new record of lipoptena cervi and updated checklist of the louse flies (diptera: hippoboscidae) of the republic of korea.abstract this is the first confirmed record of the genus lipoptena nitzsch and its species, lipoptena cervi (linnaeus), from the republic of korea. a total of five females and 10 males was collected from eight of 29 korean water deer, hydropotes inermis argyropus swinhoe, from gangwon and gyeongsangbuk provinces and ulsan metropolitan area from may through october 2008. an updated checklist of korean hippoboscids contains nine species in six genera (hippobosca linnaeus, icosta speiser, lipoptena ...201021175076
new genetic variants of anaplasma phagocytophilum and anaplasma bovis from korean water deer (hydropotes inermis argyropus).wild deer are one of the important natural reservoir hosts of anaplasma species, which cause granulocytic anaplasmosis in equines, canines, and humans. the objective of the present study was to determine whether and what species of anaplasma naturally infect korean water deer (kwd) in the republic of korea. a total of 66 spleens from kwd carcasses were collected by the conservation genome resource bank for korean wildlife in korea between march 2008 and may 2009. polymerase chain reaction (pcr) ...201121417930
ticks collected from selected mammalian hosts surveyed in the republic of korea during 2008-2009.a tick survey was conducted to determine the relative abundance and distribution of ticks associated with selected mammals in the republic of korea (rok) during 2008-2009. a total of 918 ticks were collected from 76 mammals (6 families, 9 species) captured at 6 provinces and 3 metropolitan cities in rok. haemaphysalis longicornis (54.4%) was the most frequently collected tick, followed by haemaphysalis flava (28.5%), ixodes nipponensis (7.6%), ixodes pomerantzevi (4.8%), ixodes persulcatus (4.6% ...201122072840
pathogens in water deer (hydropotes inermis) in south korea, 2010-12.water deer (hydropotes inermis) are among the most common wildlife to approach farmhouses and livestock barns in korea. we collected 305 water deer from gangwon (n=168), south chungcheong (n=89), and gyeongsang (n=48) provinces in 2010-12 and used pcr and serologic tests to screen the deer for pathogens. in 2010, tests for bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv), rotavirus, and brucella abortus were positive in 8% (5/60), 2% (1/60), and 59% (33/56) of the animals, respectively. in 2010, the water dee ...201424779466
prevalence of anaplasma and bartonella spp. in ticks collected from korean water deer (hydropotes inermis argyropus).deer serve as reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens that impact on medical and veterinary health worldwide. in the republic of korea, the population of korean water deer (kwd, hydropotes inermis argyropus) has greatly increased from 1982 to 2011, in part, as a result of reforestation programs established following the korean war when much of the land was barren of trees. eighty seven haemaphysalis flava, 228 haemaphysalis longicornis, 8 ixodes nipponensis, and 40 ixodes persulcatus (21 larvae, 114 ...201626951985
Fast and cost-effective mining of microsatellite markers using NGS technology: an example of a Korean water deer Hydropotes inermis argyropus.Microsatellites, a special class of repetitive DNA sequence, have become one of the most popular genetic markers for population/conservation genetic studies. However, its application to endangered species has been impeded by high development costs, a lack of available sequences, and technical difficulties. The water deer Hydropotes inermis is the sole existing endangered species of the subfamily Capreolinae. Although population genetics studies are urgently required for conservation management, ...201122069476
the glycosylation pattern of secretory granules in binucleate trophoblast cells is highly conserved in ruminants.the binucleate trophoblast cells (bncs) in the ruminant placenta are a unique feature of this taxon. these cells produce several secretory proteins and transfer these across the fetomaternal barrier into the dam. we used lectin histochemistry with a panel of 24 lectins to characterise the glycosylation pattern of bnc secretory granules in a variety of ruminants. seven species out of three ruminant families were thus investigated: greater malayan chevrotain (tragulidae); fallow deer, red deer, ch ...201019959226
