experimental infection of dogs with sarcocystis from wapiti.ten domestic dogs became infected with sarcocystis when fed simple portions of heart, esophagus and diaphragm from a two-year-old female wapiti (cervus canadensis). the prepatent period was 14 days in all exposed dogs; the patent period ranged from 8 to 20 days. neither the 10 control dogs, nor two dogs fed sporocysts collected from the infected dogs passed sporocysts within the study period. sporocysts averaged 16.5 by 11.1 micron in size.1979113562
letter: dictyocaulis viviparus and elaphostrongylus cervi in wapiti. 1976131918
a summary of the prevalence of parelaphostrongylus tenuis in a captive wapiti population.a total of 87 brains from harvested and collected wapiti and red deer (cervus spp.) were examined grossly and microscopically between 1973 and 1977 in a 2104 ha. preserve. prevalence of infection significantly increased from 26.6% of the sample in 1973 to 64.3% in 1975 (p less than .05). a decline to 47.7% in 1977 (p greater than .05) was not significant. however, the number of clinical cases was significantly higher in 1976-1977 (p less than .02) than previously reported in 1973-1975.1979459045
evaluation of the anaplasmosis rapid card agglutination test for detecting experimentally-infected elk.anaplasma marginale was experimentally transmitted from cattle to elk to cattle. six intact adult elk (cervus canadensis canadensis) inoculated with freshly collected heparinized blood from cattle chronically infected with a. marginale became asymptomatic carriers. although the elk did not develop clinical or hematologic evidence of infection, they became seropositive by the serum(srca) and plasma rapid card agglutination (prca) tests. blood from the experimentally-infected elk produced disease ...1979501840
yersiniae in the soil of an infected wapiti range.yersinia enterocolitica was isolated from 10 of 121 soil samples from an area inhabitated by infected wapiti (cervus elaphus roosevelti) in northwest california. significantly (p less than 0.05) more soil samples from a forest habitat were infected, compared to soil samples from prairie habitats. soil was found infected with yersiniae only on dates for which rainfall in excess of 17 mm had occurred during the previous 7 days.1979522222
evaluation of the anaplasmosis rapid card agglutination test for detecting experimentally infected elk.anaplasmosis was experimentally transmitted from cattle to elk to cattle. six non-splenectomized adult elk (cervus canadensis canadensis) that were inoculated with freshly collected heparinized blood from cattle chronically infected with anaplasma marginale became asymptomatic carriers. although the exposed elk did not develop clinical or hematologic evidence of infection they become seropositive by the serum and plasma rapid card agglutination (rca) tests. blood from the experimentally infected ...1979527345
the development of clinical signs and the population significance of neurologic disease in a captive wapiti herd.clinical signs attributable to meningeal worm (parelaphostrongylus tenuis) were recorded in three male and three female wapiti (cervus elaphus canadensis) ranging in age from 5 - 29 months. the study was conducted from september, 1976 to may, 1977 in a 2104-ha preserve. some differences were noted in occurrence, time schedule and sequence of signs but the basic pattern was similar. the mean time between initial sign observed and death was 100 days. the effect of neurologic disease on population ...1978650796
listeria monocytogenes isolated from wapiti (cervus canadensis roosevelti).serotypes 1 and 4 listeria monocytogenes were isolated from 14 of 72 wapiti among four of five herds studied in northwestern california. more isolations of listeria were made during the summer months than during the other months of the study from one of the herds. the pathogenicity of the strains varied with their ability to ferment xylose and rhamnose.1975807750
prevalence and effects of parelaphostrongylus tenuis in a captive wapiti population.prevalence of neurologic disease attributed to parelaphostrongylus tenuis was investigated in a population of wapii (cervus elaphus canadensis) enclosed in a 2080 ha. preserve. brains of 44 animals harvested in 1973, 1974 and 1975 were examined grossly and microscopically. prevalence of infection increased each year from 26.6% of the sample in 1973 to 64.3% in 1975. these data suggest that wapiti living close to white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) may have a high prevalence of infection, ...1977864848
the immobilization of wapiti with etorphine and observations on the use of etorphine hydrochloride (m99) (in combination with acepromazine) and its antagonist m50-50 for immobilization of captive elk (cervus elaphus canadensis) are presented. the study period covers 3 years during which 8 adult elk were immobilized 52 times with m99. the average dose of m99 administered for each immobilization was 2.2 mg per 100 kg body weight. reversal with m50-50 was effected by an average dose of 4.4 mg per 100 body weight. induction averaged 5.9 ...1977916137
psoroptic mange in a northern idaho, a 10-year old wapiti(cervus canadensis nelsoni) died showing signs of ataxia and alopecia. examination of dermis revealed infestation with psoroptes equi var. cervinus.19751113442
morphology of typanosomes from white-tailed deer and wapiti in michigan.trypanosomes were isolated from a wapiti (cervus canadensis) and 72 white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) from several locations in michigan. although significantly fewer fawns were infected, there were no significant differences in rate of infection between sexes or among geographic areas. from appearance of the trypomastigote, the trypanosome from white-tailed deer belongs in the genus trypanosoma and the subgenus megatrypanum. it was morphometrically similar to the common trypanosome of ...19751142559
survey of anaplasmosis in elk of the clearwater national forest (idaho).samples of blood from 27 free-roaming elk (cervus canadensis canadensis) from the clearwater national forest in north central idaho were tested by the rapid card agglutination test and complement-fixation test for the presence of antibodies against anaplasma marginale. the serum card test and complement-fixation test gave incomplete and false-positive reactions; the plasma card test did not give any reactions. anaplasma bodies or other blood parasites were not observed in stained smears of elk b ...19761275349
