causes of high blood o2 affinity of animals living at high altitude.we have measured the partial pressure of o2 at 50% saturation (p50) and the concentration of various phosphate compounds in the erythrocytes of the bar-headed goose and the guanaco to establish the cause of the high blood o2 affinity in animals who normally reside at high altitude. the same data were obtained in the blood of two goose species, that live at sea level, and in human blood. at standard conditions (ph 7.4, pco2 40 torr, 37 degrees c), p50 was 29.7 torr in the blood of the bar-headed ...197714096
topographic antigenic determinants on cytochrome c. immunoadsorbent separation of the rabbit antibody populations directed against horse populations of site-specific antibodies were isolated from each of three sera of rabbits immunized against glutaraldehyde-polymerized horse cytochrome c. the antibodies were separated using an immunoadsorption scheme which employed the following cytochromes c: horse, beef, guanaco, rabbit, mouse testicular, pigeon, and the cyanogen-bromide cleaved fragment of the rabbit protein containing residues 1 to 65. the monovalent, antigen-binding fragments of the antibodies (fab') gave 1:1 stoichio ...197991614
unilateral cataract with lens coloboma and bilateral corneal edema in a guanaco. 1978738962
cerebrospinal parelaphostronglylosis in llamas.four of 11 llamas (lama guanicoe) from a ranch near houston, texas developed clinical signs of a neurologic disease. tissues from 2 of the 4 llamas were submitted for microscopic examination. lesions in the central nervous system of both llamas appeared to have been caused by a migrating parasite. an adult nematode having morphologic features of the meningeal worm (parelaphostrongylus tenuis) was found in the brain of one llama. the findings suggest that the neurologic disease in the llamas were ...1978739583
[comparative histological study of the reproductive system of the female llama (lama guanicoe glama). i. ovary].in the present study a cytological, histological and morphometrical comparison between the ovaries of the llama, the cow and the sheep is presented, at two phases of the ovarian cycle. there were found differences in the amount of primordial and primary follicles, the size of secondary follicles and follicular cells, and type and distribution of the connective tissue inside the stroma of the ovary. it would be necessary to study the fine structure of the ovary and the so-called "embryological re ...19921489107
trace mineral levels in the guanaco (lama guanicoe). 19921502765
fungal flora of the healthy camelid conjunctival sac.swab specimens for fungal isolation were collected from the healthy conjunctival sacs of 3 species of captive camelids (lama glama, l guanicoe, l pacos) and llama-guanaco hybrids. fungi were collected from over half the animals in winter (53%) and summer (56%). fungal species of 10 genera were isolated. in both seasons, aspergillus was the most commonly isolated genus; at least 9 species of aspergillus were found. the fungal organisms isolated were similar to those found in healthy eyes of other ...19921524286
bacterial and mycoplasmal flora of the healthy camelid conjunctival sac.healthy conjunctival sacs of 88 animals of 3 species of captive camelids (lama glama, lama guanicoe, lama pacos) and llama-guanaco hybrids were sampled for bacterial and mycoplasmal flora. mycoplasmas were not isolated from any animal. eleven genera of bacteria were isolated. the most frequent isolates were staphylococcus epidermidis and pseudomonas spp. nine varieties of pseudomonas were found, which represented at least 3 pseudomonas species. many of the bacterial isolates (especially the pseu ...19911892259
[experiences with ivermectin in exotic animals: scabies in camelids (camelus bactrianus, lama guanicoe, l. glama) and scabies and roundworms in bears (thalarctos maritimus and ursus arctos)].for the control of scabies in tylopodes (l. bactrianus, l. guanicoe, l. glama) and brown bears 0.2 mg/kg body weight (1 ml/50 kg body weight) of ivermectin subcutaneously injected proved to be remedy of choice. in kodiak-bears the oral application of ivomec-solution was effective against ascariasis, not, however, in polar bears. sufficient effect was reached only once, whereas equalan-paste proved to be highly effective. despite of strong hygienic measures continous follow-up treatment for the p ...19912025214
inguinal hernial repair in a llama (lama guanicoe). 19912063538
primary structure and oxygen-binding properties of the hemoglobin from guanaco (lama guanacoë, tylopoda).the primary structure of the hemoglobin from guanaco (lama guanacoë, tylopoda) is presented. it could be separated into the chains by cm-cellulose chromatography. the sequences have been determined by automatic edman degradation with the film technique or gas phase method, using the native chains and the tryptic peptides of the oxidized chains as well as a fragment obtained by acid hydrolysis. guanaco hemoglobin has identical alpha-chains with alpaca and identical beta-chains with all lama speci ...19902222863
ag-nor staining and in situ hybridization of rdna in the chromosomes of the south american camelids.the location and frequency of ag-stained nors and sites of rdna hybridization were studied in the chromosomes of the south american camelids. in the four camelids these regions occur distally on chromosomes 18, 21, and 27 and the smallest biarmed elements. quantitative analysis of nor distribution showed variations between both cells and species. in llama, guanaco and alpaca the nors number averaged 6 per cell, this being higher than in vicuña where the average was 3. relative frequencies of nor ...19892482825
nephroblastoma with pulmonary metastases in a guanaco. 19882841786
changes in nonspecific immunity factor in some equidae, camelidae and capridae species.plasma lysozyme activity changed during the 2 years of the investigation period. in some species (e.g. ponies and goats) there are only seasonal fluctuations with the highest levels during summer and autumn in ponies and during winter in goats. in two camelidae species, guanacos and llamas, only, downward trends were found, whereas in donkeys, both types of changes: seasonal variations with the maximal level during autumn and an upward long-term trend were found.19872882892
dna composition in south american camelids. i. characterization and in situ hybridization of satellite dna fractions.the dna composition and the in situ hybridization of satellite fractions were analysed in the new world camelids llama, alpaca, guanaco and vicuña. in the four camelid forms, it was possible to identify a similar main band dna and five satellite fractions (i-v) with g + c base contents ranging from 32% to 66%. satellites ii-v from llama were in situ reannealed on chromosomes from the four camelid forms. the results obtained were: (a) the four satellites hybridized with regions of c-banding (cent ...19873505882
