steady-state enzyme kinetics of the pancreatic ribonucleases from five mannalian species.the kinetic parameters km, k+2 and k+2/km of the pancreatic ribonucleases (ec from cow, giraffe, horse, rat and lesser rorqual have been determined, using 2',3'-cyclic cytidine monophosphate and 2',3'-cuclic uridine monophosphate as substrates. no large differences were found between the activities of the five enzymes. the relative differences between the activities of the five enzymes are mainly due to differences in the rates of hydrolysis and not to differences in the affinities for ...19765144
identification by the blood incubation infectivity test of trypanosoma brucei subspecies isolated from game animals in the luangwa valley, zambia.a total of 7 stocks of trypanosoma brucei subspecies, isolated from naturally infected game animals in the luangwa valley, eastern province, zambia were examined using a modified version of the blood incubation infectivity test (biit). one stock giving consistent biit responses typical of t.b. rhodesiense, was obtained from warthog (phacochoerus aethiopicus). four other stocks, 2 from hyaena (crocuta crocuta), 1 from a waterbuck (kobus ellipsiprymnus) and 1 from a lion (panthera leo) responded l ...197944098
skin papillomas in an impala (aepyceros melampus) and a giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis).viral particles, typical of the papovavirus family, were demonstrated by electronmicroscopy in small papillomas found on the feet of an impala (aepyceros melampus) and on the face of a giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) in kenya. histologically the tissues proved to be typical papillomas. the viral particles measured 38 nm and 40 nm in diameter in all tissue sections from the impala and giraffe respectively.1978211271
nasal heat exchange in the giraffe and other large mammals.the respiratory air of the giraffe is exhaled at temperatures substantially below body core temperature. as a consequence, the water content of the exhaled air is reduced to levels below that in pulmonary air, resulting in substantial reductions in respiratory water loss. measurements under outdoor conditions showed that at an ambient air temperature of 24 degrees c, the exhaled air was 7 degrees c below body core temperature, and at ambient air temperature of 17 degrees c, the exhaled air was 1 ...1979493753
metabolism of progesterone by placentas from several mammalian species in vitro.20-alpha-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase (20-alpha-hsdh) activity and 20-alpha-dihydroprogesterone concentration (20-alpha-dhp) reach peak values in the human placenta after vaginal delivery. to determine if these findings are unique to the human, we measured 20-alpha-hsdh activity as well as endogenous progesterone (p) and 20-alpha-dhp concentration in the soluble supernatant fraction of placental tissues obtained from rodents (rat, rabbit, guinea pig), ungulates (horse, zebra, giraffe, cow), and ...1979495682
primary structure of pronghorn pancreatic ribonuclease: close relationship between giraffe and pronghorn.pancreatic ribonuclease from pronghorn (antilocapra americana) was isolated and its amino acid sequence was determined from a tryptic digest of the performic acid-oxidized protein. peptides were positioned by homology with other ribonucleases. only peptides that differed in amino acid composition from the corresponding peptides of ox or goat ribonucleases were sequenced. in a most parsimonius tree of pancreatic ribonucleases, pronghorn and giraffe were placed together and these two were placed w ...1979513141
comparative aspects of muscle fibre size and succinic dehydrogenase distribution in the longissimus dorsi muscle of several species of east african mammals.the distribution of succinic dehydrogenase enzyme activity was investigated in frozen sections of longissimus dorsi muscle taken from several species of east african game animal (giraffe, hartebeest, wildebeest, oryx, gerenuk and dik-dik) as well as local zebu cattle. muscle fibres were classified as red (high succinic dehydrogenase activity), white (low activity) or intermediate. the mean diameter and percentage distribution of each fibre type were noted as well as the overall mean muscle fibre ...1979552778
dead space and tidal volume of the giraffe compared with some other mammals.the ventilation, tidal volume and anatomical dead-space were measured in a living giraffe and compared with similar measurements in a camel, red deer, llama and man. the giraffe had a resting tidal volume of about 3.3 litres with a dead-space/tidal-volume ratio of 0.34. the giraffe breathes slowly, apparently because of the unusually small diameter of its trachea relative to its length, compared with known measurement in other mammals.1978734250
observations on the histomorphology of sarcosporidian cysts of some east african game animals (artiodactyla).the histomorphology of formalin-fixed micro and macrosarcosporidian cysts of grant's, thomson's gazelle, impala, wildebeest, bubal hartebeest, cape eland, red duiker, kirk's dik-dik, defassa waterbuck, bohor reedbuck, african buffalo, giraffe, warthog, and giant forest hog is described. the wall of microsarcosporidian cysts is smooth and without villi or with villi. the villi are solid or of honeycomb-like structure on tangential sections. in some animals, microsarcosporidian cysts of almost the ...1975807047
attempted artificaial infection or impala, blue wildebeest, buffalo, kudu, giraffe and warthog with heartwater.intravenous injection of cowdria ruminantium infected blood produced no sings of disease in four impala, aepyceros melampus; three blue wildebeest, connochaetes taurinus; a buffalo, syncerus caffer; a kudu, tragelaphus strepsiceros; a giraffe. giraffa camelopardalis and a warthog, phacochoerus aethiopicus. a control sheep injected with the same blood reacted severely and showed typical lesions of heartwater at autopsy.1976994140
on two filarioid worms, setaria labiatopapillosa and pseudofilaria giraffae n. sp., from the east african giraffe.a single, however gravid, female filarioid worm collected from the peritoneal cavity of a giraffe in east africa was identified as setaria labiatopapillosa. further filarioid worms recovered from the subcutaneous tissue and the ligamentum nuchae of the same giraffe were recognized a new species and were described as pseudofilaria giraffae.19751216335
pentastomiasis (armillifer and linguatula sp.) infestations of wild animals in the kruger national park.armillifer armillatus, linguatula serrata and l. nuttalli have each been isolated from nine different mammalian species in the kruger national park: lion, panthera leo; leopard, p. pardus; buffalo, syncerus caffer: blue wildebeest, connechaetes taurinus; giraffe, girraffa camelopardalis; kudu, tragelophus strepsiceros; waterbuck, kobus ellipsyprymnus; tsessebe, damaliscus iunatus and impala, aepyceros melampus. successful transmission of l. serrata from the lion to a domestic ox and impala is re ...19751223283
