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the state of aggregation of red deer (cervus elaphus l.) beta-lactoglobulin preparations near neutral ph.1. the state of aggregation of four red-deer (cervus elaphus l.) beta-lactoglobulin preparations and a control ox beta-lactoglobulin a preparation was studied by sedimentation-equilibrium experiments at ph 6.5 and 20 degrees c. 2. three of the deer preparations and the ox control each behaved as a monomer-dimer system, with a value of log k (where k is the association constant in litres/mol) in the range 5.4-5.5. 3. when one of these deer preparations was examined in the presence of dithiothreit ...197722326
aspects of variation in cranial characters of plains bison (bison bison bison linnaeus) from elk island national park, alberta. 1975171329
innervation and blood supply of the antler pedicle of the red deer. 1979295099
yersiniae in the soil of an infected wapiti range.yersinia enterocolitica was isolated from 10 of 121 soil samples from an area inhabitated by infected wapiti (cervus elaphus roosevelti) in northwest california. significantly (p less than 0.05) more soil samples from a forest habitat were infected, compared to soil samples from prairie habitats. soil was found infected with yersiniae only on dates for which rainfall in excess of 17 mm had occurred during the previous 7 days.1979522222
evaluation of the anaplasmosis rapid card agglutination test for detecting experimentally-infected elk.anaplasma marginale was experimentally transmitted from cattle to elk to cattle. six intact adult elk (cervus canadensis canadensis) inoculated with freshly collected heparinized blood from cattle chronically infected with a. marginale became asymptomatic carriers. although the elk did not develop clinical or hematologic evidence of infection, they became seropositive by the serum(srca) and plasma rapid card agglutination (prca) tests. blood from the experimentally-infected elk produced disease ...1979501840
a summary of the prevalence of parelaphostrongylus tenuis in a captive wapiti population.a total of 87 brains from harvested and collected wapiti and red deer (cervus spp.) were examined grossly and microscopically between 1973 and 1977 in a 2104 ha. preserve. prevalence of infection significantly increased from 26.6% of the sample in 1973 to 64.3% in 1975 (p less than .05). a decline to 47.7% in 1977 (p greater than .05) was not significant. however, the number of clinical cases was significantly higher in 1976-1977 (p less than .02) than previously reported in 1973-1975.1979459045
experimental pneumonia in red deer (cervus elaphus l) produced by an ovine chlamydia.an isolate of chlamydia psittaci from ovine pneumonia produced extensive pneumonia in red deer after endobronchial inoculation. associated clinical signs lasting for several days included pyrexia, inappetance, increased pulse and respiration rate, and physical distress after handling, but no coughing or upper respiratory symptoms. histologically, an acute exudative reaction was present after two days, and an early proliferative response after seven days. both the clinical and pathological respon ...1979532073
effects of season on the secretion of lh and testosterone in intact and castrated red deer stags (cervus elaphus).at 2--4 monthly intervals during the year blood samples were collected every 15 min for 6 h from 2 intact and 3 castrated red deer stags to study the relationship between season and the secretion of lh and testosterone. in the intact stags plasma lh and testosterone concentrations changed during the year; the lh levels were maximal in august during the phase of testicular redevelopment, while the testosterone levels were maximal from september to november coinciding with the time of peak testicu ...1979423165
brucellosis in elk i. serologic and bacteriologic survey in wyoming.incidence of brucellosis in elk (cervus canadensis) on two winter feedgrounds in wyoming was examined over a 5-year period by testing serum samples using the standard plate agglutination (spt) buffered brucella antigen (bba), rivanol (riv) and complement fixation (cft) tests. thirty-one percent of 1,165 elk were positive by defined criteria. considering each test individually, only 29% (106) of 370 positive sera would have been classified as reactors by the spt, 83% (307) by the bba test and 86% ...1978416232
[sarcosporidia of the cloven-hoofed game. iii. sarcosporidia in red deer and fallow deer].the incidence of sarcosporidia among red-deer and fallow-deer was investigated. the fallow-deer is less discussed because the low number of investigations. the red-deer shows with 15% the lowest incidence among the red-deer, fallow-deer and wild-boar investigated. the sarcosporidia of the red-deer are smaller than those of the roe, therefore the identification in the trichinoscopic picture is more difficult. with regard to this it is recommended to name the sarcosporidia of the red-deer sarcocys ...1977413459
sarcocystis in free-ranging herbivores on the national bison range.heart, esophagus, diaphragm and skeletal muscle obtained from various herbivores on the national bison range were examined grossly for sarcocystis. sarcocystis was found in 81, 50, 50, and 13% of the mule deer, (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (o. virginianus), elk (cervus elaphus), and bison (bison bison), respectively.1979110949
