[an unusual case of chronic fibrosing endometritis and mucometra in a watusi cow (bos primigenius f. taurus) with uterine foreign bodies].genital organs, ureter, urinary bladder, and blood were collected from a 12 year old watusi cow which never exhibited estrous behaviour. post-mortem findings and hormone assays, however, indicated the incidence of recent estrous cycles. the animal showed a chronic panmetritis, retained fetal membranes or fetal residues, an infected mucometra with cystic glandular hyperplasia, and a leiomyoma. tubular genitalia, ureter, and urinary bladder exhibited subacute inflammation.19911914949
[detection of alkaline phosphatase in the mucous membrane of the large intestine of cattle (bos primigenius taurus) in fetal development]. 19863749848
some toxic and trace metals in big game hunted in the northern part of poland in animal meats (muscle, liver and kidneys) collected from different regions in northern part of poland in 1987-1991 were analysed for mercury, cadmium, lead, copper, manganese, zinc and iron. toxic mercury, cadmium and lead occurred in relatively low concentrations in muscle and organ meats, with the exception of lead in muscle and cadmium in kidneys, which were relatively more contaminated. the concentrations of essential trace metals in samples examined seemed to be natural. roe-deer contai ...19948178124
evidence for two independent domestications of cattle.the origin and taxonomic status of domesticated cattle are controversial. zebu and taurine breeds are differentiated primarily by the presence or absence of a hump and have been recognized as separate species (bos indicus and bos taurus). however, the most widely held view is that both types of cattle derive from a single domestication event 8000-10,000 years ago. we have examined mtdna sequences from representatives of six european (taurine) breeds, three indian (zebu) breeds, and four african ...19948146187
[studies on the vascular architecture of the renal capsule of cattle (bos primigenius f. taurus, l.)]. 19684971806
[endocrine cells in the epithelium of the fetal large intestine of cattle (bos primigenius taurus) from the cytomorphological aspect].in the epithelium of the fetal bovine large intestine there are endocrine cells, predominantly at the base of the crypts. according to morphological characteristics, ec-cells and l-cells can be readily distinguished.19902403209
mitochondrial diversity and the origins of african and european cattle.the nature of domestic cattle origins in africa are unclear as archaeological data are relatively sparse. the earliest domesticates were humpless, or bos taurus, in morphology and may have shared a common origin with the ancestors of european cattle in the near east. alternatively, local strains of the wild ox, the aurochs, may have been adopted by peoples in either continent either before or after cultural influence from the levant. this study examines mitochondrial dna displacement loop sequen ...19968643540
[the characteristics of the reproductive capacity of hybrids of banteng (bos (bibos) javanicus d'alton) with the domestic cow (bos (bos) primigenius taurus)].the hybrid progeny of f1 produced by crossing of banteng and domestic cow is characterized by absolute sterility of the male line and fertility of the female line. the crossbred males become fertile in further progenies while crossing cross-females with males of initial forms. successful use of inter-subgenetic hybrids of banteng and domestic cow in selection work is hindered by pathological deviations in their genitals structure as well as frequent deaths of the embryos and foetus in hybrid cow ...19921292161
[corticosteroid hormones in the blood and adrenals of the aurochs bison bonasus].using thin-layer chromatography, studies have been made on corticosteroids in the aurochs bison bonasus. hydrocortison, corticosteron, aldosteron, 11-dehydrocorticosteron and 11-deoxycorticosteron were found in the suprarenals. besides these hormones, the blood of the aurochs contains cortison, 17-oxy-11-deoxycorticosteron ("s" compounds) and unidentified fraction. compounds revealed in the blood of the aurochs were also found in the bison and ox. the ratio of hydrocortison to corticosteron toge ...1978665001
the occurrence and some properties of hco3-stimulated atpase and aminopeptidases in the rumen forestomach epithelium of bos primigenius taurus. 1975234071
constitutive amplification of a zinc finger protein gene in cattle.the human ozf gene encodes a protein consisting essentially of zinc finger motifs of the krüppel type. evolutionary studies revealed amplification of the bovine ozf gene in cattle. domestic cattle includes two major subspecies: taurine (bos primigenius taurus) and zebu (b. p. indicus). amplified sequences were found in both subspecies and mapped to the same locus of chromosome x in band q11. no amplification was found in other bovids and in particular in bison, the closest related genus to the g ...19968561900
changes in some properties of the aurochs heart pyruvate dehydrogenase complex induced by its partial phosphorylation.comparative studies on the properties of the dephosphorylated and partially phosphorylated (to 35% activity reduction) pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (pdc) from aurochs heart muscle have been made. data have been obtained indicating that the partial phosphorylation of pdc abolishes the kinetic attributes of a positive cooperativity of the pyruvate binding sites (nh = 1.5) featuring at low substrate concentrations. in addition, the partially phosphorylated pdc is inactivated slower at 50 degrees ...19958592780
[blood group polymorphism in bison (bison bonasus)].polymorphism of nine blood group systems was studied in three reproductive lines of auroch (european bison bison bonasus), belovezhskaya, caucasian-belovezhskaya, and gornaya. all blood group systems analyzed were polymorphic; 50 out of the 57 antigens tested were detected. the number of detected blood group antigens in aurochs is comparable to that in breeds of domestic cattle. however, intrapopulation diversity, estimated with the mu test, is significantly higher in cattle than in aurochs. the ...19957896131
basic properties of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex isolated from aurochs heart.the purified aurochs (bison bonasus, european bison) heart pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (pdc) has a set of subunits typical of mammalian pdc. pdc from aurochs heart contains firmly bound tiamine pyrophosphate in the amount providing over 50% of the maximal activity of the complex. the apparent value for activation energy of pdc is 60 kj/mol. the michaelis constant values for aurochs heart pdc are 22.4 +/- 1.0, 3.3 +/- 0.1 and 24.4 +/- 3.6 microm for pyruvate, coa and nad, accordingly. acetyl-c ...19947732764
