psoroptic mange in a northern idaho, a 10-year old wapiti(cervus canadensis nelsoni) died showing signs of ataxia and alopecia. examination of dermis revealed infestation with psoroptes equi var. cervinus.19751113442
gross and microscopic lesions of naturally occurring tuberculosis in a captive herd of wapiti (cervus elaphus nelsoni) in colorado.a mycobacterium bovis-infected herd of captive wapiti (cervus elaphus nelsoni) in colorado was depopulated after lesions of bovine tuberculosis were confirmed in 8 of 10 tuberculin skin test reactors. of the 43 animals > 1 year of age, 26 had gross lesions suggestive of tuberculosis, 24 had microscopic lesions of tuberculosis, and 23 had acid-fast bacilli associated with the lesions. lungs and retropharyngeal lymph nodes were the most frequently affected sites. most lesions grossly and microscop ...19921457546
spongiform encephalopathies in cervidae.the known host range of naturally-occurring transmissible spongiform encephalopathies has expanded in recent years to include wild ruminants. chronic wasting disease (cwd) occurs in mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus) and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) in colorado and wyoming, united states of america. these species belong to the family cervidae. cases have occurred primarily in captive animals but a few affected free-ranging animals have been identified. clinical disease in bo ...19921617203
immunolocalization of scrapie amyloid (prp27-30) in chronic wasting disease of rocky mountain elk and hybrids of captive mule deer and white-tailed deer.scrapie amyloid-immunoreactive plaques are present in brain tissues of captive mule deer with chronic wasting disease (cwd), a progressive neurological disorder characterized neuropathologically by widespread spongiform change of the neuropil, intracytoplasmic vacuolation in neuronal perikarya and astrocytic hypertrophy and hyperplasia. we report here the immunolocalization of scrapie amyloid (prp27-30) in plaques observed in brain tissues of rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and hybri ...19911681473
efficacy of triclabendazole against natural infections of fascioloides magna in wapiti.fourteen free-ranging adult wapiti (cervus elaphus nelsoni) were captured in banff national park, alberta (canada) and held in captivity near edmonton. a 24% suspension of triclabendazole at doses of 30 to 100 mg/kg body weight was drenched into the rumen of eight females and four males. two male wapiti were used as untreated controls. animals were killed and examined at 4 (n = 3), 6 (n = 4), or 8 (n = 4) wk after treatment. efficacy was 90% against immature fascioloides magna collected 4 wk aft ...19911758025
ectoparasites from elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) from wyoming.hides of nine elk, collected during the winter of 1986-1987 from the national elk refuge, wyoming (usa) were examined for ectoparasites. parasites recovered were mites, psoroptes sp. (five elk); lice, solenopotes ferrisi and bovicola (bovicola) longicornis (seven elk); and winter ticks, dermacentor albipictus (nine elk). three elk with severe scabies had an estimated 0.6 x 10(6), 3.8 x 10(6) and 6.5 x 10(6) mites, respectively. densities of mites were much higher in skin regions with severe derm ...19911920665
survey of hepatic and pulmonary helminths of wild cervids in alberta, canada.during the 1988 hunting season, livers and lungs from 263 mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus), 198 moose (alces alces), 147 white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), and 94 wapiti (cervus elaphus nelsoni) from alberta (canada) were collected for parasitological examination. most of the samples (89%) were submitted by big game hunters throughout the province. giant liver fluke (fascioloides magna) was found in 9% of 22 yearling and 29% of 65 adult wapiti; 4% of 161 adult moose; and 2% of 9 ...19902250321
snakebite in captive rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni).eight cases of snakebite occurred in seven of 11 captive rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) during june and july 1987. severity of reactions to envenomation varied; affected elk presented with combinations of signs that included painful swelling restricted to the face and muzzle, submandibular edema, inspiratory dyspnea, epistaxis, frothy, blood-tinged nasal discharge, epiphora, anorexia and anxiousness or depression. we observed puncture wounds in only two cases. treatment consisted of ...19892503625
isolation of pilobolus spp. from the northern elk herd in yellowstone national park.pilobolus spp. were recovered from all fecal samples collected from an elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) herd in yellowstone national park (usa) with a high prevalence of dictyocaulus viviparus infection. pilobolus spp. have been shown to be important in the epizootiology of d. viviparus infections in cattle because these fungi aid in dissemination of larvae away from feces to areas where animals are more likely to ingest them, and protect larvae against dehydration and thus prolong survival. the sam ...19892523978
antagonism of xylazine hydrochloride with yohimbine hydrochloride and 4-aminopyridine in captive wapiti.eight captive wapiti (cervus elaphus nelsoni) were injected with xylazine hydrochloride on two occasions during march and april 1984. animals were grouped into a modified latin square design and were given either successive injections of yohimbine hydrochloride and 4-aminopyridine (4-ap) to antagonize the sedative effects of xylazine hydrochloride or permitted an unantagonized recovery. induction times ranged from 3 to 26 min with excited and wild animals requiring a supplementary dose. time unt ...19863005668
lymphocyte blastogenesis, complement fixation, and fecal culture as diagnostic tests for paratuberculosis in north american wild ruminants and domestic sheep.the efficacy of the lymphocyte blastogenesis and complement-fixation tests and fecal culture for detection of mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection was assessed in bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis), elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (o virginianus), bighorn x mouflon (o musimon) hybrid sheep, and domestic sheep. spontaneously infected bighorns were tested at the time of capture; experimentally infected animals were tested monthly for 12 months or p ...19854073642
experimental infection of some north american wild ruminants and domestic sheep with mycobacterium paratuberculosis: clinical and bacteriological findings.mycobacterium paratuberculosis originally isolated from bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) with spontaneous paratuberculosis was used to orally inoculate rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) calves, mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) fawns, white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) fawns, bighorn x mouflon (ovis musimon) hybrid lambs, and domestic lambs. all experimentally exposed animals became infected. during the first year of infection, hybrid and domestic sheep were able to control the in ...19836644916
experimental contagious ecthyma in mule deer, white-tailed deer, pronghorn and wapiti.hand-reared mule deer fawns (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer fawns (odocoileus virginianus), pronghorn fawns (antilocapra americana) and wapiti calves (cervus elaphus nelsoni) were exposed to contagious ecthyma lesion material obtained from rocky mountain bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis canadensis) to determine the susceptibility and pathogenesis in these species. all four species developed mucocutaneous proliferative lesions of the oral cavity, grossly and histologically compatible with ...19836685778