[the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses of the red deer (cervus elaphus)--anatomical corrosion studies].by means of thirty skulls of dominating female animals the formation and topography of the cavum nasi and its sinus paranasales of the red-deer are described. the main results are on the one hand the total absence of a sinus frontalis and a sinus sphenoidalis and on the other hand the characteristic formation of the sinus ethmoidales. amongst critical discussion with the available literature concerning the pneumatisation of skulls of red-deer a comparison with the well-known findings about the c ...1978357242
salmonellosis in red deer calves (cervus elaphus). 1978355957
enzootic ataxia in red deer. 1979294534
[influenza a antibodies in deer and elk]. 1979456285
survey for toxoplasmosis in wild and domestic animals from norway and sweden.fifty-nine of 1250 (4.7%) wild and domestic animals from norway and sweden had positive dye-test titers (greater than or equal to 1:8) for antibody against toxoplasma gondii. a dye-test titer of 1:8 (30-40 i.u.) or higher was detected in 3 of 732 small rodents (0.4%), 21 of 87 domestic cats (24%), 9 of 29 red foxes (vulpes vulpes) (31%), 2 of 2 domesticated arctic foxes (alopex lagopus), 12 of 99 red deer (cervus elaphus) (12%), 5 of 8 roe deer (capreolus capreolus) (63%) and in 7 of 34 wild rab ...1978650778
[comparison of the state of dental health in state farm workers at elk in 1974 and 1977]. 1979290471
the energy cost of locomotion on the level and on gradients for the red deer (cervus elaphus).the oxygen consumption (vo2) of three castrated male red deer was measured while they walked on a treadmill at 7 degree and 14 degree slopes and on the level at speeds varying from 44.3 to 172.9 m.min(-1). the energy cost of horizontal locomotion in excess of standing was 2.6 j kg(-1).m(-1). the cost of maintenance of posture when walking was the same as that of standing. the energy cost of walking up gradients was 21.5 j kg(-1).vertical m(-1). these results are discussed in relation to values r ...1977243923
isolation of louping-ill virus from red deer (cervus elaphus). 1978208224
the occurrence of antibody to babesia and to the virus of louping-ill in deer in scotland.sera of wild red deer from 16 localities in scotland were tested by the indirect fluorescent antibody technique for antibody to babesia and by the haemagglutination inhibition test for antibody to the virus of louping-ill. babesial antibody was detected in sera from all localities in proportions ranging from 22 to 100 per cent. antibody to louping-ill virus could not be demonstrated in sera from five of the localities and in the other 11 was found less frequently than was antibody to babesia. se ...1977200997
suppression of the excitatory adrenergic neurotransmission; a possible role of cholinergic nerves in the retractor penis muscle.the excitatory adrenergic response to transmural nerve stimulation of the isolated retractor penis (rp) of dog, cat, horse, boar, elk, bull, ram and goat, as well as the evoked release of 3h from dog rp preloaded with 3h-noradrenaline were studied. in untreated preparations a low concentration of scopolamine could markedly increase the excitatory adrenergic response. on the contrary, physostigmine per se suppressed this response and so did acetylcholine. scopolamine or atropine totally prevented ...1977200067
observations on circulatory adjustment in newborn reindeer and elk.haemodynamics of two reindeer (18 h and 4 days old) and one elk (1 week old) calves were studied by catheterization and angiography. early closure of foetal shunts, high cardiac output and large ejection fractions were observed in all three animals. pulmonary arterial blood pressure decreased to the full-grown level during the first days of life in the reindeer. electrocardiography showed cranial-orientated qrs vector in both species. the cardiovascular system of the cervidae is well developed a ...1979522523
[quantitative characteristics of the systems of truncal auditory and visual brain formations in artiodactyla and perissodactyla].on the ground of cytoarchitectonic investigation and planimetric measurements a volumetric comparison between the systems of truncal formations of auditory and optical analysers were made in the representatives of artiodactyla (deer, elk, gazelle, sheep, wild boar, hippopotamus) and perissodactyla orders (horse). the data obtained demonstrated a great quantitative predominance of the system of optical formation in comparison with that of auditory, which correlates to the leading role of the opti ...1977409378
foot-and-mouth disease in british deer: transmission of virus to cattle, sheep and deer.after exposure for two hours to cattle with foot-and-mouth disease, each of the five species of deer found in the british countryside became infected. clinical disease was typical and severe in the roe and muntjac deer, with some animals dying, less severe in the sika deer and usually subclinical in the fallow and red deer. each species transmitted disease to its own species and to cattle and sheep. the amounts of virus present in the blood, and in oesophageal/pharyngeal samples and excreted as ...1975167503
[economic loss from parafascioloksiasis in elk]. 1978151372