carbohydrate in pancreatic ribonucleases.a survey of the presence and compositions of carbohydrate chains attached to pancreatic ribonucleases is given. carbohydrate chains may occur at asparagine residues in asn-x-ser/thr sequences at four exposed sites of the molecule (positions 21, 34, 62 and 76). these sites form part of highly variant sequences in pancreatic ribonucleases with the consequence that the enzymes from very closely related species may differ in the presence or absence of carbohydrate. in a number of ribonucleases asn-x ...19761261555
arthropod parasites of springbok, gemsbok, kudus, giraffes and burchell's and hartmann's zebras in the etosha and hardap nature reserves, namibia.a total of 48 springbok, 48 gemsbok, 23 kudus and 6 giraffes were examined for ticks and lice, while 9 burchell's zebras and 6 hartmann's mountain zebras were examined only for ticks. springbok and gemsbok were shot in both the etosha national park in the north and the hardap nature reserve in the south of namibia. all the other animals were shot in the etosha national park. a total of 7 ixodid tick species and 8 lice species were recovered. the springbok carried few ticks. the adults of a rhipi ...19921297955
prevalence of ruminant pestivirus infections in namibia.following several clinical cases of suspected bovine virus diarrhoea (bvd) on three namibian cattle farms, a serological survey was conducted on bovine, ovine, caprine and wild ruminant sera originating from different regions of the country. neutralizing antibodies to bvd virus (bvdv) were detected in 58% of 1,014 cattle sera, 14% of 618 sheep sera and 4.6% of 1,118 goat sera. sera from seven of ten wildlife species were positive with kudu, eland and giraffe having prevalence rates greater than ...19911652725
human serum sensitivities of trypanozoon isolates from naturally infected hosts in the luangwa valley, zambia.of 235 trypanozoon stocks isolated from naturally infected hosts in northeastern zambia and tested by the blood incubation infectivity test (biit), 176 came from man, 37 from wild-caught tsetse, 11 from wild animals and 11 from domestic livestock. of those from man, 2 gave unexpected, human-serum-sensitive (hss) reactions on first testing; all 15 stocks from tsetse in the northern area (kampumbu) were strongly serum-resistant (hsr) while 22 other infections, from tsetse in the southern area (kak ...19911800082
evolution of the cytochrome b gene of mammals.with the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and versatile primers that amplify the whole cytochrome b gene (approximately 1140 bp), we obtained 17 complete gene sequences representing three orders of hoofed mammals (ungulates) and dolphins (cetaceans). the fossil record of some ungulate lineages allowed estimation of the evolutionary rates for various components of the cytochrome b dna and amino acid sequences. the relative rates of substitution at first, second, and third positions within codons a ...19911901092
pestivirus infections in ruminants other than cattle.pestiviruses infect a wide range of domestic, captive and free-living ruminants. among domestic livestock, border disease virus is a well recognised cause of an important congenital disease of sheep in virtually all sheep-rearing countries of the world. the clinical signs, pathogenesis, diagnosis, epidemiology and control of this disease are described in detail. one natural outbreak of border disease in domestic goats has been described and there is serological and virological evidence that pest ...19901966719
giraffes, rats and man--what is the importance of the 'structural factor' in normo- and hypertensive states?1. the normal structural adaptation of heart and vessels to regional changes in load or/and tissue demands is surveyed with respect to its importance for cardiovascular function in normotension as well as in physiological (giraffes) and pathophysiological (e.g. human and rat primary hypertension) variants of high pressure states. 2. at the local level it implies an entirely appropriate adjustment of cardiovascular geometric design according to principles inherent in the laplace and poiseuille la ...19912032387
the nutritional contribution to bovine spongiform encephalopathy.evidence that changes in feeding style alter the membrane fatty acid composition of ruminant tissue is presented here by comparing zoo giraffe with the same species from their natural habitat. the membrane changes seen are similar to those used experimentally to make animals susceptible to basic brain protein and encephalomalacia. similar membrane responses have been noted in cattle. use of animal protein and increased nitrogen in cattle feeds would lead to a relative deficiency of essential fat ...19912038456
internal parasites of giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis angolensis) from etosha national park, namibia.during three seasonal periods, parasitological samples were collected from six giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis angolensis) in the etosha national park, namibia. the helminths recovered included parabronema skrjabini, skrjabinema spp., haemonchus mitchelli and echinococcus sp. larvae; cytauxzoon sp. was the only hematozoan found. the low mean abundances of all helminths which ranged from 18 to 531 may be attributed to the low rainfall of this region or because the giraffe is not a preferred host ...19902388363
application of a monoclonal antibody to a comparative study of alpha-lactalbumins from various species.a monoclonal antibody to bovine alpha-lactalbumin was prepared and purified. the binding ability of alpha-lactalbumin from different species (cow, goat, giraffe, horse, pig, human, monkey, and guinea pig) was examined by a competitive radioimmunoassay. the order in strength of the binding affinity was cow goat, giraffe, horse, cynomolgus monkey and human, pig, and guinea pig. the order of evolutional divergence calculated from the amino acid composition was cow, goat, giraffe, horse, pig, guinea ...19892501365
kappa delta award paper. tissue fluid pressures: from basic research tools to clinical applications.the two basic research tools developed to measure tissue fluid pressure (wick catheter) and osmotic pressure (colloid osmometer) have undergone extensive validation and refinement over the past 20 years. using these techniques, basic science investigations were undertaken of edema in amazon reptiles, pressure-volume relations in animals and plants, adaptive physiology of antarctic penguins and fishes, edema in spawning salmon, tissue fluid balance in humans under normal conditions and during sim ...19892677287
