melting corneal ulcer management in a greater one-horned rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis).acute unilateral keratomalacia, probably secondary to trauma, occurred in a greater one-horned rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis) transferred between zoologic facilities. following 2 days of medical treatment, a 360 degrees conjunctival surgical graft was performed. staphylococcus and yeast were isolated from a perioperative culture of the affected eye and were treated with antimicrobials. there was rapid healing and minimal midcorneal scar formation with peripheral corneal clarity.200010884136
studies on digestive physiology and feed digestibilities in captive indian rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis).we performed intake, digestibility and ingesta passage studies in 11 indian rhinoceroses (rhinoceros unicornis) from four zoological institutions, using total faecal collection for the quantification of faecal output. the regularly fed zoo ration of roughage and concentrates (ration rc) and a roughage-only ration (ration r) were used; the roughage source differed between the facilities and comprised grass hay, grass silage, straw and lucerne hay. dry matter intake ranged between 0.8 and 1.3% of ...200515788000
fat soluble vitamins in blood and tissues of free-ranging and captive rhinoceros.several disease syndromes in captive rhinoceroses have been linked to low vitamin status. blood samples from captive and free-ranging black (diceros bicornis) and white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum) and tissue samples of captive individuals from four rhinoceros species were analysed for vitamins a and e. circulating vitamin a levels measured as retinol for free-ranging versus captive black and white rhinoceros were 0.04 (+/- 0.03 sd) vs. 0.08 (+/- 0.08) and 0.07 (+/- 0.04) vs. 0.06 (+/- 0.02) ...200212038140
the complete mitochondrial dna sequence of the greater indian rhinoceros, rhinoceros unicornis, and the phylogenetic relationship among carnivora, perissodactyla, and artiodactyla (+ cetacea).the sequence (16,829 nt) of the complete mitochondrial genome of the greater indian rhinoceros, rhinoceros unicornis, was determined. like other perissodactyls studied (horse and donkey) the rhinoceros demonstrates length variation (heteroplasmy) associated with different numbers of repetitive motifs in the control region. the 16,829-nt variety of the molecule includes 36 identical control region motifs. the evolution of individual peptide-coding genes was examined by comparison with a distantly ...19968896369
the occurrence of fasciola gigantica in the liver of an indian rhinoceros (r. unicornis). 19715103964
assisted reproduction in female rhinoceros and elephants--current status and future perspective.over the last few decades, rhinoceroses and elephants became important icons in the saga of wildlife conservation. recent surveys estimate the wild asian (elephas maximus) and african (loxodonta africana) elephant populations to be, at most, 50 250 and 637 600 respectively. for the five rhinoceros species, black (diceros bicornis), white (ceratotherium simum), indian (rhinoceros unicornis), javan (rhinoceros sondaicus) and sumatran rhinoceros (dicerorhinus sumatrensis), the population estimates ...200717688600
semen cryopreservation in the indian rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis).the objective was to identify an extender and cryoprotectant combination for indian rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis) sperm that yielded high post-thaw sperm quality. male indian rhinoceroses (n=6; 7.5-34 yr old) were anesthetized and subjected to a regimented electroejaculation procedure (75-100 mamps; 4-10 volts; 7-150 stimuli; total of 10 electroejaculation procedures). high quality semen fractions from each ejaculate were divided into four aliquots and a 2 x 2 factorial design used to compar ...201020172598
urinalysis in three species of captive rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis, dicerorhinus sumatrensis, and diceros bicornis).this study reports urinalysis values for three species of captive rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis, dicerorhinus sumatrensis, and diceros bicornis) and evaluates individual and species differences. repeated urinalysis was conducted on 11 individuals to establish normal reference ranges. although no individual or species differences existed in urinary values for ph, all species differed in specific gravity. rhinoceros urine demonstrated many physical and chemical properties similar to that of the ...200818816996
serologic response to west nile virus vaccination in the greater one-horned rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis).vaccination has been an important component of preventative health care programs of north american zoologic institutions in their protection of valuable species against west nile virus (wnv) infection since its detection in 1999. although approved only for horses, commercial wnv vaccine has been used for the purpose of protection of nondomestic species, including avian, equid, and rhinoceros species. currently, there are two commercial equine vaccines available, a killed vaccine and a recombinan ...200819110693
analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes from extinct and extant rhinoceroses reveals lack of phylogenetic resolution.the scientific literature contains many examples where dna sequence analyses have been used to provide definitive answers to phylogenetic problems that traditional (non-dna based) approaches alone have failed to resolve. one notable example concerns the rhinoceroses, a group for which several contradictory phylogenies were proposed on the basis of morphology, then apparently resolved using mitochondrial dna fragments.200919432984
germany/australia index of sperm sex sortability in elephants and rhinoceros.flow cytometric sexing of spermatozoa followed by application in artificial insemination or in vitro fertilization provides a unique opportunity to predetermine the sex of offspring and might enhance the conservation management of endangered species in captivity such as the elephant and rhinoceros. to obtain an indication of the sortability of spermatozoa from these species, the relative dna differences between x and y chromosome bearing spermatozoa (fresh, frozen thawed, epididymal) from three ...200919055564
development of a dna marker by minisatellite associated sequence amplification (masa) from the endangered indian rhino (rhinoceros unicornis).rhinoceroses are highly endangered species and their protection warrants immediate remedial measures. development of dna markers is envisaged to complement global efforts of the conservation of these extant animals. minisatellite associated sequence amplification (masa) of dna from indian rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis) and three sub-species of south african black rhinoceros (diceros bicornis) was carried out using a primer based on consensus sequence of the minisatellite repeat locus 33.15. s ...200312628586