observations on epizootiology and distribution of elaeophora schneideri in montana ruminants.seventy-four moose, 111 elk, 20 mule deer, 8 white-tailed deer, 26 prong-horn antelope, 42 domestic sheep and 3 bighorn sheep from montana or northwestern wyoming were examined post-mortem for evidence of elaeophora schneideri infection in 1973-74. fifteen percent of the mule deer and four percent of the moose were positive for adult arterial worms. this constitutes the first report of e. schneideri in mule deer in montana. no gross signs of blindness or other neurologic disorder were evident in ...1975127848
distribution and seasonal prevalence of bovine lungworms in selected areas in western montana.in a survey (oct, 1967, through aug, 1969) of the distribution and seasonal prevalence of bovine lungworms in beef herds in 3 western montana counties (park, gallatin, and ravalli), infected cattle were detected in 27 of 35 herds. results of 2,125 fecal examinations indicated that 7.8% of all cattle were infected with dictyocaulus viviparus. lungworms were found in 6.6% of 1,038 calves (less than 12 months old), 11.5% of 755 yearlings (1 to 2 years old), and 3.3% of 332 cows (more than 2 years o ...1975123141
[elephantiasis in a red deer]. 1976782823
prevalence of dictyocaulus viviparus infection in rocky mountain elk in teton county, wyoming.dictyocaulus viviparus infections in rocky mountain elk (cervus canadensis of teton countywere surveyed by fecal analyses during spring, summer and winter and by fecal analyses and necropsies during fall hunting seasons, 1968-1973. prevalance of the lungworms was relatively high: 32-70% during the spring; slightly lower, 30-47%, during the summer; 21-39% in the fall; and declined to the annual low of 8-19% during the winter. conversely, elk summering on big game ridge showed an increase in prev ...1975123012
a serologic survey of mule deer and elk in utah.sera from mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) and elk (cervus canadensis) in central and northern utah were tested for the prevalence of antibodies to 11 diseases communicable to man or domestic livestock. antibodies to francisella tularensis (at 1:20) were found in 47 of 88 (53.4%) elk and 1 of 89 (1.1%) deer. a screening slide agglutination test for titers to brucella (at 1:20) showed two reactors in elk but none in deer sera. no positive antibody titers were obtained in tests for anaplasmosis, co ...1978105153
brucellosis in elk. ii. clinical effects and means of transmission as determined through artificial infections. 197899525
[biological significance of the pre-orbital organ for imprinting, individual smell and orientation in red deer]. 1977843332
rumen function in red deer, hill sheep and reindeer in the scottish highlands.red deer, sheep and reindeer grazing on their normal hill ranges were examined at intervals over a period of four years. samples from the digestive tract were taken at different seasons and processed in the field. the red deer and reindeer were killed before samples were taken; rumen samples from the sheep were taken by stomach tube, but a number of animals were also killed at different seasons to correlate stomach tube and whole rumen samples. the animals sampled were representative of the gene ...197610575
evaluation of the anaplasmosis rapid card agglutination test for detecting experimentally infected elk.anaplasmosis was experimentally transmitted from cattle to elk to cattle. six non-splenectomized adult elk (cervus canadensis canadensis) that were inoculated with freshly collected heparinized blood from cattle chronically infected with anaplasma marginale became asymptomatic carriers. although the exposed elk did not develop clinical or hematologic evidence of infection they become seropositive by the serum and plasma rapid card agglutination (rca) tests. blood from the experimentally infected ...1979527345
retention time and digestibility of milled hay in sheep and red deer (cervus elaphus). 1979530995
seasonal variation in the histology of the testis of the red deer, cervus elaphus.a histological study of the testes of stags shot in autumn (sexual season) and spring (quiescent period) indicated that the 3-fold increase in testicular size observed in the autumn was accompanied by increases in nearly all features studied (volumes of intertubular tissue, leydig cells, blood vessels and peritubular cells; diameter and length of seminiferous tubules; the number of a1 spermatogonia and products of spermatogonial divisions, meiosis and spermiogenesis). there were, however, fewer ...1978722668
maternal weight, reproduction, calf mortality and calf growth in farmed red deer (cervus elaphus). 1979531015
[occurence of onchocerca tarsicola bain and schulz-key, 1974, in reindeer (author's transl)].onchocerca tarsicola is recorded from reindeer (rangifer tarandus l.). this parasite is originally described from red deer (cervus elaphus l.). there are indications that reindeer may not be the primary host of o. tarsicola: 1. reindeer is parasitized only by o, tarsicola whereas red deer, due to speciations, is carrying three related onchocerca species from the same line. 2. o. tarsicola, usually found along tendons distal of the tarsal and carpal joints, is in reindeer frequently found at aber ...1979539724
[the supply of wild ruminants with major and trace elements. 1. the cadmium content of winter grazing and the cadmium status of red deer, fallow deer, roes and moulons].the cd-determination of 10 different winter grazings for wild ruminants in seven different biotopes showed significant differences of the habitats resulting from the previous cd-emission of metallurgy smelting non-ferrous metals. the winter grazing of the tharandt forest and the harz mountains contained significantly more cd than that of the lower flaming hills, the western erzgebirge and the northern agrarian areas. the bark and the tips of conifer twigs, twigs of oak and mountain ash, bilberry ...1979547984
