techniques for evaluating humoral and cell-mediated immunity in mule deer fawns (odocoileus hemionus).twenty mule deer fawns (odocoileus hemionus) were removed from their dams 48 h after birth, and hand-reared. methods for monitoring their immune capability are described. passive humoral immunity was determined by serum protein electrophoresis. active humoral immunity following clostridium toxoid vaccination was determined by immunodiffusion. cell-mediated immunity was assayed using contact sensitization to 1-nitro, 2,4-dichlorobenzene (dncb).197988530
a serologic survey of mule deer and elk in utah.sera from mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) and elk (cervus canadensis) in central and northern utah were tested for the prevalence of antibodies to 11 diseases communicable to man or domestic livestock. antibodies to francisella tularensis (at 1:20) were found in 47 of 88 (53.4%) elk and 1 of 89 (1.1%) deer. a screening slide agglutination test for titers to brucella (at 1:20) showed two reactors in elk but none in deer sera. no positive antibody titers were obtained in tests for anaplasmosis, co ...1978105153
sarcocystis in free-ranging herbivores on the national bison range.heart, esophagus, diaphragm and skeletal muscle obtained from various herbivores on the national bison range were examined grossly for sarcocystis. sarcocystis was found in 81, 50, 50, and 13% of the mule deer, (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (o. virginianus), elk (cervus elaphus), and bison (bison bison), respectively.1979110949
characterization of developing antler cartilage matrix. i. selected histochemical and enzymatic assessment.biopsy samples of the main beams and tines were obtained from the antlers of mature rocky mountain mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus) during the rapid phase of the antler grow-th cycle. the samples were studied using histochemical and enzymatic techniques for the demonstration of mucosubstances. the reserve mesenchyme contained chondroitin 4- and 6-sulfates, hyaluronic acid and sialic acid. during prechondroblastic and chondroblastic differentiation, some strongly sulfated mucopolysacchari ...1975125143
observations on epizootiology and distribution of elaeophora schneideri in montana ruminants.seventy-four moose, 111 elk, 20 mule deer, 8 white-tailed deer, 26 prong-horn antelope, 42 domestic sheep and 3 bighorn sheep from montana or northwestern wyoming were examined post-mortem for evidence of elaeophora schneideri infection in 1973-74. fifteen percent of the mule deer and four percent of the moose were positive for adult arterial worms. this constitutes the first report of e. schneideri in mule deer in montana. no gross signs of blindness or other neurologic disorder were evident in ...1975127848
testicular atrophy in columbian black-tailed deer in california.during an 18-year period, 4.1% (34/831) of male deer (odocoileus hemionus columbianus) killed on a field station during the autumn hunting season had velvet-covered, often misshapen antlers, and at least two deer had testicular atrophy (gonads from most deer were not available for examination). testes from six similarly affected deer and several normal deer were compared histologically. lesions ranged from hypocellularity of the semeniferous tubules and relative hyperplasia or degeneration of in ...1975163381
epizootiology of bluetongue: the situation in the united states of america.bluetongue was first reported in the united states in 1948 in sheep in texas. the virus has now been isolated from sheep in 19 states. when the disease first occurs in a flock, the morbidity may reach 50 to 75% and mortality 20 to 50%. in subsequent years, the morbidity may be only 1 to 2% with very few deaths. difference in breed susceptibility has not been observed. natural bluetongue infection has not been observed in angora or dairy goats. bluetongue virus was first isolated from cattle, in ...1975169793
necropsy and laboratory findings in free-living deer in south a diagnostic survey of diseases in wild white-tailed deer (62 cases) and mule deer (12 cases) the most common findings were traumatic injury (20%), nontraumatic hemorrhage (13%), polioencephalomalacia (11%), and bacterial infections (9%). although epizootic hemorrhagic disease was suspected in several cases, the virus was isolated from only 1 white-tailed deer.1976185186
viruses isolated from captive and free-ranging wild ruminants in alberta.nasal secretions, leukocytes and preputial or vaginal swabs from a group of 15 captive wild ruminants, comprising six pronghorn antelope (antilocapra americana), seven fallow deer (dama dama) and two mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), and from 50 free-ranging pronghorns in southern alberta, were examined for viral agents. captive animals were given injections of dexamethasone daily for 6 days in attempts to reactivate latent infections. specimens were collected at 2-3 day intervals from days 0 to ...1977190422
serological studies on sympatric barbary sheep and mule deer from palo duro canyon, texas.sera were collected from 12 barbary sheet (ammotragus lervia) and 11 mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) occupying sympatric ranges in palo duro canyon, texas. these were tested for leptospirosis, brucellosis, bovine virus diarrhea, anaplasmosis, vesicular stomatitis, bluetongue (bt), epizootic hemorrhagic disease (ehd), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (ibr), and coccidioidomycosis. serologic reactors were found to ibr in 3 barbery sheep, bt in 6 barbary sheep and 6 mule deer and ehd in 3 barbary ...1979228088
sarcocystis hemionilatrantis (sp. n.) life cycle in mule deer and coyotes.fifteen coyotes (canis latrans) shed sporulated sporocysts in their feces after eating freshly ground skeletal muscles from a mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus) infected with microscopic-sized cysts of sarcocystis. sporocysts were shed intermittently from 12 to 36 days after ingestion of the infected meat. sporocyst size averaged 14.4 x 9.3 mum. eleven mule deer fawns orally inoculated with these sporocysts became infected and 9 of 11 died between post-inoculation days (pid) 27 and 63. cli ...1977402485
