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hemoglobin polymorphism in equus przewalskii and e. caballus analyzed by isoelectric focusing.1. through the use of isoelectric focusing and peptide analysis, the hemoglobins of przewalski's horse. equus przewalskii and the domestic horse, e. caballus have been compared. 2. przewalski's horses have two separate alpha-globin chain polymorphisms similar to domestic horses. each hemoglobin phenotype could be accurately determined by isoelectric focusing. 3. confirmation of the electrofocusing hemoglobin determinations was made by comparison to amino acid composition analyses of purified try ...1979318448
cytogenetic studies of three equine hybrids.a detailed investigation of testicular meiosis in a mule, a hinny and a przewalski horse/domestic horse hybrid were made. abnormalities of pairing were observed in the mule and hinny in most germ cells at the pachytene stage of meiotic prophase, and spermatogenesis was alsmot totally arrested. a few mature spermatozoa were recovered from the ejaculate and epididymal flushings of the hinny. the przewalski horse/domestic horse hybrid was fertile and showed normal spermatogenesis. chromosome bandin ...19751060807
[genetic differentiation between breeds of horses by polymorphic blood protein loci].the estimation of genetic differentiation between 27 horses breeds originated in ussr, based on serum proteins polymorphism (loci tf, al, es) is shown. genetical variability among aborigine breeds is higher then among cultural ones. the erosion of gene pool of przewalski's horse is explained by special history of this population and a few horses in analyzing group. genetic distances reflect the directions and intensity of breeding. high genetical distances between przewalski's horse, shetland po ...19921639249
equus przewalskii plasma protease inhibitor (pi) system.a detailed biochemical characterization of four of the five previously described alleles of the plasma protease inhibitor (pi) system of equus przewalskii was performed using both one- and two-dimensional electrophoretic techniques. the proteins have been characterized in terms of isoelectric point, relative molecular mass, inhibitory activity to bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin, immunochemical cross-reactivity, terminal sialic acid content and enzyme:inhibitor complex formation and the oxidation ...19902386311
mitochondrial dna evolution in the genus equus.employing mitochondrial dna (mtdna) restriction-endonuclease maps as the basis of comparison, we have investigated the evolutionary affinities of the seven species generally recognized as the genus equus. individual species' cleavage maps contained an average of 60 cleavage sites for 16 enzymes, of which 29 were invariant for all species. based on an average divergence rate of 2%/myr, the variation between species supports a divergence of extant lineages from a common ancestor approximately 3.9 ...19862832696
a comparison of the mineral composition of milk of domestic and captive wild equids (equus przewalski, e. zebra, e. burchelli, e. caballus, e. assinus).milk samples were obtained in early and/or late lactation from przewalski horses, hartmann's zebras, grant's zebras, domestic horses, ponies and a mule mare made pregnant by embryo transfer. samples were compared for their content of total solids, ash, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, copper, zinc and iron. milk from the przewalski horses, hartmann's zebra and the domestic horse had similar mineral composition and the content of minerals was higher in early than in late lactati ...19862876831
breed and species comparison of amino acid transport variation in equine erythrocytes.the amino acid permeability of red blood cells from equus caballus (thoroughbred, arab, shire and pony), e przewalskii (przewalski's horse), e asinus (donkey and mule) and e burchelli (common or plains zebra) was measured. individual animals exhibited stable but widely differing rates of l-[u-14c]alanine uptake in the range 5 to 1554 mumol (litre cells)-1 h-1 (0.2 mm extracellular l-alanine, 37 degrees c). of the thoroughbreds tested, 30 per cent had red blood cells which were essentially imperm ...19854012037
meiosis in interspecific equine hybrids. ii. the przewalski horse/domestic horse hybrid. 19744462982
interspecific and extraspecific pregnancies in equids: anything goes.equids possess the unusual ability to interbreed freely among the phenotypically and karyotypically diverse member species of the genus to produce viable, but usually infertile, offspring. the mule (female horse x male donkey) was humanity's first successful attempt at genetic engineering and its clear expression of both parental phenotypes has contributed much to our understanding of genetic inheritance over the centuries. even more surprising, mares and donkeys have been shown to be capable of ...19979378914
[differentiation of domestic horse and przewalskis horse using various dna sequences].the electrophoretic mobility of seven erythrocyte enzymes and spectra of fragments amplified by rapd-pcr with primers ubc-85 and ubc-126 were comparatively analyzed in domestic horse and przewalski's horse. all tested genetic markers were classified into two groups differing in their involvement in differentiation of the two closely related horse species. markers from different groups differed neither in their type (a polymorphic protein or an amplification product) nor in their biochemical role ...19989749342
ct examination of the guttural pouch (auditory tube diverticulum) in przewalski's horse (equus przewalskii).the domestic horse (equus caballus) have the large symmetrical guttural pouches (the auditory tube diverticulum) formed by saccate bulge of the auditory tube. in this study, ct examination was carried out in the head of przewalski's horse (equus przewalskii), the only true wild horse living at present. as results of the examination, przewalski's horse possessed the large symmetrical guttural pouches divided into medial and lateral compartments by the stylohyoid bone. moreover, the right and left ...199910535506