subclinical lumbar polyradiculopathy in aged domestic, laboratory, and exotic mammalian species--a light and selected electron microscopic study.lumbar polyradiculopathy, characterized by ballooning myelin sheaths and axonal distortion, was documented in multiple, aged, domestic, laboratory, and exotic mammalian species. animals studied that exhibited this nerve rootlet change included the goat, sheep, pig, white-tailed deer, gerbil, vole, ferret, beaver, hedgehog, chinchilla, north chinese leopard, lion, cheetah, mountain lion, llama, east african eland, uganda giraffe, polar bear, and drill. ultrastructurally, lumbar nerve rootlets fro ...19892766747
antibody to crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus in wild mammals from southern africa.crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (cchf) virus is becoming increasingly recognized as an important human pathogen in southern africa. in order to determine the role of wild mammals in the natural ecology of the virus, sera from 3,772 wild mammals of 87 species and from 1,978 domestic dogs collected in south africa and zimbabwe between 1964 and 1985 were tested for antibody to cchf virus by reversed passive hemagglutination inhibition (rphi) and by indirect immunofluorescence (if). antibody was fou ...19873101526
some avian and mammalian hosts of amblyomma hebraeum and amblyomma marmoreum (acari: ixodidae).large numbers of birds, wild mammals and domestic stock from a variety of localities within the republic of south africa were examined for infestation with the ixodid ticks amblyomma hebraeum and amblyomma marmoreum. every warthog (phacochoerus aethiopicus), burchell's zebra (equus burchelli), impala (aepyceros melampus) and kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros) from the kruger national park in the north-eastern transvaal lowveld was infested with a. hebraeum. in the eastern cape province every helmet ...19873329327
polyarthritis and polyosteomyelitis in a juvenile giraffe. 19863505975
variation among species in the endocrine control of mammary growth and function: the roles of prolactin, growth hormone, and placental lactogen.prolactin, growth hormone, and placental lactogen form a family of structurally related hormones, which may have evolved from a common ancestral peptide. prolactin and growth hormone are present in all mammals, but the biological activity associated with placental lactogen has been detected in only some groups. attempts to detect placental lactogen using bioassay and radioreceptor assay are reported and have been unsuccessful in an insectivore (the shrew), a bat, an edentate (the armadillo), a l ...19863519707
the helminth parasites of various artiodactylids from some south african nature reserves.the helminth species composition and helminth burdens of 4 grey duikers, 12 bushbuck, 2 nyala, 2 giraffe, a steenbok, an oribi, a waterbuck and a tsessebe from the kruger national park (knp); of a steenbok and a greater kudu from the farm riekerts laager, transvaal; of a single blue duiker from the tsitsikama forest national park, and of a blue wildebeest, a red hartebeest, a gemsbok and 2 springbok from the kalahari gemsbok national park (kgnp) were collected, counted and identified. new parasi ...19863725333
regional variations in the width of the basement membrane of muscle capillaries in man and giraffe. 19714253667
investigations of allerton-type herpes virus infection in east african game animals and cattle.neutralization tests with a strain (ba) of allerton-type herpes virus, derived from a buffalo (syncerus caffer) were carried out on 924 sera from 17 species of e. african game animals and on cattle sera from tanzania (2001), kenya (792) and uganda (410).buffalo populations throughout e. africa showed a very high rate of infection, with all animals over 2 years of age serologically positive. antibody was present in some giraffe, waterbuck and hippopotamus sera and, less frequently, in impala, ela ...19714326248
the primary structure of giraffe pancreatic ribonuclease. 19744855009
cytauxzoonosis in a giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis (linnaeus, 1758)) in zululand. 19705005092
occurrence of a cattle eyeworm, thelazia gulosa (nematoda: thelaziidae), in an imported giraffe in california and t. lacrymalis in a native horse in maryland. 19715157171
cardiorespiratory dynamics in the ox and giraffe, with comparative observations on man and other mammals. 19655217272
prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to bovid herpesvirus 2 in african wildlife.a total of 3,470 sera, collected between 1963 and 1980 from 45 different species of wildlife in nine african countries, was examined for virus neutralizing (vn) antibodies to bovid herpesvirus 2. antibodies were demonstrated in 20 species including 15 bovidae, two suidae, hippopotamus (hippopotamus amphibius), giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) and a green monkey (cercopithecus aethiops); 11 of these species had not been previously recorded as sero-positive. although the significance of neutralizi ...19826296471
phylogenetical and ontogenetical studies on the molecular weight heterogeneity of bovine serum transferrin.antitransferrin (tf) rabbit serum was highly specific: it reacted with tfs of ruminants, such as european breeds and zebu breeds of cattle, bali cattle, banteng, swamp and river types of water buffalo, anoa, goat, sheep, deer, antelope, camel, and giraffe, but did not react with serum of other non-ruminant species, such as pig, wild boar, hippopotamus, horse, rabbit, rat, chicken, etc. electrophoresis of tf and immunoglobulin g (igg) complexes was carried out using sodium dodecyl sulfate--polyac ...19846529442
the ixodid tick burdens of various large ruminant species in south african nature reserves.the ixodid tick burdens of eland (taurotragus oryx), greater kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros), nyala (tragelaphus angasi), bushbuck (tragelaphus scriptus) and giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) in the kruger national park, transvaal; of african buffalo (syncerus caffer) and nyala in the hluhluwe game reserve, natal; and of gemsbok (oryx gazella) in the mountain zebra national park, an eland in the thomas baines nature reserve and an eland and greater kudu in the andries vosloo kudu reserve, eastern ...19836646664
anaplasma infections in wild and domestic ruminants: a review.anaplasma marginale can be transmitted, will grow and can survive in a large number of domestic and wild animals. it is pathogenic in cattle, and usually produces nonapparent or mild infections in other species. anaplasma marginale has been recovered from cattle, sheep, goats, water buffalo (bubalus bubalis), white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus), black-tailed deer (odocoileus hemionus columbianus), pronghorn (antilocapra americana americana), rocky ...19846716555
