnitine were utilized/min per g fresh wt. of liver homogenates from rats, sheep and dry cows respectively. 3. the acetylc ...19754059
purification and structure of sheep haptoglobin. 19766336
the carbamate reaction of glycylglycine, plasma, and tissue extracts evaluated by a ph stopped flow apparatus.we have used a stopped flow rapid reaction ph apparatus to investigate the carbamate equilibrium in glycylglycine solutions and in three biological tissues, human plasma, sheep muscle, and sheep brain, as well as to investigate the kinetics of carbamate formation in glyclyglycine solution and in human plasma. the rapid reaction apparatus was equipped with a ph sensitive glass electrode in order to follow the time course of ph from 0.005 to 100 s after rapid mixing of a solution of amine or prote ...19766479
biological expressions of lymphocyte activation. v. characterization of a soluble immune response suppressor (sirs) produced by concanavalin a-activated spleen cells.supernatant fluids from murine spleen cell cultures incubated with concanavalin a for 48 hr contain a factor(s), soluble immune response suppressor (sirs), which suppresses plaque-forming cell responses to sheep erythrocytes by murine spleen cells in vitro. in the present studies, some of the biochemical and biophysical properties of sirs were investigated. sirs was non-dialysable; the suppressive activity was stable at 56 degrees c for 30 min, but was destroyed by treatment at 70 degrees c for ...19766595
regulatory mast cells. i suppressive action of their products on an in vitro primary immune reaction.products of mast cell degranulation, as well as histamine and serotonin, were added to a mishell and dutton preparation for in vitro primary immunisation (induction of igm antibody formation) to sheep or horse red blood cells. degranulation products were either obatined beforehand by reacting passively sensitised mast cells with the corresponding antigen (unrelated to or identical with the in vitro immunising antigen) or liberated into the culture medium where mast cells actively sensitised to t ...19755941
radioreceptor assay of prolactin.the authors prepared the prolactin marker with iodine-125 and made iodine-125-human prolactin and iodine-125-sheep prolactin. to make the complex, iodine-125-human prolactin was incubated with prolactin receptors isolated from female rat liver cell membranes. this complex is reversible and can be replaced by cold human prolactin. studies with mammary glands of various animals have indicated that the prolactin receptor seemed to be a peptide or a protein of macromolecules in chemical nature. ...19766810
microelectrode measurement of the intracellular ph of mammalian heart cells. 19766917
values of acid-base equilibrium in the blood of various species of domestic means of the astrup equilibration method the values of the acid-base balance of the blood were determined in 104 cows, 99 horses, 100 pigs, 15 sheep, 20 goats, and in 101 dogs. the ph values of the blood, the partial pressure of co2, the base excess, the base buffer, the standard bicarbonate, the actual bicarbonate, and the total co2 were processed statistically and are presented in tables.19767040
a new method using p-benzoquinone for coupling antigens and antibodies to marker substances.a method using p-benzoquinone for coupling antigens and antibodies to enzymes and erythrocytes is described. the method involves the treatment of proteins (or polysaccharides) at ph 6 or 7 with an excess of p-benzoquinone. after removal of the unreacted reagent by gel filtration, the "activated" proteins were coupled at ph 8-9 with enzymes or erythrocytes. biological activities of the proteins were not substantially modified by this treatment since 80-100% of the antigen binding capacity was fou ...19767179
studies on the properties of acid erythrocyte phosphatase in sheep and the isoenzymes of sheep and goat acid erythrocyte phosphatase.ovine erythrocytic acid phosphatase showed two peaks of activity at ph 5.0 and 5.7 in acetate buffer with p-nitrophenylphosphate as substrate. the enzyme was only slightly inhibited by fluoride and l-phenylalanine, but high concentrations of urea strongly inhibited it. activity of the enzyme was greater in goat erythrocytes than in sheep. by means of starch electrophoresis, three isoenzymes belonging to nine types were separated from the ovine enzymes, while three isoenzymes of five types were p ...19757216
properties of prostaglandin synthetase of rabbit kidney medulla.the formation in vitro of prostaglandins e2, d2, and f2alpha from arachidonic acid by rabbit kidney medulla homogenate or microsomal fraction is markedly affected by the composition of the incubation medium employed. optimal biosynthesis is obtained in 0.1 m potassium phosphate buffer, with the optimum ph being 8.0--8.8. under these conditions prostaglandin formation is linear up to arachidonic acid concentration of 30 mum. the initial rate of formation of prostaglandin e2 + prostaglandin d2 is ...19766277
trends and innovations in rumen microbiology. 19765779
prostglandins--mediators, modulators or metabolites? 19766742
the effects of pentobarbitone and pethidine on foetal breathing movements in sheep.1 small doses of pentobarbitone (4 mg/kg i.v.) administered to sheep in the last third of pregancy had little overt effect on the mothers. in the foetus they caused arrest of breathing movements, an alteration in the character of the electrocorticogram and cardiovascular changes which varied with gestational age. 2 in contrast, relatively large doses of pethidine (100-200 mg) admininstered to the mother had no consistent effect on normal foetal breathing movements, though they abolished the foet ...19767337
periarteritis in experimental border disease of sheep. ii. morphology and histochemistry of the lesion. 19767578
studies on the rumen flagellate sphaeromonas communis.the rumen flagellate sphaeromonas communis showed a significant increase in population density 1 to 2 h after the host sheep commenced feeding, followed by a reduction in numbers to the pre-feeding level after a further 2 to 3 h. the life-history of the organism was shown to consist of a motile flagellate which germinated to produce a vegetative stage comprising a limited rhizoidal system on which up to three reproductive bodies were borne together with (in vitro) other spherical bodies of unkno ...19767636
