afrotropical culicoides: a redescription of c. (avaritia) kanagai khamala & kettle, 1971, reared from elephant dung in the kruger national park, south africa.the discovery of culicoides kanagai in south africa represents a new record for this species. the female is redescribed, and the male is described for the first time. culicoides (a.) dasyops clastrier, 1958 is shown to be closely related to it but c. (a.) alticola is only superficially related. short notes on the larval habitat of c. kanagai, the dung of the african elephant, loxodonta africana, are given. the dung of both the white rhinoceros, ceratotherium simum, and the black rhinoceros, dice ...19873444613
serosurvey for selected infectious disease agents in free-ranging black and white rhinoceros in africa.two hundred and eighty one serum samples collected from free-ranging black (diceros bicornis) and white (ceratotherium simum) rhinoceros, in the republic of south africa (rsa), namibia, and kenya from 1987-97, were examined for antibody to 16 different infectious agents. positive antibody titers were detected against akabane (59.8%), bluetongue (55%), african horse sickness (27.9%), epizootic haemorrhagic disease of deer (19.4%), parainfluenza type 3 (25.3%), bovine herpes virus 1 (3.1%), equine ...200010813614
neosporosis in a white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum) calf.a 16-day-old white rhinoceros calf died suddenly while in excellent condition and showing no obvious previous clinical signs. it was the 9th calf of a mature female kept free-ranging with 11 other rhinoceros as well as various other game species on a 2000 hectare game breeding centre adjacent to the town of lichtenburg and outlying cattle farmlands in the northern province. at post mortem examination, death was ascribed to heart failure. there was marked multifocal to coalescing subacute parasit ...200212088073
multidirectional cross-species painting illuminates the history of karyotypic evolution in perissodactyla.the order perissodactyla, the group of odd-toed ungulates, includes three extant families: equidae, tapiridae, and rhinocerotidae. the extremely rapid karyotypic diversification in perissodactyls has so far prevented the establishment of genome-wide homology maps between these three families by traditional cytogenetic approaches. here we report the first genome-wide comparative chromosome maps of african rhinoceroses, four tapir species, four equine species, and humans. these maps were establish ...200818293107
systemic neosporosis in a white rhinoceros.neosporosis was diagnosed in a 16-year-old female white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum) that died suddenly without clinical signs. histopathology revealed disseminated protozoan tachyzoites in liver, adrenal cortex, kidney, and intestine, with morphology compatible with either toxoplasma or neospora. the organism was identified as neospora caninum with the use of primary rabbit anti-n. caninum antibody immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction. the exact source of infection remains unk ...201020722274
serum concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-i and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 and -3 in eight hoofstock species.the somatotropic axis, which includes growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor (igf)-i, and igf binding proteins (igfbp), is involved in the regulation of growth and metabolism. measures of the somatotropic axis can be predictive of nutritional status and growth rate that can be utilized to identify nutritional status of individual animals. before the somatotropic axis can be a predictive tool, concentrations of hormones of the somatotropic axis need to be established in healthy individuals. t ...201020853408
neosporosis in an aborted southern white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum simum) december 2008, a southern white rhinoceros (ãsimum simum) aborted a 7-mo gestation male fetus. on hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections of fetal tissues, foci of necrosis were noted in the hepatic parenchyma and were associated with low numbers of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and neutrophils. protozoal zoites were identified within the hepatic lesions and within the cerebellum. evaluations utilizing immunohistochemistry, polymerase chain reaction, and dna sequencing identified the protozoan as ...201021370658
intraocular pressure and tear production in five herbivorous wildlife species.the intraocular pressure and rate of tear production were measured in 18 addax antelopes (addax nasomaculatus), four impalas (aepyceros melampus), 11 wide-lipped rhinoceroses (ceratotherium simum), 10 white-tailed wildebeests (connochaetes gnou) and seven scimitar-horned oryxes (oryx dammah). the animals were anaesthetised with an intramuscular injection of etorphine hydrochloride and acepromazine maleate, and the schirmer tear test i was used to evaluate tear production, and applanation tonomet ...200212233828
cloning, sequencing and expression of white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum) interferon-gamma (ifn-gamma) and the production of rhinoceros ifn-gamma specific antibodies.bovine tuberculosis (btb) is endemic in african buffalo (syncerus caffer) in the kruger national park (knp). in addition to buffalo, mycobacterium bovis has been found in at least 14 other mammalian species in south africa, including kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros), chacma baboon (papio ursinus) and lion (panthera leo). this has raised concern about the spillover into other potentially susceptible species like rhinoceros, thus jeopardising breeding and relocation projects aiming at the conservat ...200717118460
analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes from extinct and extant rhinoceroses reveals lack of phylogenetic resolution.the scientific literature contains many examples where dna sequence analyses have been used to provide definitive answers to phylogenetic problems that traditional (non-dna based) approaches alone have failed to resolve. one notable example concerns the rhinoceroses, a group for which several contradictory phylogenies were proposed on the basis of morphology, then apparently resolved using mitochondrial dna fragments.200919432984
comparative analysis of the genomes of orthopoxviruses isolated from elephant, rhinoceros, and okapi by restriction enzymes. brief report.orthopoxviruses from different zoo-kept mammalian species including elephas maximus (8 isolates), ceratotherium simum (1 isolate), and okapia johnstoni (2 isolates) were characterized by restriction enzyme analysis of the viral genome. the four enzymes bamhi, mlui, ncoi, and sali were found to be optimal for strain differentiation.19863954598
the prevalence of antibody to the viruses of bovine virus diarrhoea, bovine herpes virus 1, rift valley fever, ephemeral fever and bluetongue and to leptospira sp in free-ranging wildlife in zimbabwe.the prevalence of antibody to the viruses of bovine virus diarrhoea (bvd), bovine herpes virus typel (bhv1), rift valley fever (rvf), bovine ephemeral fever (bef) and bluetongue (bt) and to leptospira sp. was determined in wildlife populations in zimbabwe. evidence of infection with bvd virus was found in 14 of the 16 species examined but was greatest in eland taurotragus oryx, nyala tragelaphus angasi and bushbuck tragelaphus scriptus. persistent infection with bvd virus was found in 1 of 303 a ...19989825798
identification of toxigenic microcystis strains after incidents of wild animal mortalities in the kruger national park, south africa.the eutrophic process potentially caused by a high urine and faecal load resulting from an unusually high hippopotamus (hippopotamus amphibious) density in the nhlanganzwane dam, kruger national park, south africa, triggered a chain of events characterised by an increase in the growth of primary producers (microcystis aeruginosa). this increase in m. aeruginosa biomass was followed by bio-intoxication incidents in wild animals. in this study, we determine if a m. aeruginosa bloom with a total mi ...200919232725