minisatellite associated sequence amplification (masa) of the hypervariable repeat marker 33.15 reveals a male specific band in humans.the 16-nt (5' cacctctccacctgcc 3') consensus sequence of the hypervariable repeat marker 33.15 was used as primer to conduct minisatellite associated sequence amplification (masa) of human genomic dna. masa detected a 513-bp y chromosome specific band in males as well as a number of variable bands ranging from 260-2700 bp in both the sexes. overall polymorphism of the variable alleles was low with the band sharing probability of identity being 1.04x10(-4). cloning and sequence analysis of the ma ...200111292326
comparative studies of mitogen- and antigen-induced lymphocyte proliferation in four captive rhinoceros species.cellular immune function in four rhinoceros species was evaluated by way of in vitro lymphocyte proliferation responses to mitogenic and antigenic stimuli to establish normative data on white blood cell activity for each species and to identify species-specific differences that might help explain the predisposition of black rhinoceroses (diceros bicornis) to disease. a cross section of the u.s. rhinoceros population encompassing all four captive species was sampled, including the sumatran rhinoc ...200415732584
surgical management of rectal prolapse in an indian rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis).an acute rectal mucosal prolapse in a 26-yr-old indian rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis) was repaired surgically by mucosal resection. two days postoperatively, suture line dehiscence accompanied by substantial hemorrhage was managed by ligation and hemostasis during a second immobilization. medical management with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and diuretics reduced the mucosal edema and prevented recurrence of the prolapse. a combination of butorphanol and detomidine provided excellent r ...200415305523
kidney of the great indian rhino rhinoceros unicornis, linnaeus.the kidney of r. unicornis has almost 80 closely apposed lobes, all appearing peripherally. every lobe, almost enclosed by a collagenous septum, resembles a deformed truncated cone. the pelvis proper is a small pouch which divides into a cephalic and a caudal urothelial-lined fibromuscular conduit. the terminal collecting ducts of every lobe open into a tubus maximus. this is lined by cuboidal cells and otherwise has no wall. there is no papilla. all lobes finally empty through the 18 primary in ...19873425567
beta-globin chain hemoglobin polymorphism and hemoglobin stability in black rhinoceroses (diceros bicornis).to evaluate the syndrome of acute intravascular hemolytic anemia in black rhinoceroses (diceros bicornis), the hemoglobin of this species was evaluated by use of isopropanol- and heat-stability tests and was further characterized by electrophoretic studies. samples were obtained from 22 apparently healthy captive north american black rhinoceroses, though 3 of the study animals had survived previous hemolytic events, and 3 others were parents of 3 offspring that had suffered hemolysis. the easter ...19902337282
species identification of rhinoceros horns using the cytochrome b gene.material suspected of originating from species of rhinoceros is frequently seized by forensic organizations investigating trade in endangered species. at present identification of the species is possible by dna sequencing of the material, such as powdered rhinoceros horns. the unambiguous identification of rhino products using a 402 bp fragment of cytochrome b gene was investigated. this dna sequence may not only assist in the identification of the unknown sample, but can be used to determine th ...200312969614
fermentation of cellulose and production of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes by anaerobic fungi from ruminant and non-ruminant herbivores.four anaerobic fungi were grown on filter paper cellulose and monitored over a 7-8 days period for substrate utilisation, fermentation products, and secretion of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes. two of the fungi (n1 and n2) were neocallimastix species isolated from a ruminant (sheep) and the other two fungi were piromyces species (e2 and r1) isolated from an indian elephant and an indian rhinoceros, respectively. the tested anaerobic fungi degraded the filter paper cellulose almost complete ...19911793336
iron overload syndrome in the black rhinoceros (diceros bicornis): microscopical lesions and comparison with other rhinoceros species.the african black rhinoceros (diceros bicornis) has adapted to a low iron diet during evolution and is thus prone to iron overload in captivity, which is associated with a number of serious disorders. a s88t polymorphism in the hfe gene has been suggested as a potential genetic basis of increased iron uptake in the black rhinoceros, while the indian rhinoceros is thought to be unaffected by iron overload in captivity. in the present study, the histopathology and distribution of iron accumulation ...201222935088
review of laboratory and necropsy evidence for iron storage disease acquired by browser rhinoceroses.necropsies of two browser rhinoceroses, african black (diceros bicornis) and sumatran (dicerorhinus sumatrensis), often reveal extensive iron-pigment deposition in various tissues. this condition (hemosiderosis) has not been observed in species that are natural grazers, african white (ceratotherium simum) and asian greater one-horned (indian; rhinoceros unicornis), nor in any species free ranging in the wild. the causes, clinical significance, and consequences of captivity-acquired hemosiderosis ...201223156711
osteopathology in the feet of rhinoceroses: lesion type and estimated 1,170 white (ceratotherium simum), black (diceros bicornis), greater one-horned (rhinoceros unicornis), and sumatran (dicerorhinus sumatrensis) rhinoceroses are kept in captivity worldwide, where they are a popular public attraction and serve important roles in education and conservation. rhinoceroses in captivity are reportedly affected by a variety of foot conditions, including abscesses, nail cracking, and pododermatitis, but there are few studies reporting associated bony pathol ...201324450050
comparison of butorphanol-detomidine versus butorphanol-azaperone for the standing sedation of captive greater one-horned rhinoceroses (rhinoceros unicornis).three adult and two subadult greater one-horned rhinoceroses (rhinoceros unicornis) were sedated a total of nine times using two different intramuscular sedative combinations in order to compare the effectiveness of these combinations in inducing consistent standing sedation in this species. the sedation protocols compared were butorphanol tartrate (50-60 mg) and detomidine hydrochloride (20-30 mg; bd) versus butorphanol tartrate (80-120 mg) and azaperone (80-120 mg; ba). specific doses were adj ...201424712163
ovarian down regulation by gnrf vaccination decreases reproductive tract tumour size in female white and greater one-horned rhinoceroses.reproductive tract tumours, specifically leiomyoma, are commonly found in female rhinoceroses. similar to humans, tumour growth in rhinoceroses is thought to be sex hormone dependent. tumours can form and expand from the onset of ovarian activity at puberty until the cessation of sex-steroid influences at senescence. extensive tumour growth results in infertility. the aim of this study was to down regulate reproductive function of tumour-diseased and infertile females to stop further tumour grow ...201627403662