anaplasma infections in wild and domestic ruminants: a review.anaplasma marginale can be transmitted, will grow and can survive in a large number of domestic and wild animals. it is pathogenic in cattle, and usually produces nonapparent or mild infections in other species. anaplasma marginale has been recovered from cattle, sheep, goats, water buffalo (bubalus bubalis), white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus), black-tailed deer (odocoileus hemionus columbianus), pronghorn (antilocapra americana americana), rocky ...19846716555
pathology of spontaneous and experimental infection of north american wild ruminants with mycobacterium paratuberculosis.spontaneous paratuberculosis was studied in free-ranging and captive bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis), and rocky mountain goats (oreamnos americanus). lesions of paratuberculosis in these species resembled the disease in domestic sheep and goats. mycobacterium paratuberculosis cultured from bighorn sheep was used to orally infect bighorn x mouflon (ovis musimon) hybrid sheep, elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), and white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus). clinical pa ...19836879954
hematologic and serum chemical values of adult female rocky mountain elk from new mexico and oklahoma.hematologic and serum chemical values were determined for two groups of adult female rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) from new mexico and oklahoma. although considerable variation in values was observed between elk from the same group, the mean values from 16 of the 20 blood parameters tested were significantly different between the two groups. of these, the most significant variations were observed in values which were likely to be influenced by nutritional condition and health statu ...19827097884
spongiform encephalopathy of rocky mountain elk.a disease with striking clinical and pathologic similarities to the spongiform encephalopathies is described in six rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) maintained in wildlife facilities in colorado and wyoming. clinical signs included behavioral alterations and progressive weight loss over a period of weeks or months. consistent microscopic lesions were limited to the central nervous system and characterized by widespread spongiform transformation of the neuropil, intracytoplasmic vacuol ...19827154220
a comparative study of the histopathologic features of bovine tuberculosis in cattle, fallow deer (dama dama), sika deer (cervus nippon), and red deer and elk (cervus elaphus).sections of tuberculous lesions from 23 elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and red deer (cervus elaphus elaphus), 12 fallow deer (dama dama), 10 sika deer (cervus nippon), and 30 cattle were examined and compared. lesions were scored for caseous necrosis, mineralization, neutrophils, macrophages, giant cells, and acid-fast bacilli. some differences in lesion morphology between the species were noted. elk/red deer lesions had marked variation and often differed from bovine lesions in several characteri ...19957604487
gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog-induced patterns of luteinizing hormone secretion in female wapiti (cervus elaphus nelsoni) during the breeding season, anestrus, and pregnancy.we conducted two studies to determine the pattern of gnrh analog-induced lh secretion in adult female wapiti during the breeding season, anestrus, and pregnancy. in the first study, we measured lh secretion during the breeding season and anestrus in five females challenged with each of five doses of gnrh analog (0.3, 1, 3, 10, and 30 micrograms/50 kg bw). in the second study, lh response was determined in six pregnant females treated with six doses of gnrh analog (0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 microgr ...19957626720
neuropathology of chronic wasting disease of mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) and elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni).the pathology of the central nervous system of nine mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) and six elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease, a spongiform encephalopathy of mule deer and elk, was studied by light microscopy. lesions were similar in both species and were characterized by spongiform transformation of gray matter, intracytoplasmic vacuolation of neurons, neuronal degeneration and loss, astrocytic hypertrophy and hyperplasia, occurrence of amyloid plaques, and absence of si ...19938442326
immobilization of rocky mountain elk with telazol and xylazine hydrochloride, and antagonism by yohimbine hydrochloride.ten trapped rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) were successfully immobilized with a combination of 500 mg telazol and 60 mg xylazine hydrochloride (hcl) from 9 july to 25 august 1993 in custer state park, south dakota (usa). mean (sd) dosages of 2.5 (0.6) mg/kg telazol and 0.3 (0.1) mg/kg xylazine hcl, respectively, were administered, resulting in a mean (sd) induction time of 4.6 (0.8) min. induction time varied with weight and dosage. respiratory rate (breaths/min) increased following ...19958583649
diagnosing pregnancy in free-ranging elk using fecal steroid metabolites.we validated fecal metabolite analysis as a noninvasive means of diagnosing pregnancy in uncaptured, free-ranging rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni). during november 1991, we collected blood samples from 21 radiocollared, 1- to 10-year-old female elk in yellowstone national park, wyoming (usa), and determined their pregnancy status by radioimmunoassay of serum pregnancy specific protein b and serum progesterone concentrations. from december 1991 through april 1992, we collected three to ...19958592383
efficacy and safety of naltrexone hydrochloride for antagonizing carfentanil citrate immobilization in captive rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni).we evaluated efficacy and safety of naltrexone for antagonizing carfentanil immobilization in 12 captive rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) using a randomized incomplete block experiment. in three replicate trials, elk were hand-injected with 10 micrograms carfentanil citrate/kg body weight intramuscularly. fifteen min after each elk became recumbent, we administered naltrexone hcl (25% of dose intravenously, 75% subcutaneously) dosed at 0 (control), 25, 50, or 100 mg/mg carfentanil; af ...19968722260
spongiform encephalopathy in free-ranging mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) in northcentral colorado.between march 1981 and june 1995, a neurological disease characterized histologically by spongiform encephalopathy was diagnosed in 49 free-ranging cervids from northcentral colorado (usa). mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) were the primary species affected and accounted for 41 (84%) of the 49 cases, but six rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and two white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) were also affected. clinical signs included emaciation, excessive salivation, behavioral changes, ...19979027685
survey of free-ranging elk from wyoming and montana for selected pathogens.from december 1991 through january 1995, a disease survey was conducted on herds of free-ranging, hunter-killed elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) from three areas in proximity to yellowstone national park (ynp), wyoming (usa), after tuberculosis caused by mycobacterium bovis was discovered in a captive herd of elk in the area. complete or partial sets of specimens from 289 elk collected between december 1991 and january 1993 were examined histologically; no mycobacterial lesions were observed. lesion ...19979131561