interaction of allosteric effectors with alpha-globin chains and high altitude respiration of mammals. the primary structure of two tylopoda hemoglobins with high oxygen affinity: vicuna (lama vicugna) and alpaca (lama pacos).polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and ion-exchange chromatography revealed one hemoglobin component for vicuna (lama vicugna) and alpaca (lama pacos). following chain separation by chromatography on carboxymethyl-cellulose, the amino-acid sequences were elucidated for the alpha- and beta-chains of both hemoglobins using automatic edman degradation of the chains and the tryptic peptides. vicuna and alpaca have identical beta-chains showing no substitutions to llama (lama glama) either. in the al ...19863964445
blood typing south american camelids.preliminary blood typing tests were made on new world camelids, guanacos, llamas, and two hybrids. erythrocyte samples were tested against a battery of cattle blood typing reagents. three different reagents were prepared from rabbit anti-erythrocyte sera. transferrin variation and lectin polymorphism also were observed. no naturally occurring isoantibodies were found. blood typing tests of new world camelids were shown to be feasible for studies of taxonomic relationships.19854056368
the mucigenous glandular mucosa in the comples stomach of two new-world camelids, the llama and guanaco. 19724338128
squamous cell carcinoma of the rumen and thymic amyloidosis in a guanaco. 19744426862
a gross study of the compartmentalized stomach of two new-world camelids, the llama and guanaco. 19715093421
[case of persistent arterial trunk in a guanco lama (lama guanicoë, miller 1776)]. 19715314937
motility of the llama and guanaco stomach. 19715538663
sarcocystis sp. in guanaco (lama guanicoe) and effect of temperature on its viability.the biology of the sarcocystis sp. that infect guanacoes was studied by feeding the infected meat to dogs, cats, rats and mice. tissues from guanaco, heavily infected with macrocysts, were fed to these animals and their faeces collected daily and examined for the presence or absence of sporocysts. it was shown that only dogs were suitable definitive hosts. the effect of cooking and freezing on the viability of this protozoan organism was also investigated. freezing to -18 degrees c and -24 degre ...19846437052
leptospirosis and coccidial infection in a guanaco. 19846511616
pulmonary circulation of the llama at high and low altitudes.we have studied the pulmonary circulation of three closely related animals, the llama, alpaca, and guanaco. the mean pulmonary arterial pressure of 12 llamas and one alpaca indigenous to high altitude in the andes was found to be slightly but significantly higher than that of three llamas and three guanacos born and bred at low altitude in england. on the other hand, the medial thickness of the muscular pulmonary arteries and the relative weights of the two ventricles were the same in three llam ...19827071792
physiological studies in the south american camelid llama (lama guanicoe f. d. glama). i. body water spaces and water turnover.body water (bw) and extracellular water (ecw), were determined with tritiated water (tho) and 82br injected into the vein, to 8 mature animals of both sexes during the winter season. the biological half-time of tho (t1/2 tho) and the daily water turnover (wt) were measured and the intracellular water (icw) calculated. the studies with tho were repeated in the same animals and in 2 lactating females in spring and summer. two calves were also studied during spring. the values obtained in winter we ...19947640403
an assessment of the relationships among species of camelidae by satellite dna comparisons.tandem satellite arrays and interspersed repetitive dna components of the new world camelids guanaco, llama, alpaca, and vicuña and the old world bactrian camel have been identified and compared. southern hybridizations, using camel restriction fragments as probes, indicated that satellite dnas in all camelids examined have been conserved since the last common ancestor about 5-10 my ago. the hybridization profiles, however, varied from totally identical (mspi-sat) to highly differentiated (psti- ...19947737889
restriction site patterns in the ribosomal dna of camelidae.the restriction map of rdna from south american camelids and the bactrian camel was analyzed by digestion of high-molecular-weight dna with endonucleases ecori,bamhi and the two combined followed by southern blot hybridization with probes for the 18s and 28s rdna sequences. we scored a total of 17 restriction sites, six of which were mapped conserved in all the species. the other eleven corresponded to spacer regions and revealed variations between these taxa. the study showed that the two group ...19947958935
[cause of diseases and death in new world camelids].over a period of 25 years post mortem examination and in selected cases microbiological and/or parasitological investigations were carried out in 79 south american camelids (llama, alpaca, guanaco, vicuña). the principal findings (frequently identical with the cause of death) are retrospectively commented with regard to available anamnestic data and the literature. besides infectious and noninfectious diseases occurring in all mammalian species findings of lesser importance, but peculiar to came ...19958585067
presence of enamel on the incisors of the llama (lama glama) and alpaca (lama pacos).attempts have been made to define the relationships among the south american camelids, the guanaco, llama, alpaca, and vicuna, by comparing the morphology of their incisors. the alpaca has been reported to have an incisor morphology similar to the vicuna, lacking enamel on the lingual surface. the llama and guanaco are said to have enamel on both the labial and lingual surface of their incisor teeth. these comparisons have been based on gross morphological observations and not on histologic anal ...19979415451
south american camelids in the united kingdom: population statistics, mortality rates and causes of death.a survey of the health of south american camelids in the united kingdom was carried out between december 1992 and june 1993; 123 members of the british camelid owners and breeders association and 19 non-members were sent questionnaires and usable responses were received from 84 (59 per cent). in total 689 camelids were included, and in 1992, 66 per cent were ilama, 21 per cent alpaca and 13 per cent guanaco. their ages ranged from less than six months to over 10 years, with animals aged two to f ...19989519429