genetic polymorphism of erythrocyte diaphorase in red deer, cervus elaphus l.nadh diaphorase polymorphism was identified in red deer erythrocyte lysates using starch gel electrophoresis and activity staining. the inheritance of the polymorphism was consistent with predictions of autosomal codominant inheritance of two alleles dia1f and dias. in new zealand's four main feral red deer populations (n = 188) the dia1f allele frequency ranged from 0.491 to 0.985. a sample of north american wapiti (n = 42) was monomorphic for the dia1f allele.19921416251
mycobacterium bovis infection in north american elk (cervus elaphus).a naturally occurring outbreak of mycobacterium bovis infection in captive wild elk (wapiti) in montana was confirmed by mycobacteriologic examination. twenty-eight of 143 elk responded to m. bovis purified protein derivative (ppd) tuberculin injected intradermally in the cervical region (sct). the results of comparative cervical tuberculin skin tests conducted within 9 days of sct revealed greater responses to m. bovis ppd tuberculin than to m. avium ppd tuberculin in 23 of 28 elk responding. a ...19921457545
gross and microscopic lesions of naturally occurring tuberculosis in a captive herd of wapiti (cervus elaphus nelsoni) in colorado.a mycobacterium bovis-infected herd of captive wapiti (cervus elaphus nelsoni) in colorado was depopulated after lesions of bovine tuberculosis were confirmed in 8 of 10 tuberculin skin test reactors. of the 43 animals > 1 year of age, 26 had gross lesions suggestive of tuberculosis, 24 had microscopic lesions of tuberculosis, and 23 had acid-fast bacilli associated with the lesions. lungs and retropharyngeal lymph nodes were the most frequently affected sites. most lesions grossly and microscop ...19921457546
r51163 as a sedative for handling and transporting plains bison and wapiti.forty captive wapiti (cervus elaphus) and thirty-two bison (bison bison bison) were tested in april and october 1988, respectively, for their response to the sedative r51163. treatment animals were injected with either 0.1, 0.2, or 0.3 mg of r51163/kg and then observed for 72 hr. behavior was significantly altered by the drug. hyperactive, aggressive, and milling behavior was characteristic of treated wapiti and they were extremely dangerous and reared when hind quarters were touched. although t ...19921602574
efficacy of triclabendazole against natural infections of fascioloides magna in wapiti.fourteen free-ranging adult wapiti (cervus elaphus nelsoni) were captured in banff national park, alberta (canada) and held in captivity near edmonton. a 24% suspension of triclabendazole at doses of 30 to 100 mg/kg body weight was drenched into the rumen of eight females and four males. two male wapiti were used as untreated controls. animals were killed and examined at 4 (n = 3), 6 (n = 4), or 8 (n = 4) wk after treatment. efficacy was 90% against immature fascioloides magna collected 4 wk aft ...19911758025
the biochemical systematics of red and sika deer (genus cervus) in ireland.twenty enzyme loci were investigated using starch gel electrophoresis in managed populations of red deer (cervus elaphus) and sika deer (c. nippon) from ireland. the red deer, which originated from several european countries, were polymorphic (%p) at 25% of the loci examined and exhibited a mean heterozygosity (h) of 0.025. the sika, originally from japan, were introduced to ireland in very limited numbers. here, %p was 5% and h was 0.006. mean genetic distance (d) between these taxa was 0.160. ...19911816170
artificial insemination of red deer (cervus elaphus) with frozen-thawed wapiti semen.semen collected from wapiti (cervus elaphus) in canada in 1983 was frozen in two extenders. in 1988, the semen was used to inseminate 200 red deer hinds on 2 farms in new zealand. oestrus was synchronized in the hinds with progesterone-impregnated intravaginal devices (cidr); 200 iu pregnant mares' serum gonadotrophin was given to each hind on day 11. the cidrs were removed on day 12 at 20/h, as the numbers of the hinds were recorded. on day 14, 54-56 h after cidr removal, the hinds were brought ...19911920280
gastropod availability and habitat utilization by wapiti and white-tailed deer sympatric on range enzootic for meningeal worm.gastropod occurrence and the utilization of habitat by sympatric populations of wapiti (cervus elephus) and white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) on range enzootic for meningeal worm (parelaphostrongylus tenuis) were studied on cookson hills wildlife management area (wma) in eastern oklahoma. visual observations and fecal pellet group transect data indicated that wapiti spent the majority of their time in open fields and meadows where we recovered the least numbers of gastropods. although d ...19912023333
the purification and characterisation of cervine igm and igg.a procedure is described for the isolation of immunoglobulin g (igg) and immunoglobulin m (igm) from hyperimmune cervine serum. hybrids of red deer (cervus elaphus) and wapiti (cervus canadensis) were immunised with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (klh). an immunoglobulin-containing fraction was precipitated from the hyperimmune serum using ammonium sulphate. the antigen-specific immunoglobulins were purified by klh-conjugated sepharose affinity chromatography and further separated into igm and igg by ...19902075697
survey of hepatic and pulmonary helminths of wild cervids in alberta, canada.during the 1988 hunting season, livers and lungs from 263 mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus), 198 moose (alces alces), 147 white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), and 94 wapiti (cervus elaphus nelsoni) from alberta (canada) were collected for parasitological examination. most of the samples (89%) were submitted by big game hunters throughout the province. giant liver fluke (fascioloides magna) was found in 9% of 22 yearling and 29% of 65 adult wapiti; 4% of 161 adult moose; and 2% of 9 ...19902250321
parelaphostrongylus andersoni (nematoda: protostrongylidae) in white-tailed deer from michigan.dorsal-spined larvae in fecal samples from free-ranging white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) in michigan and pennsylvania were used as a source of larvae to infect a hand-raised white-tailed deer fawn. the fawn receive 200 third-stage larvae and passed dorsal-spined larvae in feces 66 days later. muscleworm (parelaphostrongylus andersoni), and meningeal worm (parelaphostrongylus tenuis) were recovered at necropsy. two white-tailed deer and seven wapiti (cervus elaphus) exposed to larvae of ...19902250330
identification of dorsal-spined larvae from free-ranging wapiti (cervus elaphus) in southwestern manitoba, canada.dorsal-spined first-stage larvae recovered from feces of free-ranging wapiti (cervus elaphus) were passaged through snails (triodopsis multilineata) and two hand-raised white-tailed deer fawns (odocoileus virginianus). a total of 74 adult parelaphostrongylus tenuis were recovered from the fawns; no other protostrongylid nematodes were recovered. the study indicates that wapiti may be infected with natural infections of meningeal worm and pass larvae suitable for transmission to gastropod interme ...19892716114
