detection of antibodies to mycoplasmas in south american camelids.indirect haemagglutination tests on sera from 757 south american camelids (alpacas, llamas and vicunas) carried out in the andean region of peru, revealed evidence of exposure mainly to mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides lc. the incidence of detectable antibodies to this mycoplasma in 554 alpacas was 5.0 per cent and in 141 llamas 15.6 per cent. antibody to mycoplasma capricolum and the f38 biotype was detected in 0.9 per cent and 0.2 per cent of alpacas, respectively. in a group of 62 vicu ...19911780576
ag-nor staining and in situ hybridization of rdna in the chromosomes of the south american camelids.the location and frequency of ag-stained nors and sites of rdna hybridization were studied in the chromosomes of the south american camelids. in the four camelids these regions occur distally on chromosomes 18, 21, and 27 and the smallest biarmed elements. quantitative analysis of nor distribution showed variations between both cells and species. in llama, guanaco and alpaca the nors number averaged 6 per cell, this being higher than in vicuña where the average was 3. relative frequencies of nor ...19892482825
oxygen binding properties, capillary densities and heart weights in high altitude camelids.the oxygen binding properties of the blood of the camelid species vicuna, llama, alpaca and dromedary camel were measured and evaluated with respect to interspecific differences. the highest blood oxygen affinity, not only among camelids but of all mammals investigated so far, was found in the vicuna (p50 = 17.6 torr compared to 20.3-21.6 torr in the other species). low hematocrits (23-34%) and small red blood cells (21-30 microns 3) are common features of all camelids, but the lowest values are ...19883220989
dependence of o2 transfer conductance of red blood cells on cellular estimate the significance of the dimensions of rbc on o2 transfer, the kinetics of o2 release from rbc into medium containing dithionite (40 mmol/l) was measured, by a stopped-flow technique, for nine different species with varying rbc size (man, llama, vicuna, alpaca, dromedary camel, pygmy goat, domestic hen, muscovy duck and turtle). the observed o2 transfer kinetics were found to be size-dependent, i.e. the o2 transfer conductance of the single rbc, gst, was lower, whereas the specific o2 ...19883364283
dna composition in south american camelids. i. characterization and in situ hybridization of satellite dna fractions.the dna composition and the in situ hybridization of satellite fractions were analysed in the new world camelids llama, alpaca, guanaco and vicuña. in the four camelid forms, it was possible to identify a similar main band dna and five satellite fractions (i-v) with g + c base contents ranging from 32% to 66%. satellites ii-v from llama were in situ reannealed on chromosomes from the four camelid forms. the results obtained were: (a) the four satellites hybridized with regions of c-banding (cent ...19873505882
oxygen transfer properties and dimensions of red blood cells in high-altitude camelids, dromedary camel and estimate the advantage of the small red blood cells (rbc) of high-altitude camelids for o2 transfer, the kinetics of o2 uptake into and release from the rbc obtained from llama, vicuña and alpaca were investigated at 37 degrees c with a stopped-flow technique. o2 transfer conductance of rbc (g) was estimated from the rate of o2 saturation change and the corresponding o2 pressure difference between medium and hemoglobin. for comparison, o2 kinetics for the rbc of a low-altitude camelid (dromed ...19873571563
mycobacterium microti infection in a zoo-llama: lama vicugna (molina). 19705527701
erythrokinetics in high-altitude-adapted animals (llama, alpaca, and vicuña). 19685635776
[on the genus nematodirus ransom 1907 (nematoda: trichostrongyloidea)].n. roscidus railliet, 1911, from dama dama (italy); n. abnormalis may, 1920, from ovis aries, capra hircus and rupicapra rupicapra (france, italy, australia); n. lanceolatus ault, 1944, from ovis aries (iran); n. europaeus jansen, 1972, from capreolus caperolus and ovis musimon (first record) (france); n. davtiani alpinus biocca, balbo & costantini, 1974, from rupicapra rupicapra (italy); n. rupicaprae biocca, balbo & costantini, 1983, from rupicapra rupicapra (france); n. ibicis biocca, balbo & ...19836673643
[biodiversity and similarity between the nematode parasite communities of domestic and wild ruminants].the analysis of the bibliografical information concerning to the nematode parasite communities of domestic and wild ruminants, permitted to obtein the following values of maximum diversity index, bovidae: 4.88 bits; cervidae: 4.33 bits and cameliae: 3.69 bits. the highest values of this index within each family of host wee 5.75 bits. 5.49 bits and 4.32 bits for ovis aries (bovidae), capreolus capreolus (cervidae), lama pacos and camelus dromedarius (camelidae), respectively. the families of para ...19937483967
an assessment of the relationships among species of camelidae by satellite dna comparisons.tandem satellite arrays and interspersed repetitive dna components of the new world camelids guanaco, llama, alpaca, and vicuña and the old world bactrian camel have been identified and compared. southern hybridizations, using camel restriction fragments as probes, indicated that satellite dnas in all camelids examined have been conserved since the last common ancestor about 5-10 my ago. the hybridization profiles, however, varied from totally identical (mspi-sat) to highly differentiated (psti- ...19947737889
fasciola hepatica in semi-captive vicuñas (vicugna vicugna) in north west argentina. 19968843645
presence of enamel on the incisors of the llama (lama glama) and alpaca (lama pacos).attempts have been made to define the relationships among the south american camelids, the guanaco, llama, alpaca, and vicuna, by comparing the morphology of their incisors. the alpaca has been reported to have an incisor morphology similar to the vicuna, lacking enamel on the lingual surface. the llama and guanaco are said to have enamel on both the labial and lingual surface of their incisor teeth. these comparisons have been based on gross morphological observations and not on histologic anal ...19979415451