histopathologic study of experimental sarcocystis hemionilatrantis infection in fawns.mule deer fawns (odocoileus hemionus hemionus) inoculated with sporocysts of sarcocystis hemionilatrantis became infected, developed clinical signs of disease, and died, due to the infection itself or from intercurrent pneumonia. clinical signs were first noticed 18 days after infection and fawns died from postinfection days 27 to 63. histopathologic examination revealed early lesions in skeletal muscle which consisted of perivascular necrosis with mononuclear and neutrophilic cell infiltration, ...1977410334
serologic profile of exotic deer at point reyes national seashore.serotests were conducted on axis (axis axis) and fallow (dama dama) deer at point reyes national seashore to determine their status with respect to nine diseases enzootic to the native black-tailed deer (odocoileus hemionus columbianus) or to resident dairy cattle. in the exotic deer, the proportion of animals that were seropositive included: anaplasmosis, 35%; bluetongue, 48%; brucellosis, 0%; bovine viral diarrhea, 2%; infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, 3%; leptospirosis, 7%; parainfluenza-3, ...1979521370
ectoparasites of sympatric barbary sheep and mule deer in the texas panhandle, usa. 1979541816
a redescription and neotype designation for parelaphostrongylus odocoilei (nematoda: metastronglyoidea).parelaphostrongylus odocoilei is redescribed from worms collected from the type host (odocoileus hemionus columbianus) in california, as well as material from experimentally infected mule deer (o. h. heminus) in alberta. a single male specimen from the california material is designated as the neotype of p. odocoilei, the type species of parelaphostrongylus. the male copulatory structures of the 3 species of parelaphostrongylus (p. tenuis, p. anderscni, and p. odocoilei) are reviewed and a key fo ...1978641663
parelaphostrongylus odocoilei: life cycle in experimentally infected cervids including the mule deer, odocoileus h. hemionus. 1978729704
possible species differences between sarcocystis from mule deer and preliminary studies with sarcocystis from bovine (bos taurus) and mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus), a coccidia-free laboratory dog (canis familiaris) and captive coyote (canis latrans) were fed flesh from a local sarcocystis-infected bovine and later flesh from an infected mule deer from eastern oregon. sporocysts were passed in the feces of both canine hosts 10-15 days after ingestion of infected meat. there was a statistical difference in the size of sporocysts derived from bovine a ...1976815572
a review of sarcocystis of domestic animals and of other coccidia of cats and dogs.the nomenclature, life cycles, and pathogenicity of sarcocystis of domestic animals are reviewed. sarcocystis had a 2-host life cycle, with carnivores as definitive hosts and herbivores as intermediate hosts. the following species are found in domestic animals (with the definitive hosts given in parentheses): 3 species in the ox: s cruzi (dog, wolf, coyote, raccoon, fox), s hirsuta (cat), s hominis (man, monkey); 2 species in the sheep: s ovicanis (dog), s tenella (cat); 3 species in the pig: s ...1976824260
evaluation of free-roaming mule deer as carriers of anaplasmosis in an area of idaho where bovine anaplasmosis is enzootic.samples of blood from 87 rocky mountain mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus) were inoculated into 3 susceptible splenectomized calves to determine the anaplasmosis carrier status of the deer. the deer were trapped along the idaho-utah state boundary, near stone, id. acute anaplasmosis was induced in 2 of the 3 inoculated calves, and blood from the 3 calves caused anaplasmosis when inoculated into adult non-splenectomized cattle. serum rapid card agglutination testing revealed 13 (14.9%) posi ...1977833034
trypanosoma cervi kingston and morton, 1975 from mule deer, odocoileus hemionus, in wyoming.mensural values of blood stream stages and cross-transmission studies defined the trypanosome species from mule deer, odocoileus hemionus, as con-specific with trypanosoma cervi, the trypanosome found in elk from the same locality. trypanosomes were found in eight mule deer sampled in the spring and eight sampled in the winter in southeastern wyoming.1977839619
meningeal worm-induced neurologic disease in black-tailed deer.neurologic disease attributable to parelaphostrongylus tenuis was diagnosed in five black-tailed deer (odocoileus hemionus columbianus) relocated from oregon to tennessee. mortality occurred in the pre-release enclosure and in the release area. infection with p. tenuis was considered the cause of an unsuccessful stocking attempt. in addition, neurologic disease was produced by experimental infection of a black-tailed x white-tailed deer hybrid. clinical and pathologic findings were described for ...1977864846
further studies on trypanosomers in game animals in wyoming.blood samples were collected from captive and free-ranging elk (cervus canadensis), mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer, (odocoileus virginianus), black-tailed deer (odocoileus hemionus columbianus), pronghorn (antilocapra americana), moose (alces alces), and bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) for cultural evidence of trypanosoma sp. infection. eleven of 188 (12%) hunter-killed elk, 22 of 37 (59%) free-ranging elk, and 79 of 119 (66%) captive elk were culture positive in 1973-74. par ...1976933315
fetal maceration and suppurative metritis in a mule deer. 1976977463
latent anaplasmosis infection in idaho mule deer demonstrated by calf inoculation. 19751078067
experimentally induced fasciola hepatica infections in black-tailed deer.the susceptibility of black-tailed deer (odocoileus hemionus columbianus) to the common liver fluke (f. hepatica) was studied. two deer and one sheep comprised each of three experimental groups. animals in each group were inoculated individually with 250, 500, or 1000 f. hepatica metacercariae. one deer and one sheep given 1000 metacercariae died with lesions consistent with black disease 7 weeks after inoculation. at necropsy 6 or 15 weeks postinoculation, the mean percentage recovery of the in ...19751142555