antagonism of xylazine hydrochloride with yohimbine hydrochloride and 4-aminopyridine in captive wapiti.eight captive wapiti (cervus elaphus nelsoni) were injected with xylazine hydrochloride on two occasions during march and april 1984. animals were grouped into a modified latin square design and were given either successive injections of yohimbine hydrochloride and 4-aminopyridine (4-ap) to antagonize the sedative effects of xylazine hydrochloride or permitted an unantagonized recovery. induction times ranged from 3 to 26 min with excited and wild animals requiring a supplementary dose. time unt ...19863005668
diseases of wapiti utilizing cattle range in southwestern alberta.specimens from 28 wapiti (cervus elaphus canadensis) were collected by hunters in southwestern alberta in 1984. various tests were performed to detect infections and conditions that could affect cattle sharing the range or cause disease in wapiti. serum antibodies were present against leptospiral serovars autumnalis (25%), bratislava (4%), and icterohaemorrhagiae (8%), and the viruses of bovine virus diarrhea (52%), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (45%), and parainfluenza type 3 (13%). no sero ...19873029443
bluetongue virus in north american elk. 19704316480
experimental infection in north american elk with epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus. 19734701179
etorphine hydrochloride: anesthetic for surgery on an elk (cervus canadensis canadensis). 19705465569
molar duplication in red deer and wapiti. 19685691426
bluetongue virus in pregnant elk and their calves.two pregnant north american elk (cervus canadensis), in the 3rd and 4th months of gestation, were inoculated with bluetongue (bt) virus (btv) serotype 11. the virus was not isolated from the blood of the cows beyond postinoculation day (pid) 8, but was isolated from bone marrow and spleen samples obtained at necropsy on pid 190. although neither cow had overt clinical signs of bt infection, fluctuations in specific neutralizing btv antibody titers indicated viral replication. however, in 2 attem ...19826280527
experimental contagious ecthyma in mule deer, white-tailed deer, pronghorn and wapiti.hand-reared mule deer fawns (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer fawns (odocoileus virginianus), pronghorn fawns (antilocapra americana) and wapiti calves (cervus elaphus nelsoni) were exposed to contagious ecthyma lesion material obtained from rocky mountain bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis canadensis) to determine the susceptibility and pathogenesis in these species. all four species developed mucocutaneous proliferative lesions of the oral cavity, grossly and histologically compatible with ...19836685778
relationships between seasonal changes in serum testosterone concentrations, scrotal circumference and sperm morphology of male wapiti (cervus elaphus).one 2-year-old and 4 adult (greater than 3 years old) wapiti were studied throughout 1 year. serum testosterone concentrations, scrotal circumference and % normal spermatozoa in the ejaculate peaked around september. testosterone levels fell sharply by november, but scrotal circumference declined less sharply and normal sperm production occurred until march. there were indications of a secondary peak in these values around february-march.19846699808
sarcocystis in wild ungulates in alberta.muscle samples from 557 wild ungulates in alberta, comprising seven species, were examined grossly and/or histologically for cysts of sarcocystis. sarcocystis was found in 100, 96, 94, 75, 75, 73, and 49% of the wapiti (cervus canadensis), moose (alces alces), bison (bison bison), mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis), mountain goat (oreamnos americanus), and white-tailed deer (o. virginianus), respectively.19806780701
liver copper concentrations in red deer (cervus elaphus) and wapiti (c canadensis) in new zealand.concentrations of copper in livers from red deer (cervus elaphus) or wapiti (c canadensis) were measured and classified according to the age and species of the animals whether farmed or feral, the area from which they came and their sex. significant variations occurred with age, species, environment (farmed or feral) and area. mean liver copper concentrations (after logarithmic transformation) ranged from 356 mg/kg of fresh matter in fetus/neonate to 10.5 mg/kg in mature animals.19807414075
gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog-induced patterns of luteinizing hormone secretion in female wapiti (cervus elaphus nelsoni) during the breeding season, anestrus, and pregnancy.we conducted two studies to determine the pattern of gnrh analog-induced lh secretion in adult female wapiti during the breeding season, anestrus, and pregnancy. in the first study, we measured lh secretion during the breeding season and anestrus in five females challenged with each of five doses of gnrh analog (0.3, 1, 3, 10, and 30 micrograms/50 kg bw). in the second study, lh response was determined in six pregnant females treated with six doses of gnrh analog (0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 microgr ...19957626720
vaccination guidelines for small ruminants (sheep, goats, llamas, domestic deer, and wapiti). council on biologic and therapeutic agents and the american association of small ruminant practitioners. 19947730120
culture isolation and partial characterization of a babesia sp. from a north american elk (cervus elaphus).three north american yearling elk (cervus elaphus) died with clinical symptoms suggestive of babesiosis. babesia sp. organisms similar in morphology to b. odocoilei of white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) were observed in giemsa-stained blood films from one of the elk. continuous cultures of the parasite were established. antiserum raised against the elk babesia sp. isolate was compared to b. odocoilei specific antiserum in an immunofluorescent antibody assay; we found evidence of differen ...19947933298
experimental infections of eimeria wapiti and e. zuernii-like oocysts in rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus) calves.four rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus) 10 to 14 wk of age each were inoculated orally with a mixture of 50,000 sporulated oocysts of an eimeria zuernii-like apicomplexan (70%) and e. wapiti (30%). maximum numbers of oocysts per gram of feces (opg) in each elk ranged from 985 to 15,517, but all calves remained healthy and clinical signs of coccidiosis were not observed. the prepatent period for e. zuernii was 8 days and the patent period approximately 37 days, with a maximum mean (+/- se) recov ...19947933299