genetic analysis reveals the wild ancestors of the llama and the alpaca.the origins of south america's domestic alpaca and llama remain controversial due to hybridization, near extirpation during the spanish conquest and difficulties in archaeological interpretation. traditionally, the ancestry of both forms is attributed to the guanaco, while the vicuña is assumed never to have been domesticated. recent research has, however, linked the alpaca to the vicuña, dating domestication to 6000-7000 years before present in the peruvian andes. here, we examine in detail the ...200111749713
assisted reproductive techniques for hybridization of camelids.the camelid family comprises the old world camelids (or dromedary and bactrian camels) and the new world camelids (namely the llamas, alpacas, guanacos and vicunas). although the species within each group can hybridize among themselves to produce fertile offspring, it is only recently that a hybrid between new and old world camelids has been reported. to create this hybrid, semen was collected from male camels by artificial vagina (av) and inseminated into female guanacos (n = 9) and llamas (n = ...200111999316
cataracts in new world camelids (llamas, alpacas, vicuñas, and guanacos).cataracts are the most frequently seen lens diseases in new world camelids. the causes of cataracts are unknown in many animals, but cataracts secondary to intraocular inflammation seem to be common. congenital or juvenile-onset cataracts, if another cause is not apparent, should be considered as possibly caused by heredity, and the affected animals should not be bred. persistent hyaloid vascular anomalies may also have an important role in cataract formation and could be heritable or caused by ...200212170638
first report of neospora caninum infection in adult alpacas (vicugna pacos) and llamas (lama glama).neospora caninum is a cyst-forming coccidian that mainly affects bovines, although neospora infection has also been described in other domestic and wild ruminant species. serum samples from 78 alpacas (vicugna pacos) and 73 llamas (lama glama) at a unique dilution of 1:50 tested by indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) were further analyzed serologically by ifat and western blot in both ruminant species to avoid cross-reactions with closely related coccidian parasites and to confirm the exis ...200415357084
neospora species-associated abortion in alpacas (vicugna pacos) and llamas (llama glama). 200415623090
effect of exogenous progesterone and ecg treatment on ovarian follicular dynamics in vicunas (vicugna vicugna).the aim of the present study was two-fold. first, to evaluate the effect of exogenous progesterone on ovarian follicular dynamics in order to assess its ability to synchronize ovarian activity in the vicuna. secondly, to evaluate the ovarian response to the treatment with ecg through the observation of the structures developed in the ovaries. follicular dynamics was monitored daily by transrectal ultrasonography in 12 adult, non-pregnant vicunas. plasma progesterone and estradiol-17beta concentr ...200515721666
detection of specific antibodies to neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii in naturally infected alpacas (lama pacos), llamas (lama glama) and vicunas (lama vicugna) from peru and germany.sera of an experimentally neospora caninum infected llama and a non-infected control llama were used to establish an immunoblot, an elisa and an ifat to detect antibodies against n. caninum tachyzoites. subsequently, serum samples collected from a total of 871 south american camelids (sac: lama glama, lama pacos, lama vicugna) of two farms in peru and from 32 sac of a farm in central germany were examined for antibodies against n. caninum and toxoplasma gondii. based on the recognition of specif ...200515893073
toxoplasma gondii infection in adult llamas (lama glama) and vicunas (vicugnavicugna) in the peruvian andean region.the present study was designed to investigate toxoplasma gondii infection in adult llamas (lama glama) and vicunas (vicugna vicugna) in the peruvian andean region, for which to date no information has been available. serum samples from 43 llamas (l. glama) and 200 vicunas were tested by ifat detecting titres of 1:50 or higher in 55.8% (33.9-70.9%) and 5.5% (2.8-9.6%), respectively. ifat titres ranged from 1:50 to 1:6400. in order to avoid cross reactions with closely related coccidian parasites ...200515893075
production and characterization of anti-(mucin muc1) single-domain antibody in tobacco (nicotiana tabacum cultivar xanthi).members of the camelidae (camels, dromedaries, llamas, alpacas, guanacos and vicunas) are known to produce igs (immunoglobulins) devoid of light chains and ch1s (constant heavy-chain domains). the antigen-specific binding fragments of these heavy-chain antibodies therefore comprise one single domain (the so-called 'vhh') and are of great importance in biotechnological applications. to evaluate the expression and biological activity of sdabs (single-domain antibodies) in plants, which, on account ...200717073735
coccidiosis in british alpacas (vicugna pacos). 200717558030
bovine viral diarrhoea virus infection of alpacas (vicugna pacos) in the uk.three alpacas (vicugna pacos) aged two to 22 months with a history of illthrift and diarrhoea were examined postmortem, and tissues were collected for histology, including immunohistochemical labelling for pestivirus antigen, virus isolation and taqman reverse transcriptase-pcr assay. blood samples from two clinical cases and the remaining herd members were tested for bovine viral diarrhoea virus (bvdv) antibody by serum neutralisation, antigen detection and pcr assay. the three affected alpacas ...200717652435
cryopreservation of epididymal alpaca (vicugna pacos) sperm: a comparison of citrate-, tris- and lactose-based diluents and pellets and straws.epididymal spermatozoa were harvested from male alpacas and frozen after extension and cooling to 4 degrees c in citrate-, tris- and lactose-based diluents (experiment 1) and as pellets in 0.25- and 0.5-ml straws on either dry ice or over liquid nitrogen vapour (experiment 2) to determine the effects diluents and packaging on their motility and acrosome integrity. in experiment 1, sperm motility was higher after cooling to 4 degrees c and after freeze-thawing (0 but not 3 h post-thaw) for sperma ...200717897581