[the supply of wild ruminants with major and trace elements. 2. the manganese content of winter grazing and the manganese status of red deer, fallow deer, roes and mouflons].the winter grazing of wild ruminants on mantles of slate waste in the harz mountains and in gera county were richest in mn whereas those on mantles of granite waste in the erzgebirge were poorest. the flora of the shell-limestone, keuper and loess areas contains much less mn than that of those acid habitats. the mn-requirement of the wild ruminants grazing in the forests is met however, since bilberry plants (2,080 mg/kg), spruce twigs (984 mg/kg), spruce bark (827 mg/kg), oak twigs (791 mg/kg) ...1979547985
bovine virus diarrhoea antibody in a scottish red deer. 1977190760
factors affecting reproduction in red deer (cervus elaphus) hinds on rhum.in a population of free-ranging red deer hinds on the isle of rhum (inner hebrides) we investigated relationships between four aspects of reproductive performance (fertility, calf birth weight, birth sex ratio and calving date) and four variables likely to affect the mother's condition: age, reproductive status, home range area and year of calving. fertility was significantly related to mother's age, reproductive status and home range area as well as to year of calf's birth. stag calves were hea ...1978569204
foxglove (digitalis purpurea) poisoning in farmed red deer (cervus elaphus).a series of unexpected deaths and unthriftiness was encountered in red deer at glensaugh deer farm, kincardineshire, scotland, in the autumn and winter of 1975--76. occurrence and gross post mortem findings suggested a common etiology but microbiological, helminthological and histological examinations indicated that the syndrome was not of infectious or parasitic origin. some of the lesions suggested an irritant poison. foxglove plants were found in the pasture and their poisonous potential seem ...1978636255
[studies on the fibrinolytic system in ruptured intracranial aneurysm. part 1. monitoring of the antifibrinolytic therapy through repeated measurement of sk-euglobulin lysis time and fdp (author's transl)].streptokinase euglobulin lysis time (sk-elk), fibrin and fibrinogen degradation products (fdp) and fibrinogen in the blood were determined to know the proper dosage of t-amcha which would not cause the ischemic complications yet suffice to prevent the rebleeding of ruptured intracranial aneurysm. sk-elt was almost doubled(130 sec) by the administration of 6-8g/day of t-amcha within 24-48h in normal control. on the other hand, sk-elt in sah patients fluctuated tremendously during ten days after t ...1977561325
the development of clinical signs and the population significance of neurologic disease in a captive wapiti herd.clinical signs attributable to meningeal worm (parelaphostrongylus tenuis) were recorded in three male and three female wapiti (cervus elaphus canadensis) ranging in age from 5 - 29 months. the study was conducted from september, 1976 to may, 1977 in a 2104-ha preserve. some differences were noted in occurrence, time schedule and sequence of signs but the basic pattern was similar. the mean time between initial sign observed and death was 100 days. the effect of neurologic disease on population ...1978650796
differences in the proportions of branched-chain fatty acids in subcutaneous triacylglycerols of barley-fed ruminants.1. the fatty acids of the triacylglycerols of subcutaneous adipose tissue of cattle, sheep, goats and red deer (cervus elaphus) which consumed either herbage or a barley-rich diet were analysed for their content of branched-chain components. 2. whereas the consumption of the barley-rich diet by sheep and goats was associated with the occurrence of relatively high proportions of branched-chain fatty acids, it was not in cattle and red deer.1978667004
experimental challenge of red deer with mycobacterium avium. 1978685094
naturally occurring leptospirosis (leptospiraballum) in a red deer (cervus elaphus). 1978685108
an outbreak of malignant catarrhal fever in red deer (cervus elephus).nine of 15 housed red deer developed an acute disease. six died and three were killed when severely affected. the clinical and post mortem changes suggested a diagnosis of malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) which was consistent with the pantropic lymphoproliferative histopathological lesions observed. attempts to isolate an agent or transmit the condition to cattle failed. the relation of the vasculitis to the pathogenesis of the disease and the susceptibility of red deer are discussed.1979572110
observations on the calving of free-ranging tame red deer (cervus elaphus).calving was observed in 27 farmed red deer, most of which were calving for the first time. on average, parturition lasted 107 min and the placenta was released 98 min after calving. the postnatal development of 23 calves was watched. on average, the first sucking occurred 33 min after birth and the calves were able to stand 47 min after birth. there was wide variation in these times. male first calves had a mean weight of 6.59 kg and females a mean weight of 6.00 kg, weighed dry after the first ...1978722677