the middle pleistocene vertebrate fauna from khok sung (nakhon ratchasima, thailand): biochronological and paleobiogeographical implications.the fluviatile terrace deposits of khok sung, nakhon ratchasima province, have yielded more than one thousand fossils, making this the richest pleistocene vertebrate fauna of thailand. the excellent preservation of the specimens allows precise characterization of the faunal composition. the mammalian fauna consists of fifteen species in thirteen genera, including a primate, a canid, a hyaenid, proboscideans, rhinoceroses, a suid, cervids, and bovids. most species correspond to living taxa but gl ...201627667928
prevalence of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus in mammals of the royal zoological society of antwerp, belgium.contrary to the numerous reports on methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa) in domestic animals, only three articles concerning zoo animals are documented in the literature. a skin infection of an african elephant (loxodonta africana) calf was most likely acquired from an infected caretaker. another zoo detected mrsa in the rumen content of a mouflon (ovis aries), and, in a third facility, it was reported in a fistulous wound at the coronary band of a digit of an indian rhinoceros (rh ...201222448524
zebra-borne equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) infection in non-african captive mammals.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) was detected in an indian rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis), which was euthanized because of severe neurological disease. encephalitis was suspected and ehv-1 dna was detected in brain, lung, and spleen tissues. the viral ir6 protein was detected in lung tissues by western blot analysis. phylogenetic analyses of ehv-1 sequences amplified from various tissues was nearly identical to one recently described that resulted in both non-fatal and fatal encephalitis in ...201424440374
salmonella spp. survey of captive rhinoceroses in u.s. zoological institutions and private ranches.a survey was mailed to 72 institutions in the usa requesting information on salmonella spp. cultures in black rhinoceroses (diceros bicornis), white rhinoceroses (ceratotherium simum), and indian rhinoceroses (rhinoceros unicornis). sixty-one institutions responded (85% return rate), with seven reporting positive cultures (11% prevalence rate; 10% if survey nonresponders had negative cultures). there were 17 positive cultures from 16 different animals, with nine different serotypes of salmonella ...199910572861
parathyroid history and the uppsala anatomist ivar sandström.the parathyroid gland was first recognized in 1850 by richard owen during a dissection of an indian rhinoceros at the london zoo. the credit for the discovery of the parathyroid has, however, been given to the uppsala anatomist ivar sandström, who was the first to demonstrate the gland in man. his dissection studies were undertaken between 1877 and 1880, when he still was a medical student in uppsala. sandström's detailed anatomical and histological studies of the parathyroid gland were publishe ...200920481375
activation of southern white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum simum) estrogen receptors by phytoestrogens: potential role in the reproductive failure of captive-born females?the captive southern white rhinoceros (swr; ceratotherium simum simum) population serves as an important genetic reservoir critical to the conservation of this vulnerable species. unfortunately, captive populations are declining due to the poor reproductive success of captive-born females. captive female swr exhibit reproductive problems suggested to result from continual ovarian follicular activity and prolonged exposure to endogenous estrogen. however, we investigated the potential role of exo ...201222253418
alkaline phosphatase as an indicator of true ejaculation in the rhinoceros.the objective was to determine if seminal alkaline phosphatase (alp) can serve as an indicator of true ejaculation in the rhinoceros. concentrations of alp activity were determined in seminal fractions collected from african black rhinos (diceros bicornis), an african white rhino (ceratotherium simum), and an indian rhino (rhinoceros unicornis) during electroejaculation. in addition, seminal fractions collected during penile massage of a sumatran rhino (dicerorhinus sumatrensis) were assessed. c ...201020615535
corticosteroid-induced suppression of in vitro lymphocyte proliferation in four captive rhinoceros species.captive african black rhinoceroses (diceros bicornis) are unusually susceptible to several diseases not commonly observed in any of the other three rhinoceros species maintained in captivity. the potential role of corticosteroids (either endogenously produced or exogenously administered) in the development of these sometimes fatal diseases has been questioned. in this study, the suppressive effects of two therapeutic corticosteroids (dexamethasone and hydrocortisone) on in vitro lymphocyte proli ...200718229856
semen collection in rhinoceroses (rhinoceros unicornis, diceros bicornis, ceratotherium simum) by electroejaculation with a uniquely designed probe.electroejaculation in rhinoceroses has historically yielded inconsistent results, with the collection of high-quality, sperm-rich samples rare. the goal of this study was to develop a reliable method of electroejaculation in the rhinoceros by designing a rectal probe that appropriately fits the anatomy of this taxon and refining the procedure. a curved probe handle ending in an oblate, ellipsoid head was built using readily available supplies. a combination of rectal massage, penile massage, and ...200517312718
clinical implications of rhinoceros reproductive tract anatomy and histology.reproductive tracts or tissues from five male black rhinoceroses (diceros bicornis), two male white rhinoceroses (ceratotherium simum), two male one-horned asian rhinoceroses (rhinoceros unicornis), seven female black rhinoceroses, and six female white rhinoceroses from multiple institutions were examined to characterize their anatomy and histology. some observations and measurements were obtained from in situ tracts of intact animals before or during necropsy. formalin-fixed tissues were dissec ...200112790392
phylogenetic relationships of the five extant rhinoceros species (rhinocerotidae, perissodactyla) based on mitochondrial cytochrome b and 12s rrna genes.a major question in rhinocerotid phylogenetics concerns the position of the sumatran rhinoceros (dicerorhinus sumatrensis) with regard to the other extant asian (rhinoceros unicornis and r. sondaicus) and african (diceros bicornis and ceratotherium simum) species. we have examined this particular question through the phylogenetic analysis of the complete sequences of the mitochondrial 12s rrna and cytochrome b genes. three additional perissodactyls (one tapir and two equids) plus several outgrou ...200111286489