successful treatment of a squamous cell carcinoma in a white rhinoceros, ceratotherium simum.a captive 33-year-old male white rhinoceros with seasonal dermatitis was diagnosed with a malignant squamous cell carcinoma on the right flank. staphylococcus aureus was cultured from the skin lesions. no fungal or yeast was isolated. the dermatitis was treated with a combination of oral antibiotics (trimethoprim-sulphadiazine) and topically with weekly chlorhexidine washes and a mixture of a zinc oxide, balsam peru and bismuth oxide cream. under azaperone and butorphanol anaesthesia, the skin t ...200717991166
morphology of the intestinal tract in the white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum).the intestinal tract of the white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simun) was dissected. we observed a simple structure for the small intestine, duodenum, jejunum and ileum, and a well-developed large intestine, cecum, colon and rectus. the cecum consisted of a small chamber, whereas the colon was much enlarged; notably larger than that of the domesticated horse, which belongs to the same order, perissodactyla. this suggests that in the white rhinoceros the cecum may be functionally replaced by the wel ...199910652824
hosts of the immature stages of the rhinoceros tick, dermacentor rhinocerinus (acari, ixodidae).the collection of the immature stages of dermacentor rhinocerinus from host animals is described for the first time. these are the bushveld gerbil (tatera leucogaster, from which larvae and nymphs were collected, the red veld rat (aethomys crysophilus), from which a larva was collected, and the natal multimammate rat (mastomys natalensis), from which a nymph was collected. the rodents were examined in a nature reserve in which there are white rhinoceroses (ceratotherium simum).200111403434
salmonella spp. survey of captive rhinoceroses in u.s. zoological institutions and private ranches.a survey was mailed to 72 institutions in the usa requesting information on salmonella spp. cultures in black rhinoceroses (diceros bicornis), white rhinoceroses (ceratotherium simum), and indian rhinoceroses (rhinoceros unicornis). sixty-one institutions responded (85% return rate), with seven reporting positive cultures (11% prevalence rate; 10% if survey nonresponders had negative cultures). there were 17 positive cultures from 16 different animals, with nine different serotypes of salmonella ...199910572861
trypanosoma simiae in the white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum) and the dromedary camel (camelus dromedarius).trypanosoma simiae was identified as the cause of a disease outbreak in dromedary camels (camelus dromedarius) introduced to tsavo east national park, confirming the susceptibility of camels to this pathogen. t. simiae was also isolated from a new host, the white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum) through xenodiagnosis with a susceptible tsetse species (glossina morsitans centralis). a white rhinoceros showed some evidence of anaemia and lymphopaenia when harbouring t. simiae, but did not suffer a ...19947975114
beta-globin chain hemoglobin polymorphism and hemoglobin stability in black rhinoceroses (diceros bicornis).to evaluate the syndrome of acute intravascular hemolytic anemia in black rhinoceroses (diceros bicornis), the hemoglobin of this species was evaluated by use of isopropanol- and heat-stability tests and was further characterized by electrophoretic studies. samples were obtained from 22 apparently healthy captive north american black rhinoceroses, though 3 of the study animals had survived previous hemolytic events, and 3 others were parents of 3 offspring that had suffered hemolysis. the easter ...19902337282
intestinal ciliated protozoa of african rhinoceros: two new genera and five new species from the white rhino (ceratotherium simum burchell, 1817).this report represents the first published information on intestinal ciliated protozoa in the african white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum burchell, 1817). two new genera which do not relate to any known ciliated protozoa from the intestines of mammals and five new species are described. the ciliates were found in the colon of three of these free-living hindgut-fermenting grazers that were shot in widely spaced districts in southern africa. phalodinium digitalis n. gen., n. sp., arachnodinium n ...19873116223
severe hypoxaemia in field-anaesthetised white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum) and effects of using tracheal insufflation of oxygen.white rhinoceros anaesthetised with etorphine and azaperone combination develop adverse physiological changes including hypoxia, hypercapnia, acidosis, tachycardia and hypertension. these changes are more marked in field-anaesthetised rhinoceros. this study was designed to develop a technique to improve safety for field-anaesthetised white rhinoceros by tracheal intubation and oxygen insufflation. twenty-five free-ranging white rhinoceros were anaesthetised with an etorphine and azaperone combin ...200415456163
cross-species chromosome painting in the perissodactyla: delimitation of homologous regions in burchell's zebra (equus burchellii) and the white (ceratotherium simum) and black rhinoceros (diceros bicornis).conserved chromosomal segments in the black rhinoceros, diceros bicornis (dbi, 2n = 84), and its african sister-species the white rhinoceros, ceratotherium simum (csi, 2n = 82), were detected using burchell's zebra (equus burchellii, ebu, 2n = 44) chromosome-specific painting probes supplemented by a subset of those developed for the horse (equus caballus, eca, 2n = 64). in total 41 and 42 conserved autosomal segments were identified in c. simum and d. bicornis respectively. only 21 rearrangemen ...200315004472
dermacentor rhinocerinus (denny 1843) (acari: ixodida: ixodidae): redescription of the male, female and nymph and first description of the larva.presented is a diagnosis of the male, female and nymph of dermacentor rhinocerinus, and the 1st description of the larval stage. adult dermacentor rhinocerinus parasitize both the black rhinoceros, diceros bicornis, and the white rhinoceros, ceratotherium simum. although various other large mammals have been recorded as hosts for d. rhinocerinus, only the 2 species of rhinoceros are primary hosts for adults in various areas of east, central and southern africa. adults collected from vegetation i ...19938332318
helminths and arthropods of black and white rhinoceroses in southern africa.helminths and arthropods were collected and quantified from two black rhinoceroses (diceros bicornis bicornis) and one white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum), and ticks from an additional four black and two white rhinoceroses in southern africa. the helminths of a black rhinoceros from the republic of south africa and one from namibia were quantitatively measured and recorded for each compartment of the alimentary tract. probstmayria vivipara was the most abundant parasite in each animal. a rece ...19979249695
mortality of a white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum) suspected to be associated with the blue-green alga microcystis aeruginosa.three of four white rhinoceroses died within 3 months of introduction into a game reserve. post-mortem examination of one of the animals revealed marked hepatomegaly with haemorrhage and severe necrosis of the liver as well as numerous ecchymoses and petechiae in the subcutaneous tissue and subserosa of the thorax, abdomen and diaphragm. histologically, severe hepatic necrosis was the most significant finding. algae recovered from the dam from which the animals drank were identified as microcyst ...19853923193