serum biochemical and electrophoretic values from four deer species and from pronghorn antelope.serums from 4 species of deer and 1 species of antelope were analyzed for various components in order to define an animal disease model for sickle cell disease in people. animal species included black-tailed deer (odocoileus hemionus columbianus), mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), sika deer (cervus nippon nippon), fallow deer (dama dama), and pronghorn antelope (antilocapra americana). the mean serum values for total bilirubin, total protein, albumin, creatinine, urea nitrogen, and electrolytes w ...19751190586
fluorosis in black-tailed deer.marked dental disfigurement and abnormal tooth wear patterns were observed in black-tailed deer (odocoileus hemionus columbianus) taken from an area near an industrial fluoride source in northwestern washington. fluoride levels in the bones of these deer were from 10 to 35 times higher than levels in the bones of normal animals. these levels are similar to those associated with fluorosis of cattle.19761255910
serologic survey for brucellosis in feral swine, wild ruminants, and black bear of california, 1977 to 1989.a retrospective analysis of brucellosis serologic testing results in eight wildlife species in california from 1977 to 1989 was done. samples were collected from 5,398 live-captured or hunter-killed animals and tested by combinations of up to six serologic tests for antibodies to brucella spp. twenty-three of 611 (3.8%) feral swine (sus scrofa), one of 180 (0.6%) black bear (ursus americanus), one of 355 (0.3%) california mule deer (odocoileus hemionus californicus), and one of 1,613 (0.06%) bla ...19921512866
experimental fascioloides magna infections of mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus).six mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus) and one white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), approximately 5-mo-old, each were inoculated orally with 500 metacercariae of fascioloides magna. all mule deer died from liver fluke infection between 69 and 134 days (mean = 114, se = 9.9) after inoculation. between 38 and 326 immature f. magna (mean = 102, se = 45.5) were recovered from each deer at necropsy. flukes were present in livers, lungs, and free in pleural and peritoneal spaces. infectio ...19921602568
[spongiform encephalopathies with special reference to bovine spongiform encephalopathy].in switzerland bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) was detected for the first time in november 1990. it is a transmissible disease of the central nervous system similar to creutzfeldt-jakob disease (cjd), gerstmann-sträussler-scheinker syndrome (gss) and kuru in man, and, in animals, scrapie in sheep and goats, chronic wasting disease (cwd) in captive mule deer and elk of north america and transmissible mink encephalopathy (tme) of farm reared mink. the infectious agent of the spongiform ence ...19921615298
spongiform encephalopathies in cervidae.the known host range of naturally-occurring transmissible spongiform encephalopathies has expanded in recent years to include wild ruminants. chronic wasting disease (cwd) occurs in mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus) and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) in colorado and wyoming, united states of america. these species belong to the family cervidae. cases have occurred primarily in captive animals but a few affected free-ranging animals have been identified. clinical disease in bo ...19921617203
human and experimental spongiform encephalopathies: recent progress in pathogenesis.the spongiform encephalopathies belong to the group of "slow virus infections" of the nervous system, characterized by a long incubation period, a protracted course and involvement of the nervous system with a lethal outcome. in contrast to the conventional virus infections, such as visna in sheep and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (pml) in humans, the etiological agent for the spongiform encephalopathies has not been clearly defined. the known forms in animals are scrapie in sheep a ...19911676992
immunolocalization of scrapie amyloid (prp27-30) in chronic wasting disease of rocky mountain elk and hybrids of captive mule deer and white-tailed deer.scrapie amyloid-immunoreactive plaques are present in brain tissues of captive mule deer with chronic wasting disease (cwd), a progressive neurological disorder characterized neuropathologically by widespread spongiform change of the neuropil, intracytoplasmic vacuolation in neuronal perikarya and astrocytic hypertrophy and hyperplasia. we report here the immunolocalization of scrapie amyloid (prp27-30) in plaques observed in brain tissues of rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and hybri ...19911681473
the use of isoelectric focusing to identify rhinoceros keratins.keratins represent the principal structural proteins of hair. they are also found in horn, nail, claw, hoof, and feather. hair and nail samples from human and canine sources and hair samples from mule deer, white tail deer, cat, moose, elk, antelope, caribou, raccoon, and goat were studied. parrot and goose feathers were also analyzed. keratins are polymorphic, and species differences are known to exist. proteinaceous extracts of deer and antelope antlers and bovine and rhinoceros horn were prep ...19901691773
topographic distribution of scrapie amyloid-immunoreactive plaques in chronic wasting disease in captive mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus).chronic wasting disease (cwd), a progressive neurological disorder of captive mule deer, black-tailed deer, hybrids of mule deer and white-tailed deer and rocky mountain elk, is characterized neuropathologically by widespread spongiform change of the neuropil, intracytoplasmic vacuolation in neuronal perikarya and astrocytic hypertrophy and hyperplasia. we report the topographic distribution of amyloid plaques reactive to antibodies prepared against scrapie amyloid in cwd-affected captive mule d ...19911713390