ultrasonographic monitoring of artificially stimulated ejaculation in three rhinoceros species (ceratotherium simum, diceros bicornis, rhinoceros unicornus).manual massage of the penis and rectal electroejaculation methods have been minimally effective for collecting semen from the rhinoceros. these two methods for stimulating ejaculation were evaluated by rectal ultrasonography. one individual each of three rhinoceros species (ceratotherium simum simum, rhinoceros unicornis and diceros bicornis) was stimulated by manual massage of the penis and two black rhinoceroses (diceros bicornis) were electroejaculated. on ultrasonography, neither manual mass ...199810065845
the complete mitochondrial dna sequence of the white rhinoceros, ceratotherium simum, and comparison with the mtdna sequence of the indian rhinoceros, rhinoceros unicornis.the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the white rhinoceros, ceratotherium simum, was determined. the length of the reported sequence is 16,832 nucleotides. this length can vary, however, due to pronounced heteroplasmy caused by differing numbers of a repetitive motif (5'-cg-catataca-3') in the control region. the 16,832 nucleotide sequence presented here is the longest version of the molecule and contains 35 copies of this motif. comparison between the complete mitochon ...19979126560
allozyme variation and differentiation in african and indian rhinoceroses.we studied variation at 25 to 31 allozymic loci in african and asian rhinoceroses. four taxa in three genera were examined: african ceratotherium simum simum (northern white rhinoceros), c. s. cottoni (southern white rhinoceros), diceros bicornis (black rhinoceros), and rhinoceros unicornis (indian rhinoceros). extremely small amounts of intraspecific variation were observed in sample sizes of 2 to 10 presumably unrelated individuals per taxon: p = .00-.10, h = 0.00-0.02. we examined demographic ...20102794471
rhinoceronema unicornensis gen. n., sp. n. (cosmocercoidea: atractidae) from indian one horned rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis linnaeus, 1758) captivated at the alipore zoological garden, kolkata, india.during survey of nematodes from the faecal samples of rhinoceros unicornis linnaeus, 1758 remaining captivated in the alipore zoological garden, kolkata, india 2,500 specimens were recovered in 3 years from march, 2007 to february, 2010. after processing the specimens were identified as a member of the family atractidae (railliet 1917) travassos 1919 which have 22 valid genera. the present specimens differs from all other valid atractid genera in the features of cephalic region, cup-shaped bucca ...201324431555
reproductive tract tumours: the scourge of woman reproduction ails indian indian rhinoceros, extensive leiomyoma, a benign smooth muscle tumour, was sporadically diagnosed post mortem and commonly thought of as contributing factor for reduced fecundity of this species in captivity. however, to date, the prevalence of reproductive tract tumours and their relevance for fecundity are unknown. our analysis of the international studbook now reveals that females cease reproducing at the age of 18.1±1.2 years; equivalent to a reproductive lifespan of just 9.5±1.3 years. t ...201424671211
arcanobacterium wilhelmae sp. nov., isolated from the genital tract of a rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis).abstracta polyphasic taxonomic study was performed on an unidentified arcanobacterium-like gram-stain-positive bacterium isolated from the genital tract of a rhinoceros. comparative 16s rrna gene sequencing showed that the bacterium belonged to the genus arcanobacterium and was most closely related to the type strains of arcanobacterium canis (98.8 %), arcanobacterium phocisimile (97.8 %), arcanobacterium phocae (97.7%), arcanobacterium haemolyticum (97.4 %), arcanobacterium hippocoleae (96.6 %) ...201728073403
tuberculosis in rhinoceros: an underrecognized threat?historical evidence of tuberculosis (tb) affecting primarily captive rhinoceroses dates back almost two centuries. although the causative mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (mtc) species has not been determined in many cases, especially for those that occurred before bacterial culture techniques were available, the spectrum of documented reports illustrates the importance of tb as cause of morbidity and mortality in different rhinoceros species across continents. in more recent years, sporadic s ...201626996520
use of urinary biomarkers of ovarian function and altrenogest supplementation to enhance captive breeding success in the indian rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis).urinary hormone analysis was conducted on two adult female indian rhinoceroses (rhinoceros unicornis) that exhibited minimal or no estrual behaviors traditionally used to time breeding. urine was collected throughout two consecutive estrous cycles to establish preliminary data on each individual's pattern and concentration of estrogen conjugates (ec) and progesterone metabolites (pdg) during follicular and luteal phases. following preliminary endocrine analysis, urine samples were shipped on a f ...201524375460
mycobacterium orygis-associated tuberculosis in free-ranging rhinoceros, nepal, 2015. 201626890310
estrogen excretory patterns in the indian rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis), determined by simplified urinary analysis.daily urine samples obtained at random from 3 mature indian rhinoceroses (rhinoceros unicornis) were evaluated for immunologic estrogen concentration and were indexed by creatinine (cr) concentration. chromatographic separation and enzyme hydrolysis of the estrogenic components indicated that the major urinary estrogen in this species is immunoreactive estrone (greater than 95%). cyclic variations of immunoreactive estrogens (basal values of 0.1 to 0.3 microgram/mg of cr. peak values of 5.8 to 1 ...19817196185
[chromosome picture of the indian rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis)]. 19705538263
ode to an indian rhinoceros or the evaluation and preparation of patients for parathyroid surgery. 19705412575
[cutaneous musculature of the head and neck in rhinoceros unicornis linné 1758]. 19705522976
the chromosomes of the great indian rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis l.). 19685675006
[further contribution to the knowledge of placentas of the order perissodactyla: 2 placentas collected at delivery from the indian rhinoceros(rinoceros unicornis l.)]. 19655858506
[on the histochemistry of the placenta of the rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis l.)]. 19655836788
[on the ultrastructure of foliate villi of the indian rhinoceros placenta (rhinoceros unicornis l.)]. 19654163460
lymph node structure in rhinoceros unicornis. 196414317653
tannin-binding salivary proteins in three captive rhinoceros species.tannin-binding salivary proteins (tbsp) are considered to be counter-defences acquired in the course of evolution by animals whose natural forage contains such tannins. as tannins mostly occur in browse material but not in grasses, it is assumed that grazers do not have a need for tbsp. whereas it has been shown in several non-ungulate species that tbsp can be induced by dietary tannins, their presence or absence in ungulates has, so far, been shown to be a species-specific characteristic indepe ...200515664314