computer simulations to determine the efficacy of different genome resource banking strategies for maintaining genetic diversity.genome resource banks (grbs) and assisted reproductive techniques are increasingly recognized as useful tools for the management and conservation of biodiversity, including endangered species. cryotechnology permits long-term storage of valuable genetic material. although, the actual application to endangered species management requires technical knowledge about sperm freezing and thawing, a systematic understanding of the quantitative impacts of various germ plasm storage and use scenarios is a ...200212151267
characterization of the beta2-microglobulin gene of the horse.a clone containing beta(2)-microglobulin (beta(2)-m), the light chain of the major histocompatibility complex class i cell surface molecule, was isolated from an equine bacterial artificial chromosome library. this clone was used as a template for polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and unidirectional sequencing to elucidate the genomic sequence and intron/exon boundaries. we obtained 7,000 bases of sequence, extending from 1,100 nucleotides (nt) upstream of the coding region start through 1,698 nt ...200312557059
[histomorphometric study of bone microstructure of primates and domestic animal with the goal of species identification with reference to the effects of domestication].functional bone microstructure of long limb bones is a function of species-specific biomechanical properties such as locomotion and weight. histomorphometry and statistics were used to identify various primate species (hylobates moloch, pongo satyrus borneensis, pan tr. troglodytes, gorilla g. gorilla, homo sapiens), equid species (equus caballus, equus asinus, equus mulus, equus hemionus kulan, equus ferus przewalskii) and also extinct horses e.g. iron age, medieval and neolithic forms on the m ...200312872544
intracapsular lens removal in a przewalski's wild horse (equus caballus przewalskii).a 11.5-yr-old female przewalski's wild horse (equus caballus przewalskii) presented for unilateral blepharitis and drainage from the left eye. the left cornea was not ulcerated, and intraocular evaluation was hampered by severe corneal edema. the left eye appeared to respond positively to treatment with anti-inflammatories and a topical mydriatic agent. during the ensuing 2 yr, there were minor episodes of epiphora from the left eye. the discharge then increased, and a luxated lens was noted dur ...200314582792
the prevalence and transmission to exotic equids (equus quagga antiquorum, equus przewalskii, equus africanus) of intestinal nematodes in contaminated pasture in two wild animal parks.wild equids maintained in large enclosures may suffer from helminth diseases because common hygiene practices have only limited effects on parasite populations. weekly monitoring of helminth prevalences and pasture infestation was performed for 1 yr in several extensive maintenance systems of two wildlife parks with similar climates to determine when veterinary intervention to control parasites would be useful. we also sought evidence of natural immunogenic reactions among herds of chapman zebra ...200112790423
fixed nucleotide differences on the y chromosome indicate clear divergence between equus przewalskii and equus caballus.the phylogenetic relationship between equus przewalskii and e. caballus is often a matter of debate. although these taxa have different chromosome numbers, they do not form monophyletic clades in a phylogenetic tree based on mtdna sequences. here we report sequence variation from five newly identified y chromosome regions of the horse. two fixed nucleotide differences on the y chromosome clearly display przewalski's horse and domestic horse as sister taxa. at both positions the przewalski's hors ...200314687077
protamine p1 sequences in equids: comparison with even-toed animals.protamine p1 amino acid sequences were determined from semen samples of the przewalski horse, donkey, somali wild ass, grevy's zebra, and grant's zebra (odd-toed perissodactyls), and compared with those of the domestic horse. although the rate of amino acid variation of protamine p1 is known to be among the most rapidly diverging polypeptides, the equid sequences revealed only little variation. the sequence from the przewalski horse was identical with that from the domestic horse. the other sequ ...200212212882
mitochondrial dna and the origins of the domestic horse.the place and date of the domestication of the horse has long been a matter for debate among archaeologists. to determine whether horses were domesticated from one or several ancestral horse populations, we sequenced the mitochondrial d-loop for 318 horses from 25 oriental and european breeds, including american mustangs. adding these sequences to previously published data, the total comes to 652, the largest currently available database. from these sequences, a phylogenetic network was construc ...200212130666
torque patterns of the limbs of small therian mammals during locomotion on flat ground.in three species of small therian mammals (scandentia: tupaia glis, rodentia: galea musteloides and lagomorpha: ochotona rufescens) the net joint forces and torques acting during stance phase in the four kinematically relevant joints of the forelimbs (scapular pivot, shoulder joint, elbow joint, wrist joint) and the hindlimbs (hip joint, knee joint, ankle joint, intratarsal joint) were determined by inverse dynamic analysis. kinematics were measured by cineradiography (150 frames s(-1)). synchro ...200211948209