antigenic characterization of psoroptes spp. (acari: psoroptidae) mites from different hosts.immunoblotting with defined antigens and antisera revealed extensive and nearly complete antigenic cross-reactivity between psoroptes spp. mites from a bighorn sheep, a mule deer, a cow, and a rabbit. antigenic differences were not detected between mites from the sympatric bighorn sheep and mule deer. however, minor antigenic differences between mites from the cow and rabbit suggested that these mites were distinct from each other, as well as from the mites from the bighorn sheep and mule deer. ...19911919912
an epizootic of besnoitiosis in captive caribou (rangifer tarandus caribou), reindeer (rangifer tarandus tarandus) and mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus).besnoitia sp. was diagnosed in two caribou (rangifer tarandus caribou) which died of pneumonia at the assiniboine park zoo (winnipeg, manitoba, canada) in 1983. during the following 3 yr besnoitiosis spread to an isolated herd of caribou, to mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus) and to reindeer (rangifer tarandus tarandus). reduction of exposure to biting insects appears to have reduced the transmission of besnoitiosis within the reindeer herd. the morbidity rate was approximately 82% in cari ...19901971029
chromosomal evolution in cervidae.on the basis of chromosome data obtained on 30 species and 20 subspecies of cervidae, a report is submitted on the karyosystematics of this family. the primitive karyotype of cervidae may be inferred to be composed of 35 acrocentric pairs (2n = 70 fn = 70). during the phyletic evolution of this family different types of chromosome rearrangements were probably selected and the group may have differentiated karyologically into three branches: (1) the cervinae that fixed a centric fusion resulting ...19902249009
survey of hepatic and pulmonary helminths of wild cervids in alberta, canada.during the 1988 hunting season, livers and lungs from 263 mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus), 198 moose (alces alces), 147 white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), and 94 wapiti (cervus elaphus nelsoni) from alberta (canada) were collected for parasitological examination. most of the samples (89%) were submitted by big game hunters throughout the province. giant liver fluke (fascioloides magna) was found in 9% of 22 yearling and 29% of 65 adult wapiti; 4% of 161 adult moose; and 2% of 9 ...19902250321
morphometric analysis of psoroptes spp. mites from bighorn sheep, mule deer, cattle, and rabbits.a morphometric study of psoroptes spp. mites was conducted to address difficulties encountered in species identification and to provide insights into the phylogenetic relationships between mites found on different hosts. a discriminant analysis employing 9 morphologic characters revealed that the lengths of the outer opisthosomal setae and the lateral margins of the opisthosomal knobs were the 2 most important characters for grouping mites according to host species. this analysis clearly separat ...19902254816
comparative studies on megatrypanum trypanosomes from cervids.trypanosomes were isolated by culture from 2 out of 50 blood samples collected from reindeer (rangifer tarandus l.) in northern sweden and from a blood sample from a moose (alces alces) from southern sweden. the parasites were indistinguishable morphologically from other trypanosomes reported from cervids, both as epimastigotes in axenic culture at 27 degrees c and as bloodstream-like trypomastigotes cultured on mammalian fibroblasts at 37 degrees c. surface carbohydrate and isoenzyme comparison ...19902382100
detection of papillomaviruses in cutaneous fibromas of white-tailed and mule deer.naturally occurring cutaneous fibromas affecting white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (o hemionus), and cutaneous fibropapillomas of domestic cattle were tested for papillomavirus using indirect immunofluorescence (if), peroxidase-antiperoxidase (pap), and negative-stain electron microscopic techniques. papillomavirus was consistently detected using rabbit antiserum against papillomavirus group-specific antigen in all mule deer fibromas and bovine fibropapillomas; only 16 of ...19852408523
prevalence of neutralizing antibodies against california and bunyamwera serogroup viruses in deer from mountainous areas of california.plaque reduction-serum dilution neutralization was used to evaluate the status of bunyavirus activity in deer in mountainous areas of california. antibodies against 9 bunyaviruses were measured in 337 mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus, o. hemionus californicus, and o. hemionus inyoensis) and black-tailed deer (o. hemionus columbianus). more deer from high mountainous areas had neutralizing antibodies against jamestown canyon virus than did deer from low mountainous areas (23% vs. 9%; p les ...19892496610
susceptibility of a fetal tongue cell line derived from bighorn sheep to five serotypes of bluetongue virus and its potential for the isolation of viruses.a cell line (bhfte) was derived from a tongue explant of a bighorn sheep fetus (ovis canadensis nelsoni). the cells have been maintained through 23 serial passages, and the modal number of chromosomes was calculated to be 55. monolayer cultures were shown to be susceptible to various viruses, including bluetongue virus (btv). of 5 btv serotypes (2, 10, 11, 13, and 17) tested, each produced a cytopathic effect (cpe) on initial passage at 33 c. a field isolate (serotype 10) of btv from a black-tai ...19892562198
the nature of the unconventional slow infection agents remains a puzzle.unconventional slow infections are progressive transmissible degenerative disorders of the central nervous system. the human diseases belonging to this group are creutzfeld-jakob disease, kuru, and gerstmann-straussler syndrome. scrapie, transmissible mink encephalopathy, chronic wasting disease of mule deer and elk, and the recently discovered bovine spongiform encephalopathy are similar diseases found in animals. unusual characteristics of the unconventional slow infections clearly distinguish ...19892568119