diameter of coronary arteries in 36 species of mammalian from mouse to giraffe.systematic quantitative investigations were performed in the coronary arteries of 102 hearts of 36 mammal species with an overall more than tenthousandfold difference of their heart weight. after postmortem coronary angiography with a filling pressure of 100 mm hg x-rays were taken, and the widest diameters of the coronary artery stems were determined. we found a nearly linear correlation between diameter of a standardized coronary artery and virtual diameter of heart, but the increase in diamet ...19846743189
fibre size frequency in the recurrent laryngeal nerves of man and giraffe. 19817023176
isolation of acholeplasma laidlawii from a giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi) and a mouflon (ovis musimon). 19827064318
prepositional marking of source-goal structure and children's comprehension of english passives.maratsos and abramovitch (1975) argued that the presence of a preposition is the major cue for the passive interpretation of sentences by children. experiment 1 of the present study demonstrates that the semantics of the preposition are more important than the syntactic form-class: in an otherwise passive frame (the giraffe is tickled ... the camel), from elicits as many passive interpretations from preschoolers as the usual by, whereas to elicits primarily active interpretations. the results of ...19817265931
factors affecting the distributions of the ticks amblyomma hebraeum and a. variegatum in zimbabwe: implications of reduced acaricide usage.the ticks amblyomma hebraeum and a. variegatum are the main vectors of heartwater, a disease of ruminants caused by cowdria ruminantium, in the agricultural areas of zimbabwe. at present, a. hebraeum is widely distributed in the dry southern lowveld, and occurs in at least seven foci in the higher rainfall highveld. amblyomma variegatum occurs in the zambezi valley and surrounding dry lowveld areas in the northwest. the distribution of a. hebraeum has changed considerably over the past 70 years, ...19947628253
[physiological mechanisms of cardiovascular adaptation to orthostatism. role of the sympathetic nervous system and pharmacological implications].the main physiological adaptative systems occurring during orthostatism are discussed. the nervous mechanisms and especially baroreceptor pathways allow a rapid adaptation to the new hemodynamic conditions whereas hormones (mainly vasopressin) are involved later. the role of baroreflex and cardiocirculatory mechanisms is explained by the description of adaptative mechanisms in giraffe, an animal with its brain so far above the ground. the changes in adrenoceptor receptivity and the adaptative ho ...19947817354
chromosome conservation among the advanced pecorans and determination of the primitive bovid karyotype.extensive monobrachial qfh-band homologies were found among cattle (bovidae), pronghorn (antilocapridae), masai giraffe (giraffidae), and mule and whitetail deer (cervidae). the deer species had identical karyotypes (2n = 70, naa = 70). interfamily comparisons demonstrated that cattle (2n = 60, naa = 58) and pronghorn (2n = 58, naa = 60) were karyotypically the most similar. the giraffe possessed a 2n = 30, naa = 54, and differed from the other artiodactyls by having a preponderance of biarmed a ...19948014460
occurrence and pathology of gongylonema infection in captive wild herbivores.gongylonema infection in 11 captive wild herbivores out of 214 animals (5.14%) was recorded at post mortem examination. species of animals affected were spotted deer (6.06%), sambar (7.14%), mouse deer (16.66%), nilgai (11.76%), serow (16.66%) and giraffe (20.0%). the affected areas showed fibrinous inflammation. on scanning electron microscopic study, destruction and disruption of the epithelium were noted, and cuticular bosses originating from the anterior tip of the parasite were observed.19948030183
studies on the formation of perceptually based basic-level categories in young infants.a series of experiments examined the abilities of 3- and 4-month-old infants to form categorical representations to exemplars of natural kinds--cats and horses. these experiments also permitted assessment of the relative exclusivity of these representations--the extent to which they exclude exemplars from contrasting basic-level categories from the same superordinate category. we found that categorical representations could be formed for horses that excluded cats, zebras, and giraffes, and for c ...19948045176
cowdria ruminantium identified in amblyomma gemma using a dna probe pcs20.amblyomma gemma ticks were collected from wild animals on a 20,000 acre game ranch in a heartwater endemic area in kenya, close to nairobi. a. variegatum is the main vector of heartwater in kenya. e.a. lewis, 1947, in a one sentence report has implicated a. gemma to be a vector of heartwater without giving any details. adult a. gemma were collected from giraffe giraffa camelopardalis, hartebeest alcephalus busephalus, eland taurotragus oryx and ostrich struthio camelus during cropping exercises. ...19938134629
typing of artiodactyl mhc-drb genes with the help of intronic simple repeated dna efficient oligonucleotide typing method for the highly polymorphic mhc-drb genes is described for artiodactyls like cattle, sheep and goat. by means of the polymerase chain reaction, the second exon of mhc-drb is amplified as well as part of the adjacent intron containing a mixed simple repeat sequence. using this primer combination we were able to amplify the mhc-drb exons 2 and adjacent introns from all of the investigated 10 species of the family of bovidae and giraffes. therefore, the drb ...19938180732
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the detection of antibody to crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever virus in the sera of livestock and wild vertebrates.igm antibody response to crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever (cchf) virus was monitored in experimentally infected sheep and cattle by an igm capture enzyme-linked immunoassay (elisa). specific binding of antigen was detected by a rabbit anti-cchf horseradish peroxidase conjugate or a sandwich technique with hyperimmune mouse anti-cchf ascitic fluid and commercially available anti-mouse immunoglobulin peroxidase conjugate. the persistence of igm antibody activity was found to be of shorter duration ...19938270014
reactions of sera from laboratory, domestic and wild animals in africa with protein a and a recombinant chimeric protein elisa was developed to determine the reactivity of peroxidase labelled protein a and a recombinant protein a + protein g construct, to sera from a variety of laboratory, domestic and wild animals from africa. there was variability in the binding capacity of sera from individuals of the same species, but four groups could be recognized. sera from birds and crocodiles were at most weakly reactive with either protein a or the chimeric construct. sera from some domestic animals such as horse, goa ...19938281743