detomidine and butorphanol for standing sedation in a range of zoo-kept ungulate species.general anesthesia poses risks for larger zoo species, like cardiorespiratory depression, myopathy, and hyperthermia. in ruminants, ruminal bloat and regurgitation of rumen contents with potential aspiration pneumonia are added risks. thus, the use of sedation to perform minor procedures is justified in zoo animals. a combination of detomidine and butorphanol has been routinely used in domestic animals. this drug combination, administered by remote intramuscular injection, can also be applied fo ...201728920785
effects of management strategies on glucocorticoids and behavior in indian rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis): translocation and operant conditioning.the ex situ indian rhino population experienced a decrease in genetic diversity indicating that the breeding program could possibly benefit from novel reproductive management strategies to ensure population sustainability. we sought to determine how management tools used for reproductive management, specifically translocation and operant conditioning, impact physiological and behavioral measures of welfare in indian rhinos. first, an adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge performed in an adult ma ...201424523250
surgical management of a malacic corneal ulcer in a greater one-horned asian rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis) using a free island tarsoconjunctival graft.a greater one-horned asian rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis) presented for presumed ocular trauma to the left eye, with secondary bacterial infection, resulting in severe and progressive corneal ulceration. following a poor response to medical therapy, the animal was anesthetized for further examination, and a bulbar conjunctival pedicle graft performed. this graft failed by 48-h postsurgery as a result of self-trauma. the animal was re-anesthetized, and a free island tarsoconjunctival graft per ...200616409248
melanocytic neoplasms in a black rhinoceros (diceros bicornis) and an indian rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis).melanocytic neoplasms were diagnosed in a captive black rhinoceros (diceros bicornis) and a captive indian rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis) from different facilities. the first case was a 10-yr-old, captive-born male black rhinoceros that presented with a small firm cutaneous mass on the dorsal midline. aspirate cytology results were suggestive of a melanocytic neoplasm, and histologic examination of the excised mass confirmed a well-differentiated neoplasm with much pigment production, minimal ...201020722260
tessaracoccus rhinocerotis sp. nov., isolated from the faeces of rhinoceros unicornis.a novel gram-positive, non-spore-forming, irregular rod-shaped, non-motile and facultatively anaerobic actinobacterium, designated strain yim 101269t, was isolated from the faeces of rhinoceros unicornis living in yunnan wild animal park, yunnan province, south-west china. the isolate grew at 10-35 °c, ph 6-12 and 0-9 % nacl (w/v). the cell-wall peptidoglycan of the organism contained ll-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. the polar lipids were detected to be diphosphatidylglycer ...201526621119
baseline assessment of ophthalmic parameters in the greater one-horned rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis).five healthy captive greater one-horned rhinoceroses (rhinoceros unicornis) were evaluated with standing sedation (detomidine hydrochloride 20-30 mg and butorphanol tartrate 50-60 mg per animal) to determine baseline values for tear production, intraocular pressure (iop), conjunctival flora, and ocular anatomy using brightness mode transpalpebral ultrasonography with a 4- to 7-mhz broadband curvilinear transducer. the mean schirmer tear test i value was 18.2 ± 3.49 mm/min. the mean iop measured ...201425632674
sphingobacterium rhinocerotis sp. nov., isolated from the faeces of rhinoceros unicornis.a novel gram-negative, strictly aerobic, short rod-shaped, non-motile bacterium, designated yim 101302(t), was isolated from the faeces of rhinoceros unicornis dwelling in the yunnan wild animal park, yunnan province, south-west china. the 16s rrna gene sequence analysis revealed a clear affiliation of strain yim 101302(t) to the genus sphingobacterium. the newly isolated bacterium was found to be closely related to sphingobacterium composti t5-12(t) (97.1% 16s rrna sequence identity) and sphing ...201526303282
characterization of a species-specific repetitive dna from a highly endangered wild animal, rhinoceros unicornis, and assessment of genetic polymorphism by microsatellite associated sequence amplification (masa).we have cloned and sequenced a 906bp ecori repeat dna fraction from rhinoceros unicornis genome. the contig pss(r)2 is at rich with 340 a (37.53%), 187 c (20.64%), 173 g (19.09%) and 206 t (22.74%). the sequence contains malt box, nf-e1, poly-a signal, lariat consensus sequences, tata box, translational initiation sequences and several stop codons. translation of the contig showed seven different types of protein motifs, among which, egf-like domain cysteine pattern signatures and bowman-birk se ...199910072756
comparison of growth characteristics of anaerobic fungi isolated from ruminant and non-ruminant herbivores during cultivation in a defined medium.anaerobic fungi were isolated from rumen fluid of a domestic sheep (ovis aries; a ruminant) and from faeces of five non-ruminants: african elephant (loxodonta africana), black rhinoceros (diceros bicornis), indian rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis), indian elephant (elephas maximus) and mara (dolichotis patagonum). the anaerobic fungus isolated from the sheep was a neocallimastix species and the isolates from non-ruminants were all species similar to piromyces spp. a defined medium is described w ...19911919514
Fecal steroid evaluation to monitor reproductive status in wild ungulate females using enzyme immunoassay commercial kits.Analysis of reproductive hormones in fecal samples is necessary for the noninvasive monitoring of reproductive status in free-ranging species. The aim of the present study was to establish an easy noninvasive method to monitor reproductive status in wild ungulate females. Feces were collected daily, weekly, or three or four times a week directly from the soil for a period ranging from 1 to 9.8 mo. Fecal estradiol and progestagens were monitored in nine wild ungulate females (Barbary sheep, Ammot ...201122204046
follicular, endocrine and behavioural dynamics of the indian rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis) oestrous cycle.longitudinal ultrasound, behaviour and endocrine evaluations were conducted, over 14 to 18 months, in two young female indian rhinoceroses (rhinoceros unicornis) to characterize the oestrous cycle. both females showed the same pattern of follicular development producing a large follicle (10-12 cm diameter) on one of the ovaries that persisted for 8.5 +/- 4.68 days before spontaneously ovulating. ovulation occurred in all eight cycles monitored in a 6- to 7-year-old female versus 10 out of 14 cyc ...200415579602