assisted reproduction in female rhinoceros and elephants--current status and future perspective.over the last few decades, rhinoceroses and elephants became important icons in the saga of wildlife conservation. recent surveys estimate the wild asian (elephas maximus) and african (loxodonta africana) elephant populations to be, at most, 50 250 and 637 600 respectively. for the five rhinoceros species, black (diceros bicornis), white (ceratotherium simum), indian (rhinoceros unicornis), javan (rhinoceros sondaicus) and sumatran rhinoceros (dicerorhinus sumatrensis), the population estimates ...200717688600
[the primary structure of the hemoglobin from a white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum, perissodactyla): beta 2 glu].the hemoglobin from a white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum) was analysed and the complete primary structure of the alpha and beta chains is described. the globin chains were separated on cm-cellulose column in 8m urea buffer. the amino acid sequences were mainly determined by automatic degradation of tryptic peptides in the sequenator. the results show, that globin consists of one alpha- and several beta-chain types. the beta chains differ at position beta 62 where the amino acids threonine, se ...19827141412
a new family, genus, and seven new species of entodiniomorphida (protozoa) from the gut of african rhinoceros.this report deals with a group of ciliated protozoa with short ciliary bands found mainly in the cecum of black rhinoceros, diceros bicornis (linnaeus, 1758), and white rhinoceros, ceratotherium simum (burchell, 1817) from southern africa. a new genus, rhinozeta, based on the sum total of the characteristics of seven new related species is described. the species described are r. rhinozeta n. sp., r. triciliata n. sp., r. caecalis n. sp., r. addoensis n. sp., r. cristata n. sp., r. multiplatus n. ...19883130481
retention of fluid and particles in captive tapirs (tapirus sp.).the retention of ingesta in the digestive tract is a major characteristic of herbivorous animals. we measured particle and fluid mean retention times (mrt) in 13 lowland tapirs (tapirus terrestris) and 5 malayan tapirs (tapirus indicus) from five zoological institutions on their usual zoo diet and 2 lowland and 4 malayan tapirs additionally on roughage-only diets (total n of trials=24) with cobalt-edta as fluid and chromium-mordanted fibre (<2 mm) as particle markers. mrt for fluid and particles ...201020363350
germany/australia index of sperm sex sortability in elephants and rhinoceros.flow cytometric sexing of spermatozoa followed by application in artificial insemination or in vitro fertilization provides a unique opportunity to predetermine the sex of offspring and might enhance the conservation management of endangered species in captivity such as the elephant and rhinoceros. to obtain an indication of the sortability of spermatozoa from these species, the relative dna differences between x and y chromosome bearing spermatozoa (fresh, frozen thawed, epididymal) from three ...200919055564
recovery of arcobacter spp. from nonlivestock species.the genus arcobacter encompasses campylobacter-like organisms that grow in air at 25 degrees c. arcobacter has been detected or isolated from clinically healthy livestock as well as aborted fetuses and has been presumptively identified as either campylobacter or leptospira, based on its growth in selective semisolid media. because reports from nonlivestock species are limited, this study examined nine presumptive isolates of arcobacter spp. from an alpaca (vicugna pacos), black rhinoceros (dicer ...201122950328
the guttural pouch is not present in the white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum); morphology of the eustachian tube and nasopharynx.the nasopharynx and eustachian tube (auditory tube) were morphologically examined in the white rhinoceros. the narrow nasopharynx cavity was enlarged dorsoventrally. the most lateral part of both sides sharply rises in a dorsal direction and the volume is estimated at 173 cc. the eustachian tube is 145 mm in length from the auditory bulla to the nasopharynx. the hyaline cartilage is well-developed in the middle region of the eustachian tube wall. the results demonstrated that the white rhinocero ...19989818452
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. xlix. ticks (acari: ixodidae) infesting white and black rhinoceroses in southern africa.the objectives of the study were to determine the species composition of ticks infesting white and black rhinoceroses in southern africa as well as the conservation status of those tick species that prefer rhinos as hosts. ticks were collected opportunistically from rhinos that had been immobilised for management purposes, and 447 white rhinoceroses (ceratotherium simum) and 164 black rhinoceroses (diceros bicornis) were sampled in south africa, 61 black rhinos in namibia, 18 white and 12 black ...201728155285
distribution of endemic and introduced tick species in free state province, south africa.the distributions of endemic tick vector species as well as the presence of species not endemic to free state province, south africa, were determined during surveys or opportunistic collections from livestock, wildlife and vegetation. amongst endemic ticks, the presence of rhipicephalus appendiculatus was confirmed in the north of the province, whilst rhipicephalus decoloratus was collected at 31 localities mostly in the centre and east, and ixodes rubicundus at 11 localities in the south, south ...201526244582
piroplasm parasites of white rhinoceroses (ceratotherium simum) in the kruger national park, and their relation to part of a larger survey to map the geographical distribution of babesia and theileria parasites in the southern african rhinoceros population, white rhinoceroses were sampled during routine immobilisations in the kruger national park. polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and reverse line blot (rlb) hybridisation assays were used to screen for the presence of piroplasms and complete blood counts were used to assess associated changes in clinical parameters. of the 195 rhinoceroses sampled, 71 (36.4 ...201121826836
evaluation of etorphine and midazolam anesthesia, and the effect of intravenous butorphanol on cardiopulmonary parameters in game-ranched white rhinoceroses (ceratotherium simum).nineteen white rhinoceroses ( ceratotherium simum ) were anesthetized with 4 mg of etorphine hydrochloride; 35-40 mg of midazolam; and 7,500 international units of hyaluronidase for dehorning purposes at a game ranch in south africa, to investigate this anesthetic combination. median time to recumbency was 548 sec (range 361-787 sec). good muscle relaxation and no muscle rigidity or tremors were observed in 18 animals, and only 1 individual showed slight tremors. in addition, all animals receive ...201627691936
two methods to adapt the human haemoglobin-oxygen dissociation algorithm to the blood of white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum) and to determine the accuracy of pulse adapt the algorithm for the calculation of oxygen saturation to the blood characteristics of the white rhinoceros by two different methods and to determine the accuracy of conventional pulse oximetry measurements.201626821767
comparative studies of mitogen- and antigen-induced lymphocyte proliferation in four captive rhinoceros species.cellular immune function in four rhinoceros species was evaluated by way of in vitro lymphocyte proliferation responses to mitogenic and antigenic stimuli to establish normative data on white blood cell activity for each species and to identify species-specific differences that might help explain the predisposition of black rhinoceroses (diceros bicornis) to disease. a cross section of the u.s. rhinoceros population encompassing all four captive species was sampled, including the sumatran rhinoc ...200415732584