sequences related to the ox pancreatic ribonuclease coding region in the genomic dna of mammalian species.mammalian pancreatic ribonucleases form a family of homologous proteins that has been extensively investigated. the primary structures of these enzymes were used to derive phylogenetic trees. these analyses indicate that the presence of three strictly homologous enzymes in the bovine species (the pancreatic, seminal, and cerebral ribonucleases) is due to gene duplication events which occurred during the evolution of ancestral ruminants. in this paper we present evidence that confirms this findin ...19938360916
molecular evolution of genes encoding ribonucleases in ruminant species.phylogenetic analysis, based on the primary structures of mammalian pancreatic-type ribonucleases, indicated that gene duplication events, which occurred during the evolution of ancestral ruminants, gave rise to the three paralogous enzymes present in the bovine species. herein we report data that demonstrate the existence of the orthologues of the bovine pancreatic, seminal, and cerebral ribonucleases coding sequences in the genomes of giraffe and sheep. the "seminal" sequence is a pseudogene i ...19958587129
assignment of the human prosaposin gene (psap) to 10q22.1 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. giraffidae, okapi (okapiajohnstoni), and giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis): evidence for ancestral telomeres at the okapi polymorphic rob (4;26) fusion site.the human prosaposin gene (psap) was previously localized to 10q21-->q22 by isotopic in situ hybridization using a human prosaposin cdna as a probe. the present study, using fluorescence in situ hybridization with a mouse genomic prosaposin fragment as probe, confirms the localization of psap and precisely maps it to band 10q22.1.19968641138
spontaneous micronuclei in peripheral blood erythrocytes from 35 mammalian this paper we report the results of a study to determine the frequencies of spontaneous micronucleated erythrocytes (mne) in peripheral blood of 35 mammalian species. the main goal was to find mammals with a high spontaneous frequency of mne that could, therefore, be good candidates for biomonitoring genotoxic agents in their natural habitat. we obtained 187 peripheral blood samples, but in 13 of the species we could only sample one individual. a wide range in the number of mne (1/434 to 0/40 ...19968700177
six antigenic groups within the genus pestivirus as identified by cross neutralization assays.antigenic differences between pestivirus isolates of ruminant and porcine origin were characterized by neutralization assays. first, six different clusters of pestiviruses were identified by clustering cross-neutralization results of 13 pestivirus strains tested against 23 sera. cluster i consisted of four strains of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (bvdv) of bovine origin and two bvdv isolates of porcine origin. cluster ii consisted of one sheep isolate and two porcine bdv isolates. cluster iii con ...19958748547
the interferon-tau genes of the giraffe, a nonbovid species.genes for interferon-tau (ifnt) have been cloned from several bovidae, and the ifnt lineage has been predicted to have arisen from the ifnw, as the divergence of the ruminantia from other artiodactyls. southern genomic blotting with probes specific for ifnt identified a gene in the giraffe, a nonbovid member of the ruminantia. here this gene has been cloned, sequenced, and expressed. it encodes a 172-amino acid mature protein with antiviral activity on bovine cells. giraffe ifn-tau lacks the nor ...19968938571
a new host record of camelostrongylus mentulatus (nematoda; trichostrongyloidea) from abomasum of a giraffe at a zoo in japan.camelostrongylus mentulatus (railliet et henry, 1909) orloff, 1933 (nematoda; trichostrongyloidea) was found from the abomasum of a three-year-old female cape giraffe, giraffa camelopardalis giraffa, born and died in a zoo park in yamaguchi prefecture, japan. this is the new host record from giraffidae and geographical distribution of c. mentulatus. present case of c. mentulatus might be infected from other ruminants, e.g., camels, antelopes and goats, kept at a same paddock in the zoo. risk of ...19968996706
a survey for cryptosporidium spp. in mammals at the barcelona zoo.mammals housed at the barcelona zoo belonging to the orders carnivora, artiodactyla, perissodactyla and proboscidea were examined for cryptosporidium infections. a total of 183 fecal samples from 17 carnivores and 34 herbivores revealed patent infections in only 6 herbivore species (5 artiodactyls of the families bovidae and giraffidae and 1 perissodactyl of the family rhinocerotidae); all carnivores were negative. intensity of infection was found to be generally low. connochaetes taurinus tauri ...19969024881
phylogenetic analysis of pestiviruses from domestic and wild ruminants.infections with pestiviruses occur in cattle, sheep, pigs and also in numerous other ungulate species. in the present study, pestiviruses from goat, buffalo, deer and giraffe were analysed at the molecular level; unusual strains from cattle and pigs were also included. a phylogenetic analysis of the respective pestiviruses was undertaken on the basis of a fragment from the 5' noncoding region as well as the gene encoding autoprotease npro. statistical analyses of the respective phylogenetic tree ...19979191930
subdivision of the pestivirus genus based on envelope glycoprotein e2.conventionally, the genus pestivirus of the family flaviviridae has been divided into bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv), classical swine fever virus (csfv), and border disease virus (bdv). to date, bdv and bvdv have been isolated from different species, whereas csfv seems to be restricted to swine. pestiviruses are structurally and antigenically closely related. envelope glycoprotein e2 is the most immunogenic and most variable protein of pestiviruses. we cloned e2 genes of many different pesti ...19979356345
endogenous nitric oxide in the airways of different animal species.high amounts of endogenous nitric oxide (no) have been demonstrated in the human upper airway, but the role of nasal no is still unclear. the present study aims to describe nasal no excretion in different animal species with special living conditions or anatomy.19979366933
secretory ribonuclease genes and pseudogenes in true ruminants.mammalian pancreatic ribonucleases (rnase) form a family of extensively studied homologous proteins. phylogenetic analyses, based on the primary structures of these enzymes, indicated that the presence of three homologous enzymes (pancreatic, seminal and brain ribonucleases) in the bovine species is due to gene duplication events, which occurred during the evolution of ancestral ruminants. in this paper the sequences are reported of the coding regions of the orthologues of the three bovine secre ...19989611269