repeated chemical immobilization of a captive greater one-horned rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis), using combinations of etorphine, detomidine, and adult, 23 yr-old, male greater one-horned rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis) was repeatedly immobilized with combinations of etorphine, detomidine, and ketamine to provide medical and surgical care to chronic, bilateral, soft tissue lesions on the hind feet and to collect semen by electroejaculation. the rhinoceros was successfully immobilized on 24 occasions over a 55 mo period at approximately 8-10 wk intervals, 17 times with a combination of etorphine and detomidine (m99-d, i.m.) by project ...200212398307
fecal progesterone, estrogen, and androgen metabolites for noninvasive monitoring of reproductive function in the female indian rhinoceros, rhinoceros unicornis.this investigation aimed to establish noninvasive methods for endocrine monitoring of estrous cycles and pregnancy in the indian rhinoceros. fecal samples were collected 1-3 times per week from nonpregnant and pregnant captive females (n = 7). enzyme immunoassays for fecal progesterone, androgen, and estrogen metabolites, respectively, were tested for their ability to determine follicular and luteal phases and to characterize endocrine profiles during pregnancy. antibodies used were raised again ...200011017777
testicular morphology of a greater indian rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis).the testis of a greater indian rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis) was examined by naked eyes and light microscopy. the animal sampled was estimated to be 42 years old. testis was ellipse-shaped and weighed 1,300 g. although a number of elongated spermatids were distinguishable in some seminiferous tubules, the lumen of seminiferous tubules was closed and connective tissues conspicuously increased in amount in the intertubular space. these findings in testicular morphology of the animal may be due ...19968915991
a virus disease of the indian rhinoceros beetle, oryctes rhinoceros(linnaeus), caused by a new type of insect virus, rhabdionvirus oryctes gen. n., sp. n. 19665905536
sharing schistosomes: the elephant schistosome bivitellobilharzia nairi also infects the greater one-horned rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis) in chitwan national park, nepal.because the digenetic trematode fauna of nepal is poorly known, we began to search for schistosomes in and around chitwan national park (cnp) of southern nepal. both domestic and wild indian elephants (elephus maximus) are present, and we found one of two dung samples from wild elephants and 1 of 22 (4.5%) dung samples from domestic elephants to be positive for schistosome eggs. the morphology of the eggs and both cox1 and 28s sequences derived from the eggs/miracidia were consistent with bivite ...201423113960
milk composition of indian rhinoceros ( rhinoceros unicornis) and changes over lactation.the objective of this study was to determine the major nutrient composition of indian rhinoceros milk ( rhinoceros unicornis) over the first 13 mo of an 18-mo lactation period and to compare the results to those of previous studies on rhinoceros, african elephant ( loxodonta africana), and horse milk ( equus ferus caballus). the following parameters were measured: dry matter (dm), crude ash (ash), crude protein (cp), ether extract (ee), nitrogen-free extract (nfe; calculated), lactose, calcium ( ...201830212337
interbirth intervals are associated with age of the mother, but not with infant mortality in indian rhinoceroses.rhinoceroses are among the most endangered mammals in the world. despite a recent increase in numbers in most wild populations, poaching or political instability may exterminate large populations very quickly. therefore, captive orex siturhinoceros populations can play an important role in their conservation. previous studies identified infant mortality and interbirth intervals among the main parameters affecting the viability and survival of rhinoceros populations. in our study, we tested the r ...201729491981
parathyroid, thyroid and recurrent laryngeal nerve anatomy in an indian rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis).the parathyroid gland was first identified in the indian rhinoceros in 1849 by sir richard owen. we performed a necropsy in an indian rhinoceros, recapitulating owen's dissection and display what appear to be the initial identification of the recurrent laryngeal nerve in situ and the anatomy and histology of the largest rhinoceros parathyroid glands yet identified.201829124354
enhancing captive indian rhinoceros genetics via artificial insemination of cryopreserved sperm.the objective of this study was to design an artificial insemination (ai) protocol using cryopreserved spermatozoa to obtain pregnancies in captive indian rhinoceroses (rhinoceros unicornis). four methods developed varied by timing and approach, as follows; method 1: females (n=2) were inseminated pre- and post-ovulation under general anesthesia, method 2: females (n=2) were inseminated pre-ovulation without anesthetic via endoscopy, method 3: females (n=1) were inseminated pre-ovulation without ...201627449405
body condition scoring system for greater one-horned rhino (rhinoceros unicornis): development and application.preventing obesity in zoo animals is increasingly recognized as an important husbandry objective. to achieve this goal, body condition scoring (bcs) systems are available for an ever-increasing number of species. here, we present a bcs for the greater one-horned rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis) based on an evaluation (on a scale from 1 to 5) of seven different body regions, and report resulting scores for 62 animals from 27 facilities, based on digital photographs. in animals above 4 years of a ...201627322390
evaluation of season-related dietary changes on the serum profiles of fat-soluble vitamins, mineral, fatty acids, and lipids in the captive greater one-horned rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis).circulating concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins a, d, and e, minerals, fatty acids, and lipids were quantified in five captive greater one-horned rhinoceroses (rhinoceros unicornis) throughout two time periods, during which two diets were offered. animals were fed mixed-grass hay and concentrate pellets while managed in barns for winter housing (april sampling, winter diet). during the spring and summer, animals were fed the same amount of concentrate pellet but had free access to north ameri ...201424838662
molecular basis for atp/2,3-bisphosphoglycerate control switch-over (poikilotherm/homeotherm) an intermediate amino-acid sequence in the hemoglobin of the great indian rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis, perissodactyla).the complete primary structure of the two hemoglobin components of the great indian rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis) is presented. the ratio for the two components b(alpha 2 beta i2): a(alpha 2 beta ii2) is 6:4. polypeptide subunits were separated by chromatography on cm-cellulose in a buffer containing 8m urea. the sequence was studied by degradation of the tryptic and hydrolytic cleavage products in a liquid phase sequencer. at position beta na2 component b has asp, whereas component a has gl ...19873606819