an abattoir study of tuberculosis in a herd of farmed elk.the purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and distribution of grossly visible lesions of tuberculosis in a herd of 344 north american elk (cervus elaphus) depopulated during a three-month period in 1991. abattoir inspection detected mycobacterial lesions in 134 (39.8%) of the 337 animals received for slaughter. the prevalence of lesions increased with the age of the animals. lesions were predominantly suppurative rather than caseous, and mineralization was less evident than in tube ...19947954222
genetic analysis of evolutionary relationships among deer (subfamily cervinae).the evolutionary relationships among 10 taxa of deer from the four genera of the subfamily cervinae (cervus, elaphurus, axis, and dama) were examined by a comparison of their electrophoretic types for 22 proteins. we analyzed the data using both phenetic and cladistic methods and found that the genera of the cervinae were not monophyletic. the genus cervus was split into two distinct groups with red deer, wapiti (c. elaphus ssp.), and sika (c. nippon) in one clade and sambar (c. unicolor) and ru ...19938340615
one known sarcocystis species and two found for the first time in red deer and wapiti (cervus elaphus) in europe.three species of sarcocysts from indigenous red deer and captive wapiti (cervus elaphus, cervidae) were characterized by means of light and electron microscopy. two of them were found in this intermediate host species for the first time. comparison of the literature and our results led to the conclusion that the three sarcocystis species (sporozoa, sarcocystidae) should be provisionally designated as s. cf. grueneri, s. cf. capreolicanis and s. cf. hofmanni.19958528304
one known sarcocystis species and one found for the first time in fallow deer (dama dama).sarcocysts of free-ranging indigenous fallow deer (dama d. dama) from northeast germany and captive persian fallow deer (dama dama mesopotamica) from the zoo berlin-friedrichsfelde were described using the transmission electron microscope. two sarcocystis species (sporozoa, sarcocystidae) were found in d. d. dama, one of them already known, the other new for this host. the known species was also found in d. dama mesopotamica. comparing the literature, former own findings in roe deer, red deer or ...19958528305
application of a competitive elisa for the detection of bluetongue virus antibodies in llamas and wild ruminants.a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-elisa), using a group-specific monoclonal antibody against bluetongue virus (btv), was applied to detect anti-btv antibodies in serum samples from two llamas (llama glama) experimentally infected with btv serotype 10. antibodies were detected in both llamas by 1 wk or 2 wk post-infection. antibodies to btv increased exponentially during the first 4 wk in both llamas and stabilized at an elevated level during the remaining 5-wk-period of the expe ...19958592352
experimental infections of sarcocystis spp. in rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus) calves.four 4-mo-old elk calves (cervus elaphus) obtained from northeastern oregon (usa) each were inoculated orally with 250,000 sporocysts of sarcocystis spp., including s. sybillensis and s. wapiti. three similar elk calves of comparable ages and weights served as uninoculated controls maintained with the inoculated elk during the experimental period between september and december 1993. body weights were evaluated at 0 and 90 days postinoculation (pi); packed cell volumes of whole blood were evaluat ...19958592375
reduction and repair of colonic intussusception in a wapiti/red hybrid hind (cervus elaphus). 19958825316
innervation and anesthesia of the antler pedicle in wapiti and fallow deer.the heads from 6 mature male wapiti and 8 mature male fallow deer were dissected to provide a description of the nerves supplying the antler pedicles. innervation in both species was found to resemble that of the red deer, with major contributions coming from the infratrochlear and zygomaticotemporal nerves. all heads displayed a dorsal branch from the auriculopalpebral nerve, but in only 2 wapiti and 3 fallow deer heads was this branch observed travelling to the pedicle. the dorsal branches of ...19968853883
a parentage evaluation test in north american elk (wapiti) using microsatellites of ovine and bovine origin.dna microsatellites originally detected in sheep and cattle are also detectable in north american elk (wapiti) using polymerase chain reactions. we have developed a parentage test in elk using eleven microsatellite markers that are highly polymorphic and informative.19968856904
descriptive epidemiology of captive cervid herds in michigan, usa.a study was designed to determine the species composition, disease period prevalence, and utilization of preventive practices in captive cervid herds in michigan. this is the first description of cervid farming in the united states. data for the 12 months preceding the study were collected by means of a mail questionnaire conducted from march 3 through june 28, 1993. completed questionnaires were returned by 228 of 362 (63%) farms. study respondents reported ownership of a total of 4972 (80.9%) ...19979208449
characterization of the erythrocyte superoxide dismutase allozymes in the deer cervus elaphus.the cdna sequences for cu,zn superoxide dismutase from two cervus elaphus subspecies, north american wapiti and european red deer, were determined. the derived amino acid sequences showed two differences: residue 8 was leu in wapiti and met in red deer and residue 25 was his in wapiti and asn in red deer. the extra positive charge at position 25 in the wapiti isoform accounted for its greater mobility towards the cathode during non-denaturing electrophoresis, a procedure widely used in the genet ...19979345726
sex identification of elk (cervus elaphus canadensis), moose (alces alces), and white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) using the polymerase chain reaction.we have developed a pcr-based protocol to determine the gender of tissue samples originating from elk (cervus elaphus canadensis), moose (alces alces) and white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus). the technique simultaneously amplifies a conserved region of the sex-determining gene on the y-chromosome (sry) and a region of the fragile x mental retardation gene (fmr-1). the multiplex nature of this protocol allows the determination of gender using the sry marker with the fmr-1 marker providing ...19989608686