one-sample pregnancy diagnosis in elk using fecal steroid metabolites.recent research has demonstrated the potential of pregnancy diagnosis in elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) using immunoassays of fecal steroid concentration. however, multiple samples are required to insure accurate results, limiting its utility for free-ranging animals. we attempted to develop an accurate one-sample pregnancy diagnosis using 153 fecal samples that were collected from free-ranging, radio-collared, adult female elk in yellowstone national park (wyoming, usa) and from captive elk maint ...19989476233
epidemiology of chronic wasting disease in captive rocky mountain elk.between june 1986 and may 1997, chronic wasting disease (cwd) was the only natural cause of adult mortality among captive rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) held at a wildlife research facility near fort collins, colorado (usa). of 23 elk that remained in this herd > 15 mo, four (17%) developed cwd. all affected elk were unrelated females from the founding cohort, captured as neonates and raised in 1986. the index case was diagnosed in 1989; time intervals between subsequent cases range ...19989706562
antibody response of elk immunized with porcine zona pellucida.immunocontraception using porcine zona pellucida (pzp) vaccines is being explored as a nonlethal method of solving the problems of locally overabundant wildlife populations. this study characterized the immunological response of captive elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) to pzp challenge using 18 3-yr-old cows and was conducted from 14 september 1994 to 13 december 1995. all animals were given a single pzp inoculation and 1 mo later six of these animals were randomly chosen and received a booster inoc ...19989706563
phenotypic and phylogenetic characterization of ruminal tannin-tolerant bacteria.the 16s rrna sequences and selected phenotypic characteristics were determined for six recently isolated bacteria that can tolerate high levels of hydrolyzable and condensed tannins. bacteria were isolated from the ruminal contents of animals in different geographic locations, including sardinian sheep (ovis aries), honduran and colombian goats (capra hircus), white-tail deer (odocoileus virginianus) from upstate new york, and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) from oregon. nearly compl ...19989758806
prp genotypes of captive and free-ranging rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease.the prp gene encodes the putative causative agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tses), a heterogeneous group of fatal, neurodegenerative disorders including human creutzfeldt-jakob disease, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, ovine scrapie and chronic wasting disease (cwd) of north american deer and elk. polymorphisms in the prp gene are associated with variations in relative susceptibility, pathological lesion patterns, incubation times and clinical course of tses of humans, m ...199910573173
genetic influences on reproduction of female red deer (cervus elaphus) (1) seasonal luteal cyclicity.this study compared the onset and duration of the breeding season of female red deer (cervus elaphus scoticus) and its hybrids with either wapiti (cervus elaphus nelsoni) or père david's (pd) deer (elaphurus davidianus). in trial 1 (1995), adult red deer (n=9), f1 hybrid wapiti x red deer (n=6) and maternal backcross hybrid pd deer x red deer (i.e., 14 pd; n=9) were maintained together in the presence of a vasectomised red deer stag for 12 months. they were blood-sampled daily or three times wee ...200010804275
safety of brucella abortus strain rb51 in bull elk.some of the elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) of the greater yellowstone area (wyoming, idaho, montana; usa) are infected with brucella abortus, the bacterium that causes bovine brucellosis. brucella abortus strain rb51 vaccine is being considered as a means to control b. abortus induced abortions in cow elk. however, the most probable vaccination strategies for use in free-ranging elk might also result in some bull elk being inoculated, thus, it is important to insure that the vaccine is safe in the ...200010941733
diagnosis and treatment of obstructive urolithiasis in a captive rocky mountain wapiti (cervus elaphus nelsoni).a captive 5-yr-old castrated male rocky mountain wapiti (cervus elaphus nelsoni) developed stranguria. rectal palpation and physical examination indicated urethral obstruction that was subsequently relieved by urethrostomy and required only minimal aftercare. the wapiti was able to urinate freely after surgery; however, the obstruction recurred 27 mo later. urethral catheterization relieved the second obstruction, which was caused by a large calculus composed of calcium carbonate and magnesium c ...200010982140
epizootiology of chronic wasting disease in free-ranging cervids in colorado and wyoming.surveillance and epidemic modeling were used to study chronic wasting disease (cwd), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy that occurs naturally among sympatric, free-ranging deer (odocoileus spp.) and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) populations in contiguous portions of northeastern colorado and southeastern wyoming (usa). we used clinical case submissions to identify endemic areas, then used immunohistochemistry to detect cwd-infected individuals among 5,513 deer and elk sample ...200011085429
susceptibility of elk to lungworms from cattle.two studies were conducted to determine the infectivity of the lungworm, (dictyocaulus viviparus) of cattle origin, in rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) or wapiti. in the first study, each of three 9-mo-old elk was administered 3,000 d. viviparus larvae from cattle using a nasogastric tube. in the second study, four 16-mo-old elk were each inoculated with 2,000 d. viviparus from cattle using a nasogastric tube. elk were observed daily for signs of respiratory disease, and fecal samples ...200011085435
mortality in captive elk from salmonellosis.salmonella typhimurium dt104 infections of captive elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) calves resulted in mortality in eight of 13 affected calves. salmonellosis in these elk calves was characterized by diarrhea, fever, lethargy, inappetence and depression, and death usually ensued within 72 hr of initial clinical signs. affected calves did not respond to antibiotic and fluid therapy. the source of the bacteria likely was one or more of the calves when they were captured in the wild at less than 5 days ...200111310898
brucella abortus strain rb51 vaccination in elk. i. efficacy of reduced dosage.bovine brucellosis is a serious zoonotic disease affecting some populations of rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and bison (bison bison) in the greater yellowstone area, usa. the fear that elk and/or bison may spread brucella abortus to livestock has prompted efforts to reduce or eliminate the disease in wildlife. brucella abortus strain rb51 (rb51) vaccine has recently been approved for use in cattle. unlike strain 19 vaccine, rb51 does not cause false positive reactions on standard b ...200211838212
chronic wasting disease in deer and elk in north america.chronic wasting disease (cwd) has emerged as an important disease of wildlife in north america. the disease is a unique member of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tses) or prion diseases, which naturally affect only a few species. of the tses, cwd is the only one found in free-ranging species. however, interest in cwd has recently grown, by association with the better-known tses such as variant creutzfeldt-jakob disease of humans and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. knowledge of t ...200211974617
