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genetically engineered mengo virus vaccination of multiple captive wildlife species.encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv), has caused the deaths of many species of animals in zoological parks and research institutions. the audubon park zoo, (new orleans, louisiana, usa) attempted vaccination of several species with a killed emcv vaccine with mixed results. this paper reports an attempt at vaccination against emcv using a genetically engineered, live attenuated mengo virus (vmc0) at the audubon park zoo and miami metro zoo, (miami, florida, usa) from december 1996 to june 1997. seve ...199910231768
mycobacterium pinnipedii: transmission from south american sea lion (otaria byronia) to bactrian camel (camelus bactrianus bactrianus) and malayan tapirs (tapirus indicus).tuberculosis infections caused by mycobacterium (m.) pinnipedii in a south american sea lion, bactrian camel, and malayan tapirs kept in two zoological gardens spanning a time period of 5 years are reported. the zoos were linked by the transfer of one tapir. conventional bacteriological and molecular methods were applied to detect the pathogen. spoligotyping and miru/vntr-typing performed to assess the genetic similarity revealed identical molecular characteristics of the isolates from all anima ...200817913401
pinniped tuberculosis in malayan tapirs (tapirus indicus) and its transmission to other terrestrial mammals.in the last 7 yr, three different species of terrestrial mammals were diagnosed with mycobacterium pinnipedii either within one collection or through the introduction of an infected animal from another zoo. the affected species included the malayan tapir (tapirus indicus), bactrian camel (camelus bactrianus bactrianus), and crested porcupine (hystrix cristata). in the first zoo, all of these were living in exhibits adjacent to a group of south american sea lions (otariaflavescens) and were cared ...201122946398
plasma lipids and lipoproteins of some members of the order perissodactyla.1. the plasma lipoproteins of various members of the order perissodactyla have been examined by electrophoresis and analytical ultracentrifugation. 2. in the equidae, high density (alpha) lipoprotein was the major component (80-90%) and low density (beta) lipoprotein (10-20%) the minor component. 3. in the tapiridae represented by the malayan tapir (tapirus indicus), high density and low density lipoproteins were present in approximately equal amounts. 4. in the rhinocerotidae, the high density ...1989318412
An outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis in goitered gazelle (Gazella subgutrosa subgutrosa) and a Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus).An outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis enteritis occurred in two juvenile goitered gazelles and an adult Malayan tapir over a period of 5 wk at the Minnesota Zoo. Diagnosis was made postmortem on one gazelle and one tapir, and a second gazelle was diagnosed via fecal culture. The death of the tapir was attributed to S. enterica serovar Choleraesuis septicemia, while salmonellosis was considered to be a contributing factor besides ostertagiasis for the death of one goitered gaze ...201122204065
retention of fluid and particles in captive tapirs (tapirus sp.).the retention of ingesta in the digestive tract is a major characteristic of herbivorous animals. we measured particle and fluid mean retention times (mrt) in 13 lowland tapirs (tapirus terrestris) and 5 malayan tapirs (tapirus indicus) from five zoological institutions on their usual zoo diet and 2 lowland and 4 malayan tapirs additionally on roughage-only diets (total n of trials=24) with cobalt-edta as fluid and chromium-mordanted fibre (<2 mm) as particle markers. mrt for fluid and particles ...201020363350
multidirectional cross-species painting illuminates the history of karyotypic evolution in perissodactyla.the order perissodactyla, the group of odd-toed ungulates, includes three extant families: equidae, tapiridae, and rhinocerotidae. the extremely rapid karyotypic diversification in perissodactyls has so far prevented the establishment of genome-wide homology maps between these three families by traditional cytogenetic approaches. here we report the first genome-wide comparative chromosome maps of african rhinoceroses, four tapir species, four equine species, and humans. these maps were establish ...200818293107
monitoring of the oestrous cycle in a captive malayan tapir (tapirus indicus). 200616998001
encephalomyocarditis virus in a captive malayan tapir (tapirus indicus).a 5-month-old female captive malayan tapir (tapirus indicus) died suddenly without preceding symptoms. gross necropsy revealed numerous white circular and linear foci in the myocard. differential diagnosis all turned out negative, except for encephalomyocarditis virus. histopathology revealed mineralisation of myocardial cells and interstitial infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells and less neutrophils. encephalomyocarditis virus was detected by pcr. although encephalomyocarditis virus occurs ...201728616390
neospora caninum abortion in a malayan tapir (tapirus indicus).a captive 17-year old female malayan tapir (tapirus indicus) aborted a fetus with a crown rump length of 19cm in early pregnancy. the fetus showed an early state of mummification. histologically, a multifocal mononuclear encephalitis, myocarditis and periportal hepatitis was present indicating a possible protozoal cause of abortion. although immunohistologically, neospora (n.) caninum antigen could not be demonstrated, n. caninum dna was detected by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) in brain, hear ...201728495194