evaluation of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii infections in alpaca (vicugna pacos) and llama (lama glama) aborted foetuses from peru.the aim of this study was to investigate the participation of neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii in abortion cases of peruvian llamas and alpacas. fifteen aborted foetuses were recovered from two main rearing areas of camelids in peru (central or south andean region). foetal histopathology was used to detect the presence of protozoal-associated lesions in target organs. n. caninum and t. gondii infections were confirmed by immunohistochemistry (ihc) combined with pcr and by pcr alone, respec ...200717931783
parentage testing in alpacas (vicugna pacos) using semi-automated fluorescent multiplex pcrs with 10 microsatellite markers.the aim of this study was to assess and apply a microsatellite multiplex system for parentage determination in alpacas. an approach for parentage testing based on 10 microsatellites was evaluated in a population of 329 unrelated alpacas from different geographical zones in perú. all microsatellite markers, which amplified in two multiplex reactions, were highly polymorphic with a mean of 14.5 alleles per locus (six to 28 alleles per locus) and an average expected heterozygosity (h(e)) of 0.8185 ...200818261186
intracranial teratoma in an alpaca (vicugna pacos) in new zealand. 200818263921
naturally occurring intestinal lesions in three alpacas (vicugna pacos) caused by attaching and effacing escherichia coli. 200818326846
prevalence of gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens in a population of zoo animals.faecal prevalence of gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens, including campylobacter, escherichia coli o157:h7, salmonella, shigella, yersinia, as well as arcobacter, were examined in 317 faecal specimens from 44 animal species in belfast zoological gardens, during july-september 2006. thermophilic campylobacters including campylobacter jejuni, campylobacter coli and campylobacter lari, were the most frequently isolated pathogens, where members of this genus were isolated from 11 animal species (1 ...200818331520
quantification of the dna difference, and separation of x- and y-bearing sperm in alpacas (vicugna pacos).sperm sexing is an emerging reproductive technology which has been successfully used to produce offspring of a pre-determined sex in domestic and wildlife species but has yet to be applied to new world camelids. the aims of the present study were to (i) optimize the hoescht 33342 (h33342) staining concentration for the flow cytometric separation of x and y chromosome-bearing alpaca (vicugna pacos) sperm nuclei, (ii) separate alpaca sperm nuclei into high purity (>90%) populations bearing the x- ...200818484960
laryngeal abscessation due to mannheimia haemolytica in an alpaca (vicugna pacos) cria. 200818660524
outbreak of sarcoptic mange in alpacas (vicugna pacos) and control with repeated subcutaneous ivermectin outbreak of sarcoptic mange was investigated in an alpaca herd. clinical disease occurred 2 months after the introduction of four alpacas with dry seborrhoeic skin lesions, the cause of which was not investigated. initially a group of females was affected, despite repeated topical treatment with ivermectin at a dose of 0.5mg/kg bodyweight. one female died and post-mortem examination indicated sarcoptic mange as the cause of death. infection with sarcoptes scabiei was also demonstrated on micr ...200919019545
metastatic malignant melanoma in an alpaca (vicugna pacos).a case of malignant melanoma in a 7-year-old, intact, black, male huacaya alpaca with a history of a chronic, nonhealing wound involving the left external nostril, weight loss, and inappetence is described. malignant melanoma was diagnosed by histology of punch biopsy specimens from a mass on the maxilla associated with the nonhealing wound and from a mass in the submandibular region. the alpaca was humanely euthanized 10 days after the diagnosis on the basis of the poor prognosis and rapid clin ...200919139517
disseminated bovine viral diarrhea virus in a persistently infected alpaca (vicugna pacos) cria.bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) is an emerging infectious pathogen of concern to the alpaca industry. a 4-month-old, intact, male alpaca cria was diagnosed as persistently infected with bvdv on the basis of repeated positive antemortem polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and virus isolation (vi) assays and negative serologic titers to bvdv. immunohistochemistry, real-time reverse transcription pcr, and vi performed on tissues collected at necropsy demonstrated disseminated bvdv-1b infection. viru ...200919139518
cerebral injury from intracarotid injection in an alpaca (vicugna pacos).a mixture of ketamine, xylazine, and butorphanol was inadvertently injected into the right carotid artery of a 1-year-old alpaca. injection was followed by a brief period of recumbency and seizure activity. the alpaca recovered, but was euthanatized 72 hr later because of development of progressive neurologic deficits. pathologic findings were confined to the right cerebrum, meninges, thalamus, and hippocampus. cerebrocortical edema with astrocytic reaction, perivascular hemorrhage and neutrophi ...200919139519
osteogenic intraocular melanoma in an alpaca (vicugna pacos).a 10-year-old, female, pregnant alpaca (vicugna pacos) presented with a discolored, swollen right eye. the eye did not respond to treatment and was enucleated. sectioning of the fixed eye revealed an ocular mass replacing the aqueous and vitreous humors, with multiple regions of bone formation. histopathological, immunohistochemical, and transmission electron microscopy confirmed the tumor was an intraocular melanoma with bone formation. osteogenic melanoma is a rare variant of melanoma not repo ...200919139525
quality parameters for alpaca (vicugna pacos) semen are affected by semen collection procedure.artificial insemination (ai) is poorly developed in camelids owing to the difficulty in collecting high quality semen and the highly viscous nature of the semen. semen collected by artificial vagina (av) is often of low quality and must be improved before any further development of ai technology can occur. the present study investigated the effects of adding a cervix-like stricture to the av, presence of females, collecting semen into androhep, skim-milk or tris diluents, and catalase supplement ...201019144029
prevalence of eimeria macusaniensis and eimeria ivitaensis in south american camelids of northwest argentina.faecal samples from mostly adult llamas (n=626), vicuñas (n=161) and guanacos (n=4) were obtained between december 2004 and july 2008 in three provinces of northwest argentina in order to study the prevalence of eimeria macusaniensis and eimeria ivitaensis. faeces were examined by a flotation technique using a cl(2)zn+clna solution (specific gravity=1.59). oocysts of e. macusaniensis occurred in 88.3% of 77 llama herds and in 50.3% of 626 llamas sampled whereas oocysts of e. ivitaensis occurred ...200919349120