health evaluation of free-ranging guanaco (lama guanicoe).twenty free-ranging guanaco (lama guanicoe) in chubut province, argentina, were immobilized for health evaluations. all but two animals appeared to be in good condition. hematology, serum chemistry, and vitamin and mineral levels were measured, and feces were evaluated for parasites. serology tests included bluetongue, brucellosis, bovine respiratory syncitial virus, bovine viral diarrhea/mucosal disease, equine herpesvirus 1, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, johne's disease (mycobacterium par ...19989732026
prevalence of eimeria macusaniensis (apicomplexa: eimeriidae) in midwestern lama compare the prevalence of eimeria macusaniensis among midwestern llamas (lama glama), alpacas (lama pacos), and guanacos (lama guanicoe), feces were obtained from lama spp. in 10 states between october 1989 and february 1996. feces were examined by centrifugal flotation in sugar solution (specific gravity--1.28-1.30), and oocysts were quantified by a modified mcmaster method. data were compared by host species and age classifications. typical oocysts occurred in samples from 28% of 76 herds a ...199910219324
genetically engineered mengo virus vaccination of multiple captive wildlife species.encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv), has caused the deaths of many species of animals in zoological parks and research institutions. the audubon park zoo, (new orleans, louisiana, usa) attempted vaccination of several species with a killed emcv vaccine with mixed results. this paper reports an attempt at vaccination against emcv using a genetically engineered, live attenuated mengo virus (vmc0) at the audubon park zoo and miami metro zoo, (miami, florida, usa) from december 1996 to june 1997. seve ...199910231768
hybridizing old and new world camelids: camelus dromedarius x lama guanicoe.thirty female dromedary camels were inseminated on a total of 50 occasions with 2-4 ml of fresh guanaco semen diluted with an equal volume of commercially available camel semen extender. similarly, nine female guanacos were inseminated on 34 occasions with 4-6 ml of fresh, diluted camel semen. only two of the dromedary females conceived; one aborted a female foetus on day 260 of gestation and the other gave birth to a stillborn female calf on day 365. six conceptions occurred in the female guana ...199910331286
[comparative histological study of the female reproductive system in the llama (lama guanicoe glama). ii. oviduct, uterus, cervix, vagina].the histological characteristics of the oviduct, uterus, cervix and vagina of the llama are described and compared with those of domestic mammals. there are differences between llama and domestic mammals in the type of placentation and the epithelium of the vagina, which seems to be a transitional epithelium.199910386010
abnormally phosphorylated protein tau in the cortex of aged individuals of various mammalian orders.aged individuals of mammalian species displaying hyperphosphorylated tau protein may be suitable natural models for investigating neurodegenerative alterations occurring, for example, in alzheimer's disease. therefore, autoptic tissue from the entorhinal, motor and prefrontal cortices of 14 mammalian species was screened using the monoclonal antibody at8, which is directed against a phosphorylated epitope of human tau and applicable to the tissues of aged domestic animals, as shown in previous s ...200010965801
malignant oedema in a guanaco (lama guanicoe). 200011058025
development of microsatellite markers in the guanaco, lama guanicoe: utility for south american camelids. 200011091331
sweating in the guanaco (lama guanicoe).sweat glands are present all over the skin, where sweat production varies from 4.98 to 73.36gm(-2)h(-1) of skin. ambient temperatures between 20 and 33 degrees c are the main stimuli for activation of sweat glands, generating a heat loss ranging from 11.9 to 37% of standing basal metabolic rate. respiratory water loss is not an important mechanism for heat dissipation. water loss is controlled by postural changes in the guanaco.200111163922
genetic analysis reveals the wild ancestors of the llama and the alpaca.the origins of south america's domestic alpaca and llama remain controversial due to hybridization, near extirpation during the spanish conquest and difficulties in archaeological interpretation. traditionally, the ancestry of both forms is attributed to the guanaco, while the vicuña is assumed never to have been domesticated. recent research has, however, linked the alpaca to the vicuña, dating domestication to 6000-7000 years before present in the peruvian andes. here, we examine in detail the ...200111749713
first isolation of rotavirus associated with neonatal diarrhoea in guanacos (lama guanicoe) in the argentinean patagonia a rotavirus (rv) and coronavirus (cv) are common viral pathogens associated with neonatal diarrhoea in numerous animal species. the purpose of this work was to investigate the presence of these viral agents in two farm populations of captured guanacos (lama guanicoe) in the argentinean patagonia region, that developed severe diarrhoea outbreaks. stool and serum samples were analysed for rv and bovine cv antigen and antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. rotavirus was detected in faece ...200111765807
assisted reproductive techniques for hybridization of camelids.the camelid family comprises the old world camelids (or dromedary and bactrian camels) and the new world camelids (namely the llamas, alpacas, guanacos and vicunas). although the species within each group can hybridize among themselves to produce fertile offspring, it is only recently that a hybrid between new and old world camelids has been reported. to create this hybrid, semen was collected from male camels by artificial vagina (av) and inseminated into female guanacos (n = 9) and llamas (n = ...200111999316
cataracts in new world camelids (llamas, alpacas, vicuñas, and guanacos).cataracts are the most frequently seen lens diseases in new world camelids. the causes of cataracts are unknown in many animals, but cataracts secondary to intraocular inflammation seem to be common. congenital or juvenile-onset cataracts, if another cause is not apparent, should be considered as possibly caused by heredity, and the affected animals should not be bred. persistent hyaloid vascular anomalies may also have an important role in cataract formation and could be heritable or caused by ...200212170638
complete amino acid sequence of guanaco (lama guanicoe) cytochrome c. 1977188448