bluetongue in free-ranging pronghorn antelope (antilocapra americana) in wyoming: 1976 and least 3,200 pronghorn (antilocapra americana) died during a bluetongue (bt) epizootic in eastern wyoming during late september and early october 1976. in august and september 1984, another bt epizootic occurred in northeastern wyoming resulting in 300 known pronghorn deaths. in 17 pronghorn examined postmortem, hemorrhages and edema were the most common gross pathologic changes. microscopic changes included hemorrhage, edema, arterial fibrinoid necrosis, lymphoid depletion in splenic and lymp ...19882832621
serologic survey of selected pathogens in white-tailed and mule deer in western nebraska.exposure of free-ranging white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) in western nebraska to selected livestock pathogens was determined by serology and attempted virus isolation. antibodies to bluetongue virus, epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus were present in both species of deer. no serologic reactors to brucella or anaplasma were found. attempts to isolate bluetongue virus were negative.19862845156
expression of lectin binding in cutaneous papillomas of animals.a group of spontaneously occurring animal papillomas which were negative or positive for papillomavirus group-specific antigen were examined with a battery of biotinylated lectins including con a, wga, succinylated-wga, pna and uea-i. canine papillomas, equine papillomas, white-tailed deer fibromas, mule deer fibromas, and bovine fibropapillomas were examined. each lectin had a specific staining pattern. no obvious differences in staining patterns between normal skin, viral antigen-positive and ...19882850306
parelaphostrongylus odocoilei (nematoda: protostrongylidae) and a protostrongylid nematode in woodland caribou (rangifer tarandus caribou) of alberta, canada.two size-groups of dorsal-spined, first-stage, nematode larvae were found in feces of woodland caribou, rangifer tarandus caribou (gmelin), in alberta from 1976-1982. larvae from caribou feces in northeastern alberta were 451 +/- 17 micrograms in length, while those from west-central alberta were 362 +/- 18 micrograms in length. larvae collected from west-central alberta developed to the infective stage, experimentally, in the terrestrial gastropod triodopsis multilineata (say) and were infectiv ...19862869151
xenobiotic biotransformation in livers and lungs of adult black-tailed deer: comparison with domestic goat and sheep.1. the capacity of liver and lung tissue of black-tailed dear (odocoileus hemionus columbianus) to biotransform xenobiotics was compared in vitro to the domestic sheep and goat. donor animals were all females of varying ages. tissues from the black-tailed deer were collected in the wild. a variety of biotransformation enzymes were measured in both microsomal and cytosolic fractions. 2. deer liver was lower in total cytochrome p450 concentration, but mono-oxygenase activities were greater compare ...19872890476
epidemiology of two orbiviruses in california's native wild ruminants: preliminary report.between 1978 and 1983 we collected more than 1,500 serum samples from california's native black-tailed deer (odocoileus hemionus columbianus), 4 races of mule deer (o. h. sp.), tule elk (cervus elaphus nannodes), roosevelt elk (c. e. roosevelti), pronghorn antelope (antilocapra americana), california bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis californiana), peninsular bighorn sheep (o. c. cremnobates) and desert bighorn sheep (o. c. nelsoni) and analyzed them for agar gel precipitating (agp) antibodies to b ...19852989899
epizootic vesicular stomatitis in colorado, 1982: some observations on the possible role of wildlife populations in an enzootic maintenance cycle.sera obtained from wild ungulates, carnivores, and rodents in colorado were tested for neutralizing (n) antibody against vesicular stomatitis, new jersey serotype (vsnj), virus to determine their involvement in the 1982 colorado vsnj epizootic in domestic animals. viremic and n antibody responses of two local rodent species to a 1982 colorado isolate of vsnj were determined in the laboratory. the rodents produced only weak viremias, but all developed n antibody. n antibody prevalences for vsnj i ...19873035241
malpais spring virus: a new vesiculovirus from mosquitoes collected in new mexico and evidence of infected indigenous and exotic ungulates.two virus isolates, 1 each from aedes campestris and psorophora signipennis mosquitoes collected in south central new mexico in august 1985, were shown by neutralization tests to be identical to each other, but not to any of more than 250 arthropod-borne and other viruses. electron microscopy of 1 isolate (85-488nm, chosen as the prototype) indicated that this strain shares morphologic characteristics with viruses of the family rhabdoviridae. indirect fluorescent antibody tests indicated that th ...19883061310
an unusual structure in the primary cyst wall of sarcocystis hemionilatrantis.disc-shaped plaques were found in the primary cyst wall of sarcocysts of sarcocystis hemionilatrantis in mule deer in montana. ultrastructurally, the plaques were 190.5 nm in diameter, 161.6 nm thick and consisted of six distinct layers with microfilaments arising from the innermost layer. these unusual plaques have not been reported previously for any species of sarcocystis.19863083102
prevalence and distribution of elaeophora schneideri wehr and dikmans, 1935 in mule deer in utah. 19853157010
spirochetes in mammals and ticks (acari: ixodidae) from a focus of lyme borreliosis in northern california, antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi were detected in 58 of 73 (79%), and spirochetemias in one of 26 (4%) black-tailed jackrabbits (lepus californicus californicus), by indirect and direct immunofluorescence, respectively. five species of ticks (dermacentor occidentalis, d. parumapertus, ixodes neotomae, i. pacificus, and haemaphysalis leporispalustris) were collected from rabbits. two of these species of ticks were found to contain spirochetes; two of 10 (20%) i. neotomae ...19883280837