tremors in white rhinoceroses (<i>ceratotherium simum</i>) during etorphine-azaperone immobilisation.little is known about the mechanisms causing tremors during immobilisation of rhinoceros and whether cardiorespiratory supportive interventions alter their intensity. therefore, we set out to determine the possible mechanisms that lead to muscle tremors and ascertain whether cardiorespiratory supportive interventions affect tremor intensity. we studied tremors and physiological responses during etorphine-azaperone immobilisation in eight boma-held and 14 free-living white rhinoceroses. repeated ...201728281770
snp discovery and characterisation in white rhino (ceratotherium simum) with application to parentage assignment.the white rhino is one of the great success stories of modern wildlife conservation, growing from as few as 50-100 animals in the 1880s, to approximately 20,000 white rhinoceros remaining today. however, illegal trade in conservational rhinoceros horns is adding constant pressure on remaining populations. captive management of ex situ populations of endangered species using molecular methods can contribute to improving the management of the species. here we compare for the first time the utility ...201728170027
pheochromocytoma in a white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum).a 46-yr-old male white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum) died during anesthesia following agonal excitation. on postmortem, a well-demarcated 2.5-cm tan mass was identified in the right adrenal gland. histopathology confirmed the presence of a pheochromocytoma, and elevated levels of epinephrine in serum collected shortly prior to the animal's death, as compared with sera from healthy controls, demonstrated the functional nature of the tumor. although rare, pheochromocytoma should be considered a ...201122950331
fat soluble vitamins in blood and tissues of free-ranging and captive rhinoceros.several disease syndromes in captive rhinoceroses have been linked to low vitamin status. blood samples from captive and free-ranging black (diceros bicornis) and white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum) and tissue samples of captive individuals from four rhinoceros species were analysed for vitamins a and e. circulating vitamin a levels measured as retinol for free-ranging versus captive black and white rhinoceros were 0.04 (+/- 0.03 sd) vs. 0.08 (+/- 0.08) and 0.07 (+/- 0.04) vs. 0.06 (+/- 0.02) ...200212038140
eco-epidemiological and pathological features of wildlife mortality events related to cyanobacterial bio-intoxication in the kruger national park, south africa.over the past decade, several clustered, multispecies, wildlife mortality events occurred in the vicinity of two man-made earthen dams in the southern and south central regions of the kruger national park, south africa. on field investigation, heavy cyanobacterial blooms were visible in these impoundments and analysis of water samples showed the dominance of microcystis spp. (probably microcystis aeruginosa). macroscopic lesions seen at necropsy and histopathological lesions were compatible with ...201628155293
clinical management of bilateral cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the hind feet pads in a southern white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum simum).the current report describes the temporary regression, due to intensive symptomatic treatment, of ulcerative skin lesions caused by squamous cell carcinoma in a white rhinoceros. a captive, 40-yr-old southern white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum simum) developed profound, ulcerative skin lesions on the pads of both hind feet. at the peak of the disease, at least one quarter of the pads was affected. a diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma was made via biopsy. treatment included anti-inflammatory ...201627468043
analytic and quality control validation and assessment of field performance of a point-of-care chemistry analyzer for use in the white rhinoceros.a chemistry point-of-care analyzer would be useful for evaluating injured wildlife, particularly white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum) that survive poaching attempts. the idexx vettest could be suitable, but species-specific validation, development of a statistical quality control (qc) strategy, and evaluation under field conditions are necessary.201728152184
solitary osteochondroma of the distal third metacarpal bone in a two-year-old white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum).a privately owned, 2-yr-old, 600-kg, intact male white rhinoceros presented with a progressive lameness of the left front limb of 8-mo duration with a focal swelling situated over the dorsoproximal aspect of third metacarpophalangeal joint. radiographs of the affected limb showed a 28 mm × 26 mm exostosis at the dorsodistal third metacarpal bone. surgical removal of the exostosis was performed and histopathologic examination confirmed a solitary osteochondroma. a follow-up examination 1 yr after ...201628080922
oral squamous cell carcinoma in an aged captive white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum).a 48-yr-old captive white rhinoceros ( ceratotherium simum ) was euthanized due to old age, pododermatitis, and progressive laminitis of the middle toe of the left fore- and hindlimbs. severe chronic necrotizing periodontitis and dental loss was diagnosed, although food intake prior to death had not decreased. in addition, extensive ulceration of the tongue was noted. histologically, squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue was diagnosed with chronic severe ulcerative glossitis. metastatic lesions ...201628080906
dung odours signal sex, age, territorial and oestrous state in white rhinos.mammals commonly communicate olfactorily via urine. however, the extent to which they communicate via dung, another waste product, is unknown. behavioural studies suggest that mammals can obtain information from dung odours but are unclear about the information transmitted. moreover, an understanding of the volatile organic compounds (vocs) released from dung is limited. to address this, we analysed the odours emitted from the dung of free-ranging white rhinos, and found that 2,3-dimethylundecan ...201728077775
schistosomus reflexus-like malformation in a southern white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum simum).a 7.5-yr-old female southern white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum simum) aborted spontaneously at approximately 13 mo gestation. the fetus exhibited malformations consistent with schistosomus reflexus syndrome, including spinal inversion and ventral midline abdominal defect with externalization of abdominal viscera. a computed tomography was performed and revealed severe scoliosis, a spiral rotation of the spine, multiple vertebral anomalies, hypoplasia of multiple bones of the skull, and mild ...201425314849
range analysis and terrain preference of adult southern white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum) in a south african private game reserve: insights into carrying capacity and future management.the southern white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum) is a threatened species, central to the tourism appeal of private game reserves in south africa. privately owned reserves in south africa tend to be smaller than government run reserves such as kruger national park. because of their relatively small size and the often heterogeneous nature of the landscape private game reserve managers benefit from detailed knowledge of white rhinoceros terrain selection preferences, which can be assessed from t ...201627622566