effects of gnrh agonist (leuprolide) on reproduction and behaviour in female wapiti (cervus elaphus nelsoni).fertility control offers a potential alternative to traditional methods for regulating the growth of overabundant wild ungulate populations. however, current technology is limited due to practical treatment application, undesirable side-effects and economic considerations. a promising non-steroidal, non-immunological approach to contraception involves the use of a potent gnrh agonist. two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a gnrh agonist (leuprolide) for controlling fert ...200212220155
a case of chronic wasting disease in an elk imported to korea from canada.a seven-year-old male elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) was euthanized and necropsied after having a 3-week history of body weight loss, emaciation, excessive salivation, teeth grinding, fever, anorexia, and respiratory distress. the elk was imported into korea from canada on march 9, 1997. gross pathologic findings were restricted to a diffuse fibrinous pneumonia. microscopic lesions included mild neuronal vacuolation and spongiform change in the neuropil of selected brain stem nuclei and generalize ...200212399615
mycobacterium bovis infection in a farmed elk in korea.a case of tuberculosis is reported in an eight-year-old, male, elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni). the elk showed severe coughing, respiratory distress, abdominal breathing, anorexia, and severe progressive emaciation in the elk farm. at necropsy, the elk appeared in poor body condition. mild enlargement of retropharyngeal and submandibular lymph node was observed in the head. diffuse fibrinous pleuritis and purple red lobar pneumonia were found in the thorax. well demarcated numerous dark yellow disc ...200212514326
an indirect elisa to detect the serologic response of elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) inoculated with brucella abortus strain indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed to identify elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) with brucella abortus strain rb51 (rb51)-specific antibodies using a mouse monoclonal antibody specific for bovine igg1. this test was relatively easy to perform, accurate, and easily reproducible; therefore it could be standardized for use between laboratories. in addition, we attempted to compensate for inherent variabilities encountered when comparing elisa readings from multiple sampl ...200212528442
preliminary observations on the experimental transmission of scrapie to elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) by intracerebral determine the transmissibility of scrapie to rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), six elk calves were inoculated intracerebrally with brain suspension from sheep naturally affected with scrapie. one elk developed a brain abscess and was euthanatized at 7 weeks postinoculation (pi), and two others died at 6 and 15 months pi because of physical injuries. at 25 and 35 months pi, two other elk died after brief terminal neurologic episodes. necropsy of these revealed moderate weight loss b ...200312627716
prevalence of chronic wasting disease and bovine tuberculosis in free-ranging deer and elk in south dakota.heads of hunter-harvested deer and elk were collected throughout south dakota (usa) and within established chronic wasting disease (cwd) surveillance areas from 1997-2002 to determine infection with cwd and bovine tuberculosis (tb). we used immunohistochemistry to detect cwd-infected individuals among 1,672 deer and elk sampled via geographically targeted surveillance. a total of 537 elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), 813 white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), and 322 mule deer (o. hemionus) was ...200312685066
use of naloxone to reverse carfentanil citrate-induced hypoxemia and cardiopulmonary depression in rocky mountain wapiti (cervus elaphus nelsoni).with the use of a crossover study design, we investigated the respiratory and cardiovascular effects of naloxone administration in eight healthy rocky mountain wapiti (cervus elaphus nelsoni) anesthetized with carfentanil (10 microg/kg i.m.) and xylazine (0.1 mg/kg). anesthetized animals showed profound hypoxemia with mild hypercapnia, tachycardia, hypertension, and acidosis prior to naloxone administration. after monitoring equipment was placed, animals were administered either naloxone (2 micr ...200112790400
validation of a brucella abortus competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for use in rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni).brucellosis caused by infection with brucella abortus is present in some elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) of the greater yellowstone area (parts of wyoming, montana, and idaho, usa). since 1985, the wyoming game and fish department has vaccinated elk on elk feedgrounds in northwestern wyoming during the winter months using b. abortus strain 19 (strain 19). analysis of this vaccination program is hampered by the inability of standard serologic tests to differentiate between strain 19 vaccinated elk a ...200312910758
field validation and assessment of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting chronic wasting disease in mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni).tissue samples (n = 25,050 total) from 23,256 mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), and white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) collected statewide in colorado were examined for chronic wasting disease (cwd) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay developed by bio-rad laboratories, inc. (brelisa), in a 2-phase study. in the validation phase of this study, a total of 4,175 retropharyngeal lymph nodes (rln) or obex (ob) tissue samples were examined ind ...200312918810
model-based assessment of aspen responses to elk herbivory in rocky mountain national park, rocky mountain national park (rmnp), aspen (populus tremuloides michx.) has been observed to be declining on elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) winter range for many decades. to support elk management decisions, the savanna ecosystem model was adapted to explore interactions between elk herbivory and aspen dynamics. the simulated probability of successful vegetative regeneration for senescent aspen stands declines sharply when elk densities reach levels of 3-5 elk/km2, depending on model assumption ...200314703920
chronic wasting disease of cervids.chronic wasting disease (cwd) has recently emerged in north america as an important prion disease of captive and free-ranging cervids (species in the deer family). cwd is the only recognized transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (tse) affecting free-ranging species. three cervid species, mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (o. virginianus), and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), are the only known natural hosts of cwd. endemic cwd is well established in southern wyomin ...200415148993
transmission of sheep scrapie to elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) by intracerebral inoculation: final outcome of the experiment.this is a final report of an experimental transmission of sheep scrapie agent by intracerebral inoculation to rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni). it documents results obtained in experimental (n = 6) and control (n = 2) elk. during the first 2 years postinoculation (pi), 3 animals died or were euthanized because of infection or injuries other than spongiform encephalopathy (se). in years 3 and 4 pi, 3 other inoculated elk died after brief terminal neurological episodes. necropsy of thes ...200415305743