osteoarthritis in two marine mammals and 22 land mammals: learning from skeletal remains.the occurrence of osteoarthritis (oa) in marine mammals is still questionable. here we investigated the prevalence of oa in marine (dolphin and dugong) and terrestrial mammals (asian elephant, asiatic buffalo, camel, cat, cattle, deer, dog, domestic goat, horse, human, hyena, impala, lion, malayan tapir, assam macaque, mule, pig, rabbit, red kangaroo, sheep, tiger and waterbuck). skeletal remains obtained from five institutes were used as subjects; a total of 45 different parts (locations) of bo ...201728542897
iron storage disease in tapirs.recent studies of serum iron and iron binding capacity have indicated that tapirs could be at risk of developing hemochromatosis. however, in recent surveys of pathologic findings in tapirs, hemochromatosis was not reported as a cause of death. this study reviews necropsy reports from three species of tapir (baird's tapir [tapirus bairdii], malayan tapir [tapirus indicus], and brazilian tapir [tapirus terrestris]) at the philadelphia zoological garden between 1902 and 1994. twelve cases of hemos ...200617312812
resorptive tooth root lesions in the malayan tapir (tapirus indicus).facial abscessation and osteomyelitis due to dental disease is commonly seen in the malayan tapir (tapirus indicus), but little is known about the prevalence or etiology of these lesions. to determine the prevalence of dental ailments, 56 skulls and mandibles of deceased malayan tapirs were visually and radiographically evaluated. dental lesions were scored according to severity, and individuals were classified according to their age (juvenile/ young adult/adult) and origin (captive/free ranging ...201122946368
a case study of malayan tapir (tapirus indicus) husbandry practice across 10 zoological collections.the malayan, or asian, tapir (tapirus indicus) has a diminishing wild population and is becoming more common in captivity as zoos attempt to manage sustainable ex situ populations. tapirs can be relatively easy to maintain and breed, but captive animals appear to suffer from reduced activity budgets, obesity, and poor public image. a questionnaire-based survey was designed and sent specifically to 10 collections around the world that exhibit malayan tapirs, with the aim of assessing husbandry re ...201522610959
comparative sensitivity to environmental variation and human disturbance of asian tapirs (tapirus indicus) and other wild ungulates in thailand.southeast asia's tropical forests suffer the highest rates of deforestation and disturbance of any on earth, with poorly understood impacts on native fauna. asian tapirs (tapirus indicus) are among the least studied of the large mammals in these forests. using records from 9 camera trap surveys in 7 of the largest (>1000 km(2) ) protected area complexes, we assessed the influence of environmental variation and human-induced disturbance on tapir occurrence. tapirs were detected at 13% of location ...201223253370
predicting the distribution of the asian tapir in peninsular malaysia using maximum entropy modeling.in 2008, the iucn threat status of the asian tapir (tapirus indicus) was reclassified from 'vulnerable' to 'endangered'. the latest distribution map from the iucn red list suggests that the tapirs' native range is becoming increasingly fragmented in peninsular malaysia, but distribution data collected by local researchers suggest a more extensive geographical range. here, we compile a database of 1261 tapir occurrence records within peninsular malaysia, and demonstrate that this species, indeed, ...201223253371
iron deficiency anemia in captive āalayan tapir calves (tapirus indicus).iron deficiency anemia (ida) was diagnosed in two captive female neonatal malayan tapirs (tapirus indicus) at separate institutions. both calves had unremarkable exams and normal blood parameters within the first 3 days of life. microcytic hypochromic anemia (hematocrit, hct= 20%; mean corpuscular volume, mcv = 32.8 fl; mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mch = 10.5 pg) was diagnosed at day 66 of age in calf epz-1. iron dextran (10 mg/kg i.m.) was administered at day 71. a normal hct (33%) with microcy ...201223272357
paleontology to policy: the quaternary history of southeast asian tapirs (tapiridae) in relation to large mammal species turnover, with a proposal for conservation of malayan tapir by reintroduction to borneo.the southeast asian zoogeographical region is divided into indochinese, sundaic and philippine subregions. two clades of tapirs, tapirus spp., have been recognized in quaternary southeast asia. a review of sites at which they occurred shows that representatives of both clades, one of which was the ancestral malayan tapir tapirus indicus, co-existed with a diversity of other pleistocene mammal megafauna. the process of replacement of archaic large mammals was progressive and prolonged through the ...201323586564
the complete mitochondrial genome of the asian tapirs (tapirus indicus): the only extant tapiridae species in the old world.asian tapir (tapirus indicus) is categorized as endangered on the 2008 iucn red list. the first full-length mitochondrial dna (mtdna) sequence of asian tapir is 16,717 bp in length. base composition shows 34.6% a, 27.2% t, 25.8% c and 12.3% g. highest polymorphic site is on the control region as typical for many species.201624621216