comparative and functional anatomy of the mammalian lumbar spine.as an essential organ of both weight bearing and locomotion, the spine is subject to the conflict of providing maximal stability while maintaining crucial mobility, in addition to maintaining the integrity of the neural structures. comparative morphological adaptation of the lumbar spine of mammals, especially in respect to locomotion, has however received only limited scientific attention. specialised features of the human lumbar spine, have therefore not been adequately highlighted through com ...200111590593
[the specific blocks of heterochromatin on metaphase chromosomes of horse and prjewalski horse detected by in situ digestion with restriction endonucleases].restriction endonuclease in situ digestion of metaphase chromosomes gives an opportunity to reveal strips with different structure within gc-rich pericentric heterochromatin of the domestic horse and the wild przewalski horse. blocks of heterochromatin, which are insensitive to haeiii and brightly stained with chromomycin a3 after restriction enzyme digestion, are localized on the border with euchromatin in the majority of chromosomes of equus caballus and e. przewalskii. in contrast to chromoso ...200010890056
[functional morphology of the large intestinal mucosa of horses (equus przewalskii f. caballus) with special regard to the epithelium].the mucous membrane of the caecum and colon ascendens of adult horses was first studied using light and transmission electron microscopy. in the surface epithelium there was an inconspicuous constellation of organelles, otherwise there was a lot of mitochondria as a source of energy for absorptive performances. moreover, enlarged intercellular spaces exist as an indication of an increased uptake of water and electrolytes. in the basal region of lieberkühn's crypts there were single enteroendocri ...199910652833
aspects of glycoconjugate production and lysozyme- and defensins-expression of the ceruminous glands of the horse (equus przewalskii f. dom.).the distribution of complex glycoconjugates and antimicrobial substances in the ceruminous glands of the horse (equus przewalskii f. dom., type: pony) was studied using carbohydrate histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. the epithelial cells and luminal secretion of these glands exhibited considerable amounts of glycoconjugates with various saccharide residues, such as alpha-d-mannose, alpha-l-fucose, beta-d-galactose, beta-n-acetyl-d-glucosamine and sialic acid, including o-acetylated s ...200516393749
equine cloning: applications and outcomes.cloning is one of several new assisted reproductive techniques being developed for clinical use in the equine industry. potential uses of equine cloning include: (1) the preservation of genetics from individual animals that would otherwise not be able to reproduce, such as geldings; (2) the preservation of genetic material of endangered and/or exotic species, such as the mongolian wild horse (przewalski's horse); and (3) because of the companion animal role that horses fill for some individuals, ...200616478606
morphological character of the shoulder and leg skeleton in przewalski's horse (equus przewalskii).the skeletal feature was observed in przewalski's horse (equus przewalskii) and the domestic horse (e. caballus). as results of the observations, remarkable differences were found in the scapula. the caudal border of the scapula in przewalski's horse is curved in the caudal direction more than that of the domestic horse. moreover, in the domestic horse, the sharp caudal border is formed by the shift of the outer muscular line (linea muscularis) to the border. in przewalski's horse, however, the ...199910427379
mitochondrial control region and 12s rrna variation in przewalski's horse (equus przewalskii).variation in the control region and the 12s rrna gene of all surviving mitochondrial lineages of przewalski's horse was investigated. variation is low despite the present day population being descended from 13 individuals probably representing animals from three different regions of its range. phylogenetic comparison of these sequences, with sequences for the domestic horse, does not resolve the ancestral status of either horse.19989883508
seasonal adjustment of energy budget in a large wild mammal, the przewalski horse (equus ferus przewalskii) i. energy intake.large ruminants respond to changing plant phenology during winter by decreasing voluntary food intake, increasing gut passage time and utilizing body fat reserves. it is uncertain, however, how other large mammals with a non-ruminant digestive physiology cope with winter forage conditions. therefore, we investigated seasonality of energy intake in a large herbivorous wild mammal, the przewalski horse (equus ferus przewalskii). throughout all seasons we used the n-alkane method to measure daily d ...200617079725
seasonal adjustment of energy budget in a large wild mammal, the przewalski horse (equus ferus przewalskii) ii. energy expenditure.many large mammals show pronounced seasonal fluctuations of metabolic rate (mr). it has been argued, based on studies in ruminants, that this variation merely results from different levels of locomotor activity (la), and heat increment of feeding (hi). however, a recent study in red deer (cervus elaphus) identified a previously unknown mechanism in ungulates--nocturnal hypometabolism--that contributed significantly to reduced energy expenditure, mainly during late winter. the relative contributi ...200617079726
equine piroplasmoses at the reintroduction site of the przewalski's horse (equus ferus przewalskii) in mongolia.piroplasmosis has been identified as a possible cause of mortality in reintroduced przewalski's horses (equus ferus przewalskii) in the dsungarian gobi (mongolia). a cross-sectional and a longitudinal study were conducted in a representative sample (n = 141) of the resident domestic horse population and in 23 przewalski's horses to assess the prevalence of theileria equi and babesia caballi. piroplasms were detected in blood by light microscopy in 6.7% (95% confidence interval [ci]: 3.6-12.2%) o ...200617092882