[the characteristics of the reproductive capacity of hybrids of the bison (bison bison l.) with the domestic cow (bos (bos) primigenius taurus). 1. the reproductive capacity of hybrid males].the hybrid progeny f1 produced by intergeneric crosses of a bison with a domestic cow is characterized by absolute sterility of the male line and fertility of the female line. crossing of females with fertile males of initial forms permits us to obtain fertile males in the following generations. any differences in stabilization of spermatogenesis in hybrid males obtained from various crosses and under selection of parental couples were not detected.19957676511
extensive mhc class ii drb3 diversity in african and european cattle.genetic diversity at the highly polymorphic bola-drb3 locus was investigated by dna sequence analyses of 18 african cattle from two breeds representing the two subspecies of cattle, bos primigenius indicus and bos primigenius taurus. the polymorphism was compared with that found in a sample of 32 european cattle from four breeds, all classified as b. p. taurus. particularly extensive genetic diversity was found among african cattle, in which as many as 18 alleles were recognized in this small ra ...19957590975
[dicephalus bicollis in a calf (bos primigenius f. taurus l.)]. 19715149406
[morphology of the sacral plexus and its nerves in domestic cattle (bos primigenius f. taurus l., 1758). ii. morphology of the sacral plexus innervation]. 19724658599
[morphology of the sacral plexus and its nerves in domestic cattle (bos primigenius f. taurus l., 1758). i. morphology of the sacral plexus]. 19724658598
[acid phosphatase in the epithelium of the large intestine of cattle (bos primigenius taurus) during organogenesis]. 19863727746
[non-epithelial, epithelium-associated cells of the fetal mucosa of the large intestine of cattle (bos primigenius taurus)]. 19873617878
neuronal morphology of the hypoglossal nucleus in aurochs. 19873508136
[adenosine triphosphatases of fetal large intestine epithelium. light and electron microscopy studies of the cecum of cattle (bos primigenius taurus)]. 19873035961
[the cytomorphology of goblet cells of the fetal intestine. studies of the large intestine of cattle (bos primigenius taurus)].in the region of the base of the intestinal crypts undifferentiated goblet cells display a configuration and constellation of organelles and membrane structures that are indicative of their importance for function. these images at this stage of development deliver a scenario of the mechanism of secretory granule production: aggregates of protein vesicles from the "transitional elements" (palade) of the granular endoplasmic reticulum are, so to speak, rolled up on the trans side of the golgi appa ...19902096533
[expression of genes controlling modification of amylase in hybrids and original representatives of a cattle subfamily (bovinae)].modifications of similar type were noted in the number of multiple amy-1 forms of amylase isozyme for various species of artiodactyla. it is supposed that these modifications are linked to periodical activation during evolution of genes responsible for modification of the molecules. data obtained on bovinae hybrids testify to this point of view. inactivation of active and reinactivation of "silent" genes responsible for modification of amy-1 molecules are observed in hybrids of bison x cow and b ...19901706678
prenatal growth and asymmetry of thyroid gland in the cattle (bos primigenius f. taurus).growth and bilateral asymmetry of thyroid gland were studied in 291 fetuses (from 219 to 31,300 g) of the black-white cattle divided into 4 groups according to body weight. relation between body weight (x) and thyroid weight (y) was described using allometric equation y = axb. allometric coefficient b was different in each of the four groups (1.198; 1.179; 1.314; 0.941) and amounted to 1.076 for the entire fetal period. the coefficient of fluctuating asymmetry of the thyroid gland decreased with ...19921339565
[scanning electron microscopic observations on the intestinal mucosa of fetal and adult cattle (bos primigenius taurus)]. 19751211652
mitochondrial dna variation and evolution of japanese black cattle (bos taurus).this article describes complete mitochondrial dna displacement loop sequences from 32 japanese black cattle and the analysis of these data in conjunction with previously published sequences from african, european, and indian subjects. the origins of north east asian domesticated cattle are unclear. the earliest domestic cattle in the region were bos taurus and may have been domesticated from local wild cattle (aurochsen; b. primigenius), or perhaps had an origin in migrants from the early domest ...19989799268
allometric growth of spleen and liver in black-white bovine fetuses (bos primigenius f. taurus).growth relationships between spleen and liver weights and body weight and cr length as well as between weights of liver and spleen in fetuses (145 males, 141 females) of black-white cattle. according to their body weights, the fetuses were divided into 4 growth groups: i, to 1000 g; iia, 1000-3490 g; iib, 3500-7990 g; iii, over 8000 g. the relationships were described using appropriate allometric growth equations (log y = b log x + a) derived both for individual groups and for the entire fetal p ...199310187988
[morphogenesis of the submucosal gland of cattle (bos primigenius f. taurus)].in the 10th week of gestation the development of duodenal glands in the bovine intestinum starts by circumscript epithelial proliferation. their secretory channels are in contact with the crypts. already in the early fetal stage ultrastructurally there are an inconspicuous equipment with organelles in the apical cytoplasm and single globular granules, which demonstrate the differentiation of epithelial cells into duodenal glandular cells. until the mid-point of the pregnancy the granular endopla ...199910208027
the morphology and cell structure of some nuclei in tuberal region of bison bonasus.the topography, shape and cell structure of the ventromedial, dorsomedial and infundibular nuclei in aurochs hypothalamus were studied on the basis of standard histological preparations. these nuclei are uniform cell bands. nucleus infundibularis is the longest centre in tuberal region and enter the mamillary area. its posterior part has maximum size. the ventromedial nucleus is outlined and developed best. it is typical ring-shaped in anterior half of its length. the dorsomedial nucleus is deve ...199810437307