experimental anaplasmosis in mule deer: persistence of infection of anaplasma marginale and susceptibility to a. experimental anaplasma marginale infection was induced in a splenectomized mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus) which persisted subclinically at least 376 days as detected by subinoculation into susceptible cattle. anaplasma ovis was experimentally transmitted from sheep to a splenectomized and a spleen-intact mule deer, and back to sheep. the pathogenesis in deer was very similar to that seen in sheep using ovine blood inoculations.19883352081
serological evidence of california serogroup virus activity in oregon.we wished to demonstrate evidence of the presence of california serogroup viruses in oregon and to test for the presence of certain other arboviruses in large ungulates. blood samples from black-tailed deer (odocoileus hemionus columbianus), mule deer (o. hemionus hemionus), and roosevelt elk (cervus elaphus roosevelti) from nine counties in oregon were tested by serum-dilution plaque reduction neutralization for antibody to california serogroup viruses, including snowshoe hare, california encep ...19873586196
plague in a free-ranging mule deer from wyoming. 19873820418
amyloid plaques in spongiform encephalopathy of mule deer.amyloid plaques were demonstrable in central nervous system tissues of adult captive mule deer affected with chronic wasting disease, a transmissible primary spongiform encephalopathy. plaques were detected in tissues of 13 of 21 (62 per cent) spontaneously affected animals from 2 to 4 years of age or older, but were not found in 16 unaffected deer of from a few months to 12 years of age.19853973104
malignant catarrhal fever in a free-ranging black-tailed deer (odocoileus hemionus columbianus) in california. 19854039765
ixodes pacificus (acari: ixodidae): population dynamics and distribution on columbian black-tailed deer (odocoileus hemionus columbianus). 19854045944
failure of yohimbine to reverse ketamine anesthesia in rhesus monkeys.yohimbine hydrochloride has been used experimentally to reverse the anesthetic effects of ketamine and xylazine in dogs, cats, cattle and mule deer, but there are no reports of its use in nonhuman primates. nine adult female rhesus monkeys were given an intravenous dose of either 0.5 mg/kg yohimbine hydrochloride or saline 10 minutes after intramuscular administration of 10 mg/kg ketamine hydrochloride. there was no difference in the duration of anesthesia between the yohimbine and saline treatm ...19854046554
lymphocyte blastogenesis, complement fixation, and fecal culture as diagnostic tests for paratuberculosis in north american wild ruminants and domestic sheep.the efficacy of the lymphocyte blastogenesis and complement-fixation tests and fecal culture for detection of mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection was assessed in bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis), elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (o virginianus), bighorn x mouflon (o musimon) hybrid sheep, and domestic sheep. spontaneously infected bighorns were tested at the time of capture; experimentally infected animals were tested monthly for 12 months or p ...19854073642
yohimbine antagonism to xylazine in free-ranging mule deer and desert bighorn sheep. 19854077656
epizootiologic studies of anaplasmosis in oregon mule deer. 19734784318
experimental infection of immature mule deer with elaeophora schneideri. 19744810215
carotene and vitamin a in the liver and blood serum of a rocky mountain mule deer, odocoileus hemionus hemionus population. 19725032169
eimeria ivensae sp. n. from the mule deer, odocoileus hemionus hemionus, in montana. 19695372089
ear-scab mites, psoroptes cuniculi (acarina: psoroptidae), in captive mule deer. 19705504528
a light microscopic study of nuclear and cytoplasmic size of the aggregate acidophil population in the hypophysis cerebri, pars distalis, of adult male mule deer, odocoileus hemionus hemionus, relative to seasons of the photoperiod and antler cycles. 19715575133
amino acid sequence studies on artiodactyl fibrinopeptides. i. dromedary camel, mule deer, and cape buffalo. 19676033721
nematodirus odocoilei sp. n. (nematoda: trichostrongylidae) from the black-tailed deer, odocoileus hemionus, in north america. 19676067113
morphological and histochemical observations on the duodenal glands of eight wild ungulate species native to north america.the duodenal glands of the species examined (alces alces, ovis canadensis, cervus canadensis, oreamnos americanus, bison bison, antilocapra americana, odocoileus virginianas, odocoileus heminous) are confined primarily to the submucosa of the small intestine. in one species, the moose, a significant population of secretory tubules also is observed in the mucosa. the ducts of the duodenal glands pierce the overlying muscularis mucosae to empty most often independently into the intestinal lumen. t ...19816171158
colostrum deficiency in mule deer fawns: identification, treatment and influence on neonatal mortality.glutaraldehyde coagulation test, zinc sulfate turbidity test, and total protein refractometry were adapted for use in detecting failure of passive transfer of colostral immunoglobulins to mule deer fawns (odocoileus hemionus). the results of all three tests were similar. serum total protein concentration was directly correlated to gamma globulin concentration and gave the best indication of morbidity and mortality. thirteen of 13 fawns with serum total protein concentrations of 5 g/dl or less at ...19826178849
lesions caused by parelaphostrongylus odocoilei (nematoda: metastronglyloidea) in two cervid hosts.pathologic effects and host response were evaluated in seven white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) and six mule deer (o. hemionus hemionus) each exposed per os to 300 or 1000 third-stage larvae of parelaphostrongylus odocoilei. pathologic effects in mule deer consisted of hemorrhagic myositis throughout skeletal muscles, severe verminous pneumonia, and moderate lymphadenitis. the major host response was a granulomatous inflammation associated with nematode eggs and larvae. granulomas oblite ...19846235669