genetic analysis of farmed deer hybrids.molecular methods which identify species-specific genetic markers are valuable for identification and genetic analysis of hybrid deer. we have used a variety of molecular techniques to compare père david's deer elaphurus davidianus, red deer cervus elaphus scotticus and north american wapiti c. e. manatobensis. in total, these analyses have identifed over 300 markers in which père david's deer sires are distinct from farmed red deer and over 100 markers in which wapiti sires differ from red deer ...19989704532
a diet supplement for captive wild ruminants.nutritional husbandry of captive wild ruminants often requires feeding these animals a supplemental diet to enhance their health, reproductive performance, and productivity. although supplemental diets for wild ruminants are commercially available, few have been evaluated in controlled intake and digestion trials. voluntary intake, digestive efficiency, nitrogen retention, and gross energy utilization of pronghorn (antilocapra americana), mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), mountain sheep (ovis can ...19989732028
isolation, characterization and localization of glycosaminoglycans in growing antlers of wapiti (cervus elaphus).glycosaminoglycans were isolated from the four sections (tip, upper, middle and base) of the main beam of growing antlers of wapiti (cervus elaphus) by papain digestion and deae-sephacel chromatography. chondroitin sulfate was the major glycosaminoglycan in each section of antler accounting for, on average, 88% of the total uronic acid. the yield of chondroitin sulfate liberated from the tissue was approximately 6-fold greater in the cartilaginous (tip and upper) sections than in the bony (middl ...19989787796
hybridization between wapiti (cervus elephus manitobensis) and sika deer (cervus nippon): a comparison of two artificial insemination techniques.the present study compared pregnancy rates of sika deer (cervus nippon) hinds artificially inseminated with frozen-thawed wapiti (cervus elephus manitobensis) semen by laparoscopic intrauterine or transvaginal/cervical artificial insemination (ai) techniques. estrous cycles of 59 sika hinds were synchronized with one-half of a norgestomet ear implant. fourteen days after implant insertion, norgestomet ear implants were removed and hinds received 50 iu of pg-600 intramuscularly, a combination of ...19989809601
phylogeny of wapiti, red deer, sika deer, and other north american cervids as determined from mitochondrial deer (cervus elaphus) are divided into three subspecific groups; the first group includes seven subspecies from europe and northern africa, the second group includes seven subspecies from central asia, and the third group includes nine subspecies from eastern asia, siberia, and north america. recognition of the north american wapiti as a species has been denied on the basis of morphological similarity with red deer and the circumpolar distribution of c. elaphus. sika deer (c. nippon), which ...19989878235
isolation and characterization of proteoglycans from growing antlers of wapiti (cervus elaphus).proteoglycans were extracted with 4 m guanidine-hcl from the zone of maturing chondrocytes, the site of endochondral ossification of growing antlers of wapiti (cervus elaphus). proteoglycans were isolated by deae-sephacel chromatography and separated by sepharose cl-4b chromatography into three fractions. fraction i contained a high molecular mass (> 1000 kda) chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan capable of interacting with hyaluronic acid. its amino acid composition resembled that of the cartilage ...19989972315
problems associated with the depopulation of tuberculosis-infected wapiti herds. 199910065316
observations on animal and human health during the outbreak of mycobacterium bovis in game farm wapiti in alberta.this report describes and discusses the history, clinical, pathologic, epidemiologic, and human health aspects of an outbreak of mycobacterium bovis infection in domestic wapiti in alberta between 1990 and 1993, shortly after legislative changes allowing game farming. the extent and seriousness of the outbreak of m. bovis in wapiti in alberta was not fully known at its onset. the clinical findings in the first recognized infected wapiti are presented and the postmortem records for the herd in wh ...199910065319
survey of fascioloides magna in farmed wapiti in alberta.the formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation procedure was used to detect ova of the giant liver fluke, fascioloides magna, in feces of farmed wapiti in alberta. twenty (3.2%) of the 629 fecal samples examined contained ova of f. magna. thirteen (33.3%) of the 39 farms surveyed had wapiti positive for f. magna. the presence of f. magna in farmed wapiti north of the north saskatchewan river is confirmed, and 3 areas where the infection has become endemic are identified.199910200881
management of indigenous north american deer at the end of the 20th century in relation to large predators and primary production.five deer species occupy north america: caribou (3.6 x 10(6) individuals), moose (1.1 x 10(6)), white-tailed deer (28.5 x 10(6)), mule deer (5.0 x 10(6)) and wapiti (1.1 x 10(6)). caribou characterise the north of the boreal forest and the tundra, whereas moose dominate in coniferous and mixed forests growing further south. white-tailed deer are typical of the deciduous forests of the east while mule deer replace them in the mountainous terrain of the west. wapiti possess the smallest range, mos ...199910213925
management of limb fractures in wapiti (cervus elaphus): 22 cases (1993-1997).to determine treatment and outcome of a series of wapiti (elk) with fractures of the limbs.199910382027
two theileria cervi ssu rrna gene sequence types found in isolates from white-tailed deer and elk in north america.two theileria cervi ssu rrna gene sequence types, f and g, from white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) and elk (cervus elaphus canadensis) isolates in north america were confirmed. previously, nucleotide sequencing through a single variable (v4) region showed the presence of ssu rrna gene types f and g in t. cervi isolates from white-tailed deer and an elk. in this study, both sequence types were found in four t. cervi isolates (two from deer and two from elk). microheterogeneity only appear ...199910479079
methods for animal satellite cell culture under a variety of conditions.primary and clonal culture systems have been devised and refined for animal-derived satellite cells. satellite cell (sc) culture development includes efficient cell isolation techniques, establishment of effective plating and growth conditions, formulation of media requirements and thorough evaluation of experimental limitations. as the field of muscle cell culture has expanded, the number of animal species from which satellite cells have been isolated has increased. the focus of this paper is t ...200010650335