structure and topography of the nuclei of mamillary region in the bison bonasus.studies were carried out on the brains of two aurochs. the paraffin cross-sections 15 microns thick were stained according to nissl and klüver and barrera methods. in regio mamillaris were described two mamillary nuclei and two paramamillary nuclei. nucleus mamillaris lateralis and nucleus supramamillaris are uniform cellular bands while the nucleus mamillaris medialis and nucleus tuberomamillaris pars posterior consist of subdivisions. thopography of these centers in aurochs is similar to other ...19958606028
[dna fingerprinting and genetic diversity of the european bison (bison bonasus), american bison (bison bison), and gray ukrainian cattle (bos taurus)].to describe genetic variability and population diversity in domesticated populations of american bison (bison bison), aurochs (bison bonasus), and gray ukrainian cattle (bos taurus) different variants of dna fingerprinting technique (utilizing the m13 phage dna, (ttaggg)4 synthetic oligonucleotide, and three arbitrary primers as hybridization probes) were used. several parameters characterizing polymorphism and genetic diversity levels in each population (species) were evaluated on the basis of ...200011094772
evolution of bovine herpesvirus 4: recombination and transmission between african buffalo and cattle.bovine herpesvirus 4 (bohv-4) has been isolated from cattle throughout the world, but virological and serological studies have suggested that the african buffalo is also a natural host for this virus. it has previously been found that the bo17 gene of bohv-4 was acquired from an ancestor of the african buffalo, probably around 1.5 million years ago. analysis of the variation of the bo17 gene sequence among bohv-4 strains suggested a relatively ancient transmission of bohv-4 from the buffalo to t ...200616690915
mitochondrial dna control region analysis of a late neolithic aurochs (bos primigenius boj. 1827) from the carpathian basin.bos primigenius, the wild aurochs is believed to be the ancestor of european domestic cattle, bos taurus. the geography and climate of the great hungarian plain were well suited for these large grazing animals in the late neolithic. till now, there are just a few aurochs mtdna fragments available from two geographically restricted area, the british isles and italy. to increase our knowledge about the genetics of the european aurochsen livestock, and to investigate the phylogenetic position of a ...200718297799
the effect of lactic acid on odour-related host preference of yellow fever a behavioural study we have investigated the role of lactic acid for the host preferences of yellow fever mosquitoes (aedes aegypti) by comparing the attractiveness of rubbings from the hands of different human individuals and extracts obtained from skin rubbings from different mammals (bos primigenius f. taurus, capra aegagrus f. hircus, felis silvestris f. catus and homo sapiens). certain human individuals were consistently more attractive to mosquitoes than others. addition of lactic acid ...200111418498
healthy skin of many animal species harbors papillomaviruses which are closely related to their human counterparts.papillomaviruses associated with clinical symptoms have been found in many vertebrate species. in this study, we have used an l1 gene consensus pcr test designed to detect a broad spectrum of human skin papillomaviruses to analyze swab samples from healthy skin of 111 animals belonging to 19 vertebrate species. in eight of the species, papillomavirus dna was found with the following prevalences: chimpanzees, 9 of 11 samples positive; gorillas, 3 of 4; long-tailed macaques, 14 of 16; spider monke ...200212438579
an investigation of the kinase activity of aurochs heart pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.the purified aurochs heart pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (pdc) saturated to approximation 60% with endogenous thiamine pyrophosphate (tpp), was slowly and incompletely inactivated by its kinase in the presence of atp. exogenous tpp or adp, but not pyruvate, strongly inhibited the kinase activity. the kinetic properties of the aurochs heart pdc kinase suggested the occurrence of two active sites each with different affinities for atp (k'm - 1.7 microm, k''m = 48 microm).19958673014
types of neurons in the dorasl parasympathetic nucleus of aurochs. 19872468588
ancient dna suggests a recent expansion of european cattle from a diverse wild progenitor species.a total of 11 bos primigenius and bos taurus bones from archaeological sites between 500 and 12000 years old were examined for the presence of dna. it was possible to amplify and sequence mitochondrial control region dna extracted from seven of the 11 samples, including two pleistocene b. primigenius samples. we compared the results with published data by constructing phylogenetic networks. the two b. primigenius samples clustered with the extant b. taurus samples in the networks. the similarity ...19968952089
postnatal growth of the pelvic bone in aurochs. 19863653797
[the characteristics of the reproductive capacity of hybrids of the bison (bison bison l.) with the domestic cow (bos (bos) primigenius taurus). the reproductive capacity of hybrid females].reproduction ability of hybrid females received in various variants of absorbent and variable crossing of bison and domestic cow has been studied. normal development of genitals, oogenesis, display of sexual activity, as well as fertilization have been found in all females, independently of their blood content. frequent cases of "relative" sterility in some females of the i-iii generations have immunological character and are predominantly caused by the mortality of embryos and fetuses at variou ...19979381557
cattle domestication in the near east was followed by hybridization with aurochs bulls in europe.domesticated cattle were one of the cornerstones of european neolithisation and are thought to have been introduced to europe from areas of aurochs domestication in the near east. this is consistent with mitochondrial dna (mtdna) data, where a clear separation exists between modern european cattle and ancient specimens of british aurochsen. however, we show that y chromosome haplotypes of north european cattle breeds are more similar to haplotypes from ancient specimens of european aurochsen, th ...200516243693
freshly excavated fossil bones are best for amplification of ancient dna.despite the enormous potential of analyses of ancient dna for phylogeographic studies of past populations, the impact these analyses, most of which are performed with fossil samples from natural history museum collections, has been limited to some extent by the inefficient recovery of ancient genetic material. here we show that the standard storage conditions and/or treatments of fossil bones in these collections can be detrimental to dna survival. using a quantitative paleogenetic analysis of 2 ...200717210911