the excretion of phylloerythrin and bilirubin by calves and sheep.under general anaesthesia the common bile duct was ligated in two sheep and two calves. occlusion of the duct was permanent and was followed by portal fibrosis, proliferation of bile ducts and intrahepatic bile stasis. mild hepatic cell damage was accompanied by the release of glutamate dehydrogenase, sorbitol dehydrogenase and arginase into serum. the release of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase was slower but more continuous. one sheep and one calf developed peritonitis associated with the leakage ...19767808
incidence of arbovirus antibodies in bovine, ovine and human sera collected in eastern sicily.the incidence of antibodies against 9 arboviruses in ovine, bovine and human sera collected in eastern sicily was studied. a high incidence of antibodies was found especially against bhanja virus in all sera and against sandfly fever sicilian in ovine sera only. the incidence was higher than that reported in 1971 for the western part of sicily. these findings suggest an increase in the circulation of arboviruses in this area; the causes are briefly discussed.19767946
ion transport and water flow in the mammalian lung.the coupling of bulk water flow to active ion transport has been described in various epithelia; evidence presented here suggests that this is also a feature of the mammalian lung. measurements of the ionic composition of lung liquid and its rate of formation in the fetal lamb in vivo have made it possible to estimate the net flux of each ion and, with water tracer measurements of ion one-way fluxes, to calculate flux ratios. when these are compared with the ratios predicted by the ussing flux r ...19767441
metabolism of (4-14c)estrone by sheep erythrocytes around the time of parturition.the metabolism of 4-14cestrone in vitro by red blood cells of sheep in late pregnancy and after partuirition has been studied. 14cestrone (600 ng) was incubated with 0.5 ml erythrocytes plus 0.5 ml of krebs-ringer phosphate buffer, ph 7.4, for 2 h at 37 degrees c in an atmosphere of air. after incubation, 3hestrogens were added to the incubation medium as internal standards for identification and for correction for procedural losses. metabolites were isolated and purified by chromatography, acet ...19768195
increased survival times of new zealand hybrid mice immunosuppressed by graft-versus-host zealand mice develop autoimmune disease usually accompanied by glomerulonephritis. a graft-versus-host reaction was induced in new zealand black x new zealand white f1 hybrid mice by administration of new zealand white spleen cells. the mice so treated had diminished antibody responses to both an exogenous antigen (sheep red blood cells) and an endogenous antigen (native dna). they had much less glomerulonephritis and increased survival times compared to unmanipulated controls, apparently d ...19768228
arylesterases from various mammalian sera in relation to cholinesterases, carboxylesterases and their activity towards some pesticides. 19768268
chirality of xylitol-oxidizing enzymes from mammalian liver. 19768339
participation of cyclophosphamide-sensitive t cells in graft-vs-host reactions.cyclophosphamide (cy)3 is toxic for a population of mouse t cells which is active in graft vs host (gvh) responses. this observation contrasts with previous reports which indicate that treatment of mice with cy regimens, similar to those used in this study, enhances the reactivity of t cells which mediate delayed type hypersensitivity to sheep red blood cells. the gvh-inducing capacity of t cells is not altered by removal of b cells by nylon wool columns. we suggest that cy-sensitive t cells may ...19768571
kinetic studies of sheep kidney gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase.the kinetics of sheep kidney gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase was studied using a novel substrate l-alpha-methyl-gamma-glutamyl-l-alpha-aminobutyrate. when the substrate was incubated with the enzyme in the presence of an amino acid or peptide acceptor, the corresponding l-alpha-methyl-gamma-glutamyl derivatives of the acceptors were formed. in the absence of acceptor only hydrolysis occurred, and no transpeptidation products were detected. the presence of the methyl group on the alpha-carbon appar ...19767566
subunit structure and isozymic forms of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase.gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase is associated with the membranes of a number of epithelial and lymphoid cells. when the enzyme is isolated from rat kidney by a method involving detergent extraction and affinity chromatography, an aggregate of molecular weight greater than 200,000 (heavy form) is obtained. treatment of the heavy form with bromelain yields a light form of the enzyme (molecular weight of approximately 68,000), which is separable by isoelectric focusing into 12 enzymatically active is ...19768776
food protein on food, planned by the u.m. (use and management) section of the u.k. committe, was limited to sources of protein because we agreed that more problems calling for research were likely to arise in getting adequate supplies of protein than of other types of food. deer meat can be produced on land too rough and exposed for sheep; parts of the work on their metabolism and food requirements necessitated building a mobile laboratory. the manner in which the nutritive value of maize is affected by ...19768803
general survey of the present distribution of helminths in iran and comparison with those of past this paper the literature on helminthiasis in iran is reviewed and the distribution, prevalence and intensity of infections caused by helminths are discussed. a comparison of prevalence and intensity of infections was accomplished in the recent 10 years by the author. hookworm infections are found mostly in the north along the caspian sea, but its prevalence is declining. trichostrongylus are found in iran with a high prevalence in central country. schistosoma haematobium is found in one prov ...19768977
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