heterozygosity in yellowstone park elk, cervus canadensis.protein products of 24 loci from the genomes of yellowstone park elk were analyzed by electrophoresis. heterozygosity was detected in only one system, making elk much less polymorphic than eastern whitetailed deer. data for several other large mammals are compared with those for elk and reveal similarly low levels of isozymic variation. the data are consistent with the fine-grained niche theory but difficult to reconcile with bottlenecks and genetic drift.1978728058
warble fly in red deer. 1977867754
the induction of male sexual behavior in red deer (cervus elaphus) by the administration of testosterone to hinds and estradiol-17beta to stags. 1978748145
leptospiral antibodies in wild living animals from north tyrol.the authors examined serologically 623 wild living animals (22 species) from north tyrol for the incidence of leptospirosis. positive reactions (mal) in the titre 1: 100 and more were found in 4.5% of the animals examined; the serotypes concerned were these: icterohaemorrhagiae, sorex-jalna, castellonis or arboreae, grippotyphosa, bratislava, pomona, sejroe, saxkoebing. positive reactions were obtained with the sera of sorex araneus, erinaceus europaeus, putorius putorius, vulpes vulpes, cervus ...1976780229
a comparison of the voluntary intake and digestion of a range of forages at different times of the year by the sheep and the red deer (cervus elaphus).1. comparisons were made between castrated male scottish blackface sheep and red deer (cervus elaphus) of voluntary forage intake (vfi), digestibility and the mean retention time (mrt) of a particulate-phase marker (103ru-phenanthroline) in the alimentary tract, when a range of forages: dried-grass pellets, chopped dried grass, fresh-frozen agrostis-festuca spp. and heather (calluna vulgaris, l. hull) were given at different times of the year. 2. on both the dried-grass-pellet and chopped dried- ...1978698173
dead space and tidal volume of the giraffe compared with some other mammals.the ventilation, tidal volume and anatomical dead-space were measured in a living giraffe and compared with similar measurements in a camel, red deer, llama and man. the giraffe had a resting tidal volume of about 3.3 litres with a dead-space/tidal-volume ratio of 0.34. the giraffe breathes slowly, apparently because of the unusually small diameter of its trachea relative to its length, compared with known measurement in other mammals.1978734250
selected oxygen transport parameters in captive elk.five captive elk (cervus canadensis) were immobilized with a mixture of etorphine hc1-acepromazine maleate, and measurements were taken of selected oxygen transport paraments. heart mass/body mass, hematocrit, hemoglobin, blood volume, mean corpuscular volume and airway resistance were measured and the values compared to other ungulates. it was concluded that the o2 transport system of elk is not as well developed as that in pronghorn but is superior to that found in the goat or ox.1977866816
warble fly in red deer. 1977867765
[comparative study of the myoglobin of the reindeer rangifer tarandus, the elk alces alces and the deer cervus elaphus xanthopygus].myoglobin preparations from muscles of a. alces, r. tarandus and c. elaphus xanthopygus were isolated by sephadex gel filtration (g-75). their fe content was found to be equal to 0.303--0.308%, which corresponds to the molecular weight of 18, 000. it was shown that splitting of heme from the globin results in an increase of the area occupied by the molecule on the phase boarderline from 36-10(2) to 47-10(2) a2. by the peptide charts method of tryptic hydrolysates combined with the detection of s ...1977868393
variation in the weight, specific gravity and composition of the antlers of red deer (cervus elaphus l.).1. antlers were removed in september from 2-4 year old red deer (cervus elaphus l.). both well-fed penned stags and less well-nourished grazing stags were studied. 2. for deer of the same age, both log antler weight and log antler specific gravity were related to body-weight in september and to body-weight gain between march and september. the antlers of 3- and 4-year-old stags were heavier and tended to be denser relative to body-weight and body-weight gain than those of 2-year-old stags. 3. fo ...1977588531
lens lesions in the elk. 1977878963
the carotid and orbital retia of the pronghorn, deer and elk.selective cooling of the brain during heat stress has been shown by others to be a method of temperature regulation for mammals having carotid retia. this study describes the macroscopic anatomy of the cranial circulation of elk, deer and pronghorn as it might pertain to the functioning of carotid retia and orbital retia as heat exchangers. emphasis has been placed on describing the source of venous blood bathing these retia, for blood flow from these sources to the ophthalmic plexus and caverno ...1977907206
the immobilization of wapiti with etorphine hydrochloride.data and observations on the use of etorphine hydrochloride (m99) (in combination with acepromazine) and its antagonist m50-50 for immobilization of captive elk (cervus elaphus canadensis) are presented. the study period covers 3 years during which 8 adult elk were immobilized 52 times with m99. the average dose of m99 administered for each immobilization was 2.2 mg per 100 kg body weight. reversal with m50-50 was effected by an average dose of 4.4 mg per 100 body weight. induction averaged 5.9 ...1977916137