y-snps do not indicate hybridisation between european aurochs and domestic cattle.previous genetic studies of modern and ancient mitochondrial dna have confirmed the near eastern origin of early european domestic cattle. however, these studies were not able to test whether hybridisation with male aurochs occurred post-domestication. to address this issue, götherström and colleagues (2005) investigated the frequencies of two y-chromosomal haplotypes in extant bulls. they found a significant influence of wild aurochs males on domestic populations thus challenging the common vie ...200818852900
[prenatal development of the lamina epithelialis in the phase of vacuolization of villous epithelial cells. investigations on the intestines of cattle (bos primigenius taurus l., 1758)].the development of the bovine small intestine was examined in 39 embryos and fetuses by light microscopic and transmission electron microscopic methods. special reference was paid to the histogenesis of the ephithelium. in contrast to the duodenum the epithelium of jejunum and ileum undergoes a degeneration by vacuolation of its villous epithelial cells. the demonstration of the acid phosphatase activity of these vacuoles shows their lysosomal character. this degenerative process of the small in ...19989972643
distribution and extinction of ungulates during the holocene of the southern levant.the southern levant (israel, palestinian authority and jordan) has been continuously and extensively populated by succeeding phases of human cultures for the past 15,000 years. the long human impact on the ancient landscape has had great ecological consequences, and has caused continuous and accelerating damage to the natural environment. the rich zooarchaeological data gathered at the area provide a unique opportunity to reconstruct spatial and temporal changes in wild species distribution, and ...200919401760
[history and economic importance of cattle (bos taurus l.) in switzerland from neolithic to early middle ages].in switzerland domestic cattle (bos primigenius f. taurus resp. bos taurus l.) first appear with the earliest neolithic settlements (approximately 5000 bc). with the gradual deforestation of the landscape caused by human exploitation of the environment, cattle were used more intensive and in many ways. there is evidence that cattle were used as draught animal since ca. 3400 bc, probably even earlier milk was regularly used. the size of domestic cattle gradually decreased from early neolithic unt ...200717243447
innervation pattern in jaw muscles of various mammalian chewing types.the intramuscular nerve branches of the masticatory muscles were investigated in different mammalian species such as canis familiaris, capreolus capreolus, capra hircus africans, bos primigenius forma taurus, myocastor coypus molina 1782, sus scrofa domestica, pan troglodytes, homo sapiens. the ramifications of the nerves form a specific pattern that is adapted to the specialised muscle structures in all mammalian chewing type. the innervation pattern is fully consistent with the infrastructures ...19892816526
mitochondrial dna analysis shows a near eastern neolithic origin for domestic cattle and no indication of domestication of european aurochs.the extinct aurochs (bos primigenius primigenius) was a large type of cattle that ranged over almost the whole eurasian continent. the aurochs is the wild progenitor of modern cattle, but it is unclear whether european aurochs contributed to this process. to provide new insights into the demographic history of aurochs and domestic cattle, we have generated high-confidence mitochondrial dna sequences from 59 archaeological skeletal finds, which were attributed to wild european cattle populations ...200717412685
modern hunting behavior in the early middle paleolithic: faunal remains from misliya cave, mount carmel, israel.understanding the behavioral adaptations and subsistence strategies of middle paleolithic humans is critical in the debate over the evolution and manifestations of modern human behavior. the study of faunal remains plays a central role in this context. until now, the majority of levantine archaeofaunal evidence was derived from late middle paleolithic sites. the discovery of faunal remains from misliya cave, mount carmel, israel (>200 ka), allowed for detailed taphonomic and zooarchaeological an ...200717669471
resolving a zoological mystery: the kouprey is a real species.the kouprey is a rare and enigmatic forest ox discovered by scientists in cambodia only in 1937. numerous morphological hypotheses have been proposed for the origin of the kouprey: that it is a species closely related to banteng and gaur, two other wild oxen of southeast asia; a morphologically divergent species placed in a separate genus, named novibos; a wild species linked to aurochs and domestic cattle; a vicariant population of banteng; a feral cattle; or a hybrid of banteng with either zeb ...200717848372
polymorphisms of two y chromosome microsatellites in chinese cattle.two y chromosome specific microsatellites umn2404 and umn0103 were genotyped and assessed for polymorphisms in a total of 423 unrelated males from 25 indigenous chinese cattle breeds. consistently, both microsatellites displayed specific indicine and taurine alleles in each bull examined. the indicine and taurine alleles were detected in 248 males (58.6%), and 175 males (41.4%), respectively, although these frequencies varied amongst different breeds examined. the indicine alleles dominated in t ...200616954044
genetic evidence for near-eastern origins of european cattle.the limited ranges of the wild progenitors of many of the primary european domestic species point to their origins further east in anatolia or the fertile crescent. the wild ox (bos primigenius), however, ranged widely and it is unknown whether it was domesticated within europe as one feature of a local contribution to the farming economy. here we examine mitochondrial dna control-region sequence variation from 392 extant animals sampled from europe, africa and the near east, and compare this wi ...200111323670
[the functional morphology of the large intestinal mucosa of the ox (bos primigenius f. taurus), sheep (ovis ammon f. aries) and goat (capra aegagrus f. hircus)].the mucous membrane of the large intestine of the ox, sheep and goat was studied using light and electron microscopy. the surface epithelium possesses the well-known complement of organelles with a conspicuous number of mitochondria as a source of energy for absorptive activities. occasionally, brush cells are found in the epithelium; the functional significance of this type of cell is still under discussion. in the present material, electron-lucid spheroids (diameter: 45 x 35 nm), which tend to ...200111379368
mitochondrial genomes of extinct aurochs survive in domestic cattle. 200818302915