variable patterns of distribution of prp(cwd) in the obex and cranial lymphoid tissues of rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) with subclinical chronic wasting disease.sections of medulla oblongata, taken at the level of the obex, palatine tonsil and medial retropharyngeal lymph node from 10,269 captive rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), were examined by immunohistochemical staining with monoclonal antibody for the prion protein associated with the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, chronic wasting disease (prp(cwd)). the protein was detected in 226 of them. on the basis of the anatomical location of the deposits in the brainstem of ...200415478500
mortality of rocky mountain elk in michigan due to meningeal worm.mortality from cerebrospinal parelaphostrongylosis caused by the meningeal worm (parelaphostrongylus tenuis) has been hypothesized to limit elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) populations in areas where elk are conspecific with white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus). elk were reintroduced into michigan (usa) in the early 1900s and subsequently greatly increased population size and distribution despite sympatric high-density (>or=12/km2) white-tailed deer populations. we monitored 100 radio-collared ...200515827219
phylogeny and antigenic relationships of three cervid herpesviruses.elk herpesvirus (elkhv) from north american elk (wapiti, cervus elaphus nelsoni) is a recently identified alphaherpesvirus related to bovine herpesvirus-1 (bhv-1). in this study, we determined its relationship with european cervid herpesviruses: cervid herpesvirus-1 (cerhv-1) from red deer and rangiferine herpesvirus (ranhv) from reindeer. for phylogenetic analysis, genes for the gc and gd proteins of these viruses were sequenced. these genes demonstrated an extremely high gc content (76-79%). g ...200516061301
chronic wasting disease.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a unique transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (tse) of mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (o. virginianus), and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni). the natural history of cwd is incompletely understood, but it differs from scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) by virtue of its occurrence in nondomestic and free-ranging species. cwd has many features in common with scrapie, including early widespread distribution of disease ...200516145200
locoweed (oxytropis sericea)-induced lesions in mule deer (odocoileius hemionus).locoweed poisoning has been reported in wildlife, but it is unknown whether mule deer (odocoileius hemionus) are susceptible. in areas that are heavily infested with locoweed, deer and elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) have developed a spongiform encephalopathy, chronic wasting disease (cwd). although these are distinct diseases, no good comparisons are available. the purpose of this study was to induce and describe chronic locoweed poisoning in deer and compare it with the lesions of cwd. two groups ...200516145203
field evaluation of the efficacy of fenbendazole in captive wild ruminants.the efficacy of in-feed fenbendazole at a dose rate of 7.5 mg/kg bodyweight for three consecutive days was assessed in five arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx), six scimitar-horned oryx (oryx dammah), 14 slender-horned gazelles (gazella leptoceros), eight soay sheep (ovis aries aries soay), 13 alpine ibex (capra ibex ibex), six red deer (cervus elaphus hippelaphus) and 11 nelson's elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) kept in five herds in a zoo. the efficacy was assessed by means of repeated faecal egg count r ...200516272545
evaluation of remotely delivered leuprolide acetate as a contraceptive agent in female elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni).practical application of fertility control technology in free-ranging wild ungulates often requires remote delivery of the contraceptive agent. the objective of this investigation was to evaluate the potential of remote delivery of leuprolide acetate for suppressing fertility in female elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni). fifteen captive adult female elk were randomly allocated to one of three experimental groups. six elk were injected intramuscularly with a dart containing leuprolide, and the remainin ...200516456165
herpesvirus infection in woodland caribou in alberta, canada.sera and genital swabs collected from 121 adult woodland caribou (rangifer tarandus caribou) in five subpopulations in northern alberta, canada, between december 1997 and october 1999, were examined for evidence of infection with herpesviruses or pestiviruses. no virus was isolated from sera or swabs, and no antibodies against bovine viral diarrhea virus were detected. however, 63 (52%) of the 121 animals had neutralizing antibody titers against bovine herpesvirus 1. there was sufficient serum f ...200516456173
preliminary observations of genetic susceptibility of elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) to chronic wasting disease by experimental oral compare the genetic susceptibility of elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) with various alleles of the prnp gene, which encodes the normal cellular prion protein, to chronic wasting disease (cwd), eight 8-month-old elk calves of 3 genotypes (2 132mm, 2 132lm, and 4 132ll) were orally dosed with cwd-infected brain material from elk. during postinoculation (pi) month 23, both 132mm elk had lost appetite, developed clinical signs of weight loss and central nervous system (cns) dysfunction, and were euth ...200616566268
the expanding universe of prion diseases.prions cause fatal and transmissible neurodegenerative disease. these etiological infectious agents are formed in greater part from a misfolded cell-surface protein called prp(c). several mammalian species are affected by the diseases, and in the case of "mad cow disease" (bse) the agent has a tropism for humans, with negative consequences for agribusiness and public health. unfortunately, the known universe of prion diseases is expanding. at least four novel prion diseases--including human dise ...200616609731
transmission of elk and deer prions to transgenic mice.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a fatal prion disease in deer and elk. unique among the prion diseases, it is transmitted among captive and free-ranging animals. to facilitate studies of the biology of cwd prions, we generated five lines of transgenic (tg) mice expressing prion protein (prp) from rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), denoted tg(elkprp), and two lines of tg mice expressing prp common to white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), denote ...200616940522
immune responses of elk to initial and booster vaccinations with brucella abortus strain rb51 or 19.previous studies have suggested that currently available brucellosis vaccines induce poor or no protection in elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni). in this study, we characterized the immunologic responses of elk after initial or booster vaccination with brucella abortus strains rb51 (srb51) and 19 (s19). elk were vaccinated with saline or 10(10) cfu of srb51 or s19 (n=seven animals/treatment) and booster vaccinated with a similar dosage of the autologous vaccine at 65 weeks. compared to nonvaccinates, ...200617028213
prion protein in cardiac muscle of elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) infected with chronic wasting investigate the possible presence of disease-associated prion protein (prp(d)) in striated muscle of chronic wasting disease (cwd)-affected cervids, samples of diaphragm, tongue, heart and three appendicular skeletal muscles from mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and moose (alces alces shirasi) were examined by elisa, western immunoblot and immunohistochemistry (ihc). prp(d) was detected in samples of heart muscle from se ...200617030881