pathologic findings in reintroduced przewalski's horses (equus caballus przewalskii) in southwestern mongolia.the przewalski's horse (equus caballus przewalskii) was extinct in the wild by the mid 1960s. the species has survived because of captive breeding only. the takhin tal reintroduction project is run by the international takhi group; it is one of two projects reintroducing horses to the wild in mongolia. in 1997 the first harem group was released. the first foals were successfully raised in the wild in 1999. currently, 63 przewalski's horses live in takhin tal. little information exists on causes ...200517323569
purification and characterization of insulin and the c-peptide of proinsulin from przewalski's horse, zebra, rhino, and tapir (perissodactyla).within the order perissodactyla, the primary structure of insulin has been strongly conserved. insulin from przewalski's horse and the mountain zebra (suborder hippomorpha) is the same as that from the domestic horse and differs from insulin from the white rhinoceros and mountain tapir (suborder ceratomorpha) by a single substitution (gly-->ser) at position 9 in the a-chain. a second molecular form of przewalski's horse insulin isolated in this study was shown to represent the gamma-ethyl ester ...19938454175
equine plasminogen polymorphism: allelic frequencies in 23 breeds.a modified procedure for detection of the two alleles of equine plasminogen using western blotting methods following polyacrylamide gel isoelectric focusing is described. gene frequencies in 23 breeds and equus przewalskii are provided.19938273917
complications with the use of carfentanil citrate and xylazine hydrochloride to immobilize domestic horses.carfentanil citrate, the only opioid approved in the united states for immobilizing large exotic animals, increasingly has been used to chemically restrain exotic horses, such as prezwalski's horses (equus przewalskii) and wild horses (e caballus). because carfentanil's duration of action is long and renarcotization may develop 2 to 24 hours after administration of antagonists, a study was designed to compare the physiologic effects of opioid antagonists, using domestic horses chemically restrai ...19957759336
adult-young ratio, a major factor regulating social behaviour of young: a horse study.adults play an important role in regulating the social behaviour of young individuals. however, a few pioneer studies suggest that, more than the mere presence of adults, their proportions in social groups affect the social development of young. here, we hypothesized that aggression rates and social cohesion were correlated to adult-young ratios. our biological model was naturally-formed groups of przewalski horses, equus f. przewalskii, varying in composition.200919293930
differences in fecal particle size between free-ranging and captive individuals of two browser species.data from captive animals indicated that browsing (br) ruminants have larger fecal particles-indicative of lesser chewing efficiency-than grazers (gr). to answer whether this reflects fundamental differences between the animal groups, or different reactions of basically similar organisms to diets fed in captivity, we compared mean fecal particle size (mps) in a gr and a br ruminant (aurox bos primigenius taurus, giraffe giraffa camelopardalis) and a gr and a br hindgut fermenter (przewalski's ho ...200819360605
identification of y chromosome genetic variations in chinese indigenous horse breeds.y chromosome acts as a single nonrecombining unit that is male specific and in effect haploid, thus ensuring the preservation of mutational events as a single haplotype via male lines. in this study, 6 y chromosome-specific microsatellites (ssr) were tested for the patrilineal genetic variations of 573 male samples from chinese domestic horse (30 breeds), przewalski's horse, and donkey. all the 6 loci appeared as a haplotype block in przewalski's horse and the domestic donkey. there were notable ...201020497969
successful transfer of the embryos of przewalski's horses (equus przewalskii) and grant's zebra (e. burchelli) to domestic mares (e. caballus).blastocysts were collected non-surgically from 2 przewalski's horse and 2 grant's zebra mares and transferred extra-specifically to domestic horse and donkey recipients. nine przewalski's horse embryos were transferred surgically, and 2 non-surgically, to domestic welsh-type pony mares. after surgical transfer, 7 (77.8%) pregnancies were established and 4 foals were born. twelve grant's zebra embryos were transferred surgically to 5 pony and 7 domestic donkey recipients respectively and 1 non-su ...19873598950
β-tubulin genotypes in six species of cyathostomins from anthelmintic-naive przewalski and benzimidazole-resistant brood horses in ukraine.resistance to benzimidazoles (bz) in the gastrointestinal nematodes of livestock is characterised by the presence of specific polymorphisms in the β-tubulin isotype 1 protein, a component of microtubules. the most prevalent polymorphism associated with resistance in nematodes infecting cattle, sheep, and goats is found at codon 200, with minor occurrences of polymorphisms at codons 167 and 198. in the cyathostomins that infect horses, however, a polymorphism at codon 167 appears to be more commo ...201121553015