squamous cell carcinoma in an indian rhinoceros. 19863739146
the death of an indian 1834, the london zoological society purchased a male indian rhinoceros, rhinoceros unicornis, at the request of the anatomist, richard owen. fifteen years later, the rhinoceros died from traumatic injuries, and the necropsy performed by owen led to the very first discovery of parathyroid glands. around this time, richard owen and charles darwin vehemently disagreed with one another about the theory of natural selection. their public feud sparked the public's interest in darwin and his theory ...201020458582
dystocia and fetotomy associated with cerebral aplasia in a greater one-horned rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis).the captive greater one-horned rhinoceros population consists of 176 animals. since 1971, a total of 226 calves were born into this captive population. however, 24% of the offspring born were either stillborn or did not survive the first 3 months. the causes for this high rate of stillbirth and neonate mortality have not yet been documented. here, we report on the veterinary management of a dystocia and foetotomy resulting from a malpositioned greater one-horned rhinoceros foetus. the dead foetu ...201120412510
ecological and economic analysis of poaching of the greater one-horned rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis) in nepal.nepal's greater one-horned rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis) faces serious threats from poaching. poaching of these rhinos is a complex problem, influenced by such diverse factors as the price of rhino horn on the international market, local socioeconomic factors, and the population dynamics of the species. few studies have attempted to address this complexity. in this study, we model the poaching and population dynamics of the one-horned rhinoceros within an integrated framework of ecological, ...200919831064
one small step for rhinos, one giant leap for wildlife management--imaging diagnosis of bone pathology in distal limb.chronic foot disease poses a threat to the general health, represents a tremendous clinical challenge, and often is a reason for euthanasia in captive megaherbivores, among them the elephant and rhinoceros. nevertheless, apart from the elephant, foot pathology is handled as being confined only to soft tissues whereas bone pathology is often overlooked. as a case in point, the authors selected the second largest mammal on land, the rhinoceros. we performed a computed tomographic (ct) study using ...201323874643
early fetal sexing in the rhinoceros by detection of male-specific genes in maternal serum.genetic sexing of animals with long gestation time benefits the management of captive populations. here, x and y chromosome-specific primers, based on equine gene sequencing data, were developed and tested on captive rhinoceroses (10 males, 20 females) representing four species (diceros bicornis, certaotherium simum simum, rhinoceros unicornis, and dicerorhinus sumatrensis). the y chromosome-specific primer set targeted sry (sex-determining region y), and amplified a 177-bp product following pcr ...201829437259
factors impacting the success of post-mortem sperm rescue in the rhinoceros.the goal of this study was to identify factors that influenced the ability to successfully rescue sperm post-mortem from rhinoceroses maintained in north american zoos. factors considered included procedural technicalities, individual rhinoceros characteristics and timing. gross testicular pathology was noted in 17.4% of males (4/23) but did not impact sperm recovery except in one case of azoospermia (4.3%). of the males in which sperm recovery was attempted (n=21), 62% yielded quality samples c ...201626879096
retrospective anti-tetanus antibody responses of zoo-based asian elephants (elephas maximus) and rhinoceros (rhinocerotidae).tetanus toxoids (tt) commercially available for use in horses and livestock are commonly used to vaccinate elephants and rhinoceros that are in human care. although recommendations for booster intervals have changed in human and horse protocols to reduce the risks associated with hyper-immunity (i.e. b-cell anergy and hypersensitivity reactions) these have generally not been adopted in zoo protocols. additionally, there is no evidence to demonstrate commercial tt immunogenicity in rhinoceros. in ...202132861731
changing landscape configuration demands ecological planning: retrospect and prospect for megaherbivores of north bengal.the gorumara national park (gnp) is an important conservation area located in the northern region of west bengal state, india, as it provides habitat for three megaherbivores: indian one-horned rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis), asian elephants (elephas maximus) and gaurs (bos gaurus). it harbours one of the last population of the one-horned rhino. in the present study, landscape change and configuration were investigated by comparing three landsat images, from 1998, 2008 and 2018. the images we ...201931856168
enterovirga rhinocerotis gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from rhinoceros unicornis faeces.a novel strain, yim 100770(t), was isolated from rhinoceros unicornis faeces collected from yunnan wild animal park, china. the taxonomic status was determined based on the physiological, biochemical and phylogenetic characteristics. strain yim 100770(t) was observed to be rod-shaped, non-motile, gram-stain negative and aerobic. the g+c content of the genomic dna was determined to be 68.5 mol%. the cells of strain yim 100770(t) contain ubiquinone q-10 as the respiratory quinone. the major fatty ...201728032205
animal protein-free optixcell and shortened equilibration periods can replace egg yolk-based extender and slow cooling for rhinoceros semen cryopreservation.optixcell (op) was tested as an animal protein-free alternative to an egg yolk-based extender for rhinoceros semen cryopreservation and shorter chilling/equilibration periods were evaluated. semen was collected from three rhinoceros species: black (diceros bicornis; n = 2), white (ceratotherium simum; n = 2), and greater one-horned (goh; rhinoceros unicornis; n = 3). controls were diluted with equine extender (eq) or op and equilibrated for 1 h. treatments were diluted with extender and cooled f ...201931226254
malassezia yeasts in veterinary dermatology: an updated overview.lipophilic yeasts of the genus malassezia are important skin commensals and opportunistic skin pathogens in a variety of animals. the species m. pachydermatis was first isolated from the skin of a captive indian rhinoceros with an exfoliative dermatitis in 1925, recognized as an important otic pathogen of dogs in the 1950's, and finally accepted, after several years of controversy, as a common cause of canine dermatitis in the 1990's. since then, there has been considerable research into the bio ...202032181160