molecular detection of theileria sp. in wild chinese water deer (hydropotes inermis argyropus).two cases of theileria sp. infection in wild chinese water deer (hydropotes inermis argyropus) were diagnosed by microscopic examination of thin blood smears and by molecular typing. two wild chinese water deer were referred to the veterinary medical center of chungbuk national university in south korea, presumably the result of traffic accidents. thin blood smears, which were stained with giemsa, revealed intraerythrocytic parasites; however, the deer had no remarkable findings on physical exam ...200919901400
high prevalence of theileria sp. in wild chinese water deer (hydropotes inermis argyropus) in south korea.wild chinese water deer exist in large numbers in northeast asia, including south korea. the deer population is so widespread that they are common even in urban areas, resulting in increased contact with humans and domestic animals. the purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of theileria sp. infection in wild chinese water deer in south korea. using biomolecular techniques, blood samples taken from 18 wild chinese water deer were examined. thirteen of the 18 samples (72%) tested pos ...200919577370
species and sex identification of the korean goral (nemorhaedus caudatus) by molecular analysis of non-invasive samples.korean long-tailed goral (nemorhaedus caudatus) is one of the most endangered species in south korea. however, detailed species distribution and sex ratio data on the elusive goral are still lacking due to difficulty of identification of the species and sex in the field. the primary aim of this study was to develop an economical pcr-rflp method to identify species using invasive or non-invasive samples from five korean ungulates: goral (n. caudatus), roe deer (capreolus pygargus), feral goat (ca ...200818679054
chromosomal distribution and organization of three cervid satellite dnas in chinese water deer (hydropotes inermis).the species-specific profile and centromeric heterochromatin localization of satellite dna in mammalian genomes imply that satellite dna may play an important role in mammalian karyotype evolution and speciation. a satellite iii dna family, ccsatiii was thought to be specific to roe deer (capreolus capreolus). in this study, however, this satellite dna family was found also to exist in chinese water deer (hydropotes inermis) by pcr-southern screening. a satellite iii dna element of this species ...200616825767
[the resource conservation and breeding of wild hydropotes inermis in china].there have been four larger populations of wild water deer (hydropotes inermis) in china, but all the populations lie in the endangered status. most of populations are very small, and their distrbution ranges have already been broken up into many isolated patches. furthermore, their habitats have been deteriorating. so it is very necessary to enhance the protection of habitat in the first place. some endangered and small populations of wild water deer can be saved by inflows of domestic health d ...200415179779
long-term viral serology of semi-free-living and captive ungulates.between 1973 and 1994, blood samples were collected at whipsnade wild animal park (uk) from three ungulate species kept in enclosures, including 28 european bison (bison bonasus), 37 scimitar-horned oryx (oryx dammah), and 49 père david's deer (elaphurus davidianus), and also from 144 semi-free-living chinese water deer (hydropotes inermis). these samples were tested for the presence of antibodies against three bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv)-like strains, three alpha-herpesvirus strains, enz ...19989732031
new phylogenetic perspectives on the cervidae (artiodactyla) are provided by the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene.the entire mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) gene was compared for 11 species of the artiodactyl family cervidae, representing all living subfamilies, i.e., the antlered cervinae (cervus elaphus, c. nippon, dama dama), muntiacinae (muntiacus reevesi), and odocoileinae (odocoileus hemionus, mazama sp., capreolus capreolus, c. pygargus, rangifer tarandus, alces alces); and the antlerless hydropotinae (hydropotes inermis). phylogenetic analyses using tragulidae, antilocapridae, giraffidae and bovi ...19989628037
the mitochondrial control region of cervidae: evolutionary patterns and phylogenetic content.the mitochondrial control region (cr) sequence, also known as the d-loop, has been determined for six cervidae (artiodactyla, ruminantia): the red and fallow deers (subfamily cervinae), the brocket deer and two roe deers (subfamily odocoileinae), and the chinese water deer (hydropotinae). these new sequences have been aligned with available cervid and bovid orthologues. comparative analyses indicate that the 5'-peripheral domain exhibits a 75-bp length polymorphism near sequences associated with ...19979364773