three new sarcocystis species, sarcocystis giraffae, s. klaseriensis, and s. camelopardalis (protozoa: sarcocystidae) from the giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) in south africa.three new sarcocystis species recovered from muscle fibers of the skeletal musculature of a giraffe in south africa are described based on light and electron microscopy. sarcocystis giraffae n. sp. formed slim macrocysts with a parasite-induced connective tissue encapsulation of the host muscle fiber in which the plasma membrane of the latter remained unaltered. the sarcocyst wall represented a new ultrastructural type that is characterized by fingerlike villar protrusions with a hairlike projec ...19989645858
demonstration of a carrier state for cowdria ruminantium in wild ruminants from africa.four wild african ruminants, eland (taurotragus oryx), giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis), kudu (tragephalus strepsiceros strepsiceros), and blue wildebeest (connochaetes taurinus), were experimentally infected with the rickettsia cowdria ruminantium, the tickborne agent causing heartwater in domestic ruminants. the infections were established, and c. ruminantium was transmitted to naive small ruminants by the vector amblyomma hebraeum when transmission attempts were made at days 128 (eland and wi ...19989706566
anti-trypanosoma brucei activity of nonprimate zoo sera.constitutive anti-trypanosoma brucei subsp. brucei s 427 clone 1 and 22 activities were evaluated in sera from 22 species of nonprimate mammals. the sera fell into 5 categories. sera from cape buffalo, giraffe, and greater kudu showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of replication of the 2 clones of organisms, which was dependent on the presence of xanthine oxidase. sera from warthog and springbok also severely limited trypanosome replication but lacked xanthine oxidase. their antitrypanoso ...199910207362
production of interferon by the conceptus in red deer cervus elaphus.a type i interferon secreted by early sheep and cow conceptuses is responsible for the maternal recognition of pregnancy in these species. interferon-tau (ifn tau) acts locally on the maternal endometrium to prevent luteolysis and prolong progesterone secretion. the production of ifn tau was investigated in early pregnancy in red deer, cervus elaphus. the oestrous cycles of 14 hinds were synchronized using intra-vaginal controlled internal progesterone-releasing devices. hinds were run with a fe ...199910341723
[right tracheal bronchus with anomalous ramification of the bronchial artery disclosed during an episode of hemoptysis].a 63-year-old woman was referred to our hospital on june 18th, 1998 during an episode of hemoptysis that had lasted for 6 days. she had no hemorrhagic diathesis and no history of pulmonary disease. chest x-ray films disclosed a ground-glass opacity in the right upper lung field. bronchoscopic examination revealed bleeding from an anomalous ectopic orifice on the right lateral trachea, about 1 cm above the carina. chest computed tomographic examinations by conventional and spiral methods readily ...200010723948
allometric respiration/body mass data for animals to be used for estimates of inhalation toxicity to young adult humans.the relationship between body weight (bw) and respiratory minute volume (v(m)) was reviewed by collecting a database from the literature. the data were separated into anaesthetized and non-anaesthetized groups. only young adult terrestrial mammals were included in the final data set. this database is the largest to be reported to date, is the first to separate the anaesthetized and non-anaesthetized groups and is matched to the target population of young, fit adult humans. the data set of non-an ...200010942903
giraffe strain of pestivirus: its taxonomic status based on the 5'-untranslated region.the 5'-untranslated region (5'-utr) of the 'giraffe' strain of pestivirus was sequenced for comparison with those of other pestiviruses from cattle, sheep, goats, and swine. a phylogenetic tree constructed with these strains suggested that the 'giraffe' strain was allocated to a new taxon. this observation was also confirmed by a newly proposed method based on palindromic nucleotide substitutions (pns) at the three variable regions in the 5'-utr. other reported pestivirus strains isolated from d ...200011145272
[medical treatment of dystocia in zoo animals].kasuistics of zoo animals with dystocia (anoa, giraffe, snow goat, scimitar horned antelope, bactrian camel, tiger, diana monkey) treated with special pharmaceuticals (glukokortikoids, cienbuterol, denaverine, carbetocin) and distance injections by blow darts are introduced. these procedures are described as very effective and save methods of obstetrics especially in zoo animals.200011155524
evaluation of anthelmintic activity in captive wild ruminants by fecal egg reduction tests and a larval development assay.the effectiveness of anthelmintics was evaluated in four herds of captive ruminants, wapiti (cervus elaphus), armenian red sheep (ovis orientalis), giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis), and pronghorn (antilocapra americana), by the use of fecal egg reduction tests (ferts) and a commercial larval development assay (lda) designed to evaluate susceptibility or resistance of nematodes to anthelmintics. haemonchus sp. was the predominant nematode in the red sheep, giraffe, and pronghorn herds, whereas os ...200011237142
ruminant brain ribonucleases: expression and evolution.molecular evolutionary analyses of mammalian ribonucleases have shown that gene duplication events giving rise to three paralogous genes occurred in ruminant ancestors. one of these genes encodes a ribonuclease identified in bovine brain. a peculiar feature of this enzyme and orthologous sequences in other ruminants are c-terminal extensions consisting of 17-27 amino acid residues. evidence was obtained by western blot analysis for the presence of brain-type ribonucleases in brain tissue not onl ...200111343795
differences in the number of micronucleated erythrocytes among young and adult animals including humans. spontaneous micronuclei in 43 our previous report we speculated about the possibility that some species had high levels of spontaneous micronucleated erythrocytes (mne) just in a juvenile stage, this is, that the mne diminish as the reticuloendothelial system matures. here we show this effect in species including rat, rabbit, pig, dog, cat, gray squirrel, lion, giraffe, white-tailed deer, opossum and even human. the number of spontaneous mne that we found in 43 species is shown, and the proportions of polychromatic and no ...200111423355
evidence for the presence of two novel pestivirus species.the genus pestivirus of the family flaviviridae comprises four species, namely bovine viral diarrhea virus-1 (bvdv-1), bvdv-2, border disease virus (bdv), and classical swine fever virus (csfv). comparative analyses of partial sequences have suggested that pestivirus isolates from giraffe (giraffe-1) and reindeer (reindeer-1) are distinct from the established species (becher et al., virology 262, 64--71, 1999). in this study, we report the complete genomic sequences of pestivirus strains giraffe ...200111485413