[the changes of expression and fc-gamma-receptor's polypeptide composition of fetal small intestine enterocytes in bos primigenius taurus l].the expression and polypeptide composition of fc-gamma-receptors of enterocytes from bos primigenius taurus l. intestine at 3-, 5-, 7-, 9- month of fetal development was investigated. the results of immunobloting show similar composition of fc-gamma-receptors extracted from apical and basolateral membranes. the proteins that bind igg after paag electrophoresis and transferring on nitrocellulose were observed as 120, 87, 72 and 43 kda polypeptide line. the changes of each polypeptide contents wer ...200818416181
correlating bayesian date estimates with climatic events and domestication using a bovine case study.the tribe bovini contains a number of commercially and culturally important species, such as cattle. understanding their evolutionary time scale is important for distinguishing between post-glacial and domestication-associated population expansions, but estimates of bovine divergence times have been hindered by a lack of reliable calibration points. we present a bayesian phylogenetic analysis of 481 mitochondrial d-loop sequences, including 228 radiocarbon-dated ancient dna sequences, using a mu ...200818426745
heteroplasmy in bovine fetuses produced by intra- and inter-subspecific somatic cell nuclear transfer: neutral segregation of nuclear donor mitochondrial dna in various tissues and evidence for recipient cow mitochondria in fetal blood.varying degrees of mitochondrial dna (mtdna) heteroplasmy have been observed in nuclear transfer embryos, fetuses, and offspring, but the mechanisms leading to this condition are unknown. we have generated a clone of 12 bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer fetuses, using nuclear donor cells, recipient oocytes, and recipient heifers with defined mtdna genotypes, to study nuclear-mitochondrial interactions and the origins of mtdna heteroplasmy. embryos were reconstructed from granulosa cells with ...200312493708
independent mitochondrial origin and historical genetic differentiation in north eastern asian order to clarify the origin and genetic diversity of cattle in north eastern asia, this study examined mitochondrial displacement loop sequence variation and frequencies of bos taurus and bos indicus y chromosome haplotypes in japanese, mongolian, and korean native cattle. in mitochondrial analyses, 20% of mongolian cattle carried b. indicus mitochondrial haplotypes, but japanese and korean cattle carried only b. taurus haplotypes. in contrast, all samples revealed b. taurus y chromosome hapl ...200415223036
variability and evolution of bovine beta-defensin genes.defensins comprise an important family of antimicrobial peptides. among vertebrates numerous defensin genes have been detected, but their evolutionary background is still discussed. we investigated the molecular evolution of bovine defensins via screening of different bovine species including the extinct ancestor of domestic cattle (bos primigenius) for beta-defensin encoding genes. we detected a large variability of new defensin encoding sequences similar to previously published bovine neutroph ...200515674371
the horizontal cells of artiodactyl retinae: a comparison with cajal's descriptions.the morphology of horizontal cells in ox, sheep, and pig retinae as observed after lucifer yellow injections are described and compared with the descriptions of golgi-stained cells by ramón y cajal (1893). horizontal cells in the retinae of less domesticated species, wild pig, fallow and sika deer, mouflon, and aurochs were also examined. all these retinae have two types of horizontal cell; their morphologies are in common, although with some familial differences. their basic appearance is as ca ...19968870229
prehistoric contacts over the straits of gibraltar indicated by genetic analysis of iberian bronze age cattle.the geographic situation of the iberian peninsula makes it a natural link between europe and north africa. however, it is a matter of debate to what extent african influences via the straits gibraltar have affected iberia's prehistoric development. because early african pastoralist communities were dedicated to cattle breeding, a possible means to detect prehistoric african-iberian contacts might be to analyze the origin of cattle breeds on the iberian peninsula. some contemporary iberian cattle ...200515941827
[dna-fingerprinting of representatives of bovinae subfamilies using the telomere markers (ttaggg)4].the (ttaggg)4 oligonucleotide homologous to telomeric tandem repeats of human chromosomes was used for the first time as a multilocus hybridization probe for the analysis of genome variability in the two genera (bos and bison) of the bovinae subfamily. dna profiles for cattle, banteng, aurochs, and bison were obtained. hybridization spectra were represented by the discrete individual- and species-specific bands characterized by codominant inheritance. for comparison, dna profiles of the same sam ...199910330618
complete mitochondrial genomes of bos taurus and bos indicus provide new insights into intra-species variation, taxonomy and domestication.the taurine and zebuine cattle breeds comprise the majority of the world cattle population but their taxonomic status is still controversial. the two forms of cattle are currently classified as bos taurus and bos indicus species and are differentiated primarily by the presence or absence of a hump. however, these two species hybridize readily, producing fully fertile offspring. we have determined and analyzed complete b. taurus and b. indicus mitochondrial genome sequences to investigate the ext ...200818467841
the origin of european cattle: evidence from modern and ancient dna.cattle domestication from wild aurochsen was among the most important innovations during the neolithic agricultural revolution. the available genetic and archaeological evidence points to at least two major sites of domestication in india and in the near east, where zebu and the taurine breeds would have emerged independently. under this hypothesis, all present-day european breeds would be descended from cattle domesticated in the near east and subsequently spread during the diffusion of herding ...200616690747
ancestral matrilineages and mitochondrial dna diversity of the lidia cattle clarify the genetic ancestry and the mitochondrial dna (mtdna) diversity of the lidia cattle breed, a 521-bp d-loop fragment was sequenced in 527 animals belonging to 70 herds distributed across 29 lineages. the mtdna diversity recorded was similar to that seen for middle eastern breeds and greater than that recorded for the majority of european breeds. haplotype t3 was the most common (81%), followed by the african t1 haplotype (17%); very low frequencies were recorded for haplotypes t and t ...200818822101