bony labyrinth morphology clarifies the origin and evolution of deer.deer are an iconic group of large mammals that originated in the early miocene of eurasia (ca. 19 ma). while there is some consensus on key relationships among their members, on the basis of molecular- or morphology-based analyses, or combined approaches, many questions remain, and the bony labyrinth has shown considerable potential for the phylogenetics of this and other groups. here we examine its shape in 29 species of living and fossil deer using 3d geometric morphometrics and cladistics. we ...201729030580
prevalence of antibody to and dna of lawsonia intracellularis in samples from wild animals in korea.we evaluated the prevalence of lawsonia intracellularis infection in three wild animal species in korea; the korean water deer ( hydropotes inermis ), siberian roe deer ( capreolus pygargus ), and raccoon dogs ( nyctereutes procyonoides ). we collected 136 sera and 109 fecal samples from individuals in 10 wildlife rescue and conservation centers. serum samples were tested for anti- l. intracellularis antibodies using a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (belisa), and fecal samples were s ...201627487235
detection of tick-borne pathogens in the korean water deer (hydropotes inermis argyropus) from jeonbuk province, korea.the objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in the korean water deer (hydropotes inermis argyropus). pathogens were identified using pcr which included anaplasma, ehrlichia, rickettsia, and theileria. rickettsia was not detected, whereas anaplasma, ehrlichia, and theileria infections were detected in 4, 2, and 8 animals, respectively. the most prevalent pathogen was theileria. of the 8 theileria-positive animals, 2 were mixed-infected with 3 pathogens (a ...201526537046
isolation of mycobacterium bovis from free-ranging wildlife in south korea.we demonstrate mycobacterium bovis infection in wild boar ( sus scrofa ) in south korea. during 2012-15, we attempted to isolate m. bovis from 847 wild animals, mainly korean water deer ( hydropotes inermis argyropus), raccoon dogs ( nyctereutes procyonoides ), and wild boar, from 11 regions in south korea. we isolated m. bovis from three of 118 wild boar (2.5%) captured in gyeonggi province, where bovine tuberculosis (btb) outbreaks have also occurred in livestock. spoligotypes and mycobacteria ...201727809648
primary b-cell lymphoma of submandibular lymph node in a water deer ( hydropotes inermis ).we describe a b-cell lymphoma of a submandibular lymph node with metastasis to the lung and facial subcutaneous tissues in a water deer ( hydropotes inermis ). neoplastic cells contained pleomorphic lymphocytes that were positive for cd79a, consistent with b-cell lymphoma. pcr for bovine leukemia virus was negative.201627054469
molecular detection of bartonella grahamii and b. schoenbuchensis-related species in korean water deer (hydropotes inermis argyropus).we determined the prevalence of bartonella spp. and investigated which species of bartonella naturally infects korean water deer (kwd, hydropotes inermis argyropus) in the republic of korea (rok). a total of 70 spleens from kwd carcasses were collected by the conservation genome resource bank for korean wildlife (cgrb) in the rok between 2008 and 2009. nested pcrs were performed using the rpob gene and internal transcribed spacer (its) region primers to amplify the dna fragment of bartonella. us ...201323473217
epidemiological survey for brucella in wildlife and stray dogs, a cat and rodents captured on farms.brucella infections in wildlife originate either from contact with infected livestock or from a natural sustainable reservoir in wildlife populations. as south korea has set a goal of brucellosis eradication by 2013, it is necessary to determine the prevalence of brucella in wildlife and wild rodents. this information will play an important role in the control of brucellosis. because of the absence of prominent clinical signs, direct and indirect laboratory tests are essential for diagnosing bru ...201121828960
the prevalence of coxiella burnetii infection in wild korean water deer, korea.the aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of coxiella burnetti infection in wild korean water deer (hydropotes inermis argyropus) in korea, by using serology and real-time pcr analyses. one hundred ninety-six sera were collected from 4 provinces and tested for anti-c. burnetii antibody detection, by means of chekit q fever elisa kit; and c. burnetii is1111 insertion sequence detection, by means of real-time pcr. antibodies were detected in 18 of the 196 (9.18%) serum samples, whereas ...201424717533