reinvestigation of the primary structures of red deer and roe deer pancreatic ribonuclease and proline sites in mammalian ribonucleases.the sequences of amino acid residues 15-23 of red deer (cervus elaphus) and roe deer (capreolus capreolus) pancreatic ribonuclease and the identity of residue 99 in roe deer ribonuclease are corrected. earlier results are explained by the cleavage of an asp-pro bond in both enzymes during the treatment with cnbr in 70% formic acid and by wrong interpretations of amino acid analyses. proline residues, which occur at a number of positions in several mammalian ribonucleases, can be accommodated in ...1977836889
capture myopathy in elk in alberta, canada: a report of three cases.acute capture myopathy was diagnosed in 3 elk (cervus canadensis). in 2 of the elk, hindlimb lameness developed within 10 days of capture. clinical signs were not observed in the third elk, which was found dead 7 days after its capture. elks 1 and 2 were euthanatized and all 3 animals were necropsied. in elks 1 and 2, rupture of the semi-membranosus muscle was associated with massive hemorrhage and swelling. microscopic findings included hemorrhage, edema, myofibril fragmentation, and evidence o ...1977924867
further studies on trypanosomers in game animals in wyoming.blood samples were collected from captive and free-ranging elk (cervus canadensis), mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer, (odocoileus virginianus), black-tailed deer (odocoileus hemionus columbianus), pronghorn (antilocapra americana), moose (alces alces), and bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) for cultural evidence of trypanosoma sp. infection. eleven of 188 (12%) hunter-killed elk, 22 of 37 (59%) free-ranging elk, and 79 of 119 (66%) captive elk were culture positive in 1973-74. par ...1976933315
letter: copper levels in red deer. 1976936459
anaesthesia in red deer. 19761006966
[clinical examination of the blood of red deer (cervus elaphus l.) naturally infested with parasites].in six animals hunted and four immobilized animals of red deer (cervus elaphus l.) of both sexes and of different age, kept at three game preserves in bohemia, the psychological values were ascertained: the number of erythrocytes and leucocytes, the hemoglobin content, the hematocrit, mcv, mch, mchc, the white blood count, the total serum protein, the fractions: albumin, alpha-, beta- and gamma-globulin, the activity of sgot, and sgpt, the alkaline phosphatase and the metabolism of calcium, phos ...1976820034
the isolation and characterization of a babesia from red deer (cervus elaphus).on three occasions, antibody positive blood from wild red deer produced overt infections with babesia when inoculated into splenectomized red deer. one of the deer also became infected with eperythrozoon sp. babesia divergens, b. capreoli and the babesia of red deer are morphologically similar and the marginal position of the parasites in the host cell is characteristic. babesia were not seen and no antibody was formed in five out of six splenectomized bovine calves which were injected with para ...1976967525
depression of a newborn elk calf associated with the prepartum use of etorphine hydrochloride in the dam. 1976977455
rumen micro-organisms in red deer, hill sheep and reindeer in the scottish highlands.the micro-organisms in rumen samples from red deer, hill sheep and reindeer grazing their natural pastures in the scottish highlands were examined at different seasons over a number of years. the total counts of bacteria and protozoa varied with the seasons, and were lowest in winter when fermentative activity was also at its lowest. as is usual in roughage-fed ruminants, viable counts were only a very small proportion of the total counts. the reindeer rumens had the highest concentrations of ba ...1976981241
[cardiac component of emotional stress in the elk, alces alces, and the reindeer, rangifer tarandus].using radiotelemetric technique, extraordinary changes have been found in cardiac activity of the elk and reindeer during spontaneous emotional stress under natural conditions. cardiac reaction is characterized by rapid 2--3-fold increase in the heart rate and by 3--4-fold increase in the amplitude of t-wave. it was suggested that these changes are associated with abnormalities of metabolic processes in the heart.1976988696
spontaneous aorta and coronary lesions in mountain mammals. i. the carpathian deer (cervus elaphus).arterial lesions were investigated in 48 adult wild carpathian deers (cervus elaphus). aortas from 36 animals and fragments from the main coronary trunks of all the animals were studied histologically and histochemically. in 44.4% of the animals the specimens studied presented gross intimal lesions in the aorta consisting histologically of fibrous plaques (especially situated in the thoracic segment) and/or intimal musculo-elastic thickenings with lipid deposits or fatty streaks (especially in t ...1976989179
[investigations on the filariidae of the cervidae in southern germany. 4. onchocerca garmsi bain and schulz-key, 1976, a subcutaneous filaria of red deer (cervus elaphus)].o. garmsi is a filaria living free in the subcutaneous tissues on the chest of red deer. the microfilarial distribution pattern in the skin of the host is studied. the convergent distribution of microfilariae of o. garmsi, o. tubingensis and o. cervicalis on the one hand and of o. tarsicola and w. rugosicauda on the other hand is discussed.1976941252