topographic determinants on cytochrome c. i. the complete antigenic structures of rabbit, mouse, and guanaco cytochromes c in rabbits and mice1.rabbit, mouse, and guanaco cytochromes c differ from each other by only two amino acid residues. the identification is described of all of the antigenic determinants of mouse and guanaco cytochrome c that elicit an antibody response in rabbits, and those of the rabbit and guanaco proteins that elicity antibodies in the mouse. all except one of these sites center around single amino acid residue differences between the antigen and the host cytochrome c. the corresponding antibody popylations bind ...197766279
[knowledge of the endoparasitic fauna of lama guanicoe muller, 1776, from the mitre peninsula, tierra del fuego, argentina].parasitological fauna of lama guanicoe in the peninsula mitre, tierra del fuego, argentina, is analyzed in this paper. coproparasitological tests of 58 samples were performed, and on this basis, the presence of the following genera was determined: haemonchus, marshallagia, cooperia, nematodirus, ostertagia, trichostrongylus, oesophagostomun and chavertia. marshallagia and chabertia are reported for the first time for this host. the dung piles are not considered as parasitic barriers. infections ...19892629773
internal parasites of free-ranging guanacos from the winter of 2000, a greater than 80% reduction in the guanaco population located in cabo dos bahi;as wildlife reserve, chubut, argentina, was evident due to massive mortality attributed to starvation. twelve guanacos were necropsied and samples were analyzed at the parasitology laboratory of facultad de ciencias veterinarias, universidad nacional del litoral. fecal analysis revealed developmental stages of nematodirus sp., marshallagia sp., trichuris sp. and eimeria spp. histopathological a ...200314651877
molecular characterization of the first isolation of rotavirus in guanacos (lama guanicoe).rotaviruses (rvs) are a major cause of neonatal diarrhoea in humans and numerous animal species. we report g-type, p-type and phylogenetic analysis of two rv strains isolated from newborn guanacos (lama guanicoe) with acute diarrhoea in argentina. isolates were group a g8 rv. phylogenetic analysis showed a close relationship to other g8 bovine rv from japan, u.s.a. and switzerland. p-types were p[1] and an unusual p[14], related to human and goat p[14] strains. this is the first report of a p[14 ...200415449134
isolation of shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli from a south american camelid (lama guanicoe) with diarrhea.shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli belonging to serotype o26:h11 was isolated from a 2-month-old guanaco with severe watery diarrhea. e. coli colonies carried the stx1 and eae genes, showed localized adherence to hep-2 cells, and produced enterohemolysin. a serological response to lipopolysaccharide o26 was observed at the onset of diarrhea.200415472347
application of monoclonal antibodies in functional and comparative investigations of heavy-chain immunoglobulins in new world camelids.of the three immunoglobulin g (igg) isotypes described to occur in camelids, igg2 and igg3 are distinct in that they do not incorporate light chains. these heavy-chain antibodies (hcabs) constitute approximately 50% of the igg in llama serum and as much as 75% of the igg in camel serum. we have produced isotype-specific mouse monoclonal antibodies (mabs) in order to investigate the roles of hcabs in camelid immunity. seventeen stable hybridomas were cloned, and three mabs that were specific for ...200515753251
genetic diversity and differentiation of guanaco populations from argentina inferred from microsatellite data.genotype data from 14 microsatellite markers were used to assess the genetic diversity and differentiation of four guanaco populations from argentine patagonia. these animals were recently captured in the wild and maintained in semi-captivity for fibre production. considerable genetic diversity in these populations was suggested by the finding of a total of 162 alleles, an average mean number of alleles per locus ranging from 6.50 to 8.19, and h(e) values ranging from 0.66 to 0.74. assessment of ...200516026342
potential existence of a sylvatic cycle of taenia ovis krabbei in patagonia, deer (cervus elaphus) were introduced in southern latin america about a century ago and characteristics of the invasion raise concerns over their epidemiological role for various diseases. we report on the possible occurrence of taenia ovis krabbei established in a sylvatic cycle in patagonia. hook characters, size, appearance, and location of a cysticercus from a wild red deer are consistent with taenia ovis ovis or t. o. krabbei. although it is not possible to differentiate between t. o. o ...200616289565
the presence of an additional fetal membrane and its function in the newborn guanaco (lama quanaco e ).the newborn guanaco (lama quanaco e ) is covered by an extra fetal membrane. it shares this characteristic with the newborns of old-world camelids. this membrane, which is lubricated by the watery amnionic fluid typical for camelids, facilitates the delivery of the conceptus. the newborn gets rid of this membrane itself, since in camelids mothers do not lick their offsprings.198816726485
production and characterization of anti-(mucin muc1) single-domain antibody in tobacco (nicotiana tabacum cultivar xanthi).members of the camelidae (camels, dromedaries, llamas, alpacas, guanacos and vicunas) are known to produce igs (immunoglobulins) devoid of light chains and ch1s (constant heavy-chain domains). the antigen-specific binding fragments of these heavy-chain antibodies therefore comprise one single domain (the so-called 'vhh') and are of great importance in biotechnological applications. to evaluate the expression and biological activity of sdabs (single-domain antibodies) in plants, which, on account ...200717073735
enrofloxacin-induced retinopathy in a guanaco (lama guanicoe).a 4-yr-old male guanaco (lama guanicoe) in a multispecies exhibit presented with a laceration in the axillary region. the laceration was surgically repaired. medical treatment was initiated with penicillin g procaine and benzathine (1920 iu/kg, i.m., s.i.d. for 14 days), and enrofloxacin (2.4 mg/kg, i.m., s.i.d. for 14 days). the animal was later treated with trimethoprim-sulfadiazine (24 mg/kg, p.o., s.i.d. for 10 days). twenty-six days after initial presentation, the guanaco was suspected to b ...200617315443
cross-species chromosome painting among camel, cattle, pig and human: further insights into the putative cetartiodactyla ancestral karyotype.the great karyotypic differences between camel, cattle and pig, three important domestic animals, have been a challenge for comparative cytogenetic studies based on conventional cytogenetic approaches. to construct a genome-wide comparative chromosome map among these artiodactyls, we made a set of chromosome painting probes from the dromedary camel (camelus dromedarius) by flow sorting and degenerate oligonucleotide primed-pcr. the painting probes were first used to characterize the karyotypes o ...200717671843