cattle demographic history modelled from autosomal sequence variation.the phylogeography of cattle genetic variants has been extensively described and has informed the history of domestication. however, there remains a dearth of demographic models inferred from such data. here, we describe sequence diversity at 37 000 bp sampled from 17 genes in cattle from africa, europe and india. clearly distinct population histories are suggested between bos indicus and bos taurus, with the former displaying higher diversity statistics. we compare the unfolded site frequency s ...201020643743
[early fetal development of the small intestine mucosa in cattle (bos primigenius taurus)].the development of the bovine small intestine was examined in 24 embryos and fetuses by light microscopic, scanning and transmission electron microscopic methods. special reference was paid to the genesis of the epithelium and particularly of the villi intestinales. the primitive intestine consists of one layer of epithelial cells surrounded by mesenchym and tunica serosa. the fetal intestine (up to the 24th week of gestation) shows all the morphologic structures of the adult. in small intestine ...19989818454
pronounced segregation of donor mitochondria introduced by bovine ooplasmic transfer to the female germ-line.ooplasmic transfer (ot) has been used in basic mouse research for studying the segregation of mtdna, as well as in human assisted reproduction for improving embryo development in cases of persistent developmental failure. using cattle as a large-animal model, we demonstrate that the moderate amount of mitochondria introduced by ot is transmitted to the offspring's oocytes; e.g., modifies the germ line. the donor mtdna was detectable in 25% and 65% of oocytes collected from two females. its high ...201019955333
population dynamic of the extinct european aurochs: genetic evidence of a north-south differentiation pattern and no evidence of post-glacial expansion.the aurochs (bos primigenius) was a large bovine that ranged over almost the entirety of the eurasian continent and north africa. it is the wild ancestor of the modern cattle (bos taurus), and went extinct in 1627 probably as a consequence of human hunting and the progressive reduction of its habitat. to investigate in detail the genetic history of this species and to compare the population dynamics in different european areas, we analysed bos primigenius remains from various sites across italy.201020346116
association of snps on capn1 and cast genes with tenderness in nellore cattle.we examined whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (snps) in the calpain (capn) and calpastatin (cast) genes, described from bos primigenius taurus, are polymorphic in nellore cattle. we also looked for a possible association of linkage disequilibrium of this polymorphism with tenderness of the longissimus dorsi muscle after 7, 14 and 21 days of postmortem aging in 638 purebred nellore bulls. meat tenderness was measured as warner-bratzler shear force. additive and dominance effects were tested ...201020662159
y chromosome haplotype analysis in portuguese cattle breeds using snps and strs.dna samples from 307 males of 13 portuguese native cattle breeds, 57 males of the 3 major exotic breeds in portugal (charolais, friesian, and limousin), and 5 brahman (bos indicus) were tested for 5 single nucleotide polymorphisms, 1 "indel," and 7 microsatellites specific to the y chromosome. the 13 y-haplotypes defined included 3 previously described patrilines (y1, y2, and y3) and 10 new haplotypes within bos taurus. native cattle contained most of the diversity with 7 haplotypes (h2y1, h3y1, ...200918832111
close genetic relationship of early neolithic cattle from ziegelberg (freising, germany) with modern 2003 a variety of crafts and bone specimens were found during excavations of a neolithic settlement near freising, the southernmost site of the linear pottery culture in bavaria. six cattle bones were used to extract ancient dna (adna). applying nested and touchdown pcr, two fragments of the mitochondrial (mt) dna control region could be amplified from specimen 533/iii which yielded a total of 230 base pairs (bp). the sequence was compared with the homologous part of 40 extant breeds of bos t ...200516130455
temporal fluctuations of y-chromosomal variation in bos taurus.phylogeography has recently become more abundant in studies of demographic history of both wild and domestic species. a single nucleotide polymorphism (snp) in the intron of the y-chromosomal gene uty19 displays a north-south gradient in modern cattle. support for this geographical distribution of haplogroups has previously also been seen in ancient cattle from germany. however, when analysing 38 historic remains of domestic bulls and three aurochs from northern europe for this snp we found no s ...200818713712
ancient dna extracted from danish aurochs (bos primigenius): genetic diversity and preservation.we extracted dna from 39 danish aurochs specimens and successfully amplified and sequenced a 252 base pair long fragment of the multivariable region i of the mitochondrial control region from 11 specimens. the sequences from these specimens dated back to 9830-2865 14cyr bp and represent the first study of genetic variation of danish aurochs. in addition, for all specimens we address correlations between the ability to obtain dna sequences and various parameters such as the age of the sample, the ...201122188739
differences in fecal particle size between free-ranging and captive individuals of two browser from captive animals indicated that browsing (br) ruminants have larger fecal particles-indicative of lesser chewing efficiency-than grazers (gr). to answer whether this reflects fundamental differences between the animal groups, or different reactions of basically similar organisms to diets fed in captivity, we compared mean fecal particle size (mps) in a gr and a br ruminant (aurox bos primigenius taurus, giraffe giraffa camelopardalis) and a gr and a br hindgut fermenter (przewalski's ho ...200819360605
microsatellite and mitochondrial dna study of native eastern european cattle populations: the case of the romanian grey.the eastern european grey cattle are regarded as the direct descendants of the aurochs (bos taurus primigenius). nowadays in romania, less than 100 grey animals are being reared and included in the national gene reserve. we examined the genetic diversity among romanian grey, brown, spotted and black and white cattle breeds, with a particular focus on romanian grey through the use of (i) 11 bovine specific microsatellite markers on 83 animals and (ii) 638 bp length of mitochondrial dna (mtdna) d- ...201526398563