lamanema chavezi (nematoda: molineidae): epidemiological data of the infection in south american camelids of northwest argentina.faecal samples from llamas (n=708), vicuñas (n=171) and guanacos (n=4) were obtained between december 2004 and may 2009 in three provinces of northwest argentina (jujuy, salta and catamarca) to know the distribution, prevalence and intensity of lamanema chavezi infection in these south american camelid species (sacs). faeces were examined by a sedimentation-flotation technique using a cl(2)zn+clna solution (specific gravity=1.59). eggs of l. chavezi occurred in 30.3% of 89 llama herds and in 18. ...200919819627
a one-step exclusion-binding procedure for the purification of functional heavy-chain and mammalian-type gamma-globulins from camelid sera.a new approach has recently been proposed for the purification of 'mammalian-type' igg, consisting of exclusion binding. the technique uses a gel ('melon gel'; pierce) that binds to all plasma proteins, but not to iggs, thus allowing iggs to be recovered in the ft (flow-through) fraction. here, the technique was applied to camelid iggs, which are known to be composed of not only classic mammalian-type iggs (igg1) but also hc-iggs (heavy chain iggs). both mammalian type and hc-iggs can be purifie ...200919824883
evaluation of a commercial bovine viral diarrhea virus vaccine in nonpregnant female alpacas (vicugna pacos).bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) is an emerging pathogen in alpacas and many questions still persist regarding disease mechanisms and control strategies. the purpose of this study was to evaluate a commercial bvdv vaccine for safety and efficacy in alpacas. five nonpregnant alpacas were vaccinated with a modified-live bvdv vaccine and challenged 25 days post-immunization by nasal and ocular inoculation with a bvdv type 1b strain isolated from a confirmed bvdv persistently infected alpaca. two ...201019857453
eimeria macusaniensis associated lesions in neonate alpacas dying from enterotoxemia.histopathological analysis of 108 intestine samples (103 grossly affected ileum and 5 jejunum) taken from clostridium-induced neonatal alpaca (vicugna pacos) enterotoxemia mortalities collected in the departments of arequipa, puno and cusco of southern peru during the 2005-2008 birth seasons (january-march), revealed the presence of large numbers of both asexual and sexual stages of eimeria macusaniensis in 33/108 (30.55%) of the samples with moderate to severe necrotized and/or hemorrhagic ente ...201019926224
identification of a novel coronavirus possibly associated with acute respiratory syndrome in alpacas (vicugna pacos) in california, 2007.alpaca respiratory syndrome (ars) was first recognized in california in october 2007. this syndrome is characterized by acute respiratory signs, high fever, and occasional sudden death, and has mostly been observed in pregnant alpacas (vicugna pacos), although all signalments have been affected. a similarity in clinical signs to cases located on the east coast of the united states was observed; however, a causative agent had not been identified. preliminary diagnostic submissions to the californ ...201020093692
fatal bluetongue virus infection in an alpaca (vicugna pacos) in october 2008, a 15-year-old female alpaca (vicugna pacos) housed at a breeding farm in northern california died after a brief illness characterized by sudden onset of weakness, recumbency, and respiratory distress. postmortem examination revealed severe hydrothorax and hydropericardium, marked pulmonary edema, and acute superficial myocardial hemorrhage affecting the left ventricle. bluetongue virus (btv) was detected in the spleen by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase ch ...201020093703
acute renal failure and anuria associated with vitamin d intoxication in two alpaca (vicugna pacos) cria. 201020102501
cutaneous tb caused by mycobacterium bovis in a veterinary surgeon following exposure to a tuberculous alpaca (vicugna pacos). 201020139381
urinary bladder agenesis in an alpaca (vicugna pacos) cria.a 10-day-old female alpaca (vicugna pacos) cria with a history of urinary straining and dribbling was presented for evaluation. the animal had markedly elevated blood fibrinogen (800 mg/dl), mildly elevated phosphorus (9.3 mg/dl), and minimally elevated blood urea nitrogen (38 mg/dl) concentrations. the total protein (5.0 g/dl) concentration was mildly decreased. these findings were suggestive of mild renal disease. an abdominal ultrasound revealed bilateral hydronephrosis and hydroureter, and n ...201020453232
successful management of severe hypoventilation and hypercapnia in an alpaca (vicugna pacos) with short-term mechanical ventilation.objective: to describe the successful management of an alpaca with severe hypoventilation and hypercapnia, suspected to be secondary to an anesthesia-related event. case summary: a 3-year-old, female alpaca underwent a routine eye enucleation under general anesthesia after traumatic globe perforation. severe hypoventilation and associated hypercapnia developed postoperatively resulting in a severe primary respiratory acidosis. the awake alpaca was supported with positive-pressure ventilation for ...201020487255
the complete mitochondrial dna sequence of the guanaco (lama guanicoe): comparative analysis with the vicuña (vicugna vicugna) genome.south american camelids comprise the guanaco (lama guanicoe) and the vicuña (vicugna vicugna), which are wild species, and the domestic llama (lama glama) and alpaca (lama pacos). this paper presents the first complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of the guanaco and the mt coding sequence of the vicuña. the guanaco mtdna is 16,649 nt long and its composition and organization are similar to the mitochondrial genome of other mammals. excluding the control region, comparison of the complete guanaco an ...201020524143
multiple congenital anomalies in an alpaca cria (vicugna pacos). 201020543169