[on the heavy-metal-contamination of vension (author's transl)].a survey is given on the heavy-metal-contamination of venison (total number of samples: 224) with special consideration of geographical and ecological aspects. in the liver of rabbits, and average of 0.55 ppm hg and 1.10 ppm pb was found, which was more than ten resp. three times the amount found in the livers of roe, red deer and wild boars. the mean cd-content of wild-boars'-livers was 0.06 ppm, a value double as high as in rabbits, roes and red deer. the regional or ecological differences wer ...1977857497
prevalence and effects of parelaphostrongylus tenuis in a captive wapiti population.prevalence of neurologic disease attributed to parelaphostrongylus tenuis was investigated in a population of wapii (cervus elaphus canadensis) enclosed in a 2080 ha. preserve. brains of 44 animals harvested in 1973, 1974 and 1975 were examined grossly and microscopically. prevalence of infection increased each year from 26.6% of the sample in 1973 to 64.3% in 1975. these data suggest that wapiti living close to white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) may have a high prevalence of infection, ...1977864848
[prevalence of the ticks dermacentor marginatus (sulzer, 1776) and dermacentor reticulatus (fabricius, 1794) and their importance as vectors of diseases in germany (author's transl)].from a systematical study of german ticks resulted the occurrence of two tick species of the genus dermacentor. d. marginatus is found to be widely spread in southern germany. adults of the tick feed mainly on sheep. d. reticulatus is first described from germany where the tick occurs endemic in a limited forest area on red deer. the two tick species are known from neighbouring countries of germany in transmitting virus, rickettsiae, bacteriae and protozoa but are not yet well studied in germany ...19761006797
[a fourth species of onchocerca, o. garmsi n.sp. from the european deer (author's transl)].description of o. garmsi n.sp. in the connective subcutaneous tissue of cervus elaphus; furhter information on the description of o. tubingensis bain and schulz-key, 1974, in subcutaneous nodules of the same host.19761006803
spontaneous aorta and coronary lesions in mountain mammals. i. the carpathian deer (cervus elaphus).arterial lesions were investigated in 48 adult wild carpathian deers (cervus elaphus). aortas from 36 animals and fragments from the main coronary trunks of all the animals were studied histologically and histochemically. in 44.4% of the animals the specimens studied presented gross intimal lesions in the aorta consisting histologically of fibrous plaques (especially situated in the thoracic segment) and/or intimal musculo-elastic thickenings with lipid deposits or fatty streaks (especially in t ...19761024259
letter: elaphostrongylus cervi in red deer. 19761063944
elaphostrongylus cervi in cervids in new zealand. 1. the gross and histological lesions in red deer (cervus elaphus). 19761071464
anaplasmosis: prevalence, treatment, and cattle to elk transmission studies. 19751078068
the whey proteins of the milk of red deer (cervus elaphus l.). a homologue of bovine beta-lactoglobulin.1. the whey proteins from the milk of red deer are compared with those of cattle. gel chromatography and electrophoresis showed a close similarity between the whey proteins of the two species in the size, mobility and relative amounts of the main constituents and in the changes in their relative amounts with time after parturition. 2. the major constituent of the deer whey was isolated. it appeared to be homologous with bovine beta-lactoglobulin and had the following properties: m=-5.2x10(-9)m2- ...1976942378
comparative study of some isolated mammalian smooth muscle effectors of penile erection.spontaneous rhythmic activity, responses to drugs and effects of field stimulation of nerves of the retractor penis (rp) and/or corpus cavernosum urethrae (ccu) of macaque, rabbit, guinea-pig, rat, dog, cat, horse, boar, elk, bull, ram and goat, as well as of the penile artery (pa) of bull were studied. a basic property of all these muscles was automaticity. their responses to 5-hydroxytryptamine, histamine, adenosine triphosphate, prostaglandins e1, e2, and f2alpha, oxytocin, vasopressin, subst ...1977920206
an effect of the epididymis on the growth of antlers of castrated red deer. 19751110466
[asymptomatic carriage of pestivirus in ruminants].pestiviruses are enveloped single-chain ribonucleic acid viruses with a positive polarity. pestiviruses include the viruses of classical swine fever (hog cholera), border disease of sheep, mucosal disease of cattle, and isolates obtained from wild animals, such as red deer (cervus elaphus). among ruminants, pestiviruses have developed a remarkable strategy for assuring their persistence. through epigenetic transmission, they lead to the birth of asymptomatic carrier animals harbouring non-cytopa ...19921339065
trypanosoma cervi sp. n. from elk (cervus canadensis) in wyoming.trypanosoma cervi sp. n. is described from 22 trypomastigote syntypes from the blood of elk, cervus canadensis, in north america (type locality: wyoming). the blood trypomatigotes of t. cervi are compared with various culture forms: epimastigotes in 22 to 25 c nnn cultures; trypomastigotes in 37 c nnn cultures; and trypomastigotes from cam chick embryo (10-day) cultures. trypanosoma cervi is differentiated on morphological grounds from the cosmopolitan bovine species, t. theileri, and from t. in ...19751117365