epidemiologic relatedness between brucella abortus isolates from livestock and wildlife in south investigate the epidemiologic relatedness of brucella abortus isolates from chinese water deer (hydropotes inermis) and goral (naemorhedus goral raddeanus) in 2010-2011, 22l isolates from livestock (including domestic elk, cervus canadensis) were analyzed using the multilocus variable-number tandem repeats analysis. in the clustering analysis, korean b. abortus isolates were divided into 40 genotypes by 18 markers, and 2 b. abortus isolates from wildlife were clustered with those of domestic ...201323568927
retrospective analysis of the epidemiologic literature, 1990-2015, on wildlife-associated diseases from the republic of assess the status of research on wildlife diseases in the republic of korea (rok) and to identify trends, knowledge gaps, and directions for future research, we reviewed epidemiologic publications on wildlife-associated diseases in the rok. we identified a relatively small but rapidly increasing body of literature. the majority of publications were focused on public or livestock health and relatively few addressed wildlife health. most studies that focused on human and livestock health were c ...201727705103
novel variants of the newly emerged anaplasma capra from korean water deer (hydropotes inermis argyropus) in south korea.anaplasma spp. are tick-borne gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria that infect humans and a wide range of animals. anaplasma capra has emerged as a human pathogen; however, little is known about the occurrence and genetic identity of this agent in wildlife. the present study aimed to determine the infection rate and genetic profile of this pathogen in wild animals in the republic of korea.201931345253
serological and molecular detection of toxoplasma gondii and babesia microti in the blood of rescued wild animals in gangwon-do (province), korea.infections of toxoplasma gondii and babesia microti are reported in many wild animals worldwide, but information on their incidence and molecular detection in korean wild fields is limited. in this study, the prevalence of t. gondii and b. microti infection in blood samples of 5 animal species (37 chinese water deer, 23 raccoon dogs, 6 roe deer, 1 wild boar, and 3 eurasian badgers) was examined during 2008-2009 in gangwon-do (province), the republic of korea (=korea) by using serological and mol ...201728506045
borrelia species detected in ticks feeding on wild korean water deer (hydropotes inermis) using molecular and genotypic analyses.lyme borreliosis is a vector-borne disease transmitted through the bite of ticks infected by borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato group, including b. burgdorferi sensu stricto, b. afzelii, and b. garinii. the goal of the present study was to detect borrelia species in ticks infesting wild korean water deer (kwd; hydropotes inermis swinhoe), using molecular and genotypic analyses. in total, 48 ticks were collected from kwd, all of which were morphologically identified as haemaphysalis longicornis neum ...201728549151
unique bacteria community composition and co-occurrence in the milk of different ruminants.lactation provides the singular source of nourishment to the offspring of mammals. this nutrition source also contains a diverse microbiota affecting the development and health of the newborn. here, we examined the milk microbiota in water deer (hydropotes inermis, the most primitive member of the family cervidae), reindeer (rangifer tarandus, the oldest semi-domesticated cervid), and the dairy goat (capra aegagrus, member of the family bovidae), to determine if common milk microbiota species we ...201728098228
complete mitochondrial genome of a water deer subspecies, hydropotes inermis argyropus (cervidae: hydropotinae). 201322943585
evaluation of medetomidine-ketamine and dexmedetomidine-ketamine in chinese water deer (hydropotes inermis).to investigate physiological and sedative/immobilization effects of medetomidine or dexmedetomidine combined with ketamine in free-ranging chinese water deer (cwd).201121303441
two sympatric phylogroups of the chinese water deer (hydropotes inermis) identified by mitochondrial dna control region and cytochrome b gene analyses.mitochondrial dna (mtdna) control region (927 bp) and cytochrome b gene (1,140 bp) sequences of the chinese water deer (hydropotes inermis) from china and korea were obtained to examine the taxonomic status of two subspecies, h. i. inermis from china and h. i. argyropus from korea. two sympatric mtdna clades (a major clade from china and korea and a minor clade from korea) with an average genetic distance of 2.1% in the control region and 1.3% in the cytochrome b gene were detected. these findin ...200919669873