the structure of the masseter muscle in the giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis).in the giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis), the masseter muscle was divided into several layers. the superficial and more medial (second) tendinous sheets of the masseter muscle fused with each other at the dorso-caudal part and a fleshy portion was located between these tendinous sheets. in the rostral part, the most superficial tendinous sheet turned around as a compact tendon and attached to the facial crest (crista facialis). the turned tendinous sheet, however, never fused with the second tend ...200111688743
sine retrotransposition during the evolution of the pecoran ruminants.sine retrotransposition events have proven their value as phylogenetic markers in several eukaryotic taxa at different taxonomic levels. the genomes of ruminants contain three related sine elements, bov-ta, bov-a2, and bov-b. to estimate the time points of retrotransposition of individual copies of these sines, we designed pcr primers on database sequences containing sine insertions in cattle, sheep, or goat genomes and tested for the presence of these copies in the genomes of other ruminants. i ...200211734893
a model for time-dependent flow in (giraffe jugular) veins: uniform tube properties.computations are reported for a one-dimensional model of time-dependent flow in collapsible tubes representing long mammalian veins. the tubes are taken to have uniform intrinsic properties and we concentrate on the effect of longitudinal gravity. the main application is to the jugular vein of the upright giraffe, with given inflow rate from the head, a given pressure, slightly above the external, atmospheric pressure, at the downstream (vena caval) end, and a variety of initial conditions. we s ...200211747888
suspected adverse reactions to veterinary drugs reported in south africa (january 1998 - february 2001).the veterinary pharmacovigilance centre received 59 reports of suspected adverse drug reactions during the period january 1998 - february 2001. the number of reports received increased after the establishment of a formal procedure for recording and responding to reports. the number of reports received per species was: dogs 19, cats 15, cattle 7, sheep/ goats 6, chickens 4, pigs 3, horses 2 and giraffe 1. many different types of adverse reactions were reported, including lack of efficacy, hyperse ...200111811698
[do you speak jackal or giraffe?]. 200011941778
kidney of giraffes.this study focuses on certain aspects of the renal structure of the giraffe, with some implications as to its function. about 4,000 collecting ducts open at the truncated end of a curved crest that juts into the renal pelvis as the inner medulla (im). extensions of the pelvis pass between the medullary (mp) and vascular (vp) processes almost to the corticomedullary border. the mps contain an im and an outer medulla (om) containing clusters of capillaries (vascular bundles). the vps contain the i ...200211997878
effects of large mammalian herbivores and ant symbionts on condensed tannins of acacia drepanolobium in kenya.condensed tannins have been considered to be important inducible defenses against mammalian herbivory. we tested for differences in condensed tannin defenses in acacia drepanolobium in kenya over two years among different large mammalian herbivore treatments [total exclusion, antelope only, and megaherbivore (elephants and giraffes) + antelope] and with four different ant symbiont species on the trees. we predicted that (1) condensed tannin concentrations would be lowest in the mammal treatment ...200212049231
[the stability of progesterone in feces of different wild animal species kept in a zoological garden].methodical investigations were carried out to monitor especially in what respect external factors (dry mass of faeces, time point of freezing, duration of storage of the frozen samples, multiple defrosting of the samples) influence the progesterone concentration of the faeces of several wild animal species (baringo giraffe, black rhinoceros, dama gazelle, mountain goat) living in a zoological garden. with reference to one animal species the dry mass of the faeces showed only small variations. th ...200212073499
phylogeny of ruminants secretory ribonuclease gene sequences of pronghorn (antilocapra americana).phylogenetic analyses based on primary structures of mammalian ribonucleases, indicated that three homologous enzymes (pancreatic, seminal and brain ribonucleases) present in the bovine species are the results of gene duplication events, which occurred in the ancestor of the ruminants after divergence from other artiodactyls. in this paper sequences are presented of genes encoding pancreatic and brain-type ribonuclease genes of pronghorn (antilocapra americana). the seminal-type ribonuclease gen ...200312470934
mycoplasma-associated polyarthritis in a reticulated giraffe.a case of mycoplasma-associated polyarthritis was diagnosed in a captive reticulated giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis reticulata). recurrent episodes of lameness with temporary response to antimicrobial therapy characterized the disease. after the fifth episode, the giraffe was immobilized for arthrocentesis of the right front fetlock joint. although the culture was negative, mycoplasma sp. nucleic acid was detected in synovial fluid using polymerase chain reaction (pcr). twelve weeks after compl ...200312685090
glycero- versus sphingo-phospholipids: correlations with human and non-human mammalian lens growth.the human lens differs from other mammalian lenses in its very slow growth and unusual phospholipid composition of its cell membranes. dihydrosphingomyelins (dhsms) make up about half of all phospholipids in adult human fiber membranes. in all other membranes, sphingomyelins(sms) with a trans double bond in their backbone, are prevalent. in our quest to understand the biological implications of such elevated dhsm levels, we analyzed membranes from various regions of human, elephant, giraffe, pol ...200312742355
molecular and morphological phylogenies of ruminantia and the alternative position of the moschidae.the ruminants constitute the largest group of ungulates, with >190 species, and its distribution is widespread throughout all continents except australia and antarctica. six families are traditionally recognized within the suborder ruminantia: antilocapridae (pronghorns), bovidae (cattle, sheep, and antelopes), cervidae (deer), giraffidae (giraffes and okapis), moschidae (musk deer), and tragulidae (chevrotains). the interrelationships of the families have been an area of controversy among morph ...200312746147