interspecies variation in milk composition among horses, zebras and asses (perissodactyla: equidae).milk samples of four species of wild equids (onager, equus hemionus onager; mountain zebra, e. zebra hartmannae; plains zebra, e. burchelli; przewalski horse, e. caballus przewalskii) and two domesticated equids (ass, e. asinus; pony, e. caballus) were analysed. at mid to late lactation the milks of all species were very similar, containing on average 10-12% total solids, 1-2% fat, 1.6-1.8% true protein, 6-7% 'lactose', 0.3-0.5% ash, 0.08-0.12% calcium, 0.04-0.07% phosphorus and a calculated ene ...19883385068
primary structure of pancreatic polypeptide from four species of perissodactyla (przewalski's horse, zebra, rhino, tapir).pancreatic polypeptide (pp) has been purified from extracts of the pancreas of four species of odd-toed ungulates (perissodactyla): przewalski's horse, mountain zebra, white rhinoceros, and mountain tapir. the amino acid sequence of przewalski's horse pancreatic polypeptide was established as ala-pro-met-glu-pro-val-tyr-pro-gly-asp10-asn- ala-thr-pro-glu-gln-met-ala-gln-tyr20-ala-ala-glu-leu-arg-arg-tyr- ile-asn-met30 - leu-thr-arg-pro-arg-tyr.nh2. zebra pp was identical to przewalski's horse pp ...19911808025
abnormal reproductive patterns in przewalski's mares are associated with a loss in gene diversity.the ex situ population of the przewalski's horse (equus ferus przewalskii) is not self-sustaining (20% foaling rate) and the demography is skewed toward aging individuals with low gene diversity. we designed the present study to gain a better understanding of the reproductive biology of the przewalski's mare and to determine whether age and gene diversity influenced reproductive function. urine samples were collected 3-7 days/week from 19 mares from may-september and ultrasound examinations of f ...201121900686
characterization of a novel variant of amino acid transport system asc in erythrocytes from przewalski's horse (equus przewalskii).in thoroughbred horses, red blood cell amino acid transport activity is na(+)-independent and controlled by three codominant genetic alleles (h, l, s), coding for high-affinity system asc1 (l-alanine apparent km for influx at 37 degrees c congruent to 0.35 mm), low-affinity system asc2 (l-alanine km congruent to 14 mm), and transport deficiency, respectively. the present study investigated amino acid transport mechanisms in red cells from four wild species: przewalski's horse (equus przewalskii) ...19921473044
molecular cytogenetics of the equidae. i. purification and cytological localization of a (g + c)-rich satellite dna from equus przewalskii.a (g + c)-rich density satellite dna (rho = 1.713 gm/cc) has been purified from splenic dna of przewalski's horse, equus przewalskii, by successive equilibrium density gradient centrifugations. the purified satellite, which may comprise as much as 29% of the total dna, renatures rapidly; however, analyses of native, single-stranded, and reassociated molecules by analytical ultracentrifugation and melting properties suggest that some sequence heterogeniety exists in the 1.713 gm/cc satellite. com ...1979456203
przewalski's horse (equus ferus przewalskii) re-introduction in the great gobi b strictly protected area: from species to ecosystem conservation.the przewalski's horse (equus ferus przewalskii poljakov, 1881), or "takhi" in mongolian, became extinct in the wild by the mid 1960's. the last recorded sightings of przewalski's horses occurred in the dzungarian gobi desert in sw mongolia, today's great gobi b strictly protected area (spa). a re-introduction program was initiated in 1992 and the first group of captive-born przewalski's horses was airlifted to the spa. given the logistical challenges associated with such a venture, the initial ...200722064815
differentiation of meat samples from domestic horses (equus caballus) and asiatic wild asses (equus hemionus) using a species-specific restriction site in the mitochondrial cytochrome b region.recent studies suggest that asiatic wild asses (equus hemionus) are being increasingly poached in a commercial fashion. part of the meat is believed to reach the meat markets in the capital ulaanbaatar. to test this hypothesis, we collected 500 meat samples between february and may 2006. to differentiate between domestic horse (equus caballus) and wild ass meat, we developed a restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) assay based on the polymerase chain reaction (pcr). we amplified and seq ...200622059088
Phylogenetic relationships of the Hucul horse from Romania inferred from mitochondrial D-loop variation.The existence of the Hucul horse on Romanian territory has been documented from the very distant past; today Hucul is a unique breed that is part of the FAO Program for the Preservation of Animal Genetic Resources. We compared Hucul with several primitive European and Asiatic breeds in order to elucidate the origin of these horses. We analyzed a 683-bp mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop fragment in a population of Hucul horses and compared the polymorphic sites with sequences from other pri ...201122057995
time budget-, behavioral synchrony- and body score development of a newly released przewalski's horse group equus ferus przewalskii, in the great gobi b strictly protected area in sw mongolia.the przewalski's horse (equus ferus przewalskii) became extinct in the wild in the 1960s, but survived as a species due to captive breeding. there have been several initiatives to re-introduce the species in central asia, but until now only two projects in mongolia establish free-ranging populations. data on basic ecology and behavior of the species prior to extinction is largely lacking and a good documentation of the re-introduction process is essential. between 13 may and 2 september 2003 we ...200722064904
laminitis in przewalski horses kept in a semireserve.semireserves were created by the european conservation project for scientific research in preparation for reintroduction in the wilderness. they are defined as enclosures large enough to carry a group of przewalski horses throughout the year without any additional feeding. the semireserve offers diverse opportunities for significant scientific research. as part of a general screening program, the hoof development in a group of przewalski horses was investigated in the semireserve schorfheide nea ...200114614287