infection of llamas with stored eimeria macusaniensis oocysts obtained from guanaco and alpaca feces.oocysts obtained from a guanaco and an alpaca with natural infections were identified as eimeria macusaniensis and evaluated for host specificity and infectivity over time. in 3 separate trials conducted over 4 yr, 4 adult llamas were fed 500-5,000 sporulated oocysts obtained from guanaco feces stored under laboratory conditions for 41-84 mo. infections with prepatent periods of 36-41 days and patent periods of 38-55 days developed in 4/4 llamas. in a fourth trial, 3 adult llamas and 1 alpaca we ...200818576765
genomic characterization of a novel group a lamb rotavirus isolated in zaragoza, ovine rotavirus (ovr) strain, 762, was isolated from a 30-day-old lamb affected with severe gastroenteritis, in zaragoza, spain, and the vp4, vp7, vp6, nsp4, and nsp5/nsp6 genes were subsequently characterized molecularly. strain ovr762 was classified as a p[14] rotavirus, as the vp4 and vp8* trypsin-cleavage product of the vp4 protein revealed the highest amino acid (aa) identity (94% and 97%, respectively) with that of the p11[14] human rotavirus (hrv) strain pa169, isolated in italy. analy ...200818661221
glycosylation at the fetomaternal interface: does the glycocode play a critical role in implantation?during pregnancy, the heavily glycosylated surfaces of the implanting blastocyst and maternal uterine epithelium interact in a highly controlled and specific manner. examination of this interface in species that show interdigitation of embryonic and maternal surfaces (epitheliochorial placentation) shows that each has its own particular pattern of glycosylation or glycotype, and that closely related and/or interbreeding species e.g. horse and donkey or llama and guanaco, have very similar glycot ...200918677581
are human p[14] rotavirus strains the result of interspecies transmissions from sheep or other ungulates that belong to the mammalian order artiodactyla?a limited number of human g6p[14] rotavirus strains that cause gastroenteritis in humans have been isolated in europe and australia. the complete genome sequences were determined for five of these human strains--b10925-97 (isolated in belgium in 1997), 111/05-27 (italy, 2005), pa169 (italy, 1987), mg6 (australia, 1993), and hun5 (hungary, 1997)--and their genetic relatedness to animal rotavirus strains was evaluated by sequencing the complete genome of the sheep rotavirus ovr762 (g8p[14]; spain, ...200919153225
systemic candidosis in a guanaco (lama guanicoe). 200919234328
endocrine changes during pregnancy, parturition and post-partum in guanacos (lama guanicoe).plasma concentrations of progesterone (p4), estradiol-17beta (e2), estrone (e1) and estrone sulfate (e1s) were measured during gestation in eight guanacos kept in captivity. gestational length was 346.1+/-9.8 days. p4 plasma concentrations increased after ovulation and remained elevated until parturition. however, during the last 4 weeks of gestation, a gradual decrease from 4.17x1.17(+/-1)nmol/l to 2.02x1.95(+/-1)nmol/l on day 5 before parturition was observed, followed by a more abrupt final d ...200919304413
prevalence of eimeria macusaniensis and eimeria ivitaensis in south american camelids of northwest argentina.faecal samples from mostly adult llamas (n=626), vicuñas (n=161) and guanacos (n=4) were obtained between december 2004 and july 2008 in three provinces of northwest argentina in order to study the prevalence of eimeria macusaniensis and eimeria ivitaensis. faeces were examined by a flotation technique using a cl(2)zn+clna solution (specific gravity=1.59). oocysts of e. macusaniensis occurred in 88.3% of 77 llama herds and in 50.3% of 626 llamas sampled whereas oocysts of e. ivitaensis occurred ...200919349120
first isolation of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from wild guanacos (lama guanicoe) on tierra del fuego island.the aim of this study was to search for mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) infection in a free-ranging wild animal species in a region where johnes's disease has yet to be reported and to classify map isolates using a genomic typing method. fecal samples were obtained from 501 wild guanacos (lama guanicoe) from tierra del fuego island, chile, in august 2006. samples were cultured using herrold's egg yolk medium with and without mycobactin j. after 9 mo of incubation, suspected map ...200919395739
application of dna forensic techniques for identifying poached guanacos (lama guanicoe) in chilean patagonia*.guanaco (lama guanicoe) is a protected and widely distributed ungulate in south america. a poacher, after killing guanacos in valle chacabuco, chilean patagonia, transported and stored the meat. samples were retrieved by local police but the suspect argued that the meat was from a horse. mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (774 pb), 15 loci microsatellites, and sry gene were used to identify the species, number of animals and their population origin, and the sex of the animals, respectively. analysi ...200919549029
fasciola hepatica infections in livestock flock, guanacos and coypus in two wildlife reserves in argentina.between autumn and spring 2006, a coprological survey was performed in two wildlife reserves located in the north of argentine patagonia to determine the prevalence of fasciola hepatica and the number of parasite eggs per gram (epg) of feces in wild guanacos (lama guanicoe), coypus (myocastor coypus), and locally born and raised goats and sheep. snails of the family lymnaeidae were collected in freshwater habitats, identified taxonomically and analyzed parasitologically. prevalence of patent inf ...200919700244
lamanema chavezi (nematoda: molineidae): epidemiological data of the infection in south american camelids of northwest argentina.faecal samples from llamas (n=708), vicuñas (n=171) and guanacos (n=4) were obtained between december 2004 and may 2009 in three provinces of northwest argentina (jujuy, salta and catamarca) to know the distribution, prevalence and intensity of lamanema chavezi infection in these south american camelid species (sacs). faeces were examined by a sedimentation-flotation technique using a cl(2)zn+clna solution (specific gravity=1.59). eggs of l. chavezi occurred in 30.3% of 89 llama herds and in 18. ...200919819627