fleece variation in alpaca (vicugna pacos): a two-locus model for the suri/huacaya phenotype.genetic improvement of fibre-producing animal species has often induced transition from double coated to single coated fleece, accompanied by dramatic changes in skin follicles and hair composition, likely implying variation at multiple loci. huacaya, the more common fleece phenotype in alpaca (vicugna pacos), is characterized by a thick dense coat growing perpendicularly from the body, whereas the alternative rare and more prized single-coated suri phenotype is distinguished by long silky fibre ...201020646304
antibodies to pathogenic livestock viruses in a wild vicuña (vicugna vicugna) population in the argentinean andean altiplano.serum samples from 128 wild vicuñas (vicugna vicugna) were tested for antibodies (ab) to rotavirus (rv), bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (bpiv-3), bovine herpesvirus-1 (bhv-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv-1), foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), bluetongue virus (btv), equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1), and influenza a virus equine (eiv). samples were collected in cieneguillas province of jujuy, in northern argentina. feces from 44 vicuñas were also collected to investigate rv shedding. llamas (la ...201020688660
the microanatomy of healthy skin from alpacas (vicugna pacos).the microanatomy of healthy skin from 12 different body sites was investigated in 14 alpacas (vicugna pacos). the microanatomy of alpaca skin is typical of domestic animal skin in general, and closely resembles that from llamas.201020807926
skin diseases in the alpaca (vicugna pacos): a literature review and retrospective analysis of 68 cases (cornell university 1997-2006).this retrospective study describes 68 alpacas with skin diseases investigated from 1997 through 2006 at cornell university. during this time period, 40 of 715 (5.6%) alpacas presented to the university hospital had dermatological diseases. in addition, skin-biopsy specimens accounted for 86 of 353 (24.4%) of alpaca biopsy specimens submitted to the diagnostic laboratory, and of these 86 specimens, follow-up was available for 28 cases. the following diseases were most common: bacterial infections ...201120825592
ovarian function in south american camelids (alpacas, llamas, vicunas, guanacos).ultrasound technology and hormone assays have provided a better understanding of folliculogenesis and ovulation in south american camelids in the last two decades. females exhibit waves of ovarian follicular growth and are induced ovulators and therefore do not exhibit oestrous cycles in the manner of spontaneously ovulating species such as sheep and cattle. there is much variation in inter-wave interval among camelid species (alpaca/llama 10-22 days, vicuna 4-11 days), within species and within ...201020875933
multiple follicular cysts in four alpacas (vicugna pacos).follicular cysts are non-neoplastic skin lesions lined by follicular epithelium. the pathogenesis of these lesions is unclear. multiple follicular cysts occur sporadically in dogs, horses and humans and are common in sheep. here we report multiple follicular cysts in four aged alpacas (vicugna pacos). based on their histological features, they are most consistent with hybrid cysts. this is the first report of multiple follicular cysts in alpacas.201021129052
neurological causes of diaphragmatic paralysis in 11 alpacas (vicugna pacos).diaphragmatic paralysis is a relatively uncommon medical condition in animals not reported in alpacas.201121281346
cerebral phaeohyphomycosis due to cladophialophora bantiana in a huacaya alpaca (vicugnapacos).cerebral phaeohyphomycosis, caused by cladophialophora bantiana, was diagnosed in a huacaya alpaca (vicugna pacos). an 8-year-old, intact male huacaya alpaca from a farm in indiana was found dead at pasture and submitted to the animal disease diagnostic laboratory at purdue university for necropsy examination. gross lesions were limited to the cerebrum, which had a 2×2.5×5cm, well-demarcated, firm, mottled, pale grey to brown-red mass with a granular texture, centered on the left and right cingu ...201121511274
characterization of the microanatomy and histopathology of placentas from aborted, stillborn, and normally delivered alpacas (vicugna pacos) and llamas (lama glama).from 2002 to 2007, 101 camelid abortions and stillbirths were submitted to the veterinary diagnostic laboratory at oregon state university (84 alpacas [vicugna pacos], 13 llamas [lama glama], 4 unknown). for most cases (n = 67), a cause was not determined by routine testing. eighty-five submissions included placenta for microscopic examination, of which 55 were from abortions to unknown causes (idiopathic). microscopic features of placentas from abortion/stillbirth were compared with those from ...201121551426
cerebral hirano-like bodies in an alpaca (vicugna pacos): histologic and ultrastructural characterization.a 14-year-old female alpaca (vicugna pacos) was presented with a 1-week history of lethargy and anorexia and a 2-day history of recumbency, trembling, and hypothermia. there were no significant gross findings on postmortem examination. hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections of brain demonstrated the presence of intracytoplasmic crystalline eosinophilic rod-shaped inclusions, mainly in the hippocampal pyramidal cells. immunohistochemical staining for synuclein, tau protein, ubiquitin, and smooth ...201121555525
diagnosis of tuberculosis in camelids: old problems, current solutions and future spite of great efforts for its control and eradication, tuberculosis remains one of the most important zoonosis worldwide. its causative agents, the members of the mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, have a wide host range that complicates the epidemiology of this disease. among susceptible species to these pathogens, camelids from the new world (llama, alpaca and vicuña) and old world (bactrian camel and dromedary) are acquiring an increasing importance in several european countries because ...201121635699
treatment of a periradicular lesion in an alpaca (vicugna pacos).this case report describes the diagnosis and surgical treatment of a cyst-like periradicular lesion in an alpaca.201121696124
recovery of arcobacter spp. from nonlivestock species.the genus arcobacter encompasses campylobacter-like organisms that grow in air at 25 degrees c. arcobacter has been detected or isolated from clinically healthy livestock as well as aborted fetuses and has been presumptively identified as either campylobacter or leptospira, based on its growth in selective semisolid media. because reports from nonlivestock species are limited, this study examined nine presumptive isolates of arcobacter spp. from an alpaca (vicugna pacos), black rhinoceros (dicer ...201122950328