chromosome complement: differences between equus caballus and equus przewalskii, poliakoff.the chromosome number of the domestic horse is 2n = 64; different races have the same complement. the chromosomes of two przewalski's horses (at catskill game farm, new york), presumably ancestral wild horses from mongolia, are identical: 2n = 66, with more acrocentric and fewer metacentric elements than the chromosomes of the domestic horse. this apparent difference in karyotype may help resolve the questions of "purity" in the relatively few remaining przewalski's horses. moreover, these findi ...196514261533
genetic diversity in german draught horse breeds compared with a group of primitive, riding and wild horses by means of microsatellite dna markers.we compared the genetic diversity and distance among six german draught horse breeds to wild (przewalski's horse), primitive (icelandic horse, sorraia horse, exmoor pony) or riding horse breeds (hanoverian warmblood, arabian) by means of genotypic information from 30 microsatellite loci. the draught horse breeds included the south german coldblood, rhenish german draught horse, mecklenburg coldblood, saxon thuringa coldblood, black forest horse and schleswig draught horse. despite large differen ...200415265065
gasterophilus (diptera, gasterophilidae) infestation of equids in the kalamaili nature reserve, china.we investigated infections with gasterophilus spp. in three equids within the kalamaili nature reserve (northern china). we conducted necropsies on 6 przewalski's horses (equus ferus przewalskii) and 6 mongolian wild asses (equus hemionus) and administered ivermectin to 10 overwintering domestic horses to expel parasites during winter periods. all 22 equids studied (100%) were infested with gasterophilus spp. and a total of 17,225 larvae were collected. these included six species: g. haemorrhoid ...201627593434
the incidence and species composition of gasterophilus (diptera, gasterophilidae) causing equine myiasis in northern xinjiang, china.a survey was conducted on the detection of the larval gasterophilus species in 90 equines via necropsy or after administering oral ivermectin in xinjian, china, from 2008 to 2013. all 90 (100%) equines were infested by larval gasterophilus, and 3723second instar larvae (l2) and 63,778 third instar larvae (l3) were collected from faecal samples and the digestive tract, a ratio of l2:l3=1:17. over 84.45% of the animals contained ≤1500 larvae and 7.78% had >2000 larvae. the highest totals of l2 and ...201626827858
the danger of having all your eggs in one basket--winter crash of the re-introduced przewalski's horses in the mongolian gobi.large mammals re-introduced into harsh and unpredictable environments are vulnerable to stochastic effects, particularly in times of global climate change. the mongolian gobi is home to several rare large ungulates such as re-introduced przewalski's horses (equus ferus przewalskii) and asiatic wild asses (equus hemionus), but also to a millennium-old semi-nomadic livestock herding culture.the gobi is prone to large inter-annual environmental fluctuations, but the winter 2009/2010 was particularl ...201122216089
a comparison of fecal steroid metabolite concentrations between harem and bachelor stallions in a free-ranging population of przewalski's horses (equus ferus przewalskii).the aim of this study was to determine whether concentrations of reproductive steroid hormone metabolites significantly differed between harem stallions and bachelor stallions in the free ranging group of przewalski's horses (equus ferus przewalskii) at the hortobágy national park in hungary. throughout the study, fecal samples were collected from 21 harem stallions and 15 bachelor stallions and analyzed for immunoreactive estrogen and androgen metabolites. harem stallions demonstrated significa ...201728114737
investigating determinants of yawning in the domestic (equus caballus) and przewalski (equus ferus przewalskii) horses.yawning is rare in herbivores which therefore may be an interesting group to disentangle the potential function(s) of yawning behaviour. horses provide the opportunity to compare not only animals living in different conditions but also wild versus domestic species. here, we tested three hypotheses by observing both domestic and przewalski horses living in semi-natural conditions: (i) that domestic horses may show an elevated rate of yawning as a result of the domestication process (or as a resul ...201627542092
acute phase proteins as a marker of respiratory inflammation in przewalski's horse (equus ferus przewalskii).acute phase proteins are sensitive markers of inflammation, which are highly conserved across taxa. although the utility of these proteins are becoming well defined in human and domestic animal medical fields, their role in nondomestic species remains unclear. in this communication, a 20-yr-old przewalski's horse was presented for unresolving aspiration pneumonia, which cultured a unique actinomyces-like bacteria. despite waxing and waning clinical signs and minimal changes on baseline hematolog ...201627468045
oviposition site selection by gasterophilus pecorum (diptera: gasterophilidae) in its habitat in kalamaili nature reserve, xinjiang, china.oviposition site selection is an important aspect of the behavioural ecology of insects. a comparison of the habitats used by a species enhances our understanding of their adaptation to altered environments. we collected data on the oviposition behaviours of gasterophilus pecorum (diptera: gasterophilidae) in its habitat in kalamaili nature reserve (knr), xinjiang, china between march and october 2014. we found 91 quadrats were used by g. pecorum for oviposition. examining 13 ecological factors ...201526621549