discrimination of familiarity and sex from chemical cues in the dung by wild southern white rhinoceros.communication in rhinos is primarily mediated by the vocal and olfactory signals as they have relatively poor eyesight. white rhinos are the most social of all the rhinoceros species, they defecate at common dungheaps and the adult bulls use dung and urine to mark their territory. chemical communication may therefore be particularly important in the social interactions of white rhinos, and its knowledge could be very helpful in their management and conservation. however, no studies have investig ...201525273823
intravenous butorphanol improves cardiopulmonary parameters in game-ranched white rhinoceroses (ceratotherium simum) immobilized with etorphine and azaperone.abstract we immobilized 47 white rhinoceroses (ceratotherium simum) for dehorning with 1-4 mg of etorphine hcl, 10-40 mg of azaperone, and 7,500 iu of hyaluronidase, at a game ranch in south africa in november 2012. forty-four received butorphanol intravenously 5 min after recumbency, at the rate of 10 mg of butorphanol per 1 mg of etorphine, and three animals did not. when possible, blood gas and physiologic parameters were measured immediately before butorphanol administration and 10 min later ...201425105814
cardiovascular effects of etorphine, azaperone, and butorphanol combinations in chemically immobilized captive white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum).chemical capture is an essential tool in the management and conservation of white rhinoceros ( ceratotherium simum ); however, cardiovascular responses in immobilized megaherbivores are poorly understood. blood pressure and heart rate responses in rhinoceros immobilized with etorphine or etorphine plus azaperone, and the effects of subsequent i.v. butorphanol administration were investigated. six white rhinoceros were used in a randomized crossover study design with four interventions: 1) etorph ...201627691950
retinal ganglion cell topography and spatial resolving power in the white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum).this study sought to determine whether the retinal organization of the white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum), a large african herbivore with lips specialized for grazing in open savannahs, relates to its foraging ecology and habitat. using stereology and retinal wholemounts, we estimated a total of 353,000 retinal ganglion cells. their density distribution reveals an unusual topographic organization of a temporal (2,000 cells/mm(2) ) and a nasal (1,800 cells/mm(2) ) area embedded within a well- ...201627804143
a serological survey of brucellosis in wild ungulate species from five game parks in zimbabwe.a retrospective serosurvey was carried out between 2009 and 2012 to detect antibodies to brucella spp. in free-ranging african wildlife ungulates from five selected game parks in zimbabwe. samples were drawn from wildlife-livestock interface and non-interface areas in zimbabwe. a total of 270 serum samples from four different species, namely african buffalo (syncerus caffer) (n =106), impala (aepyceros melampus) (n = 72), black rhinoceros (diceros bicornis) (n = 45) and white rhinoceros (ceratot ...201324396917
ovarian down regulation by gnrf vaccination decreases reproductive tract tumour size in female white and greater one-horned rhinoceroses.reproductive tract tumours, specifically leiomyoma, are commonly found in female rhinoceroses. similar to humans, tumour growth in rhinoceroses is thought to be sex hormone dependent. tumours can form and expand from the onset of ovarian activity at puberty until the cessation of sex-steroid influences at senescence. extensive tumour growth results in infertility. the aim of this study was to down regulate reproductive function of tumour-diseased and infertile females to stop further tumour grow ...201627403662
towards establishing a rhinoceros-specific interferon-gamma (ifn-γ) assay for diagnosis of tuberculosis.mycobacterium bovis is the causal agent of bovine tuberculosis (btb), with a diverse host range, extending from livestock to domestic and captive wild animals as well as free-ranging wildlife species. in south africa, btb is endemic in the kruger national park (knp) and the hluluwe imfolozi national park (hip), where the high prevalence of m. bovis infections in buffalo herds has led to infection of a number of wildlife species. this has raised concerns about the spillover into the rhinoceros po ...201324171850
rewinding the process of mammalian extinction.with only three living individuals left on this planet, the northern white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum cottoni) could be considered doomed for extinction. it might still be possible, however, to rescue the (sub)species by combining novel stem cell and assisted reproductive technologies. to discuss the various practical options available to us, we convened a multidisciplinary meeting under the name "conservation by cellular technologies." the outcome of this meeting and the proposed road map ...201627142508
a scoring system to improve decision making and outcomes in the adaptation of recently captured white rhinoceroses (ceratotherium simum) to captivity.ninety-four subadult and adult white rhinoceroses (ceratotherium simum) were captured between february and october, 2009-11, in kruger national park and placed in holding bomas prior to translocation to other locations within south africa. a simple three-category system was developed based on appetite, fecal consistency/volume, and behavior to assess adaptation to bomas. individual animal and group daily median scores were used to determine trends and when rhinoceroses had successfully adapted t ...201626845302
epidemiology of theileria bicornis among black and white rhinoceros metapopulation in kenya.a huge effort in rhinoceros conservation has focused on poaching and habitat loss as factors leading to the dramatic declines in the endangered eastern black rhinoceros (diceros bicornis michaeli) and the southern white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum simum). nevertheless, the role disease and parasite infections play in the mortality of protected populations has largely received limited attention. infections with piroplasmosis caused by babesia bicornis and theileria bicornis has been shown to ...201525604678
109 reproductive performance parameters in a large herd of confined free-roaming white rhinoceroses (ceratotherium simum).during the last decade, the population of wild white rhinoceroses has been in steady decline, mainly because of increased poaching incidents and habitat loss. therefore, more data are necessary on reproduction of this endangered species in order to improve captive breeding, which is at present not very successful. currently, ~20,000 southern white rhinoceroses are remaining of which the majority are privately owned. the aim of this study was to create reference values of several reproductive par ...201628278906
sex and species recognition by wild male southern white rhinoceros using contact pant calls.recognition of information from acoustic signals is crucial in many animals, and individuals are under selection pressure to discriminate between the signals of conspecifics and heterospecifics or males and females. here, we first report that rhinos use information encoded in their calls to assess conspecifics and individuals of closely related species. the southern (ceratotherium simum) and critically endangered northern (c. cottoni) white rhinos are the most social out of all the rhinoceros sp ...201626577089