ultrasonographic measurement of fetal growth parameters over three successive pregnancies in a captive malayan tapir (tapirus indicus).this study was conducted to establish representative curves that allow evaluation of fetal growth and estimation of gestational age from measurement of fetal structures by ultrasound in malayan tapirs (tapirus indicus). three pregnancies (i.e. 3 fetuses) were examined in one female malayan tapir. transabdominal ultrasonographic examination was performed without anesthesia from 79 ± 8 days to 281 ± 48 days (mean ± s.d.) post mating. to assess fetal growth attempts were made to measure biparietal ...201425042428
dental lesions in the lowland tapir (tapirus terrestris).dental ailments, mandibular swelling, and dentoalveolar abscesses are common in tapirs, but knowledge about prevalence or etiology of these lesions in the tapiridae family in general, and in lowland tapirs (tapirus terrestris) in particular, is scarce. a recent study identified resorptive lesions of unknown etiology as a common problem in the malayan tapir (tapirus indicus). in order to investigate the type and prevalence of dental lesions occurring in lowland tapirs, and to compare these with f ...201526056895
genetic diversity of the captive asian tapir population in thailand, based on mitochondrial control region sequence data and the comparison of its nucleotide structure with brazilian tapir.the asian tapir (tapirus indicus) has been classified as endangered on the iucn red list of threatened species (2008). genetic diversity data provide important information for the management of captive breeding and conservation of this species. we analyzed mitochondrial control region (cr) sequences from 37 captive asian tapirs in thailand. multiple alignments of the full-length cr sequences sized 1268 bp comprised three domains as described in other mammal species. analysis of 16 parsimony-info ...201727159697
influencing secondary school students' conservation behavior intention through an interpretive education program on the malayan tapir. 201627315301
the novel primers for mammal species identification-based mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence: implication for reserved wild animals in thailand and endangered mammal species in southeast asia.we presented the powerful techniques for species identification using the short amplicon of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequence. two faecal samples and one single hair sample of the asian tapir were tested using the new cytochrome b primers. the results showed a high sequence similarity with the mainland asian tapir group. the comparative sequence analysis of the reserved wild mammals in thailand and the other endangered mammal species from southeast asia comprehensibly verified the potenti ...201827758125
a babesia from a malayan tapir. 19684234363
babesiasis in a malayan tapir (tapirus indicus desmarest, 1819). 19724629456
the malayan tapir. 187117230917
gross anatomy and ultrasonographic images of the reproductive system of the malayan tapir (tapirus indicus).the malayan tapir (tapirus indicus) is the largest among the four tapir species and is listed as an endangered species. ultrasound examination and description of the external anatomy of the female reproductive system of three adult females were performed, whereas the internal anatomy was investigated in necropsied samples of four adult females and one subadult female. descriptions of the male external genitalia were conducted on one adult male. gross examination revealed the presence of a bicorn ...201020809915
fluorouracil as a treatment for corneal papilloma in a malayan tapir.a 26-year-old, wild caught, male malayan tapir at the miami metrozoo with bilateral corneal papillomas was serially immobilized and given subconjunctival injections of fluorouracil. over the course of 17 weeks five bilateral injections of 25 mg fluorouracil were given. this treatment caused regression of the corneal lesions as evidenced by decreased lesion diameter, decreased corneal vascularity, increased corneal clarity, and improved visual function. no adverse drug effects were observed.200212236880
successful treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma with intralesional fluorouracil in a malayan tapir (tapirus indicus).an oral mass was observed in a malayan tapir (tapirus indicus). squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed by histologic examination of a biopsy specimen. a series of intralesional injections using fluorouracil resulted in complete regression of the neoplasm with no recognized adverse effects.200010982147
estrous cycle based on blood progesterone profiles and changes in vulvar appearance of malayan tapirs (tapirus indicus).the progesterone (p(4)) profiles and macroscopic vulvar changes of female malayan tapirs were investigated in order to understand their fundamental reproductive physiology and to search for visual indicators of estrus. blood was collected once or twice a week from seven female malayan tapirs kept at four zoos. serum or plasma p(4) concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay. the p(4) concentrations changed cyclically throughout the years, and a total of 56 cycles was confirmed in the seve ...200717965541