microsatellite dna analysis reveals lower than expected genetic diversity in the threatened leopard cat (prionailurus bengalensis) in south optimize conservation efforts, it is necessary to determine the risk of extinction by collecting reliable population information for a given species. we developed eight novel, polymorphic microsatellite markers and used these markers in conjunction with twelve existing markers to measure genetic diversity of south korean populations of leopard cat (prionailurus bengalensis), a species for which population size and habitat area data are unknown in the country, to assess its conservation status ...201829892957
genetic diversity of chinese water deer (hydropotes inermis inermis): implications for conservation.the chinese water deer (hydropotes inermis inermis) is endemic to china. historically, the species was widely distributed, but now, habitat loss and poaching have reduced its range and number drastically. in order to provide useful information for its conservation, we have investigated the genetic diversity and population structure of the chinese water deer by analyzing the 403 bp fragment of the mitochondrial dna (mtdna) control region (d-loop). eighteen different haplotypes were detected in 40 ...200616691433
influence of tree thinning on the abundance of mammals in a japanese larch larix kaempferi plantation.we examined the influence of tree thinning on the abundance of mammals in a japanese larch larix kaempferi plantation in mt gariwang, pyeongchang, south korea. in 2014 and 2015, from april to october, we recorded the presence of tracks as a proxy for abundance, for the following seven mammalian species: korean hare lepus coreanus, raccoon dog nyctereutes procyonoides, siberian weasel mustela sibirica, eurasian badger meles meles, water deer hydropotes inermis, roe deer capreolus pygargus, and wi ...201730460053
skull growth of the korean water deer, hydropotes inermis argyropus.craniomandibular traits of the water deer from the korean peninsula were examined to assess size change in growth between age groups and sexes. univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted based on 34 cranial and 11 mandibular measurements from both sexes. statistical comparisons of skull measurements revealed a significantly different growth pattern between the sexes. for the male, the size change of the cranium and mandible was straight through age groups, constantly. on the other hand, ...201323411480
branching pattern of aortic arch in the korean water deer.this study examined the branching pattern of the aortic arch and its major branches in korean water deer (hydropotes inermis argyropus, heude, 1884). silicone casts were taken from the vessels of 23 carcasses (male 14, female 9) with body weights ranging from 1.3-16.0 kg through a retrograde injection into the abdominal aorta. the findings were compared with those from other domestic ruminants. only the brachiocephalic trunk (bct) branched from the aortic arch in all carcasses. in 19 of the 23 c ...200818981660
complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the korean water deer hydropotes inermis argyropus (cervidae, capreolinae).the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of hydropotes inermis argyropus consists of 13 protein-coding, 22 trna, and two rrna genes, and 1 control region (cr). three overlaps among the 13 protein-coding genes were found: atp8/atp6, nd4l/nd4, and nd5/nd6. the cr was located between the trna-pro and trna-phe genes and is 928 bp in length. the typical conserved domains, such as tas and csb, were identified in the cr.201122040071
haematological and serum biochemical reference values in chinese water deer (hydropotes inermis): a preliminary study.a selection of haematological and serum biochemical profile was first presented from the 81 samples of chinese water deer (hydropotes inermis). the deer health assessment database was initially established, especially in relation to determining potential effects associated with diseases diagnosis.202033081761