revisiting demographic processes in cattle with genome-wide population genetic analysis.the domestication of the aurochs took place approximately 10,000 years ago giving rise to the two main types of domestic cattle known today, taurine (bos taurus) domesticated somewhere on or near the fertile crescent, and indicine (bos indicus) domesticated in the indus valley. however, although cattle have historically played a prominent role in human society the exact origin of many extant breeds is not well known. here we used a combination of medium and high-density illumina bovine snp array ...201526082794
mycobacterium bovis infections in slaughter pigs in mubende district, uganda: a public health concern.bovine tuberculosis (tb) caused by mycobacterium bovis is primarily a disease of ruminants, particularly cattle (bos primigenius) and buffalo (syncerus caffer), and is endemic in most developing countries. to date, studies done in uganda have documented the prevalence of m. bovis in cattle, humans and wild life, in addition to non-tuberculous mycobacteria in pigs. pigs are increasingly becoming an important component of the livestock sector and share the human ecosystem in rural uganda. it is th ...201222999303
definition of the cattle killer cell ig-like receptor gene family: comparison with aurochs and human counterparts.under selection pressure from pathogens, variable nk cell receptors that recognize polymorphic mhc class i evolved convergently in different species of placental mammal. unexpectedly, diversified killer cell ig-like receptors (kirs) are shared by simian primates, including humans, and cattle, but not by other species. whereas much is known of human kir genetics and genomics, knowledge of cattle kir is limited to nine cdna sequences. to facilitate comparison of the cattle and human kir gene famil ...201425398326
cytochrome b sequences of ancient cattle and wild ox support phylogenetic complexity in the ancient and modern bovine populations.mitochondrial dna has been the traditional marker for the study of animal domestication, as its high mutation rate allows for the accumulation of molecular diversity within the time frame of domestic history. additionally, it is exclusively maternally inherited and haplotypes become part of the domestic gene pool via actual capture of a female animal rather than by interbreeding with wild populations. initial studies of british aurochs identified a haplogroup, designated p, which was found to be ...200919456314
trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid reduces neutral lipid content and may affect cryotolerance of in vitro-produced crossbred bovine embryos.due to high neutral lipids accumulation in the cytoplasm, in vitro-produced embryos from bos primigenius indicus and their crosses are more sensitive to chilling and cryopreservation than those from bos primigenius taurus. the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (cla) on the development and cryotolerance of crossbred bos primigenius taurus x bos primigenius indicus embryos produced in vitro, and cultured in the presence of fetal ...201425002968
the multifaceted origin of taurine cattle reflected by the mitochondrial genome.a neolithic domestication of taurine cattle in the fertile crescent from local aurochsen (bos primigenius) is generally accepted, but a genetic contribution from european aurochsen has been proposed. here we performed a survey of a large number of taurine cattle mitochondrial dna (mtdna) control regions from numerous european breeds confirming the overall clustering within haplogroups (t1, t2 and t3) of near eastern ancestry, but also identifying eight mtdnas (1.3%) that did not fit in haplogrou ...200919484124
differential passage of fluids and different-sized particles in fistulated oxen (bos primigenius f. taurus), muskoxen (ovibos moschatus), reindeer (rangifer tarandus) and moose (alces alces): rumen particle size discrimination is independent from contents stratification.ruminant species differ in the degree that their rumen contents are stratified but are similar insofar that only very fine particles are passed from the forestomach to the lower digestive tract. we investigated the passage kinetics of fluid and particle markers (2, 10 and 20 mm) in fistulated cattle (bos primigenius f. taurus), muskoxen (ovibos moschatus), reindeer (rangifer tarandus) and moose (alces alces) on different diets. the distribution of dry matter in the rumen and the viscosity of rum ...201019896552
revisiting aflp fingerprinting for an unbiased assessment of genetic structure and differentiation of taurine and zebu cattle.descendants from the extinct aurochs (bos primigenius), taurine (bos taurus) and zebu cattle (bos indicus) were domesticated 10,000 years ago in southwestern and southern asia, respectively, and colonized the world undergoing complex events of admixture and selection. molecular data, in particular genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (snp) markers, can complement historic and archaeological records to elucidate these past events. however, snp ascertainment in cattle has been optimized for ...201424739206
a study of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii antibody seroprevalence in healthy cattle in the czech republic.the aim of study was to test the sera of healthy dairy cows by elisas, the methods also used in other groups of animals in the czech republic, and thus to obtain actual data about n. caninum and t. gondii seroprevalence in cattle.201525780824
the genetic prehistory of domesticated cattle from their origin to the spread across europe.cattle domestication started in the 9(th) millennium bc in southwest asia. domesticated cattle were then introduced into europe during the neolithic transition. however, the scarcity of palaeogenetic data from the first european domesticated cattle still inhibits the accurate reconstruction of their early demography. in this study, mitochondrial dna from 193 ancient and 597 modern domesticated cattle (bos taurus) from sites across europe, western anatolia and iran were analysed to provide insigh ...201526018295
necrotizing infiltrative lipomatosis in a miniature zebu bull (bos primigenius indicus).lipomatosis is described in a miniature zebu, bos primigenius indicus, bull that died of perianesthetic complications. this is the first pathologic description of lipomatosis that we are aware of in this species and breed of cattle. infiltration of multiple visceral organs is described and depicted along with comparison to previously published cases of lipomatosis in other breeds of cattle.201020445793