surgical management of an abdominal abscess in a malayan tapir.a captive malayan tapir was observed to have inappetence, weight loss, signs of depression, mild dehydration and diarrhoea. haematological and serum biochemical tests showed anaemia, hypoproteinaemia, hyperfibrinogenaemia and neutrophilia with a left shift. ultrasonic examination of the abdomen under anaesthesia revealed a well-encapsulated abscess. the abscess was marsupialised to the ventral body wall. culture of the pus produced a mixed bacterial growth. antimicrobial therapy was based on bac ...19989830565
comparative forelimb myology and muscular architecture of a juvenile malayan tapir (tapirus indicus).the absence of preserved soft tissues in the fossil record is frequently a hindrance for palaeontologists wishing to investigate morphological shifts in key skeletal systems, such as the limbs. understanding the soft tissue composition of modern species can aid in understanding changes in musculoskeletal features through evolution, including those pertaining to locomotion. establishing anatomical differences in soft tissues utilising an extant phylogenetic bracket can, in turn, assist in interpr ...202031515803
social and reproductive behavior of captive malayan tapirs' (tapirus indicus): interactions with maternal experience and environmental conditions.malayan tapirs are listed as endangered and are bred in captivity under governmental management. the success of captive breeding programs varies and the underlying causes are unclear. here, we investigate how tapir reproduction is affected by previous breeding experience, enclosure type/size and visitor numbers so that appropriate steps can be taken to achieve self-sustaining captive populations. data on social and reproductive behaviors were collected from six tapirs (three males, three females ...202032139707
molecular sexing and preliminary assessment of population sex ratio of the endangered malayan tapir (tapirus indicus) in peninsular malaysia.a molecular sexing method by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) amplification of a portion of the sex-determining region y (sry) and the zinc finger (zf) gene, as well as six equine y-chromosome-specific microsatellite markers, were tested in the malayan tapir (tapirus indicus). while the microsatellite markers did not yield any male-specific amplicons for sex-typing, the sry/zf marker system produced reliable molecular sexing results by accurately sex-typing 31 reference malayan tapirs, using whol ...202032132572
comparative cranial ontogeny of tapirus (mammalia: perissodactyla: tapiridae).skull morphology in tapirs is particularly interesting due to the presence of a proboscis with important trophic, sensory and behavioral functions. several studies have dealt with tapir skull osteology but chiefly in a comparative framework between fossil and recent species of tapirs. only one study examined an aspect of cranial ontogeny, development of the sagittal crest (holbrook. j zool soc lond 2002; 256; 215). our goal is to describe in detail the morphological changes that occur during the ...201728736808
interspecific variation in the tetradactyl manus of modern tapirs (perissodactyla: tapirus) exposed using geometric morphometrics.the distal forelimb (autopodium) of quadrupedal mammals is a key morphological unit involved in locomotion, body support, and interaction with the substrate. the manus of the tapir (perissodactyla: tapirus) is unique within modern perissodactyls, as it retains the plesiomorphic tetradactyl (four-toed) condition also exhibited by basal equids and rhinoceroses. tapirs are known to exhibit anatomical mesaxonic symmetry in the manus, although interspecific differences and biomechanical mesaxony have ...201728707347
estimating the population density of the asian tapir (tapirus indicus) in a selectively logged forest in peninsular malaysia.the endangered asian tapir (tapirus indicus) is threatened by large-scale habitat loss, forest fragmentation and increased hunting pressure. conservation planning for this species, however, is hampered by a severe paucity of information on its ecology and population status. we present the first asian tapir population density estimate from a camera trapping study targeting tigers in a selectively logged forest within peninsular malaysia using a spatially explicit capture-recapture maximum likelih ...201223253368
a review of the reproductive biology and breeding management of tapirs.tapirs (tapirus sp.) have been studied extensively in the wild, yet little is known about their fundamental reproductive biology, information that is critical to establishing self-sustaining populations in captivity as a hedge against extinction. this paper reviews information on the reproductive biology of the 4 species of tapirs: baird's (tapirus bairdii), lowland (t terrestris), mountain (t pinchaque) and malayan (t indicus). both sexes reach puberty between 14 and 48 months of age. behaviora ...201323586557
a preliminary study of mirror-induced self-directed behaviour on wildlife at the royal belum rainforest malaysia.mirror-induced behaviour has been described as a cognitive ability of an animal to self-direct their image in front of the mirror. most animals when exposed to a mirror responded with a social interactive behaviour such as aggressiveness, exploratory and repetitive behaviour. the objective of this study is to determine the mirror-induced self-directed behaviour on wildlife at the royal belum rainforest, malaysia. wildlife species at the royal belum rainforest were identified using a camera traps ...202032839483
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