stress factors influencing plasma cortisol levels and adrenal weights in chinese water deer (hydropotes inermis).stress responses were compared in chinese water deer (hydropotes inermis) exposed to different handling, management and disease factors by measuring plasma cortisol and adrenal gland weight. healthy free-ranging deer shot as part of a management programme served as baseline controls; they had lower cortisol levels than either diseased deer or free-ranging deer that were either netted and manually restrained or anaesthetised by dart. although darting appeared subjectively to be much less stressfu ...19921465513
application of habitat evaluation procedure with quantifying the eco-corridor in the process of environmental impact contrast to other fields, environmental protection (e.g., habitat protection) often fails to include quantitative evaluation as part of the existing environmental impact assessment (eia) process, and therefore the eia is often a poor forecasting tool, which makes selecting a reasonable plan of action difficult. in this study, we used the habitat evaluation procedure (hep) to quantify the long-term effects of a road construction project on an ecosystem. the water deer (hydropotes inermis) was ...201931018499
molecular identification of sarcocystis grueneri in wild korean water deer (hydropotes inermis argyropus).the cysts of sarcocystis grueneri were detected and characterized from the cardiac muscles of the korean water deer (hydropotes inermis argyropus). of the 38 heart muscle samples examined by light microscopy, 10 were found infected with the cysts of sarcocystis sp. the cysts appeared oval to spherical shape and measured 110-380 μm in length and 90-170 μm in width. a phylogenetic tree of the 18s rrna sequences (1.5 kb) revealed a close relationship of the infected cysts to genus sarcocystis. the ...201829742867
detection of bovine coronavirus in nasal swab of non-captive wild water deer, korea.bovine coronavirus (bcov) is a causative agent of respiratory and enteric diseases in cattle and calves. bcov infection was also evident in captive wild ruminants. recently, water deer are recognized as the most common wildlife to approach farmhouses and livestock barns in korea. therefore, we investigated 77 nasal swab samples from non-captive wild water deer (hydropotes inermis) between november 2016 and september 2017 and identified three samples positive for coronavirus, indicating potential ...201829508550
origination of antlerogenesis.antlers are unique appendages. they are shed and rebuilt at intervals, and are synapomorphic for all living cervidae (except for the chinese water deer, hydropotes inermis, in which they have presumably been lost). the antlerogenic process is controlled by a complex interaction of fluctuating levels of several hormones, most importantly testosterone. the oldest antler remains are recorded from the early miocene; these have been interpreted as non-deciduous appendages because of supposed permanen ...201727859491
eruption of posterior teeth in the maxilla and mandible for age determination of water deer.eruption of posterior teeth, including premolars and molars in the mandible rather than in the maxilla, is accepted as an accurate reference for age determination of deer. in water deer, hydropotes inermis, the eruption age of mandibular molars has been described in two studies, but the ages were inconsistent with each other. in this study, we aimed to confirm the eruption age of mandibular posterior teeth for the accurate age determination of water deer and to evaluate the efficacy of maxillary ...201727794233
corrigendum: mitochondrial genetic diversity, phylogeny and population structure of hydropotes inermis in south korea. 201526119667
cranial morphological homogeneity in two subspecies of water deer in china and korea.the water deer (hydropotes inermis) has conventionally been classified into two subspecies according to geographic distribution and pelage color pattern: h. i. inermis from china and h. i. argyropus from korea. however, the results of a recent molecular study have called this into question. to further reappraise this classification, we examined morphological variation in craniodental measurements of these 2 subspecies. results of univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated that these 2 sub ...201526051000
morphological examination of the obturator notch and canal in cervidae.the purpose of this study was to investigate gross findings of the obturator notch (on) and obturator canal (oc) in cervidae. a total of 183 pelvic girdles from 26 species of deer were examined, and the obturator canal (oc) was classified into 4 types based on the degree of separation from the obturator foramen (of). the deep on was observed primarily in the subfamily capreolinae (telemetacarpal deer). the small bony oc was frequently observed in hydropotes inermis, mazama gouazoubira and ozotoc ...201424430657