new world cattle show ancestry from multiple independent domestication events.previous archeological and genetic research has shown that modern cattle breeds are descended from multiple independent domestication events of the wild aurochs (bos primigenius) ∼10,000 y ago. two primary areas of domestication in the middle east/europe and the indian subcontinent resulted in taurine and indicine lines of cattle, respectively. american descendants of cattle brought by european explorers to the new world beginning in 1493 generally have been considered to belong to the taurine l ...201323530234
insights into the genetic history of french cattle from dense snp data on 47 worldwide breeds.modern cattle originate from populations of the wild extinct aurochs through a few domestication events which occurred about 8,000 years ago. newly domesticated populations subsequently spread worldwide following breeder migration routes. the resulting complex historical origins associated with both natural and artificial selection have led to the differentiation of numerous different cattle breeds displaying a broad phenotypic variety over a short period of time.201020927341
tracing the biological origin of animal glues used in paintings through mitochondrial dna analysis.we report the development of a suitable protocol for the identification of the biological origin of binding media on tiny samples from ancient paintings, by exploitation of the high specificity and high sensitivity offered by the state-of-the art dna analysis. in particular, our aim was to molecularly characterize mitochondrial regions of the animal species traditionally employed for obtaining glues. the model has been developed using aged painting models and then tested to analyze the organic c ...201020953766
the effect of size and density on the mean retention time of particles in the reticulorumen of cattle ( bos primigenius f. taurus), muskoxen ( ovibos moschatus) and moose ( alces alces).particle passage from the reticulorumen (rr) depends on particle density and size. forage particle density and size are related and change over time in the rr. particle density mainly influences sorting in the reticulum, whereas particle size influences particle retention in the fibre mat of stratified rumen contents ('filter-bed' effect). we investigated these effects independently, by inserting plastic particles of different sizes (1, 10 and 20 mm) and densities (1·03, 1·20 and 1·44 mg/ml) in ...201021144130
a complete mitochondrial genome sequence from a mesolithic wild aurochs (bos primigenius).the derivation of domestic cattle from the extinct wild aurochs (bos primigenius) has been well-documented by archaeological and genetic studies. genetic studies point towards the neolithic near east as the centre of origin for bos taurus, with some lines of evidence suggesting possible, albeit rare, genetic contributions from locally domesticated wild aurochsen across eurasia. inferences from these investigations have been based largely on the analysis of partial mitochondrial dna sequences gen ...201020174668
the enigmatic origin of bovine mtdna haplogroup r: sporadic interbreeding or an independent event of bos primigenius domestication in italy?when domestic taurine cattle diffused from the fertile crescent, local wild aurochsen (bos primigenius) were still numerous. moreover, aurochsen and introduced cattle often coexisted for millennia, thus providing potential conditions not only for spontaneous interbreeding, but also for pastoralists to create secondary domestication centers involving local aurochs populations. recent mitochondrial genomes analyses revealed that not all modern taurine mtdnas belong to the shallow macro-haplogroup ...201021209945
association between muc1 gene polymorphism and expected progeny differences in nelore cattle (bos primigenius indicus).muc1 is a heavily glycosylated mammalian transmembrane protein expressed by mucosal secretory tissues for both protection against microbial infection and lubrication. an important characteristic of muc1 is its variable number of tandem repeats (vntr) containing several sites for o-glycosylation. vntr length has been associated with many human diseases and with certain economically important traits in domestic ruminants. the aim of the present study was to correlate the length of muc1 gene vntr w ...201021637607
antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and probiotic potential of enterococcus hirae isolated from the rumen of bos the present study bacterial strains were isolated from the rumen fluids of bos primigenius and investigated their in vitro probiotic properties with potent antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory effects. 9 g positive bacterial isolates were obtained and three isolates could able to tolerate gastric conditions, high bile salt concentrations and exhibited significant bactericidal effect against the enteric pathogens vibrio cholera, enterococcus faecalis, enterobacter aerogens, pseudomonas ...201424609495
the complete mitochondrial genome of an 11,450-year-old aurochsen (bos primigenius) from central italy.bos primigenius, the aurochs, is the wild ancestor of modern cattle breeds and was formerly widespread across eurasia and northern africa. after a progressive decline, the species became extinct in 1627. the origin of modern taurine breeds in europe is debated. archaeological and early genetic evidence point to a single near eastern origin and a subsequent spread during the diffusion of herding and farming. more recent genetic data are instead compatible with local domestication events or at lea ...201121281509
genome-wide association study for birth weight in nellore cattle points to previously described orthologous genes affecting human and bovine height.birth weight (bw) is an economically important trait in beef cattle, and is associated with growth- and stature-related traits and calving difficulty. one region of the cattle genome, located on bos primigenius taurus chromosome 14 (bta14), has been previously shown to be associated with stature by multiple independent studies, and contains orthologous genes affecting human height. a genome-wide association study (gwas) for bw in brazilian nellore cattle (bos primigenius indicus) was performed u ...201323758625
genetic origin, admixture and population history of aurochs (bos primigenius) and primitive european cattle.the domestication of taurine cattle initiated ~10 000 years ago in the near east from a wild aurochs (bos primigenius) population followed by their dispersal through migration of agriculturalists to europe. although gene flow from wild aurochs still present at the time of this early dispersion is still debated, some of the extant primitive cattle populations are believed to possess the aurochs-like primitive features. in this study, we use genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms to assess re ...201627677498
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