evolution of major histocompatibility complex class i genes in cetartiodactyls.previous studies of cattle mhc have suggested the presence of at least four classical class i loci. analysis of haplotypes showed that any combination of one, two or three genes may be expressed, although no gene is expressed consistently. the aim of this study was to examine the evolutionary relationships among these genes and to study their phylogenetic history in cetartiodactyl species, including cattle and their close relatives. a secondary aim was to determine whether recombination had occu ...200312756505
[heterogeneity of ruminant pestiviruses: academic interest or important basis for the development of vaccines and diagnostics?].pestiviruses cause economically important diseases of farm animals. members of the pestiviruses are bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (bvdv-1), bvdv-2, classical swine fever virus (csfv) and border disease virus (bdv). phylogenetic analyses based on the entire nucleic acid sequence encoding the npro allow a statistically significant segregation of established species and of subgroups within the species. bvdv-1 strains isolated in germany can be associated with at least five different subgroups. in c ...200312784555
genetic and antigenic characterization of novel pestivirus genotypes: implications for classification.currently, the genus pestivirus comprises the four approved species bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (bvdv-1), bvdv-2, classical swine fever virus (csfv), and border disease virus (bdv) and one tentative fifth species represented by a single strain (h138) isolated from a giraffe in kenya more than 30 years ago. to further address the issue of heterogeneity of pestiviruses we have determined the entire n(pro) and e2 coding sequences for several new pestivirus isolates. interestingly, phylogenetic an ...200312832207
influence of diet on the rumen protozoal fauna of indigenous african wild ruminants.a study was carried out to determine if the protozoal fauna of indigenous african wild ruminants was different from that found in their domestic counterparts and if the animal's diet influenced the number and types of protozoa. samples of rumen contents were collected in 1997 and 2001 from various indigenous african wild ruminants in kenya. all three ruminant feeding types were sampled: browsers or concentrate selectors (giraffe and guenther's dik-dik); intermediate or adaptable mixed feeders (i ...200312836880
fainting in animals.fainting (syncope) is unconsciousness due to insufficient cerebral circulation in the context of a temporary failure of the systemic circulation. this paper firstly aims to discuss fainting in animals, and secondly to discuss animal physiology to broaden the understanding of human fainting. of the three major syncope types (cardiac, orthostatic and reflex syncope), only cardiac syncope occurs in animals as in man, through arrhythmia or output failure. man's orthostatic fainting tendency has been ...200312955549
rhipicephalus camelopardalis n.sp. (ixodoidea, ixodidae), a new species of tick from east african giraffes. 195913842517
[diagnosis of lawsonia intracellularis using the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) in pigs with and without diarrhea and other animal species].lawsonia (l.) intracellularis, an obligately intracellular bacterium, causes proliferative enteropathy (pe) in swine and, occasionally, in other animals. to determine the spread of the agent among german pig herds pooled fecal samples of five animals each of clinically normal hessian pig herds collected between november 1998 and february 1999 as well as feces (n = 1684) from individual animals representing 648 herds, sent to our laboratory by veterinarians from all parts of germany, were tested ...200314560442
absence of the functional myosin heavy chain 2b isoform in equine skeletal muscles.nucleotide sequences which included the full coding region for three types of myosin heavy chain (myhc) isoforms were determined from equine skeletal muscles. the deduced amino acid sequences were 1937, 1938, and 1935 residues for the myhc-2a, -2x, and -slow, respectively. no myhc-2b isoform was amplified from the equine muscle cdna except for one pseudogene fragment. one nucleotide was inserted in the coding region of the equine pseudogene product, a minute amount of which was expressed in the ...200415170063
helminths in a giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis xgiraffa) from a zoo in spain.a pregnant female cape giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis giraffa) died from an unknown cause in the aitana zoo, alicante, spain. neither clinical signs nor macroscopic lesions were observed at necropsy. the alimentary tract was removed and examined for parasites. a total of 2 724 nematodes were found, including camelostrongylus mentulatus, trichostrongylus axei, ostertagia ostertagi, teladorsagia circumcincta, teladorsagia trifurcata, marshallagia marshalli, trichostrongylus vitrinus, trichostrong ...200415373337
episodic molecular evolution of pituitary growth hormone in cetartiodactyla.the sequence of growth hormone (gh) is generally strongly conserved in mammals, but episodes of rapid change occurred during the evolution of primates and artiodactyls, when the rate of gh evolution apparently increased substantially. as a result the sequences of higher primate and ruminant ghs differ markedly from sequences of other mammalian ghs. in order to increase knowledge of gh evolution in cetartiodactyla (artiodactyla plus cetacea) we have cloned and characterized gh genes from camel (c ...200415461431
a novel giraffidae-specific interspersed repeat with a microsatellite, originally found in an intron of a ruminant paralogous p97bcnt gene.the ruminant-specific p97bcnt gene (bcntp97) is a paralogous gene that includes a region derived from a retrotransposable element 1 (rte-1). the region comprises an exon (rte-1 exon) encoding 325 amino acids in the middle of the p97bcnt protein. to understand how the bcntp97 paralog evolved, we examined its organization in several ruminants. we found a 700-base pair (bp) insert in the 5' intron of the rte-1 exon in giraffe bcntp97. this insert is missing in the corresponding regions of bovine an ...200415475170
genetic and antigenic characterization of an atypical pestivirus isolate, a putative member of a novel pestivirus species.the genus pestivirus within the family flaviviridae currently consists of four different main species: classical swine fever virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus types 1 and 2 and border disease virus. a fifth tentative species is represented by an isolate from a giraffe. in this study, a completely new pestivirus, isolated from a batch of fetal calf serum that was collected in brazil, is described. it is proposed that the isolate d32/00_'hobi' may constitute a novel sixth pestivirus species, beca ...200415557237
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