intraspecific comparison of two complete mitogenome sequences from the korean water deer (cervidae: hydropotes inermis argyropus).the complete mitogenome (kp203884) of hydropotes i. argyropus (sc15) showed 99.7% nucleotide similarity with that of the chinese h. i. inermis, whereas only 99.1% nucleotide similarity with the known mitogenome of the korean h. i. argyropus (hc23). comparison of amino acid sequence also showed that h. i. argyropus (sc15) was more similar to the chinese h. i. inermis (99.8%) than h. i. argyropus (hc23) (99.5%). thus, the comparative analyses of the mitogenomes reveal that the korean water deer h. ...201625629490
mitochondrial genetic diversity, phylogeny and population structure of hydropotes inermis in south korea.the water deer (hydropotes inermis) is one of the rarest species of deer in the family cervidae. only two subspecies exist in east asia, and few studies have examined the genetic characteristics of the species. here, we investigated the genetic diversity, phylogeny and population differentiation of the korean subspecies (h. inermis argyropus). seventeen mitochondrial d-loop haplotypes (822 bp) were detected and analyzed from 107 individual samples, together with a chinese subspecies (h. inermis ...201425832749
karyotypic evolution of a novel cervid satellite dna family isolated by microdissection from the indian muntjac y-chromosome.a minilibrary was constructed from dop-pcr products using microdissected y-chromosomes of indian muntjac as dna templates. two microclones designated as im-y4-52 and im-y5-7 were obtained from negative screening of all three cervid satellite dnas (satellites i, ii, and iv). these two microclones were 295 and 382 bp in size, respectively, and shared approximately 70% sequence homology. southern blot analysis showed that the im-y4-52 clone was repetitive in nature with an approximately 0.32-kb reg ...200515827746
chromosomal evolution of the chinese muntjac (muntiacus reevesi).the aim of this study was to test the validity of the hypothesis that the 2n=46 karyotype of the chinese muntjac (muntiacus reevesi) could have evolved through 12 tandem fusions from a 2n=70 hypothetical ancestral karyotype, which is still retained in chinese water deer (hydropotes inermis) and brown-brocket deer (mazama gouazoubira). combining fluorescence-activated chromosomal sorting and degenerate oligonucleotide-primed polymerase chain reaction, we generated chromosome-specific dna paint pr ...19979169585
sexual dimorphism of craniomandibular size in the korean water deer, hydropotes inermis argyropus.sexual dimorphism in the craniomandibular traits in the korean water deer hydropotes inermis argyropus was examined for the first time. multivariate analyses using only cranial traits showed a clear separation between sexes. however, the separation was not obvious in the discriminant analysis using only mandibular traits. the most clearly dimorphic trait was in the incisive bone breadth, which was about 12% larger in males. the incisive bone width reflects the characteristically large canines in ...201323615122
immunolocalization of cytoskeletal proteins in the testes of two asian cervids: water deer (hydropotes inermis) and reeves' muntjac (muntiacus reevesi).in order to gather basic reproductive information of the water deer and reeves' muntjac, the immunolocalization of the cytoskeleton proteins in the testes and epididymides of these two species was investigated. the distribution pattern of cytoskeletal proteins in these two species was similar. the desmin was detected in the peritubular myoid cells of the testes and the sub-epithelial cells of the epididymal ducts. vimentin was observed in the myoid cells, leydig cells and perinuclear region of t ...201323503292
influence of vegetation area and edge length on mammals in urban woods.we investigated the relationships between vegetation area, edge length, and mammals in the urban woods of daejeon metropolitan city, south korea. the vegetation patches included in this study varied from 2.1 to 501.0 ha in size. surveys were conducted monthly between february and october 2015, with a survey route measuring 1 km in length and 10 m width established in each forest patch. field signs of 14 species of mammals were recorded in the 33 chosen forest patches over the course of the study ...201730460081