passage of chronic wasting disease prion into transgenic mice expressing rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) prpc.chronic wasting disease (cwd) of elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) is one of three naturally occurring forms of prion disease, the others being creutzfeldt-jakob disease in humans and scrapie in sheep. in the last few decades, cwd has spread among captive and free-ranging cervids in 13 us states, two canadian provinces and recently in korea. the origin of the cwd agent(s) in cervids is not known. this study describes the development of a transgenic mouse line (tgel ...200617098997
detection of prp(cwd) in postmortem rectal lymphoid tissues in rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) infected with chronic wasting disease.preclinical diagnostic tests for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies have been described for mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), using biopsy tissues of palatine tonsil, and for sheep, using lymphoid tissues from palatine tonsil, third eyelid, and rectal mucosa. the utility of examining the rectal mucosal lymphoid tissues to detect chronic wasting disease (cwd) was investigated in rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), a species for which there is not a live-animal diagnostic test. post ...200617121082
a 12-month survey of gastrointestinal helminth infections of cervids kept in two zoos in belgium.infections with helminths are a major health issue in captive and wild deer. in this study, fecal egg count patterns and clinical signs associated with gastrointestinal nematodes were assessed for 12 mo in nine cervid herds kept under different husbandry conditions at two sites. at site 1, an urban zoo, fecal egg counts remained low and no clinical signs of parasitic gastroenteritis were seen in the herds of fallow deer (dama dama), dybowski's deer (cervus nippon dybowski), pudu (pudu pudu), and ...200517312767
evaluation of three strategic parasite control programs in captive wild ruminants.parasite control in wild ruminants is based mainly on anthelmintics. the objective of the present study was to evaluate three parasite control programs in seven herds of captive wild ruminants in 3 consecutive years. in the first year, a biannual spring-summer treatment regime with fenbendazole at 7.5 mg/kg body weight p.o. for 3 days was applied. the next year, an early-season treatment program with three administrations of fenbendazole at the same dosage at 3-wk intervals was used. in the thir ...200617312807
evaluation of vaginal implant transmitters in elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni).the effects of vaginal implant transmitters for tissue damage after 11 wk in 13 captive adult elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and subsequent reproductive performance in 38 free-ranging elk were evaluated. vaginal implant transmitters are designed to be shed at parturition and are used to locate birth sites of wild ungulates; however, potential adverse effects of these transmitters on tissues associated with the vaginal walls or subsequent reproductive performance have not been assessed. vaginal imp ...200617319128
abomasal and uterine adenocarcinomas with ovarian metastasis in a captive elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni).a captive, 20-year-old female elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) euthanized due to progressive lameness and weight loss was presented to colorado state university veterinary diagnostic laboratory for postmortem examination. within the uterus there was a poorly demarcated, multilobulated mass measuring 10 cm in diameter. histologically the tumor was an adenocarcinoma. histologic examination of the ovaries revealed unilateral metastasis. a focal, 1-cm diameter adenocarcinoma was identified within the ab ...200717823404
molecular characterization of the rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) prnp putative promoter.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (tse) affecting deer (odocoileus spp.), moose (alces alces), and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni). leucine homozygosity at elk prnp codon 132 has been associated with reduced cwd susceptibility. however, naturally acquired cwd has been detected in elk possessing the 132 leu/leu genotype. recent human and bovine studies indicate that prnp regulatory polymorphisms may also influence tse occurrence. therefore, we ...200718032463
prp genotypes of free-ranging wapiti (cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease.variation in prp prion gene sequence appears to modulate susceptibility to chronic wasting disease (cwd), a naturally occurring prion disease affecting four north american species of the family cervidae. wapiti (cervus elaphus nelsoni) prp is polymorphic at codon 132 [methionine (m) or leucine (l)]. we genotyped 171 samples, collected between 2002 and 2005 from cwd-infected and uninfected wapiti from three free-ranging populations in colorado, usa, to study influences of prp polymorphisms on cwd ...200818420812
foot-and-mouth disease in north american bison (bison bison) and elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni): susceptibility, intra- and interspecies transmission, clinical signs, and lesions.there is limited information about the pathogenesis and epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in north american bison (bison bison) or elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni). in these two experimental infection studies, we compared the susceptibilities of bison and elk to fmd virus (fmdv), respectively, with that of cattle; determined whether intra- and interspecies transmission could occur in bison and cattle, and elk and cattle; determined suitability of conventional available laboratory tests to ...200818436660
experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (cwd) of elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), and mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus) to white-tailed deer by intracerebral compare clinical and pathologic findings of chronic wasting disease (cwd) in a natural host, 3 groups (n = 5) of white-tailed deer (wtd) fawns were intracerebrally inoculated with a cwd prion of wtd, mule deer, or elk origin. three other uninoculated fawns served as controls. approximately 10 months postinoculation (mpi), 1 deer from each of the 3 inoculated groups was necropsied and their tissues were examined for lesions of spongiform encephalopathy (se) and for the presence of abnormal pri ...200818487485
vocal fold elasticity of the rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) - producing high fundamental frequency vocalization with a very long vocal fold.the vocal folds of male rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) are about 3 cm long. if fundamental frequency were to be predicted by a simple vibrating string formula, as is often done for the human larynx, such long vocal folds would bear enormous stress to produce the species-specific mating call with an average fundamental frequency of 1 khz. predictions would be closer to 50 hz. vocal fold histology revealed the presence of a large vocal ligament between the vocal fold epithelium and th ...200818552304
estimating the true prevalence of mycobacterium bovis in free-ranging elk in michigan.although relatively small, michigan's elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) herd is highly valued by both hunters and the general public. elk and red deer (cervus elaphus elaphus) are highly susceptible to infection with mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (tb), and outbreaks have been documented worldwide. the michigan elk range lies entirely within counties where tb is known to be enzootic in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus). consequently, a project was undertaken ...200818957636