context-dependent third-party intervention in agonistic encounters of male przewalski horses.one mechanism to resolve conflict among group members is third party intervention, for which several functions, such as kin protection, alliance formation, and the promotion of group cohesion have been proposed. still, empirical research on the function of intervention behaviour is rare. we studied 40 cases of intervention behaviour in a field study on 13 semi-wild bachelor horses (equus ferus przewalskii) in (a) standard social situations, and (b) when new horses joined the group (i.e. introduc ...201526478251
[intramural blood vessels of the large intestine of the horse (equus przewalskii f. caballus)].the vascular system of the large intestine of 12 horses was examined by means of vascular corrosion casts, histology and transmission electron microscopy providing the following results. the aa. et vv. breves et longae leave the mesenteric vessels, respectively the subserously on the teniae lying cecal vessels to reach the tela subserosa at the mesenteric margin. the short vessels enter the deeper layers of the wall instantly, whereas the aa. et vv. longae move towards the submucosa by penetrati ...19979463276
[neurodegenerative disorders of the central nervous system in horses].the most important neurodegenerative diseases of the horse are reviewed. in addition to the literature, neurodegenerative diseases occurring in patients (horses, mongolian przewalski-horses, and two zebras) referred to the utrecht veterinary faculty are mentioned. neurodegenerative diseases described are: i. ataxia associated with: a/ static stenosis, b/ dynamic stenosis, c/ lesions at various locations in the central nervous system, d/ equine herpesvirus infections, e/ equine degenerative myelo ...19947940476
intrageneric amplification of horse microsatellite markers with emphasis on the przewalski's horse (e. przewalskii).primer sequences flanking 13 microsatellite loci isolated from the domestic horse (e. caballus) were successfully used to amplify homologous loci in the przewalski's horse (e. przewalskii). the results demonstrate that the level of polymorphism at all 13 loci in the przewalski's horse was comparable to that in the domestic horse and the overall exclusion probability in the przewalski's horse was calculated to be 0.9994. the results suggest that it should be possible to use e. caballus-derived mi ...19947695120
the role of an alpha animal in changing environmental conditions.the maintenance and development of conservation areas by grazing of large herbivores, such as przewalski's horses, is common practice. several nature conservation areas house male bachelor groups of this species. when males are needed for breeding they are removed from the groups, often without considering group compositions and individual social positions. however, alpha animals are needed for ensuring group stability and decision making in potentially dangerous situations in several species. t ...201424878311
oral and injectable synthetic progestagens effectively manipulate the estrous cycle in the przewalski's horse (equus ferus przewalskii).to date, there has been limited research on manipulation of the estrous cycle in endangered equids. the objectives of this study were to assess the efficacy of using combinations of: (a) oral altrenogest and pgf2α, and (b) injectable altrenogest and pgf2α for manipulation of ovarian activity in przewalski's mares. reproductive cycles were monitored by assessing follicular changes with rectal ultrasound and changes in urinary steroid hormones. in study 1, five cycling mares were treated with oral ...201424856195
improved sperm cryosurvival in diluents containing amides versus glycerol in the przewalski's horse (equus ferus przewalskii).two studies were conducted to understand sperm cryosensitivity in an endangered equid, the przewalski's horse (equus ferus przewalski), while testing the cryoprotectant ability of formamides. the first assessed the toxicity of permeating cryoprotectants (glycerol, methylformamide [mf] and dimethylformamide [dmf]) to przewalski's horse spermatozoa during liquid storage at 4°c. the second examined the comparative influence of three diluents (with or without formamides) on cryosurvival of sperm fro ...201424508651
drawing pedigrees.the problem of drawing a pedigree in a clear and concise manner is discussed and a case is made for the adoption of the marriage node graph as the most appropriate format in which to depict highly looped pedigrees. a method for assigning suitable coordinates to marriages and individuals is then described. this involves use of simulated annealing to search for the clearest picture. the method is illustrated by two examples: the pedigree of przewalski's horse and that of the european bison.19883235879
population data and a fourth allele for equine complement component 3 (c3).the c3 polymorphism of equine serum or plasma revealed by agarose gel electrophoresis can be diagnosed with protein stain following acid protein fixation. in addition to the three alleles previously described (c31, c32, c33), a fourth allele (c34) was found. population data for 25 domestic breeds and equus przewalskii are presented.19902331080
genetic variation in przewalski's horses, with special focus on the last wild caught mare, 231 orlitza iii.in our continuing efforts to document genetic diversity in przewalski's horses and relatedness with domestic horses, we report genetic variation at 22 loci of blood group and protein polymorphisms and 29 loci of dna (microsatellite) polymorphisms. the loci have been assigned by linkage or synteny mapping to 20 autosomes and the x chromosome of the domestic horse (plus four loci unassigned to a chromosome). with cumulative data from tests of 568 przewalski's horses using blood, hair or tooth samp ...200314970708