profiling patterns of fecal 20-oxopregnane concentrations during ovarian cycles in free-ranging southern white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum simum).unlike their wild counterparts, many white rhinoceros females in captivity fail to reproduce successfully such that current captive populations are not self-sustaining. the causes of the problem are poorly understood. variation in cycle length and long periods of acyclicity are characteristics of the majority of these non-reproducing females in captivity but it is unknown whether these characteristics are a feature of reproductively successful free-ranging females. this study therefore aimed to ...201526372226
butorphanol with oxygen insufflation improves cardiorespiratory function in field-immobilised white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum).opioid-induced immobilisation results in severe respiratory compromise in the white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum). the effectiveness of oxygen insufflation combined with butorphanol in alleviating respiratory depression in free-ranging chemically immobilised white rhinoceroses was investigated. in this prospective intervention study 14 free-ranging white rhinoceroses were immobilised with a combination of etorphine, azaperone and hyaluronidase. six minutes (min) after the animals became recum ...201526304140
baseline hematologic results for free-ranging white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum) in kruger national park, south africa.complete blood counts (n = 115) and red blood cell analytes (n = 80) were assessed in free-ranging white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum) from kruger national park (knp), south africa. blood was collected from healthy animals immobilized between february and september 2009-11 for management purposes. our objectives were to establish baselines for knp's white rhinoceros population and to compare results based on sex and age group. significant differences in total white blood cells, total eosinoph ...201526267457
evaluation of cardiorespiratory, blood gas, and lactate values during extended immobilization of white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum).ten white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum) were immobilized for a total of 13 procedures in holding facilities in kruger national park using etorphine, azaperone, and hyaluronidase to assess the effect of extended immobilization on serial cardiorespiratory, blood gas, and lactate values. butorphanol was administered intravenously following initial blood collection and physiologic assessment (t=0). respiratory and cardiovascular parameters, body temperature, and arterial blood gases were monitore ...201526056872
conjunctival habronemiasis in a square-lipped rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum).a captive female square-lipped rhinoceros born in 1993 had been showing intermittent signs of bilateral conjunctivitis and conjunctival proliferation since 1998. periodic improvement was noted, especially in winter, but overall the condition had deteriorated over the years. treatment with various topical, intralesional, and systemic antibiotics and glucocorticosteroids was largely ineffective, as were repeated dewormings. no primary cause for these lesions was found in biopsies taken in 2000 and ...201625818990
sperm sex-sorting and preservation for managing the sex ratio and genetic diversity of the southern white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum simum).white rhinoceros ejaculates (n=9) collected by electroejaculation from four males were shipped (10°c, 12h) to develop procedures for the production of chilled and frozen-thawed sex-sorted spermatozoa of adequate quality for artificial insemination (ai). of all electroejaculate fractions, 39.7% (31/78) exhibited high quality post-collection (≥70% total motility and membrane integrity) and of those, 54.8% (17/31) presented reduced in vitro quality after transport and were retrospectively determine ...201525497423
radiographic protocol and normal anatomy of the hind feet in the white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum).foot pathology is a common and important health concern in captive rhinoceroses worldwide, but osteopathologies are rarely diagnosed, partly because of a lack of radiographic protocols. here, we aimed to develop the first radiographic protocol for rhinoceros feet and describe the radiographic anatomy of the white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum) hind foot (pes). computed tomographic images were obtained of nine cadaver pedes from seven different white rhinoceroses and assessed for pathology. a s ...201625339254
identification of policies for a sustainable legal trade in rhinoceros horn based on population projection and socioeconomic models.between 1990 and 2007, 15 southern white (ceratotherium simum simum) and black (diceros bicornis) rhinoceroses on average were killed illegally every year in south africa. since 2007 illegal killing of southern white rhinoceros for their horn has escalated to >950 individuals/year in 2013. we conducted an ecological-economic analysis to determine whether a legal trade in southern white rhinoceros horn could facilitate rhinoceros protection. generalized linear models were used to examine the soci ...201525331485
butorphanol with oxygen insufflation corrects etorphine-induced hypoxaemia in chemically immobilized white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum).opioid-induced immobilization is associated with severe respiratory depression in the white rhinoceros. we evaluated the efficacy of butorphanol and oxygen insufflation in alleviating opioid-induced respiratory depression in eight boma-managed rhinoceros.201425315767
critical care for a hypothermic and hypoglycemic white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum simum) calf.a 3-day-old, 57.3-kg, male white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum simum) neonate presented laterally recumbent with comatose mentation, cold extremities, and severe hypothermia, hypoxemia, and hypoglycemia. critical care support was initiated with aggressive fluid and warming support as well as dextrose and oxygen supplementation. after initial stabilization, additional complications arose in subsequent weeks including intermittent diarrhea, dry skin with loss of epidermal layers, urticaria on th ...201425314836
medical management of a patent urachus in a southern white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum simum) calf.a female southern white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum simum) calf presented with a patent urachus at 5 days of age. it was immobilized for examination and medical treatment was elected over surgical repair. systemic antibiotics and topical treatment of the site by cleaning with chlorhexidine solution were followed by silver nitrate cautery. this animal required no further treatment and has reached 1 yr of age with no other medical problems. although patent urachus is relatively common in domes ...201425000712
contact calls of the northern and southern white rhinoceros allow for individual and species identification.inter-individual relationships particularly in socially living mammals often require a well-developed communication system. vocal and olfactory signals are the most important for the communication of rhinos, however, their vocal communication has been investigated to a very limited extent so far. white rhinos have the most developed social system out of all the rhinoceros species and vocal signals might therefore play an important role in their social interactions. we recorded repetitive contact ...201424901244
three novel haplotypes of theileria bicornis in black and white rhinoceros in kenya.piroplasms, especially those in the genera babesia and theileria, have been found to naturally infect rhinoceros. due to natural or human-induced stress factors such as capture and translocations, animals often develop fatal clinical piroplasmosis, which causes death if not treated. this study examines the genetic diversity and occurrence of novel theileria species infecting both black and white rhinoceros in kenya. samples collected opportunistically during routine translocations and clinical i ...201624906113