anthelmintic resistance in a herd of alpacas (vicugna pacos).a herd of alpacas was examined because of a history of severe endoparasitism, anemia, hypoproteinemia, and weight loss. resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes to albendazole, fenbendazole, and doramectin was documented. this report suggests that anthelmintic resistance may be an emerging problem in south american camelids in north america.201223729829
bilateral iliac arterial thrombosis in an alpaca (vicugna pacos) cria.a 3-month-old male alpaca was presented for acute onset of non-weight-bearing left hind limb lameness. antemortem diagnostics revealed a mass to the right of the urinary bladder and no blood flow in the left femoral artery. necropsy revealed bilateral iliac arterial thrombi and an abscess near the urinary bladder.201223450866
diaphragmatic hernia in a two-year-old alpaca (vicugna pacos).a 2-yr-old male intact alpaca (vicugna pacos) was admitted for a 4-day history of anorexia and colic. five months prior, the alpaca had undergone surgical removal of a duodenal trichophytobezoar and had recovered uneventfully. the alpaca died under anesthesia, and diaphragmatic herniation of the third gastric compartment (c3) was diagnosed at necropsy. a defect was identified in the left dorsal hemidiaphragm accompanied by herniation of 80% of c3 and the aboral portion of the second gastric comp ...201122950329
case report: abortion and disseminated infection by coccidioides posadasii in an alpaca (vicugna pacos) fetus in southern california.coccidioidomycosis is a fungal disease affecting humans and other mammals caused by the soil-dwelling fungi coccidioides immitis and c. posadasii. abortion due to coccidioides spp. infection is rare in domestic animals and transplacental transmission is considered uncommon in women. this report describes a case of placental-fetal infection and abortion in an alpaca with disseminated c. posadasii infection. pcr amplification and dna sequencing were used to confirm the etiology, c. posadasii, in f ...201324432245
methane emission by camelids.methane emissions from ruminant livestock have been intensively studied in order to reduce contribution to the greenhouse effect. ruminants were found to produce more enteric methane than other mammalian herbivores. as camelids share some features of their digestive anatomy and physiology with ruminants, it has been proposed that they produce similar amounts of methane per unit of body mass. this is of special relevance for countrywide greenhouse gas budgets of countries that harbor large popula ...201424718604
pastoralism in northern peru during pre-hispanic times: insights from the mochica period (100-800 ad) based on stable isotopic analysis of domestic camelids.llama (lama glama) and alpaca (vicugna pacos) are the only large domesticated animals indigenous to the americas. pastoralism occupies a fundamental economic, social and religious role in andean life. today, camelid livestock are confined to the ecozone of the puna (above 3,500 masl), while their presence on the pacific coast during pre-hispanic times is attested by archaeological skeletal remains. this study aims to document herding practices on the northern peruvian coast during the early inte ...201424498136
enteritis in an alpaca (vicugna pacos) associated with a potentially novel adenovirus.adenovirus-associated enteritis was diagnosed by histopathology of small intestine in a 2-year-old alpaca (vicugna pacos). electron microscopy confirmed intracytoplasmic and intranuclear adenoviral particles within enterocytes. nucleic acid was extracted from paraffin-embedded tissue sections, and a pan-adenovirus nested polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay was employed to target a partial sequence of the polymerase gene. the pcr product (321 bp) was cloned and sequenced. comparison of the nucl ...201222786976
health impact evaluation of alternative management systems in vicuña (vicugna vicugna mensalis) populations in determine the impact of farming over vicuña population in peru, serum samples were collected from 207 vicuñas (126 captive vicuñas and 81 free-ranging vicuñas) and 614 domestic south american camelids (571 alpacas and 43 llamas), in ten andean communities at the salinas y aguada blanca reserve, province of arequipa, southern peru. samples were tested for the presence of leptospirosis, foot and mouth disease (fmd), bovine viral diarrhea (bvd), bovine herpesvirus type 1 (bhv-1), brucellosis, bl ...201424492977
experimental acute infection of alpacas with bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 subgenotype b alters peripheral blood and galt leukocyte subsets.bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) is a pathogen in cattle and alpacas ( vicugna pacos), causing acute and persistent bvdv infections. we characterized the effect of acute bvdv infection on the immune system of alpacas by determining lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood and gut-associated lymphoid tissues (galt) as well as serum interferon levels. alpacas were experimentally infected with bvdv-1b (strain co-06). peripheral blood leukocytes were isolated at 0, 3, 6, and 9 d postinfection ...201728166712
antigenic variability in bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) isolates from alpaca (vicugna pacos), llama (lama glama) and bovines in chile.llamas and alpacas are domesticated south american camelids (sacs) important to ancestral population in the altiplano region, and to different communities where they have been introduced worldwide. these ungulates have shown to be susceptible to several livestock viral pathogens such as members of the pestivirus genus and mainly to bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv). seventeen chilean bvdv isolates were analyzed by serum cross neutralization with samples obtained from five llama, six alpacas, th ...201424388627
phylogenetic and structural analysis of the pluripotency factor sex-determining region y box2 gene of camelus dromedarius (csox2).although the sequencing information of sox2 cdna for many mammalian is available, the sox2 cdna of camelus dromedaries has not yet been characterized. the objective of this study was to sequence and characterize sox2 cdna from the brain of c. dromedarius (also known as arabian camel). a full coding sequence of the sox2 gene from the brain of c. dromedarius was amplified by reverse transcription pcrjmc and then sequenced using the 3730xl series platform sequencer (applied biosystem) for the first ...201627486314