ovarian follicular dynamics and hormonal secretory profiles in guanacos (lama guanicoe).the objective of the present study was to describe ovarian activity in 11 adult non-mated guanacos, evaluated every second day for 40 days by transrectal ultrasonography and by plasma estradiol-17beta and progesterone concentrations. an inverse relationship (r = -0.29, p < 0.001) was observed between the diameter of the largest ovarian follicle and the total number of follicles indicating that follicular growth in guanacos occurs in waves. the mean duration of follicular wave was 15.1 +/- 4.2 da ...201020022436
complete genome constellation of a caprine group a rotavirus strain reveals common evolution with ruminant and human rotavirus strains.this study reports the first complete genome sequence of a caprine group a rotavirus (gar) strain, go34. the vp7-vp4-vp6-vp1-vp2-vp3-nsp1-nsp2-nsp3-nsp4-nsp5 genes of strain go34, detected in bangladesh, were assigned to the g6-p[1]-i2-r2-c2-m2-a11-n2-t6-e2-h3 genotypes, respectively. strain go34 was closely related to the vp4, vp6-7 and nsp4-5 genes of bovine gars and the nsp1 gene of go34 to an ovine gar. strain go34 shared low nucleotide sequence identities (<90 %) with vp2-3 genes of other g ...201020505013
the complete mitochondrial dna sequence of the guanaco (lama guanicoe): comparative analysis with the vicuña (vicugna vicugna) genome.south american camelids comprise the guanaco (lama guanicoe) and the vicuña (vicugna vicugna), which are wild species, and the domestic llama (lama glama) and alpaca (lama pacos). this paper presents the first complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of the guanaco and the mt coding sequence of the vicuña. the guanaco mtdna is 16,649 nt long and its composition and organization are similar to the mitochondrial genome of other mammals. excluding the control region, comparison of the complete guanaco an ...201020524143
evaluation of medetomidine-ketamine-butorphanol anesthesia with atipamezole-naltrexone antagonism in captive male guanacos (lama guanicoe).seven captive adult male guanacos (lama guanicoe) weighing 112.0 +/- 10.9 kg (mean +/- standard deviation) were anesthetized with a combination of medetomidine (90.0 +/- 8.8 microg/kg), ketamine (2.7 +/- 0.3 mg/kg), and butorphanol (0.3 +/- 0.03 mg/kg) administered intramuscularly to evaluate its anesthetic and cardiopulmonary effects. inductions were smooth and rapid, with a mean time to initial effect of 3 +/- 1.5 min and a mean time to recumbency of 5.1 +/- 3.1 min. anesthesia was predictable ...201020597217
ovarian function in south american camelids (alpacas, llamas, vicunas, guanacos).ultrasound technology and hormone assays have provided a better understanding of folliculogenesis and ovulation in south american camelids in the last two decades. females exhibit waves of ovarian follicular growth and are induced ovulators and therefore do not exhibit oestrous cycles in the manner of spontaneously ovulating species such as sheep and cattle. there is much variation in inter-wave interval among camelid species (alpaca/llama 10-22 days, vicuna 4-11 days), within species and within ...201020875933
molecular characterization of equine rotaviruses circulating in argentinean foals during a 17-year surveillance period (1992-2008).p[12]g3 and p[12]g14 equine rotaviruses (ervs) are epidemiologically important in horses. in argentina, the prevalent erv strains have been historically p[12]g3. the aim of this study was the detection and characterization of erv strains circulating in foals in argentina during a 17-year study (1992-2008). additionally, the gene sequences of vp7, vp4 and nsp4 encoding genes of representative argentinean erv strains were determined and phylogenetic analyses were performed to elucidate the evoluti ...201020943330
study of the kinetics of antibodies titres against viral pathogens and detection of rotavirus and parainfluenza 3 infections in captive crias of guanacos (lama guanicoe).a longitudinal study was conducted to investigate the presence of antibodies (ab) to rotavirus (rv), parainfluenza-3 virus (pi-3), bovine herpesvirus-1 (bohv-1), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (bvdv-1) and bluetongue virus (btv) in eleven guanaco's crias (chulengos) relocated from rio negro to buenos aires province (argentina) and reared in captivity for a year in an experimental field. serum samples were collected periodically to detect the evidence of viral infections. faecal samples were collec ...201021062425
uniformity of rotavirus strain nomenclature proposed by the rotavirus classification working group (rcwg).in april 2008, a nucleotide-sequence-based, complete genome classification system was developed for group a rotaviruses (rvs). this system assigns a specific genotype to each of the 11 genome segments of a particular rv strain according to established nucleotide percent cutoff values. using this approach, the genome of individual rv strains are given the complete descriptor of gx-p[x]-ix-rx-cx-mx-ax-nx-tx-ex-hx. the rotavirus classification working group (rcwg) was formed by scientists in the fi ...201121597953
gastrointestinal and blood parasite determination in the guanaco (lama guanicoe) under semi-captivity conditions.the breeding of wild animals for commercial purposes is becoming more frequent nowadays. this situation has led to an increase in contact rates between wild and domestic animals, with subsequent reciprocal transmission of parasites. in this study, we characterized the gastrointestinal and blood parasites of a group of 15 semi-captive guanacos (lama guanicoe). we characterized gastrointestinal parasites by analyzing fecal samples through the sedimentation-flotation technique and hemoparasites by ...201121643663
south american camelid illegal traffic detection by means of molecular markers.south american camelids comprise the wild species guanaco and vicuña and their respective domestic relatives llama and alpaca. the aim of the present study was to determine by dna analysis to which of these species belong a herd of camelids confiscated from a llama breeder but alleged to be alpacas by the prosecution, and to evaluate the usefulness of mitochondrial and autosomal dna markers to solve judicial cases involving camelid taxa. cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase i mitochondrial genes ...201121982877
a review of the nutritional content and technological parameters of indigenous sources of meat in south america.meat yields, proximate compositions, fatty acids compositions and technological parameters are reviewed for species which might be further developed as indigenous sources of meat in south america. these include the alpaca (lama pacos), capybara (hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), guanaco (lama guanicoe), llama (lama glama), nutria (myocastor coypus), collared peccary (tayassu tajacu), greater rhea (rhea americana), lesser rhea (rhea pennata), yacare (caiman crocodilus yacare), tegu lizard (tupinambis m ...200822063568