[the allergenic and immunotropic properties of the preparation pantohematogen].experiments on cba/ca lac mice showed that pantohematogen, a drug prepared from whole blood of siberian deer, wapiti, and deer, when administered in a course in doses under study and in chosen conditions of the experiment does not possess allergenic and immunotoxic properties. the immunomodulating properties of the drug were characterized by marked stimulation of macrophage phagocytic activity and, under definite conditions, by activation of formation of antibody-producing cells in the spleen of ...199910650530
comparative reproductive function in cervids: implications for management of farm and zoo populations.the cervids represent a complex assemblage of taxa characterized by extreme diversity in morphology, physiology, ecology and geographical distribution. farmed species (for example red deer and fallow deer) are usually the common larger-bodied, gregarious and monotocous species that express marked reproductive seasonality in their temperate environment. their commercial importance has facilitated considerable research into reproductive physiology and the development of assisted reproductive techn ...199910692851
seasonal foraging behavioural compensation in reproductive wapiti hinds (cervus elaphus canadensis).captive wapiti hinds were observed during seven periods between june 1996 and november 1997. we investigated their activity and foraging behaviour on two pastures, heavily and lightly grazed, during four phases of the reproductive cycle (early gestation, late gestation, peak lactation, and late lactation). within season, differences in forage availability between pastures had little apparent effect on wapiti feeding behaviour (p0.05). however, within each pasture, hinds tended to select location ...200010719196
phylogenetic relationships among european red deer, wapiti, and sika deer inferred from mitochondrial dna sequences.we determined the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences (1140 bp) of one subspecies of the european red deer (cervus elaphus in europe), three subspecies of the wapiti (c. elaphus in asia and north america), and six subspecies of the sika deer (c. nippon in japan). our phylogenetic analysis revealed the monophyly of the european red deer, that of the wapiti, and that of the sika deer. the wapiti, however, was shown to be more closely related to the sika deer than to the european red deer. th ...200010764539
genetic influences on reproduction of female red deer (cervus elaphus) (1) seasonal luteal cyclicity.this study compared the onset and duration of the breeding season of female red deer (cervus elaphus scoticus) and its hybrids with either wapiti (cervus elaphus nelsoni) or père david's (pd) deer (elaphurus davidianus). in trial 1 (1995), adult red deer (n=9), f1 hybrid wapiti x red deer (n=6) and maternal backcross hybrid pd deer x red deer (i.e., 14 pd; n=9) were maintained together in the presence of a vasectomised red deer stag for 12 months. they were blood-sampled daily or three times wee ...200010804275
genetic influences on reproduction of female red deer (cervus elaphus) (2) seasonal and genetic effects on the superovulatory response to exogenous fsh.this study evaluated the influences of seasons and genotype on the superovulatory response to a standardised ofsh regimen in red deer (cervus elaphus scoticus) and its hybrids with either wapiti (c.e. nelsoni) or père david's (pd) deer (elaphurus davidianus). adult red deer (n=9), f(1) hybrid wapiti x red deer (n=6), and maternal backcross hybrid pd x red deer (i.e., 14 pd hybrid; n=9) were kept together in the presence of a vasectomised stag for 13 months. at 6 weekly intervals, all hinds recei ...200010804276
evaluation of zuclopenthixol acetate to decrease handling stress in wapiti.handling stress and capture myopathy are important consequences of intensively managing wildlife species. over the last 15 yr, the use of long-acting neuroleptic (lan) drugs in wildlife has increased, and these drugs have become a valuable tool for decreasing capture and handling stress in many species. at this time, reports on the use of these drugs in north american species are limited. the major objective of this study was to evaluate the use of the lan, zuclopenthixol acetate (clopixol-acuph ...200010941729
antigenic, phenotypic and molecular characterization confirms babesia odocoilei isolated from three cervids.babesia isolates from an elk (cervus elaphus canadensis) and a caribou (rangifer tarandus caribou) with fatal infections were compared to babesia odocoilei (engeling isolate) from white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) by experimental infection, serologic, and small subunit ribosomal rna (ssu rrna) gene sequence analysis studies. both the indirect fluorescent antibody test and immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated antigenic variation among the isolates. experimental infection studies showe ...200010941738
diagnosis and treatment of obstructive urolithiasis in a captive rocky mountain wapiti (cervus elaphus nelsoni).a captive 5-yr-old castrated male rocky mountain wapiti (cervus elaphus nelsoni) developed stranguria. rectal palpation and physical examination indicated urethral obstruction that was subsequently relieved by urethrostomy and required only minimal aftercare. the wapiti was able to urinate freely after surgery; however, the obstruction recurred 27 mo later. urethral catheterization relieved the second obstruction, which was caused by a large calculus composed of calcium carbonate and magnesium c ...200010982140
microsatellite analysis of north american wapiti (cervus elaphus) populations.eleven populations of wapiti (cervus elaphus) were analysed for genetic diversity using 12 microsatellite loci. samples were taken from vancouver island, british columbia; burwash and french river herds in ontario; ya ha tinda ranch, alberta; and banff, elk island, jasper, kootenay, riding mountain, yellowstone and yoho national parks. overall, wapiti populations have on average three to four alleles per locus and an average expected heterozygosity that ranged from 25.75 to 52.85%. the greatest ...200011050551
susceptibility of elk to lungworms from cattle.two studies were conducted to determine the infectivity of the lungworm, (dictyocaulus viviparus) of cattle origin, in rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) or wapiti. in the first study, each of three 9-mo-old elk was administered 3,000 d. viviparus larvae from cattle using a nasogastric tube. in the second study, four 16-mo-old elk were each inoculated with 2,000 d. viviparus from cattle using a nasogastric tube. elk were observed daily for signs of respiratory disease, and fecal samples ...200011085435