antemortem detection of prpcwd in preclinical, ranch-raised rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) by biopsy of the rectal mucosa.antemortem biopsy of the rectal mucosa was evaluated as a method for the preclinical diagnosis of chronic wasting disease (cwd) in a herd of ranch-raised rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) quarantined because of exposure to cwd. biopsy samples were obtained from 41 elk during the winter of 2005-2006 and from 26 elk from that herd still alive and available for testing during the winter of 2006-2007. samples were examined for prp(cwd), the protein marker for cwd infection, by immunohistoc ...200919139496
effects of management, behavior, and scavenging on risk of brucellosis transmission in elk of western wyoming.brucellosis is endemic in elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) using winter feedgrounds of western wyoming, usa presumably because of increased animal density, duration of attendance, and subsequent contact with aborted fetuses. however, previous research addressed antibody prevalence rather than more direct measures of transmission and did not account for elk behavior or scavenging in transmission risk. throughout march and early april 2005-07, we monitored 48 sets of culture-negative, pseudoaborted el ...200919395749
genetic variability of the prion protein gene (prnp) in wild ruminants from italy and scotland.the genetics of the prion protein gene (prnp) play a crucial role in determining the relative susceptibility to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tses) in several mammalian species. to determine the prnp gene variability in european red deer (cervus elaphus), roe deer (capreolus capreolus) and chamois (rupicapra rupicapra), the prnp open reading frame from 715 samples was analysed to reveal a total of ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps). in red deer, snps were found in codons 15, ...200919461206
cervids with different vocal behavior demonstrate different viscoelastic properties of their vocal folds.the authors test the hypothesis that vocal fold morphology and biomechanical properties covary with species-specific vocal function. they investigate mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) vocal folds, building on, and extending data on a related cervid, the rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni). the mule deer, in contrast to the elk, is a species with relatively little vocal activity in adult animals. mule deer and elk vocal folds show the typical three components of the mammalian vocal fold (ep ...201019603411
sensitive diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in a farmed cervid herd with use of an mpb70 protein fluorescence polarization assay.after histopathological examination of a lesion found in a herd member returned a diagnosis of mycobacteriosis, a farmed herd (n = 47) of elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and red deer (c. elaphus elaphus) was investigated for bovine tuberculosis with a battery of antemortem and postmortem diagnostic tests. every animal was tested with the mid-cervical tuberculin skin test; all 47 had negative results. all of the 16 adult animals and 15 of the 31 calves (approximately 2-years-old) were blood-tested w ...200919794887
impact of age and sex of rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) on follicle counts from rectal mucosal biopsies for preclinical detection of chronic wasting determine if the number of rectal lymphoid follicles decreases with respect to age and sex relative to diagnosis of chronic wasting disease (cwd), rectal biopsies (n = 1,361) were taken from captive rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) at 4 ranches in the western united states between 2005 and 2008. rectal tissues were stained with a monoclonal antibody (f99/97.6.1), which selectively stains the abnormal isoform of the prion protein associated with cwd of elk. the number of lymphoid fo ...200919901292
oral vaccination with microencapsuled strain 19 vaccine confers enhanced protection against brucella abortus strain 2308 challenge in red deer (cervus elaphus elaphus).bison (bison bison) and elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) in the greater yellowstone area (gya), usa, are infected with brucella abortus, the causative agent of bovine brucellosis, and they serve as a wildlife reservoir for the disease. bovine brucellosis recently has been transmitted from infected elk to cattle in montana, wyoming, and idaho and has resulted in their loss of brucellosis-free status. an efficacious brucella vaccine with a delivery system suitable for wildlife would be a valuable tool ...200919901378
surveys for disease agents in introduced elk in arkansas and kentucky.surveys for disease agents were conducted in introduced free-ranging elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) in arkansas and kentucky. elk had been captured in colorado and nebraska and released in arkansas during 1981-1985. from 1997 through 2002 elk were captured in arizona, kansas, north dakota, new mexico, oregon, and utah and released in southeastern kentucky. specimens were collected from 170 hunter-killed elk in arkansas during 1998-2006, and 44 elk in kentucky during 2001-2004. significant findings ...201020090032
detection of the abnormal isoform of the prion protein associated with chronic wasting disease in the optic pathways of the brain and retina of rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni).eyes and nuclei of the visual pathways in the brain were examined in 30 rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) representing 3 genotypes of the prion protein gene prnp (codon 132: mm, ml, or ll). tissues were examined for the presence of the abnormal isoform of the prion protein associated with chronic wasting disease (prp(cwd)). nuclei and axonal tracts from a single section of brain stem at the level of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve were scored for intensity and distribution ...201020382822
new records of hair follicle mites (demodecidae) from north american cervidae.individuals of three species of cervids, with varying degrees of alopecia, were examined for ectoparasites: rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus) in colorado and white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) in south dakota. hair follicle mites were recovered and identified as demodex kutzeri, a species originally described from the european red deer (cervus elaphus, from austria) and the sika deer (cervus nippon pseudaxis, captive in germany). the ...201020688655
a cervid vocal fold model suggests greater glottal efficiency in calling at high frequencies.male rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) produce loud and high fundamental frequency bugles during the mating season, in contrast to the male european red deer (cervus elaphus scoticus) who produces loud and low fundamental frequency roaring calls. a critical step in understanding vocal communication is to relate sound complexity to anatomy and physiology in a causal manner. experimentation at the sound source, often difficult in vivo in mammals, is simulated here by a finite element mod ...201020808882
association analysis of prnp gene region with chronic wasting disease in rocky mountain elk.abstract:201021087518
use of the intradermal tuberculin test in a herd of captive elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) naturally infected with mycobacterium the united states, tuberculosis of captive cervids, caused by mycobacterium bovis, attracted attention in 1991 when investigations, prompted by the identification of a tuberculous elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) of u.s. origin exported to canada, revealed tuberculosis in 10 different elk herds in 8 different states. based on methods used in cattle, official regulations pertaining to testing and eradication of tuberculosis in captive cervids were added to the u.s. department of agriculture bovine ...201121398465
effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone immunization on reproductive function and behavior in captive female rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni).fertility control is a potential method for managing overabundant wildlife populations; however, current technology is limited by duration of treatment efficacy and unacceptable side-effects. the objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of a single immunization with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (gnrh) vaccine to suppress reproductive function in pregnant female elk and to evaluate potential behavioral and pathological side-effects of treatment. eighteen captive adult female elk we ...201121753192
dna vaccination of bison to brucellar antigens elicits elevated antibody and ifn-+¦ responses.brucella abortus remains a threat to the health and well-being of livestock in states bordering the greater yellowstone area. during the past several years, cohabitation of infected wildlife with cattle has jeopardized the brucellosis-free status of idaho, usa; wyoming, usa; and montana, usa. current livestock b. abortus vaccines have not proven to be efficacious in bison (bison bison) or elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni). one problem with the lack of vaccine efficacy may stem from the failure to und ...201121719815
experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (cwd) from elk and white-tailed deer to fallow deer by intracerebral route: final observations on experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (cwd) from elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) to fallow deer (dama dama) are reported herein. during the 5-year study, 13 fawns were inoculated intracerebrally with cwd-infected brain material from white-tailed deer (n = 7; group a) or elk (n = 6; group b), and 3 other fawns were kept as uninoculated controls (group c). as described previously, 3 cwd-inoculated deer were euthanized ...201121731188
rapid detection of cwd prp: comparison of tests designed for the detection of bse or scrapie.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (tse) mainly affecting cervids in north america. the accumulation of an abnormal form of host-encoded prion protein (prp(cwd) ) in the cns and lymphoid tissues is characteristic of the disease and known to be caused by pathogenic prion proteins (prp(res) ), which are thought to be transmitted mainly by contact with body fluids, such like saliva. species known to be naturally infected by cwd include rocky mountain elk (cer ...201122212828
brucellosis transmission between wildlife and livestock in the greater yellowstone ecosystem: inferences from dna genotyping.the wildlife of the greater yellowstone ecosystem carries brucellosis, which was first introduced to the area by cattle in the 19th century. brucellosis transmission between wildlife and livestock has been difficult to study due to challenges in culturing the causative agent, brucella abortus . we examined b. abortus transmission between american bison ( bison bison ), rocky mountain elk ( cervus elaphus nelsoni), and cattle ( bos taurus ) using variable number tandem repeat (vntr) markers on dn ...201728118557
evaluation of transmission of brucella abortus strain 19 in bison by intravaginal, intrauterine, and intraconjunctival inoculation.bovine brucellosis, caused by the bacterium brucella abortus, is endemic in bison (bison bison) and elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) populations in the area of yellowstone national park, usa. two strategies have been proposed to reduce the risk of transmission of disease in bison: remote vaccination with the vaccine rb51, and the use of immunocontraception of bison to decrease shedding of organisms from infected females. the frequent occurrence of venereal transmission in bison would complicate eith ...201323778600
seeded amplification of chronic wasting disease prions in nasal brushings and recto-anal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues from elk by real-time quaking-induced conversion.chronic wasting disease (cwd), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, was first documented nearly 50 years ago in colorado and wyoming and has since been detected across north america and the republic of korea. the expansion of this disease makes the development of sensitive diagnostic assays and antemortem sampling techniques crucial for the mitigation of its spread; this is especially true in cases of relocation/reintroduction or prevalence studies of large or protected herds, w ...201626888899
progressive accumulation of the abnormal conformer of the prion protein and spongiform encephalopathy in the obex of nonsymptomatic and symptomatic rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease.the purpose of our study was to describe the progressive accumulation of the abnormal conformer of the prion protein (prp(cwd)) and spongiform degeneration in a single section of brain stem in rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease (cwd). a section of obex from 85 cwd-positive elk was scored using the presence and abundance of prp(cwd) immunoreactivity and spongiform degeneration in 10 nuclear regions and the presence and abundance of prp(cwd) in 10 axonal tract ...201526185123
prion amplification and hierarchical bayesian modeling refine detection of prion infection.prions are unique infectious agents that replicate without a genome and cause neurodegenerative diseases that include chronic wasting disease (cwd) of cervids. immunohistochemistry (ihc) is currently considered the gold standard for diagnosis of a prion infection but may be insensitive to early or sub-clinical cwd that are important to understanding cwd transmission and ecology. we assessed the potential of serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (spmca) to improve detection of cwd prior ...201525665713
experimental chronic wasting disease in wild type vm mice.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a naturally occurring prion disease in north american deer (odocoileus species), rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and moose (alces alces). the disease was first confirmed in the republic of korea in 2001, and subsequent cases were diagnosed in 2004, 2005 and 2010. the experimental host range of cwd includes ferrets, several species of voles, white-footed mice, deer mice and syrian golden hamsters. in addition, cwd was transmitted to the transgenic mous ...201323708962
efficacy of antemortem rectal biopsies to diagnose and estimate prevalence of chronic wasting disease in free-ranging cow elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni).a reliable antemortem test is needed to understand the ecology of chronic wasting disease (cwd) in elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni). we measured the ability of antemortem biopsy samples from the rectal mucosa to detect the abnormal prion protein associated with cwd (prp(cwd)), the relationship between test results from the obex and rectal biopsies at varying stages of cwd progression, and the prevalence of cwd in free-ranging elk from rocky mountain national park, colorado, usa. we sampled and place ...201323568902
strain characterization of the korean cwd cases in 2001 and 2004.chronic wasting disease (cwd) has been recognized as a naturally occurring prion disease in north american deer (odocoileus species), rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and moose (alces alces). the disease was confirmed only in elk in the republic of korea in 2001, 2004 and 2005. epidemiological investigations showed that cwd was introduced via importation of infected elk from canada between 1994 and 1997. in spite of the increasing geographic distribution and host range of cwd, little ...201322972463
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