a comparative study of the intestinal anatomy of deer.the intestinal anatomy of fallow deer (dama dama), white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), reindeer (rangifer tarandus), and elk (alces alces) was studied. special attention was given to the spiral loop of the ascending colon and the proportional length of the small and large intestines. the spiral loop of the ascending colon is wound 3-3 1/2 turns in the fallow deer, 2-3 turns in the white-tailed deer, 5 1/2-7 turns in the reindeer and 3-4 turns in the elk. the distal half of the last centr ...19751163814
a repeater type biotelemetry system for use on wild big game animals.a repeater type telemetry system was developed and field tested on a wild elk near laramie, wyoming, in the summer of 1973. the telemetry system consisted of the following: (a) a heat flow rate sensing implanted transmitter, (b) a repeater type neck collar and (c) a portable receiving station consisting of a receiver, decoding circuitry and analog chart recorder. the transmitter in (a) produced relatively low frequency rf pulses whose repetition rate was directly proportional to heat flow rate t ...19751176269
trypanosoma cervi kingston and morton, 1975 from mule deer, odocoileus hemionus, in wyoming.mensural values of blood stream stages and cross-transmission studies defined the trypanosome species from mule deer, odocoileus hemionus, as con-specific with trypanosoma cervi, the trypanosome found in elk from the same locality. trypanosomes were found in eight mule deer sampled in the spring and eight sampled in the winter in southeastern wyoming.1977839619
[investigations on the filariidae of the cervidae in southern germany. 1. development of the nodule, finding of the sexes and production of the microfilariae in onchocerca flexuosa (wedl, 1856), in the red deer (cervus elaphus) (author's transl)].the biology of o. flexuosa was studied during the examination of numerous subcutaneous nodules, which were taken from the hides of red deer of all age-classes. in fawns the development of the nodule is induced by the immature stages, probably by the females. at the same time a hematome is formed. males of different ages penetrate into the nodule where mature or immature females are present. later they mate and remain within the nodule until the microfilariae in the uteri of the females develop. ...19751145726
the intake, digestibility and retention time of roughage diets by red deer (cervus elaphus) and sheep [proceedings]. 1976972909
[studies on the filariidae of cervidae in southern germany. 2. filariidae of the red deer (cervus elaphus)].in southern germany many of the red deer are infected with 4 filariid species. the microfilariae of 3 subcutaneous and one intradermal filariae are described. skin snips were taken according to a regular pattern from the hides of several killed deer. the emerging microfilariae were identified and counted, and the characteristic distribution of each species in the skin was plotted. the adult worms of o. tarsicola are located on the abductor tendons of the tibiotarsal or radiocarpal joints. some m ...19751189029
[serological studies of cestode cysts. p1 blood-group activity in cysts of zoo animals].the cyst fluid of cestodes from various animals kept in zoological gardens was examined for the presence of a-, b-, h- and p1-blood group activity. while the results in the abh-system were negative, the cysts from 2 of 13 animals examined (1 elk and 1 reindeer) presented p1-blood group activity.19751193483
the amino acid sequence of myoglobin from skeletal muscles of red deer (cervus elaphus).red deer myoglobin has been fragmented by restricted tryptic digestion and by treatment with cyanogen bromide. the fragments have been separated by gel permeation. the core peptide derived from cyanogen bromide cleavage have been further digested with trypsin and the resulting peptides have been separated on dowex 1x2. all fragments have been characterized by their amino acid composition, by determination of their n-terminal sequence using automatic edman degradation and of their c-terminal sequ ...19751202228
[pathomorphological and histochemical changes in parafasciolopsosis of elk and deer]. 19751209962
chymotrypsins from the deer (cervidae) family. isolation, partial characterization and primary-structure studies of chymotrypsins a and b from both moose (alces alces) and elk (cervus elaphus) pancreas.1. an anionic and a cationic chymotrypsin (ec 3.4.21.1) were isolated from the pancreas glands of the moose (alces alces) and elk (cervus elaphus). the a and b chymotrypsins from each species were purified to homogeneity by (nh4)2so4 fractionation, affinity chromatography on 4-phenylbutylamine-sepharose and ion-exchange chromatography on deae- and cm-cellulose. 2. the molecular weight and ph optimum of each chymotrypsin were similar to those of the corresponding ox a and b chymotrypsins. 3. the ...1976949318
seasonal changes in appetite and sexual condition in red deer stags maintained on a six-month photoperiod. 19751123804
intake and digestion of hill-land vegetation by the red deer and the sheep. 1976995186
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