pathology of haemonchus contortus in new world camelids in the southeastern united states: a retrospective review.most small ruminant farms in tropical climates are plagued by haemonchus contortus, a hematophagous, abomasal parasite. heavy burdens of this parasite can cause anemia, hypoproteinemia, weight loss, and mortality in susceptible animals. haemonchus contortus is becoming a major health concern in new world camelids as well, namely llamas (llama glama) and alpacas (vicugna pacos), yet little research has been conducted regarding its prevalence or pathology in these species. herein, we present a ret ...201626965230
multiplexed next-generation sequencing and de novo assembly to obtain near full-length hiv-1 genome from plasma virus.analysing the hiv-1 near full-length genome (hiv-nflg) facilitates new understanding into the diversity of virus population dynamics at individual or population level. in this study we developed a simple but high-throughput next generation sequencing (ngs) protocol for hiv-nflg using clinical specimens and validated the method against an external quality control (eqc) panel. clinical specimens (n=105) were obtained from three cohorts from two highly conserved hiv-1c epidemics (india and ethiopia ...201627448822
normal bacterial conjunctival flora in the huacaya alpaca (vicugna pacos).to describe the bacterial flora of the normal conjunctiva of huacaya alpacas (vicugna pacos) and to determine the effect of age and gender on this flora.201625581469
detection of mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis by is900-based pcr assays from an alpaca (vicugna pacos) kept in a german zoological alpaca (vicugna pacos) bred and kept in a german zoological garden exhibited clinical signs consistent with paratuberculosis. the presence of mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (map) was confirmed in feces and in the ileocecal lymph node (iln) by is900-based polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assays and culture. a bacterial burden of 7.6 x 10(6) map/g in feces and 4.4 x 10(7) map/g in lymph node tissue was determined by real-time pcr. for further characterization, a conventional pcr was d ...201323505723
Experimental infection of South American camelids with bluetongue virus serotype 8.Bluetongue (BT) is an infectious, non-contagious disease of wild and domestic ruminants. It is caused by bluetongue virus (BTV) and transmitted by Culicoides biting midges. Since 1998, BT has been emerging throughout Europe, threatening not only the naïve ruminant population. Historically, South American camelids (SAC) were considered to be resistant to BT disease. However, recent fatalities related to BTV in captive SAC have raised questions about their role in BTV epidemiology. Data on the sus ...201221862245
mycobacterium ulcerans infection in two ulcerative dermopathy caused by mycobacterium ulcerans is described in two alpacas (vicugna pacos) domiciled in endemic areas of victoria, australia.201323782024
mycoplasma hominis ssp. associated endocarditis with myocardial necrosis in an alpaca (vicugna pacos) in manitoba in 2011.severe endocarditis with myonecrosis, moderate to severe pleural and pericardial effusions, and mild ascites were found on necropsy in 3 alpacas. mycoplasma hominis ssp. was detected on polymerase chain reaction (pcr) of fresh affected endocardial tissue in 1 alpaca.201525694661
serological survey for antibodies against bovine viral diarrhoea virus and neospora caninum in a population of south australian alpacas (vicugna pacos).bovine viral diarrhoea virus (bvdv) and neospora caninum may cause clinical disease in alpacas. both diseases are present in the australian cattle population. the objective of this study was to perform a serological prevalence survey for bvdv and n. caninum exposure in a regional alpaca population of south australia.201526456156
toxoplasmosis-associated abortion in an alpaca (vicugna pacos) fetus.a near-full-term alpaca (vicugna pacos) was stillborn 2 days before the expected date of delivery; necropsy examination was conducted within 6 hr of delivery. gross lesions were enlarged liver and hydrocephalus. on histologic examination, mild inflammatory lesions were identified in the placenta, liver, and lungs, although no etiology was recognized. within the brain, there was a mild nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis, hydrocephalus, and hydromyelia. both kidneys had inflammatory foci in cortex ...201425000722
molecular characterization of rotavirus isolated from alpaca (vicugna pacos) crias with diarrhea in the andean region of cusco, peru.alpacas (vicugna pacos), a species of south american camelids (sac), suffer high morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases. diarrhea is one of the leading causes of alpaca cria mortality in peru and elsewhere. in order to develop appropriate control and/or treatment, it is necessary to identify infectious pathogens that cause diarrhea in crias. rotavirus was isolated in cell culture from feces collected from crias with acute diarrhea that tested positive to rotaviral antigen by rapid immu ...201526243695
Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the Melanocortin 1 Receptor gene are linked with lightness of fibre colour in Peruvian Alpaca (Vicugna pacos).Melanocortin 1 receptor (alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone receptor) (MC1R) is a gene-controlling melanogenesis in mammals. However, it is not well characterized in alpacas and its association with colour is not known. The aim of this study was to look for polymorphisms in the MC1R gene in Peruvian Huacaya alpacas and to analyse the relationship between MC1R single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and the variations in the instrumental measurement of colour of alpaca fibre. Sixty alpaca fibre ...201122035014
isolation and genetic characterization of toxoplasma gondii from alpaca (vicugna pacos) and sheep (ovis aries).alpacas are important to the economy of several countries. little is known of toxoplasma gondii infection in alpacas worldwide. in the present study, t. gondii was isolated and genetically characterized from alpacas for the first time. alpacas (nā€‰=ā€‰16) and rams (nā€‰=ā€‰12) pastured on a farm in virginia, usa, were examined at necropsy. antibodies to t. gondii were determined by the modified agglutination test (mat, 1:25) and found in 6 of 16 alpacas with titers of 1:100 (2 alpaca), 1:400 (2 alpacas ...201425096055