antigenic and molecular characterization of a herpesvirus isolated from a north american determine whether a herpesvirus isolated from the semen of a north american elk was related to bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv-1).200011131608
the gestation length of wapiti (cervus elaphus) an ancillary activity to an artificial insemination program in farmed wapiti, the length of gestation of 28 wapiti hinds that delivered single calves of established parentage was calculated. estrus was synchronized in 47 wapiti using progesterone impregnated devices (controlled internal drug release, cidr) and an injection of pmsg. all hinds were artificially inseminated between 60 and 63h after cidr removal. pregnancy was determined between 45 and 65 days by ultrasound. a verifiable figure f ...200111182511
evaluation of anthelmintic activity in captive wild ruminants by fecal egg reduction tests and a larval development assay.the effectiveness of anthelmintics was evaluated in four herds of captive ruminants, wapiti (cervus elaphus), armenian red sheep (ovis orientalis), giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis), and pronghorn (antilocapra americana), by the use of fecal egg reduction tests (ferts) and a commercial larval development assay (lda) designed to evaluate susceptibility or resistance of nematodes to anthelmintics. haemonchus sp. was the predominant nematode in the red sheep, giraffe, and pronghorn herds, whereas os ...200011237142
comparison of analgesic techniques for antler removal in wapiti.the purpose of this research was to compare the effectiveness of ring block anesthesia (la) and electroanesthesia (a) for antler removal in elk given a long-acting tranquilizer to remove stress from restraint. thirty-two male wapiti were given 1 mg/kg body weight of zuclopenthixol acetate; the next day, they were restrained in a hydraulic chute, provided with electroanesthesia or a lidocaine ring block, and had their antlers removed. behavioral response to antler removal was scored. significantl ...200111769618
a phylogenetic comparison of red deer and wapiti using mitochondrial dna.a phylogeny was constructed for red deer/wapiti (cervus elaphus) subspecies using sequence data from the control region of mitochondrial dna (mtdna). the tree was rooted using cervus nippon (sika deer), cervus albirostris (thorold's white-lipped deer), and several odocoileinae species. a division between the mtdna haplotypes of red deer (european) and wapiti (asian/north american) corresponds to subspecies found on opposite sides of the himalayan mountains and gobi, which suggests wapiti should ...200211884159
effects of gnrh agonist (leuprolide) on reproduction and behaviour in female wapiti (cervus elaphus nelsoni).fertility control offers a potential alternative to traditional methods for regulating the growth of overabundant wild ungulate populations. however, current technology is limited due to practical treatment application, undesirable side-effects and economic considerations. a promising non-steroidal, non-immunological approach to contraception involves the use of a potent gnrh agonist. two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a gnrh agonist (leuprolide) for controlling fert ...200212220155
comparison of lidocaine and compression for velvet antler analgesia in wapiti.this research compared ring block lidocaine anesthesia (l) and compression (c) for velvet antler removal in elk. thirty-two wapiti were given 1 mg/kg body weight of zuclopenthixol acetate. the next day, they were restrained in a hydraulic chute and given either a compression device or a lidocaine ring block on the antler pedicle. behavioral and physiological responses to treatment application and antler removal were recorded, and blood was collected for cortisol analysis. during application of l ...200212497964
use of naloxone to reverse carfentanil citrate-induced hypoxemia and cardiopulmonary depression in rocky mountain wapiti (cervus elaphus nelsoni).with the use of a crossover study design, we investigated the respiratory and cardiovascular effects of naloxone administration in eight healthy rocky mountain wapiti (cervus elaphus nelsoni) anesthetized with carfentanil (10 microg/kg i.m.) and xylazine (0.1 mg/kg). anesthetized animals showed profound hypoxemia with mild hypercapnia, tachycardia, hypertension, and acidosis prior to naloxone administration. after monitoring equipment was placed, animals were administered either naloxone (2 micr ...200112790400
ribosomal rna analysis of babesia odocoilei isolates from farmed reindeer (rangifer tarandus tarandus) and elk (cervus elaphus canadensis) in wisconsin.piroplasms isolated from a farmed reindeer and elk in wisconsin were determined to be babesia odocoilei, based on morphology and ribosomal rna (rrna) analysis. different clinical manifestations were observed in the two host species. the reindeer was parasitemic and exhibited acute babesiosis resulting in death, while the elk showed no parasites in blood smears and no overt clinical signs of babesiosis. b. odocoilei was, however, readily cultured from elk erythrocytes. small subunit rrna gene seq ...200314505046
babesia odocoilei infection in elk.two male north american elk from a commercial herd were evaluated because of a sudden onset of lethargy, anorexia, and voiding of red urine. these 2 elk were kept in the same pen as 4 other male elk that had died during the preceding 2 months. laboratory analyses revealed anemia and intraerythrocytic parasites, later confirmed as babesia odocoilei (a protozoal hemoparasite of cervids). of the 240 elk remaining in the herd, 59 were screened for b odocoilei by microscopic evaluation of blood smear ...200314552494
ovarian follicle development in wapiti (cervus elaphus) during the anovulatory season.the ovaries of 12 mature wapiti hinds were studied by transrectal ultrasonography during the anovulatory season to characterize follicular dynamics and to test the hypothesis that follicle development occurs in a wave-like fashion. the hinds were examined daily, standing without sedation. follicle size and numbers were recorded, and individual follicles were identified serially. follicle development was considered wave-like if periodic changes in follicle numbers could be associated temporally w ...200414662145
pharmacokinetics of florfenicol in north american elk (cervus elaphus).florfenicol pharmacokinetics after administration of a single subcutaneous (s.c.) dose of 40 mg/kg of body weight in adult elk (cervus elaphus) was investigated. serum florfenicol concentrations were determined by a sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method with limit of quantification of 0.03 microg/ml. florfenicol pharmacokinetic parameters in elk were estimated using a noncompartmental approach. after a single s.c. injection, florfenicol concentrations remained above 1 microg/m ...200415500565