survey for antibodies to viruses of bovine virus diarrhea, bluetongue, and epizootic hemorrhagic disease in hunter-killed mule deer in new mexico.sera from male mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) collected in november 1977 in otero county, new mexico were tested fro antibodies to bovine virus diarrhea virus (bvdv), bluetongue virus (btv), and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (ehdv). neutralizing antibodies were detected in 26 of 76 (34%) sera tested for bvdv (titer greater than or equal to 1:16). of 46 sera tested for antibodies to btv and ehdv, 10 (22%) and 3 (7%), respectively, were positive. three (7%) of 46 sera were suspect (titer < ...19806256331
epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus in montana: isolation and serologic survey.epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (ehdv) was isolated in vero cell culture from the spleen and whole blood of a white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus). a 10% spleen suspension caused acute hemorrhagic disease (hd) when inoculated into an experimental white-tailed deer and resulted in the recovery of ehdv from the blood of the experimental animal at 5 days after inoculation. the virus was identified as ehdv serotype 2 through indirect fluorescent antibody tests, electron microscopy, and rec ...19816267969
cerebral abscess and cephenemyia phobifer in a mule deer in central nebraska. 19836358538
failure to transmit sarcocystis species from ox, sheep, goats, moose, elk, and mule deer to raccoons. 19836408956
elaeophorosis in barbary sheep and mule deer from the texas elaeophora schneideri were recovered from the common carotid artery and its branches in 14 of 14 mule deer, odocoileus hemionus, and 3 of 9 barbary sheep or aoudads, ammotragus lervia, from palo duro canyon in the texas panhandle. gross cutaneous lesions attributable to elaeophorosis in the barbary sheep varied from small circumscribed scars up to 10 cm in diameter usually on the poll or orbital region to extensive proliferative irregular encrustations on the frontal, temporal and orbital ...19816454793
moisture and temperature effects on survival and infectivity of first-stage larvae of parelaphostrongylus odocoilei and p. tenuis (nematoda: metastrongyloidea).the survival of first-stage larvae (l1) of parelaphostrongylus odocoilei and p. tenuis (nematoda: metastrongyloidea) and their infectivity to the snail triodopsis multilineata were determined experimentally in a variety of temperature and moisture conditions. survival of larvae of p. odocoilei increased with decreasing temperature. survival of larvae in water was similar to survival in air at 17 and 45% rh; survival of larvae in air at 75, 85, and 95% rh was considerably lower at corresponding t ...19846470888
parelaphostrongylus andersoni (nematoda: protostrongylidae) and p. odocoilei in two cervid definitive hosts.infectivity (as percentage of initial dose), location, orientation, and productivity (as maximum weekly larval output) of adult parelaphostrongylus andersoni prestwood, 1972 and p. odocoilei (hobmaier and hobmaier, 1934) were compared in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) (wtd) and mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) (md). fourteen wtd and 10 md were exposed to third-stage larvae of p. andersoni or p. odocoilei. infectivity was 20% and 31%, respectively, in 7 wtd and 4 md exposed to p. ander ...19846502355
experimental infection of some north american wild ruminants and domestic sheep with mycobacterium paratuberculosis: clinical and bacteriological findings.mycobacterium paratuberculosis originally isolated from bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) with spontaneous paratuberculosis was used to orally inoculate rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) calves, mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) fawns, white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) fawns, bighorn x mouflon (ovis musimon) hybrid lambs, and domestic lambs. all experimentally exposed animals became infected. during the first year of infection, hybrid and domestic sheep were able to control the in ...19836644916
experimental contagious ecthyma in mule deer, white-tailed deer, pronghorn and wapiti.hand-reared mule deer fawns (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer fawns (odocoileus virginianus), pronghorn fawns (antilocapra americana) and wapiti calves (cervus elaphus nelsoni) were exposed to contagious ecthyma lesion material obtained from rocky mountain bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis canadensis) to determine the susceptibility and pathogenesis in these species. all four species developed mucocutaneous proliferative lesions of the oral cavity, grossly and histologically compatible with ...19836685778
anaplasma infections in wild and domestic ruminants: a review.anaplasma marginale can be transmitted, will grow and can survive in a large number of domestic and wild animals. it is pathogenic in cattle, and usually produces nonapparent or mild infections in other species. anaplasma marginale has been recovered from cattle, sheep, goats, water buffalo (bubalus bubalis), white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus), black-tailed deer (odocoileus hemionus columbianus), pronghorn (antilocapra americana americana), rocky ...19846716555
sarcocystis in wild ungulates in alberta.muscle samples from 557 wild ungulates in alberta, comprising seven species, were examined grossly and/or histologically for cysts of sarcocystis. sarcocystis was found in 100, 96, 94, 75, 75, 73, and 49% of the wapiti (cervus canadensis), moose (alces alces), bison (bison bison), mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis), mountain goat (oreamnos americanus), and white-tailed deer (o. virginianus), respectively.19806780701
sarcocystis spp. in white-tailed deer. i. definitive and intermediate host spectrum with a description of sarcocystis odocoileocanis n. sp.sporocysts containing four sporozoites and measuring (avg.) 15.2 micrometers x 10.7 micrometers (n = 195) were shed in the feces of dogs (canis familiaris) 8 to 16 days (avg. 11.6 days) after the first feeding of venison infected with sarcocystis sp. sporocysts containing four sporozoites and measuring (avg.) 11.5 micrometers x 8.1 micrometers (n = 35) were shed by a cat (felis catus) 14 days after ingesting sarcocystis-infected venison. statistical (pooled t-test) comparison of the mean measure ...19816802990