trends and current state of research on greater one-horned rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis): a systematic review of the literature over a period of 33 years (1985-2018).greater one-horned rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis) is one of the most iconic wildlife species in the world. once reduced to fewer than 500 during the 1960s, its global population has been recovering and is now over 3500, thanks to effective conservation programs in india and nepal, the only two countries in the world where this species is found. it is one of the greatest success stories in biodiversity conservation given that hundreds of other species have disappeared, and thousands of species ...202032050371
past, present and future: combining habitat suitability and future landcover simulation for long-term conservation management of indian rhino.the indian rhino (rhinoceros unicornis) is susceptible to habitat change and fragmentation due to illegal logging, rapid urbanization and non-forest use and therefore were confined in to isolated areas throughout its distribution. the present study was conducted in gorumara landscape which is composed of two protected areas (pas) viz., gorumara national park (gnp) and chapramari wildlife sanctuary. both pas were separated by a territorial forest range (bridge area), which is between both the pas ...202031953519
risks from disease caused by mycobacterium orygis as a consequence of greater one-horned rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis) translocation in nepal.the greater one-horned rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis) is listed as vulnerable by the iucn red list. mycobacterium orygis-associated disease was identified in a single greater one-horned rhino in chitwan national park in february 2015 prior to a planned translocation of five greater one-horned rhinoceros from chitwan national park to bardia national park for conservation purposes. this paper describes a qualitative disease risk analysis conducted retrospectively post-translocation for mycobact ...202031612644
a survey of gastrointestinal parasites of wild and orphan greater one-horned rhino ( rhinoceros unicornis) in kaziranga national park, assam, india.wild greater one-horned rhinos ( rhinoceros unicornis), orphaned juveniles in human care, and orphaned calves from kaziranga national park, assam, india were surveyed coprologically for gastrointestinal parasites. parasite infections were present in 100% of wild rhino samples, 96% of orphaned juvenile samples, and 27% of orphaned calf samples. in wild rhino, observed parasite ova were primarily of trematodes paramphistomum sp. (100%), followed by those of strongyle nematodes (94%) and the cestod ...201830592923
scanning transmission electron microscopic analysis of nitrogen generated by 3, 3'-diaminobenzidine-besed peroxidase reaction with resin ultrathin sections of rhinoceros parotid gland acinar cells.a 3, 3'-diaminobenzidine (dab)-based method was used to detect the localization of endogenous peroxidase activity in indian rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis) parotid gland acinar cells. the tissue had previously been resin-embedded in gelatin capsules for routine electron microscopic observations and thus pre-incubation for endogenous peroxidase analysis was not possible. we attempted to demonstrate the relationship between secretory granules (sgs) in resin ultrathin sections of indian rhinocero ...201930380073
anti-müllerian hormone in managed african and asian rhino species.serum collected across the lifespan of four managed rhino species: black (diceros bicornis, n = 16), white (ceratotherium simum simum, n = 19), greater one-horned (goh, rhinoceros unicornis, n = 11) and sumatran (dicerorhinus sumatrensis, n = 6) were validated and analyzed in an anti-müllerian hormone (amh) enzyme- linked immunoassay. concentrations of amh were examined over time, between sexes and throughout different reproductive states which included n = 3 female white rhinos immunocontracept ...202032278883
comparison of soy lecithin, coconut water, and coconut milk as substitutes for egg-yolk in semen cryodiluent for black rhinoceros (diceros bicornis) and indian rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis).semen cryopreservation for the black rhinoceros (diceros bicornis) and indian rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis) relies on extenders containing egg-yolk (ey). use of such media is not ideal as inter-batch composition varies and there is risk of pathogenic contamination. the goal of this study was to test animal protein-free extenders. semen collected via electroejaculation from 10 rhinoceros (6 black, 4 indian) was diluted with extender containing ey, 1% or 2% soy lecithin (1%sl; 2%sl), coconut w ...201830138797
reduced gut microbiome diversity and metabolome differences in rhinoceros species at risk for iron overload disorder.iron overload disorder (iod) affects many wildlife species cared for ex situ. two of the four rhinoceros species in human care, sumatran rhinoceros (dicerorhinus sumatrensis) and black rhinoceros (diceros bicornis), are susceptible, whereas the other two, white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum) and greater one-horned (goh) rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis), are relatively resistant to iod. complex interrelationships exist between mammalian hosts, their indigenous gut microbiota, metabolome, physi ...201931649637
gut microbiota and phytoestrogen-associated infertility in southern white rhinoceros.with recent poaching of southern white rhinoceros (swr [ceratotherium simum simum]) reaching record levels, the need for a robust assurance population is urgent. however, the global captive swr population is not currently self-sustaining due to the reproductive failure of captive-born females. dietary phytoestrogens have been proposed to play a role in this phenomenon, and recent work has demonstrated a negative relationship between diet estrogenicity and fertility of captive-born female swr. to ...201930967461
tuberculosis caused by mycobacterium orygis in a greater one-horned rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis): first report in the western hemisphere.mycobacterium orygis, a newly identified member of the mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, has been isolated predominantly from hoofstock in eastern africa and the arabian peninsula, and sporadically in cattle (bos taurus indicus), rhesus monkeys (macaca mulatta), humans, and a greater one-horned rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis) in south asia. in rhinoceros, tuberculosis typically presents as a chronic progressive respiratory disease. the report describes the postmortem diagnosis of tuberculosi ...202031926536
culicoides species composition and molecular identification of host blood meals at two zoos in the uk.culicoides biting midges are biological vectors of arboviruses including bluetongue virus (btv), schmallenberg virus (sbv) and african horse sickness virus (ahsv). zoos are home to a wide range of 'at risk' exotic and native species of animals. these animals have a high value both in monetary terms, conservation significance and breeding potential. to understand the risk these viruses pose to zoo animals, it is necessary to characterise the culicoides fauna at zoos and determine which potential ...202032178710
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