density-dependent effects on physical condition and reproduction in north american elk: an experimental test.density dependence plays a key role in life-history characteristics and population ecology of large, herbivorous mammals. we designed a manipulative experiment to test hypotheses relating effects of density-dependent mechanisms on physical condition and fecundity of north american elk (cervus elaphus) by creating populations at low and high density. we hypothesized that if density-dependent effects were manifested principally through intraspecific competition, body condition and fecundity of fem ...200415586292
influence of level of nutrition during late pregnancy on reproductive productivity of red deer (2) adult hinds gestating wapitixred deer crossbred calves.the present study aimed to relate feed intake of red deer hinds in the later stages of gestating wapitixred deer crossbred foetuses on dam body condition, gestation length, birth weight and calf growth. multiparous hinds (n=18) conceiving at known dates to either wapiti (n=12) or red deer (n=6) sires were housed in individual pens from days 150-220 of pregnancy, during which time they were offered either ad libitum access to pelletised rations (n=6 crossbred-bearing hinds [hh] and n=6 red deer-b ...200515766806
a cross-sectional study of reproductive indices and fawn mortality in farmed white-tailed were obtained from a questionnaire administered to a random sample of canadian and united states white-tailed deer (wtd) farmers. reproductive indices and survival of fawns from birth until 1 y of age were examined. major factors in limiting herd increase were a low reproductive rate (88 fawns per 100 does exposed to bucks) and a 30% mortality of fawns from birth until 1 y of age. the latter figure differs from reported mortality rates in fallow deer and red deer/wapiti. the unacceptably hi ...200516018560
survey of internal parasitism and anthelmintic use in farmed deer.faecal samples and questionnaires from 115 and 130 farms respectively were used to survey the internal parasite status of the national deer herd and examine current drenching practices. the survey included farms with red deer and wapiti-red deer crosses (cervus elaphus), and fallow deer (dama dama). gastrointestinal nematode eggs were recorded from 84% of all farms, dictyocaulus viviparus larvae from 85% of all farms, and elaphostrongylus cervi larvae from 35% of the farms with c. elaphus. faeca ...198316030938
the isolation of yersinia sp. from feral and farmed deer faeces.faecal samples from clinically normal farmed red deer, wapiti, fallow deer; and feral red deer and white tail deer were examined for members of the genus yersinia. from 922 samples 176 strains of y.enterocolitica, 56 strains of y.frederiksenii, 29 strains of y.kristensenii, eight strains of y.intermedia, and seven strains of y.pseudotuberculosis were isolated. high isolation rates of yersinia sp. were recorded from some farms. two herds had isolation rates of 33.3% and 36.8%. sixteen strains of ...198416031058
failure of famphur treatment of wapiti (cervus canadiensis) to affect egg laying and embryogenesis in the winter tick, dermacentor albipictus. 198616031227
bodyweight and serum copper concentrations of farmed red deer stags following oral copper oxide wire administration.a diagnosis of secondary copper deficiency was established on a deer farm with a peat soil type, on the basis of confirmed enzootic ataxia in hinds, liver and serum copper concentrations and pasture and soil element analyses. seventy-four weaner stags were selected for a trial to investigate a growth response to copper supplementation. thirty-seven red and red x wapiti type stags were treated with 4g copper oxide wire particles at four months of age (april). a further 8g copper oxide wire was gi ...198916031533
a difference in abomasal ph between canadian wapiti affected with chronic illthrift and unaffected deer.the ph of abomasal fluid from five purebred canadian wapiti which were diagnosed with chronic illthrift ("fading") was found to be elevated compared to ten clinically normal red and hybrid (wapiti x red) deer. the average abomasal ph of the affected elk was 6.3, compared to 2.5 for the unaffected red and hybrid deer.199316031714
a comparison of lungworm faecal larval counts and trichostrongyloid faecal egg counts between red deer (cervus elaphus) and red deer x wapiti f1 determine if breed differences in susceptibility to trichostrongyloid and lungworm infection exist, two groups of weaner deer containing seven red deer and red deer x wapiti f1 hybrids were compared using faecal egg counts and faecal larval counts. all animals were run on the same pasture at the same time and treated with the same anthelmintics at the same time. results indicated that there were significant differences between red deer and red deer x wapiti hybrids, with red deer having highe ...199416031758
osteochondrosis associated with copper deficiency in young farmed red deer and wapiti x red deer hybrids.osteochondrosis is reported in association with copper deficiency in young red deer and wapiti x red deer hybrids on eight deer farms throughout new zealand. on two farms, more than 30% of fawns were affected. affected animals were lame, often had one or more swollen joints, and in some cases had an abnormal "bunny-hopping" gait or "cow-hocked" stance. lesions were most common in the carpal, tarsal, stifle and hip joints, and were usually bilateral. defects in articular cartilage ranged from loo ...199416031764
xylazine and a xylazine/fentanyl citrate/azaperone combination in farmed deer. ii: velvet antler removal and reversal combinations.three studies were undertaken on farmed red and red x wapiti deer to evaluate xylazine and a xylazine/fentanyl citrate/azaperone combination for velvet antler removal. in the first experiment, 30 1-2 year-old red and 25% red x wapiti deer whose velvet was to be removed were given either 5% xylazine alone at 0.5 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly or the same dose rate of a commercially available mixture of 5% xylazine with the addition of 0.4 mg of fentanyl citrate and 3.2 mg of azaperone per ml. ...199616031902
observations of leptospirosis in farmed deer.slaughterhouse and on-farm surveys were undertaken to investigate some aspects of leptospirosis (leptospira interrogans) in farmed deer in the lower north island of new zealand.199816032037
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