serosurvey for selected viral agents in white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum) in kruger national park, hundred serum samples collected from free-ranging white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum) in kruger national park (knp) during the 2007 capture season were selected for measurement of antibody levels to several different vector-borne viral agents. these infectious diseases were chosen to compare with an earlier serosurvey that had been conducted in knp in rhinos during 1987-1997. positive antibody titers were found against epizootic hemorrhagic disease (ehd) of deer (8%), bluetongue (bt) (1%) ...201122946366
a case of metastatic uterine adenocarcinoma in a southern white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum simum).a 39-yr-old, acyclic, uniparous, female white rhinoceros with a history of recurrent vaginal bleeding was euthanized following a period of respiratory distress and ill-thrift. the rhinoceros' uterus had previously been evaluated by ultrasound and diffuse endometrial hyperplasia and two benign uterine leiomyomas had been diagnosed. at necropsy examination, a large, infiltrative, metastatic uterine adenocarcinoma was found multifocally throughout the uterus, scattered within the peritoneal cavity, ...201020722262
rapidly evolving repetitive dnas in a conservative genome: a test of factors that affect chromosomal evolution.the hypothesis that tandemly repeated dna sequences may facilitate chromosomal rearrangements was tested by comparing a conservatively evolving karyotype of a bat species (macrotus waterhousii) with data published for a rapidly evolving karyotype of an equid species (equus zebra). empirical data generated from the phylogenetic screening of rapidly evolving repetitive dnas from approximately 0.1% of the m. waterhousii genome showed only one sequence that was repetitive in m. waterhousii but low i ...19947981939
anesthetic management of a white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum) undergoing an emergency exploratory celiotomy for colic.a 26-year-old male white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum), weighing approximately 2000 kg was anesthetized for an exploratory celiotomy. sedation was achieved with intramuscular butorphanol (0.04 mg kg(-1)) and detomidine (0.025 mg kg(-1)) and induction of anesthesia with intravenous glyceryl guaiacolate (50 g) and three intravenous boluses of ketamine (200 mg, each); the trachea was then intubated and anesthesia maintained with isoflurane in oxygen using a circle breathing system. positioning i ...201020456115
the sixth rhino: a taxonomic re-assessment of the critically endangered northern white rhinoceros.the two forms of white rhinoceros; northern and southern, have had contrasting conservation histories. the northern form, once fairly numerous is now critically endangered, while the southern form has recovered from a few individuals to a population of a few thousand. since their last taxonomic assessment over three decades ago, new material and analytical techniques have become available, necessitating a review of available information and re-assessment of the taxonomy.201020383328
streptococcal endocarditis in a captive southern white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum simum).postmortem examination of a 43-yr-old male southern white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum simum) revealed gross lesions and histopathologic findings consistent with endocarditis. the animal was born in umfolozi national park, south africa, and then it was moved at 2 yr of age to two successive european zoologic collections. for several weeks prior to death, the animal was increasingly recumbent or assuming a dog-sitting position. postmortem examination revealed cutaneous pressure sores and multi ...201425314832
comparison of butorphanol-detomidine versus butorphanol-azaperone for the standing sedation of captive greater one-horned rhinoceroses (rhinoceros unicornis).three adult and two subadult greater one-horned rhinoceroses (rhinoceros unicornis) were sedated a total of nine times using two different intramuscular sedative combinations in order to compare the effectiveness of these combinations in inducing consistent standing sedation in this species. the sedation protocols compared were butorphanol tartrate (50-60 mg) and detomidine hydrochloride (20-30 mg; bd) versus butorphanol tartrate (80-120 mg) and azaperone (80-120 mg; ba). specific doses were adj ...201424712163
effects of sociosexual environment on serum testosterone in captive male african rhinoceros.the relationships between testosterone concentrations in male african rhinoceros and the presence of conspecific males and females were investigated. serum testosterone concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassay (eia) in 37 male black rhinoceros (diceros bicornis) and 21 male white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum) housed at 37 institutions in the usa. testosterone concentrations in both black (n=37) and white (n=21) rhinoceros males rose with increasing numbers of females prese ...200919167747
tuberculosis in rhinoceros: an underrecognized threat?historical evidence of tuberculosis (tb) affecting primarily captive rhinoceroses dates back almost two centuries. although the causative mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (mtc) species has not been determined in many cases, especially for those that occurred before bacterial culture techniques were available, the spectrum of documented reports illustrates the importance of tb as cause of morbidity and mortality in different rhinoceros species across continents. in more recent years, sporadic s ...201626996520
split-sample comparison of directional and liquid nitrogen vapour freezing method on post-thaw semen quality in white rhinoceroses (ceratotherium simum simum and ceratotherium simum cottoni).to increase the quality of cryopreserved sperm in white rhinoceros, the liquid nitrogen vapour (ln vapour) freezing and the multi-thermal gradient directional freezing methods were compared. sixteen white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum sp.) were electro-ejaculated. semen samples were diluted with cryoextender (tris, lactose, egg-yolk, dmso) and aliquoted into straws for ln vapour freezing, and glass hollow tubes for directional freezing. the sperm quality was evaluated before and after freezing ...200918775559
detecting inter-cusp and inter-tooth wear patterns in rhinocerotids.extant rhinos are the largest extant herbivores exhibiting dietary specialisations for both browse and grass. however, the adaptive value of the wear-induced tooth morphology in rhinos has not been widely studied, and data on individual cusp and tooth positions have rarely been published. we evaluated upper cheek dentition of browsing diceros bicornis and rhinoceros sondaicus, mixed-feeding r. unicornis and grazing ceratotherium simum using an extended mesowear method adapted for rhinos. we incl ...201324312507
social and spatial relationships in captive southern white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum simum).although critical to the conservation of white rhinoceros, captive breeding has proven challenging because of the poor and irregular reproductive health of many captive rhinos, and social interactions may play a significant role. this research investigated the social and spatial relationships of two captive groups of southern white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum simum) by examining the frequency of companion changes, the number of space maintenance vocalizations made per hour by each reproducti ...200719360596