variation in the prion protein gene (prnp) sequence of wild deer in great britain and mainland europe.susceptibility to prion diseases is largely determined by the sequence of the prion protein gene (prnp), which encodes the prion protein (prp). the recent emergence of chronic wasting disease (cwd) in europe has highlighted the need to investigate prnp gene diversity in european deer species, to better predict their susceptibility to cwd. here we report a large genetic survey of six british deer species, including red (cervus elaphus), sika (cervus nippon), roe (capreolus capreolus), fallow (dam ...201931366372
species identification of red deer (cervus elaphus), roe deer (capreolus capreolus), and water deer (hydropotes inermis) using capillary electrophoresis-based multiplex provide consumers correct information on meat species, specific and sensitive detection methods are needed. thus, we developed a capillary electrophoresis-based multiplex pcr assay to simultaneously detect red deer (cervus elaphus), roe deer (capreolus capreolus), and water deer (hydropotes inermis). specific primer sets for these three species were newly designed. each primer set only amplified target species without any reactivity against non-target species. to identify multiple targets in ...202032718080
first report of peste des petits ruminants virus lineage ii in hydropotes inermis, this study, we investigated an outbreak of peste des petits ruminants (ppr) at a hydropotes inermis (water deer) farm in anhui province, china. these results demonstrated that ppr viruses (pprvs) can infect h. inermis and also revealed that virulent lineage ii pprvs exist in china, where they have been responsible for the deaths of wild animals. the government should pay close attention to the threat of pprv epidemiology in china.201728736887
serological evidence of h5-subtype influenza a virus infection in indigenous avian and mammalian species in korea, h5-subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) has caused huge economic losses in poultry farms through outbreaks of h5n1 since 2003, h5n8 since 2013 and h5n6 since 2016. although it was reported that long-distance migratory birds may play a major role in the global spread of avian influenza viruses (aivs), transmission from such birds to poultry has not been confirmed. intermediate hosts in the wild also may be a potential factor in viral transmission. therefore, a total of 367 s ...201829204739
eau deer.chinese water deer are most unusual--the bucks have tusks instead of antlers and does give birth to several fawns each summer. the population in this country is becoming increasingly important as the species becomes rarer in china.200011190213
letter to the editor concerning "first report of peste des petits ruminants virus lineage ii in hydropotes inermis, china" by zhou et al. (transbound emerg dis; 2017: 201829476605
identification of zoonotic tick-borne pathogens from korean water deer (hydropotes inermis argyropus).korean water deer (hydropotes inermis argyropus) are widespread in the republic of korea (rok). mostly, korean water deer are essential hosts for maintaining ticks and tick-borne diseases (tbds). here, we investigated the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens (tbps) among rescued korean water deer. anaplasma phagocytophilum (21.4%, 6/28), anaplasma capra (14.3%, 4/28), babesia capreoli (3.6%, 1/28), and coxiella burnetii (3.6%, 1/28) were detected, but borrelia burgdorferi, ehrlichia, rickettsia, a ...202032598238
molecular identification of selected tick-borne pathogens in wild deer and raccoon dogs from the republic of this study, we investigated tick-borne pathogens in blood samples collected from 34 wild animals from six different regions in the republic of korea, including 18 korean water deer (hydropotes inermis argyropus), 15 korean raccoon dogs (nyctereutes procyonoides koreensis), and one roe deer (capreolus capreolus). polymerase chain reaction revealed anaplasma spp. infection in 11 korean water deer, one roe deer, and one korean raccoon dog. theileria spp. infection was detected in 14 korean water ...201731014652
phylogenetic analysis of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in korean water deer (hydropotes inermis argyropus) in the republic of korea.severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (sfts) is an emerging zoonotic tick-borne disease caused by sfts virus, which circulates among ticks and their host animals, including wildlife. however, few studies have examined sfts virus infection in wildlife present in the republic of korea (rok). we evaluated sfts virus infection in tissue samples from korean water deer (hydropotes inermis argyropus), one of the most common wild ungulates in rok. in this study, we evaluated tissue samples of 129 ...202031787559
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