complete molecular genome analyses of equine rotavirus a strains from different continents reveal several new genotypes and a largely conserved genotype this study, the complete genome sequence of seven equine group a rotavirus (rva) strains (rva/horse-tc/gbr/l338/1991/g13p[18], rva/horse-wt/irl/03v04954/2003/g3p[12] and rva/horse-wt/irl/04v2024/2004/g14p[12] from europe; rva/horse-wt/arg/e30/1993/g3p[12], rva/horse-wt/arg/e403/2006/g14p[12], and rva/horse-wt/arg/e4040/2008/g14p[12] from argentina, and rva/horse-wt/zaf/eqrv-sa1/2006/g14p[12] from south africa) were determined. multiple new genotypes were identified and genotype numbers were a ...201122190012
management of protected areas and its effect on an ecosystem function: removal of prosopis flexuosa seeds by mammals in argentinian drylands.the ecological function of animal seed dispersal depends on species interactions and can be affected by drivers such as the management interventions applied to protected areas. this study was conducted in two protected areas in the monte desert: a fenced reserve with grazing exclusion and absence of large native mammals (the man and biosphere ñacuñán reserve; fr) and an unfenced reserve with low densities of large native and domestic animals (ischigualasto park; ufr). the study focuses on prosop ...201627655222
ecological correlates of group-size variation in a resource-defense ungulate, the sedentary guanaco.for large herbivores, predation-risk, habitat structure and population density are often reported as major determinants of group size variation within and between species. however, whether the underlying causes of these relationships imply an ecological adaptation or are the result of a purely mechanistic process in which fusion and fragmentation events only depend on the rate of group meeting, is still under debate. the aim of this study was to model guanaco family and bachelor group sizes in c ...201424586503
niche segregation between wild and domestic herbivores in chilean patagonia.competition arises when two co-occuring species share a limiting resource. potential for competition is higher when species have coexisted for a short time, as it is the case for herbivores and livestock introduced in natural systems. sheep, introduced in the late 19(th) century in patagonia, bear a great resemblance in size and diet to the guanaco, the main native herbivore in patagonia. in such circumstances, it could be expected that the two species compete and one of them could be displaced. ...201323555656
the first caprine rotavirus detected in argentina displays genomic features resembling virus strains infecting members of the bovidae and camelidae.rotavirus group a (rva) is a major cause of diarrhea in humans and young animals including small ruminants. the purpose of this study was to identify rva in dairy goat kids, and to characterize the complete genomic constellation and genetic relatedness with other rva strains. four out of twenty fecal samples from diarrheic and non-diarrheic goat kids were positive for rva by elisa. a representative sample was selected for further genome analyses. the rva strain rva/goat-wt/arg/0040/2011/g8p[1] d ...201424742949
discovery and molecular characterization of a group a rotavirus strain detected in an argentinean vicuña (vicugna vicugna).the wild vicuña (vicugna vicugna) is one of the four species of native south american camelids (sacs) in addition to the wild guanaco, and their domesticated counterparts, alpaca and llama, respectively. serological data have indicated the presence of group a rotaviruses (rva) specific antibodies in all 4 members of the sac, and so far, rva has been detected from alpacas, llamas and guanacos. a total of 59 fecal samples from healthy wild newborn and juvenile vicuñas, raised in captivity in jujuy ...201322877519
the normal variants in the left bundle branch system.this article reviewed the main anatomic and physiopathological aspects of the left bundle branch from its origin in the his bundle and its intraventricular distribution on the left endocardial surface. the results are based on the relevant literature and on personal observations executed on 206 hearts distributed as follows: 67 dogs, 60 humans, 45 sheep, 22 pigs, 10 cows, 2 monkeys, 1 guanaco, and 1 sea lion. the main anatomical features of the his-purkinje conducting system may be summarized as ...201728341304
full genomic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of a zoonotic human g8p[14] rotavirus strain detected in a sample from guatemala.we report the genomic characterization of a rare human g8p[14] rotavirus strain, identified in a stool sample from guatemala (gtm) during routine rotavirus surveillance. this strain was designated as rva/human-wt/gtm/2009726790/2009/g8p[14], with a genomic constellation of g8-p[14]-i2-r2-c2-m2-a13-n2-t6-e2-h3. the vp4 gene occupied lineage vii within the p[14] genotype. phylogenetic analysis of each genome segment revealed close relatedness to several zoonotic simian, guanaco and bovine strains. ...201525952569
llamas and alpacas in europe: endoparasites of the digestive tract and their pharmacotherapeutic control.there are distinctive specifications for veterinary medical care of south american camelids (sacs), namely, llamas, alpacas, vicunas and guanacos. camelids are classified as food-producing animals, but as veterinary medicinal products are often only licensed for domestic food-producing species such as horses, goats, sheep and cattle, treatment of sacs generally requires off-label use of drugs. endoparasitism is a major health concern in camelids and can result in severe clinical diseases and eco ...201525933827
novel nsp1 genotype characterised in an african camel g8p[11] rotavirus strain.animal-human interspecies transmission is thought to play a significant role in influencing rotavirus strain diversity in humans. proving this concept requires a better understanding of the complete genetic constellation of rotaviruses circulating in various animal species. however, very few whole genomes of animal rotaviruses, especially in developing countries, are available. in this study, complete genetic configuration of the first african camel rotavirus strain (rva/camel-wt/sdn/mrc-dpru447 ...201424184096
genomic data from extinct north american camelops revise camel evolutionary history.recent advances in paleogenomic technologies have enabled an increasingly detailed understanding of the evolutionary relationships of now-extinct mammalian taxa. however, a number of enigmatic quaternary species have never been characterized with molecular data, often because available fossils are rare or are found in environments that are not optimal for dna preservation. here, we analyze paleogenomic data extracted from bones attributed to the late pleistocene western camel, camelops cf. heste ...201526037535