sarcocystis of deer in south dakota.the prevalence of sarcocystis in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (o. hemionus) in south dakota was determined through microscopic examination of tongue samples. the percentage of sarcocystis infection for both species of deer was determined for prairies east of the missouri river, west of the missouri river, and black hills of western south dakota. sixteen percent (n = 62) of the white-tailed deer tongues from east river, 69% (n = 42) from west river, and 74% (n = 23) fr ...19826808161
pathology of spontaneous and experimental infection of north american wild ruminants with mycobacterium paratuberculosis.spontaneous paratuberculosis was studied in free-ranging and captive bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis), and rocky mountain goats (oreamnos americanus). lesions of paratuberculosis in these species resembled the disease in domestic sheep and goats. mycobacterium paratuberculosis cultured from bighorn sheep was used to orally infect bighorn x mouflon (ovis musimon) hybrid sheep, elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), and white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus). clinical pa ...19836879954
survey for evidence of colorado tick fever virus outside of the known endemic area in california.a virus very similar or identical to colorado tick fever (ctf) virus was recovered from the blood clot of one of 104 black-tailed jack rabbits (lepus californicus) examined during a survey for various zoonotic agents in mammals and ticks from the university of california, hopland field station, mendocino county, california, 1974--79. this is the first reported isolation of a ctf-like virus from l. californicus, and only the second time such a virus has been found in northwestern california. mend ...19827102919
isolation of encysted toxoplasma gondii from muscles of mule deer in montana.toxoplasma gondii was isolated from muscles of 2 road-killed mule deer found near bozeman, mont, by feeding muscles to a toxoplasma-free cat. the cat shed t gondii oocysts 5 days after ingesting muscles pooled from the 2 deer. one infective oocyst of this isolate of t gondii was lethal to mice.19827161172
induced toxoplasmosis in pronghorns and mule deer.two mule deer and 2 pronghorns were inoculated intraruminally with infective oocysts (deer with 100,000 each, and pronghorns with 100, and 10,000) of the gt-1 strain of toxoplasma gondii. the deer died 7 and 11 days after inoculation, and the pronghorns died 13 and 19 days after inoculation. necropsy findings were typical of acute toxoplasmosis.19827174439
trypanosoma cervi from alaskan reindeer, rangifer tarandus.twenty-nine (64.4%) or 45 reindeer, rangifer tarandus, examined over a two-year period were infected with trypanosomes. trypomastigotes and dividing epimastigotes were found in the blood of fawns, cows, and bulls. morphometric analysis of bloodstream trypomastigotes from reindeer and comparison of these parasites with similar stages of trypanosomes from elk, mule deer, and white-tailed deer from the continuous united states proved them conspecific; the trypanosomes from these members of the cerv ...19827175772
isolation of encysted toxoplasma gondii from musculature of moose and pronghorn in montana.pieces of skeletal muscle from 43 mule deer, 34 elk, 4 white-tailed deer, 21 pronghorn, 7 moose, and 2 bison were examined for toxoplasma infection, by the acid-pepsin digestion technique. toxoplasma gondii was isolated from 1 moose and 1 pronghorn. the isolated strains of t gondii were of low virulence to mice.19817224306
further studies on trypanosomes in game animals in wyoming ii.further studies on moose revealed trypanosomes in two captive moose (alces alces shirasi) and in 4 of 7 free-ranging moose in wyoming by blood culture. two free-ranging moose from utah were negative. one of two additional captive moose calves was positive for trypanosomes. trypanosomes also were detected in blood cultures of 8 of 39 american bison (bison bison) being brought into wyoming from nebraska. nineteen additional bison were negative for trypanosomes by blood cultures. identification of ...19817338978
chronic wasting disease of captive mule deer: a spongiform the past 12 years (1967-79) a syndrome we identify as chronic wasting disease has been observed in 53 mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus) and one black-tailed deer (odocoileus hemionus columbianus) held in captivity in several wildlife facilities in colorado and more recently in wyoming. clinical signs were seen in adult deer and included behavioral alterations, progressive weight loss and death in 2 weeks to 8 months. gross necropsy findings included emaciation and excess rumen fluid ad ...19807373730
experimental infection of mule deer with parelaphostrongylus tenuis.six adult and three fawn mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) were experimentally infected with a range of 75-100 infective larvae of parelaphostrongylus tenuis. five of the six adult deer developed clinical signs of neurologic disease that terminated in paralysis between 35 and 80 days. the sixth deer developed slight signs of neurologic disease for 10 days, but recovered. all three mule deer fawns developed neurologic disease. adult meningeal worms were recovered from the subdural space of the spin ...19807463606
susceptibility of mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) and two species of north american molluscs to elaphostrongylus cervi (nematoda: metastrongyloidea).an experimental study was done to determine whether elaphostrongylus cervi can be transmitted to common intermediate and definitive hosts indigenous to north america. first-stage larvae of e. cervi obtained from red deer (cervus elaphus elaphus) in new zealand developed to the infective third stage in snails (triodopis multilineata) and slugs (deroceros reticulatum). two mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) were inoculated orally with 102 or 406 third-stage larvae. one animal developed a patent infec ...19957623202
mitochondrial trna(thr) and trna(pro) sequences from three deer species: odocoileus hemionus, cervus elaphus, and cervus nippon. 19937688119
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