diversity of methanogens in the hindgut of captive white rhinoceroses, ceratotherium simum.the white rhinoceros is on the verge of extinction with less than 20,200 animals remaining in the wild. in order to better protect these endangered animals, it is necessary to better understand their digestive physiology and nutritional requirements. the gut microbiota is nutritionally important for herbivorous animals. however, little is known about the microbial diversity in the gastrointestinal tract (git) of the white rhinoceros. methanogen diversity in the git may be host species-specific a ...201324228793
reference cardiopulmonary physiologic parameters for standing, unrestrained white rhinoceroses (ceratotherium simum).chemical restraint is an important tool for the management and medical care of both captive and free-ranging rhinoceroses. current anesthetic protocols for the white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum) are reported to cause varying degrees of hypertension, tachycardia, muscular stiffness and fasciculation, acidosis, and, most importantly, respiratory depression with resulting hypoventilation, hypoxia, and hypercapnea. to assist in the assessment and development of new and improved anesthetic techni ...200717939345
inner ventricular structures and valves of the heart in white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum).in this study, we describe the internal structures of both ventricles and the valvular apparatus of the heart of the white rhino. in the right of the heart, three papillary muscles were found in septal and marginal walls and m. papillaris magnus was the biggest. there was only one m. papillaris parvus in the right ventricle. the right atrioventricular valve was tricuspid, and the parietal cusp was longest. in the left of the heart, two papillary muscles were found on the septal wall and the suba ...201423979858
carcinosarcoma in a white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum simum).in rhinocerotidae, there are very few reports of tumors and no reports of a mixed tumor. this paper reports the case of a male 33-year-old southern white rhinoceros. grossly, there were two masses in the coelomic cavity and solid nodules in the liver. histologically, all tumors had a biphasic pattern that consisted of malignant epithelial cells (cytokeratin- and e-cadherin-positive) and non-epithelial cells (vimentin-positive) with cartilage. in this case, the prostate could not be identified, a ...201323934446
the microbial community in the feces of the white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum) as determined by barcoded pyrosequencing a non-ruminant herbivore, the white rhinoceros has the ability to utilize fibrous plant matter through microbial fermentation in the hindgut. so far, there has been no report using molecular techniques to study the gut microbiota of the white rhinoceros. we used barcoded pyrosequencing to characterize 105,651 sequences of 16s rrna genes obtained from fecal samples from five white rhinoceroses. results showed that firmicutes and bacteroidetes were the predominant phyla in the samples, which we ...201323922920
alkaline phosphatase as an indicator of true ejaculation in the rhinoceros.the objective was to determine if seminal alkaline phosphatase (alp) can serve as an indicator of true ejaculation in the rhinoceros. concentrations of alp activity were determined in seminal fractions collected from african black rhinos (diceros bicornis), an african white rhino (ceratotherium simum), and an indian rhino (rhinoceros unicornis) during electroejaculation. in addition, seminal fractions collected during penile massage of a sumatran rhino (dicerorhinus sumatrensis) were assessed. c ...201020615535
extraction of nuclear dna from rhinoceros horn and characterization of dna profiling systems for white (ceratotherium simum) and black (diceros bicornis) rhinoceros.rhinoceros horn is now worth more, per unit weight, than gold, diamonds, or cocaine. rhinoceros horn has been used in traditional asian medicine as a presumed cure for a wide range of ailments. rhinoceros poaching in south africa has, on average, more than doubled each year over the past 5 years with the rapid economic growth in east and southeast asia being assumed to be the primary factor driving the increased demand for horn. here we report on the characterization of methods for genomic dna e ...201323768315
use of butorphanol during immobilization of free-ranging white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum).forty free-ranging white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum) were anesthetized with etorphine, azaperone, and hyaluronidase in kruger national park, south africa, between february and august 2009. eighteen rhinoceros received butorphanol in the dart combination, and 22 rhinoceros had butorphanol administered intravenously within 15 min of darting. body position, blood gas values, heart rate, respiratory rate, and temperature were measured at two time points after darting, approximately 10 min apart ...201323505703
the effect of long non-reproductive periods on the genital health in captive female white rhinoceroses (ceratotherium simum simum, c.s. cottoni).white rhinoceroses suffer from a low reproductive rate in captivity. intensive efforts to propagate specifically the northern white rhinoceros have been very limited. the dismal outlook for this subspecies in the wild makes successful ex situ breeding programs paramount. in this context, this study examined 48 southern and 6 northern white rhinoceroses using ultrasound and faecal hormone analysis to elucidate causes for female reproductive failure and to determine whether long non-reproductive p ...200616213012
incidence of ryegrass staggers in white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum) at auckland zoo. 200415768084
anaesthetic management of a 10-month-old white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum) calf for emergency exploratory celiotomy.a 10-month-old, 580 kg, hand-reared white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum) calf was presented for emergency exploratory celiotomy. anaesthesia was safely induced with three successive intravenous (iv) boluses of diazepam (10 mg) and ketamine (100 mg) until the trachea could be intubated. anaesthesia was adequately maintained with isoflurane-inoxygen (mean end-tidal isoflurane concentration of 1.1% ± 0.2%) on a circle anaesthetic machine with carbon dioxide absorption and an intravenous infusion ...201223327149
the seminiferous cycle of the rhinoceros.the seminiferous cycle of the rhinoceros was investigated for the first time using testicular tissue from captive white (ceratotherium simum, n=2) and black (diceros bicornis, n=1) rhinoceroses. stages of the seminiferous epithelial cycle were characterised using the tubular morphology method and relative frequencies of each stage determined. this method allowed for the identification of eight stages of cellular associations characteristic of the seminiferous cycle in white and black rhinocerose ...201223182465
review of laboratory and necropsy evidence for iron storage disease acquired by browser rhinoceroses.necropsies of two browser rhinoceroses, african black (diceros bicornis) and sumatran (dicerorhinus sumatrensis), often reveal extensive iron-pigment deposition in various tissues. this condition (hemosiderosis) has not been observed in species that are natural grazers, african white (ceratotherium simum) and asian greater one-horned (indian; rhinoceros unicornis), nor in any species free ranging in the wild. the causes, clinical significance, and consequences of captivity-acquired hemosiderosis ...201223156711
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