first complete mitochondrial genome data from ancient south american camelids - the mystery of the chilihueques from isla mocha (chile).in south american societies, domesticated camelids were of great cultural importance and subject to trade and translocation. south american camelids were even found on remote and hard to reach islands, emphasizing their importance to historic and pre-historic south american populations. isla mocha, a volcanic island 35 km offshore of central-south chile, is an example of such an island. when dutch and spanish explorers reached the island in the early 17th century, they found that domesticated ca ...201627929050
[gastrointestinal bezoars].gastrointestinal bezoars are a concretion of indigested material that can be found in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and some animals. this material forms an intraluminal mass, more commonly located in the stomach. during a large period of history animal bezoars were considered antidotes to poisons and diseases. we report a historical overview since bezoars stones were thought to have medicinal properties. this magic conception was introduced in south america by spanish conquerors. in chil ...201627905655
morphofunctional structure of the lingual papillae in three species of south american camelids: alpaca, guanaco, and llama.the aim of this study was to compare the anatomical and functional characteristics of the lingual papilla among the camelidae. for this purpose, tongues of alpaca, guanaco, and llama were used. numerous long and thin filiform papillae were located in the median groove and none were detected on the rest of the dorsal surface of the lingual apex in alpaca. secondary papillae originated from the base of some filiform papillae on the ventral surface of alpaca tongue. the bases of some filiform papil ...201626572928
bayesian inference on the effect of density dependence and weather on a guanaco population from chile.understanding the mechanisms that drive population dynamics is fundamental for management of wild populations. the guanaco (lama guanicoe) is one of two wild camelid species in south america. we evaluated the effects of density dependence and weather variables on population regulation based on a time series of 36 years of population sampling of guanacos in tierra del fuego, chile. the population density varied between 2.7 and 30.7 guanaco/km2, with an apparent monotonic growth during the first 2 ...201425514510
maintenance of genetic diversity in an introduced island population of guanacos after seven decades and two severe demographic bottlenecks: implications for camelid conservation.fifteen guanacos were introduced to staats island in the falklands/malvinas archipelago from patagonia in the 1930s. twenty five years later, the population was culled from 300 to 10-20 individuals, but quickly rebounded to a population of almost 400 animals that today retain the genetic signature of the founding event and later bottleneck. the goals of this study were to (i) make a genetic assessment of this island population through comparisons with mainland populations and simulations, and (i ...201424663026
unveiling current guanaco distribution in chile based upon niche structure of phylogeographic lineages: andean puna to subpolar forests.niche description and differentiation at broad geographic scales have been recent major topics in ecology and evolution. describing the environmental niche structure of sister taxa with known evolutionary trajectories stands out as a useful exercise in understanding niche requirements. here we model the environmental niche structure and distribution of the recently resolved phylogeography of guanaco (lama guanicoe) lineages on the western slope of the southern andes. using a maximum entropy fram ...201324265726
density but not climate affects the population growth rate of guanacos ( lama guanicoe) (artiodactyla, camelidae).we analyzed the effects of population density and climatic variables on the rate of population growth in the guanaco ( lama guanicoe), a wild camelid species in south america. we used a time series of 36 years (1977-2012) of population sampling in tierra del fuego, chile. individuals were grouped in three age-classes: newborns, juveniles, and adults; for each year a female population transition matrix was constructed, and the population growth rate (λ) was estimated for each year as the matrix h ...201325187878
analysis of mitochondrial dna in bolivian llama, alpaca and vicuna populations: a contribution to the phylogeny of the south american camelids.the objectives of this work were to assess the mtdna diversity of bolivian south american camelid (sac) populations and to shed light on the evolutionary relationships between the bolivian camelids and other populations of sacs. we have analysed two different mtdna regions: the complete coding region of the mt-cyb gene and 513 bp of the d-loop region. the populations sampled included bolivian llamas, alpacas and vicunas, and chilean guanacos. high levels of genetic diversity were observed in the ...201322640259
medicinal use of wild fauna by mestizo communities living near san guillermo biosphere reserve (san juan, argentina).wild and domestic animals and their by-products are important ingredients in the preparation of curative, protective and preventive medicines. despite the medicinal use of animals worldwide, this topic has received less attention than the use of medicinal plants. this study assessed the medicinal use of animals by mestizo communities living near san guillermo mab reserve by addressing the following questions: what animal species and body parts are used? what ailments or diseases are treated with ...201525608977
sarcocystis masoni, n. sp. (apicomplexa: sarcocystidae), and redescription of sarcocystis aucheniae from llama (lama glama), guanaco (lama guanicoe) and alpaca (vicugna pacos).there is considerable confusion concerning the species of sarcocystis in south american camelids (sac). several species names have been used; however, proper descriptions are lacking. in the present paper, we redescribe the macroscopic sarcocyst forming sarcocystis aucheniae and describe and propose a new name, sarcocystis masoni for the microscopic sarcocyst forming species. muscles samples were obtained from llamas (lama glama) and guanacos (lama guanicoe) from argentina and from alpacas (vicu ...201626932444
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