digesta retention patterns of solute and different-sized particles in camelids compared with ruminants and other foregut fermenters.the mean retention times (mrt) of solute or particles in the gastrointestinal tract and the forestomach (fs) are crucial determinants of digestive physiology in herbivores. besides ruminants, camelids are the only herbivores that have evolved rumination as an obligatory physiological process consisting of repeated mastication of large food particles, which requires a particle sorting mechanism in the fs. differences between camelids and ruminants have hardly been investigated so far. in this stu ...201525921796
liolaemus lizards (squamata: liolaemidae) as hosts for the nymph of amblyomma parvitarsum (acari: ixodidae), with notes on rickettsia infection.adults of amblyomma parvitarsum are common ectoparasites of south american camelids of the genera lama and vicugna, occuring in highlands of argentina, bolivia, chile, peru and also in argentinean patagonia. whereas larval stages of this tick are known to feed on small lizards, host records for the nymphal instar have remained unreported. supported by morphological and molecular analyses, herein we report a. parvitarsum nymphs parasitizing two liolaemus species (reptilia: squamata) in the andean ...201627406395
south american camelid illegal traffic detection by means of molecular markers.south american camelids comprise the wild species guanaco and vicuña and their respective domestic relatives llama and alpaca. the aim of the present study was to determine by dna analysis to which of these species belong a herd of camelids confiscated from a llama breeder but alleged to be alpacas by the prosecution, and to evaluate the usefulness of mitochondrial and autosomal dna markers to solve judicial cases involving camelid taxa. cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase i mitochondrial genes ...201121982877
reference intervals for hematologic and coagulation tests in adult alpacas (vicugna pacos).species-specific reference intervals are needed for interpretation of laboratory tests. reference interval studies of alpacas have been limited by low numbers and use of outdated methods.201122092869
porcine map3k5 analysis: molecular cloning, characterization, tissue expression pattern, and copy number variations associated with residual feed intake.mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 5 (map3k5) is essential for apoptosis, proliferation, differentiation, and immune responses, and is a candidate marker for residual feed intake (rfi) in pig. we cloned the full-length cdna sequence of porcine map3k5 by rapid-amplification of cdna ends. the 5451-bp gene contains a 5'-untranslated region (utr) (718 bp), a coding region (3738 bp), and a 3'-utr (995 bp), and encodes a peptide of 1245 amino acids, which shares 97, 99, 97, 93, 91, and 84% ...201627525933
bovine xenograft application for treatment of a metatarsal nonunion fracture in an alpaca (vicugna pacos).a 15-year-old female huacaya alpaca (vicugna pacos) was referred because of a non-weight-bearing lameness (4/4) in the left pelvic limb caused by a grade three open metatarsal fracture. the referring veterinarian treated the fracture with conservative management using bandages, but it progressively evolved to a non-union.201626617346
campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus abortion in alpacas (vicugna pacos). 201020862815
effect of glycerol concentration, equex stm supplementation and liquid storage prior to freezing on the motility and acrosome integrity of frozen-thawed epididymal alpaca (vicugna pacos) sperm.two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of glycerol concentration and equex stm paste on the post-thaw motility and acrosome integrity of epididymal alpaca sperm. in experiment 1, epididymal sperm were harvested from male alpacas, diluted, and cooled to 4 degrees c in a lactose cooling extender, and pellet-frozen in a lactose cryodiluent containing final glycerol concentrations of 2, 3, or 4%. in experiment 2, epididymal sperm were diluted in biladyl, cooled to 4 degrees c, store ...201020416935
demodex spp. infestation and suspected demodicosis of alpacas ( vicugna pacos ) in new zealand. 200818536775
an assessment of acute biomarker responses in the demersal catfish cathorops spixii after the vicuña oil spill in a harbour estuarine area in southern brazil.the vicuña oil tanker exploded in paranaguá bay (south of brazil), during methanol unloading operations in front of paranaguá harbour, on november 15th, 2004, releasing a large amount of bunker oil and methanol. two weeks after the accident, the acute effects of the vicuña oil spill (vos) were evaluated in the demersal catfish cathorops spixii, comparing a contaminated (at the spill site) and a reference site inside the bay. data were compared to previous measurements, taken before the accident, ...200918478347
lamanema chavezi gen. n., sp. n. and nematodirus lamae sp. n. (nematoda: trichostrongylidae) from the alpaca, lama pacos, and the vicu na, vicugna vicugna, in peru. 196314084183
genomic data from extinct north american camelops revise camel evolutionary history.recent advances in paleogenomic technologies have enabled an increasingly detailed understanding of the evolutionary relationships of now-extinct mammalian taxa. however, a number of enigmatic quaternary species have never been characterized with molecular data, often because available fossils are rare or are found in environments that are not optimal for dna preservation. here, we analyze paleogenomic data extracted from bones attributed to the late pleistocene western camel, camelops cf. heste ...201526037535
camelid genomes reveal evolution and adaptation to desert environments.bactrian camel (camelus bactrianus), dromedary (camelus dromedarius) and alpaca (vicugna pacos) are economically important livestock. although the bactrian camel and dromedary are large, typically arid-desert-adapted mammals, alpacas are adapted to plateaus. here we present high-quality genome sequences of these three species. our analysis reveals the demographic history of these species since the tortonian stage of the miocene and uncovers a striking correlation between large fluctuations in po ...201425333821
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