coccidioidomycosis in przewalski's horses (equus przewalskii).coccidioidomycosis is a rare, often subclinical infection in domestic animals caused by the fungus coccidioides immitis. because of an apparent high incidence of coccidioidomycosis in przewalski's horses (equus przewalskii) housed at a single facility, necropsy records and biomaterials from animals that died between 1984 and 2000 were reviewed (n = 30, 15 males, 15 females). coccidioidomycosis was the leading cause of death (33%) in this population with lesions in the lungs and tracheobronchial ...200315077708
the absence of rhodococcus equi in mongolian horses.in native mongolian horses, the incidence and distribution of rhodococcus equi are poorly understood. one hundred and fourteen equine fecal samples and 71 soil samples were collected from the camp sites of 26 nomadic families located in three areas less than 100 km from ulaanbaatar, mongolia. five fecal samples were also collected from foals of przewalski's horses introduced into the hustai national park, mongolia. no r. equi was isolated from the mongolian horses or the soil samples. however, t ...200515997190
comparative chromosomal studies of e. caballus (eca) and e. przewalskii (epr) in a female f1 hybrid.previous research revealed that the karyotypes of equus przewalskii (2n = 66) and equus caballus (2n = 64) differ by one pair of metacentric chromosomes, present in eca but not in epr, and two pairs of acrocentric chromosomes found only in the epr karyotype. the formation of a trivalent during meiosis in a male f1 hybrid and the homologies in g-banding patterns suggest that eca 5 corresponds to two acrocentric epr chromosomes resulting from a robertsonian fusion or fission event. chromosomal inv ...200516130463
problems in the protection of reintroduced przewalski's horses (equus ferus przewalskii) caused by piroplasmosis.the objectives of our research on equine piroplasmosis were to clarify the prevalence of the piroplasms babesia caballi and theileria equi among reintroduced przewalski's horses (takhi, equus ferus przewalskii) in comparison with horses (equus caballus) of nomads from around hustai national park in mongolia and to determine the mortality among takhi during 2012 to 2015. the prevalence of t. equi was high in 2014 at 80% among nomadic horses and 84% among takhi. we found no evidence of b. caballi ...201728700320
mass spectral analysis of domestic and wild equine apoa-i and a-ii: detection of unique dimeric forms of apoa-ii.in pigs, humans, chimpanzees and probably other great apes, a cysteine at residue 6 enables apolipoprotein a-ii to form a homodimer. however, the apoa-iis of other primates, lacking a cysteine residue, are monomeric. we have already reported that horse apoa-iis form homodimers due also to a cysteine at residue 6. in this study, we wanted to determine whether other equine apoa-iis might be monomeric. the high density lipoproteins were ultracentrifugally isolated from the plasmas of a horse (equus ...200516230041
clinical disease associated with anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in captive przewalski's horses (equus ferus przewalskii).anaplasma phagocytophilum is a tick-borne pathogen of domestic horses and the causative agent of equine granulocytic anaplasmosis. this case series describes three confirmed cases of clinical anaplasmosis, and a fourth case of presumptive anaplasmosis in przewalski's horses ( equus ferus przewalskii) housed at the smithsonian conservation biology institute from 2008 to 2014. clinical signs varied among individuals with affected horses exhibiting lethargy, weakness, pyrexia, hypophagia, reluctanc ...201728749289
survey of anaplasma phagocytophilum antibodies in captive przewalski's horses (equus ferus przewalskii).anaplasma phagocytophilum (formerly ehrlichia equi ) is a tickborne pathogen of domestic horses and the causative agent of equine granulocytic anaplasmosis. after the occurrence of clinical anaplasmosis in a przewalski's horse ( equus ferus przewalskii) housed at the smithsonian conservation biology institute in 2008, opportunistic serosurveillance of the herd was initiated. from 2008 to 2014, 57 serum samples were collected from 27 individuals (10 males; 17 females). using indirect immunofluore ...201728749278
stable isotopes reveal diet shift from pre-extinction to reintroduced przewalski's horses.the przewalski's horse (equus ferus przewalskii), the only remaining wild horse within the equid family, is one of only a handful of species worldwide that went extinct in the wild, was saved by captive breeding, and has been successfully returned to the wild. however, concerns remain that after multiple generations in captivity the ecology of the przewalski's horse and / or the ecological conditions in its former range have changed in a way compromising the species' long term survival. we analy ...201728729625
sequential stable isotope analysis reveals differences in multi-year dietary history of three sympatric equid species in sw mongolia.1. competition among sympatric wild herbivores is reduced by different physiological, morphological, and behavioral traits resulting in different dietary niches. wild equids are a rather uniform group of large herbivores which have dramatically declined in numbers and range. correlative evidence suggests that pasture competition with livestock is one of the key factors for this decline, and the situation may be aggravated in areas where different equid species overlap. 2. the dzungarian gobi is ...201728717255
evolutionary genomics and conservation of the endangered przewalski's horse.przewalski's horses (phs, equus ferus ssp. przewalskii) were discovered in the asian steppes in the 1870s and represent the last remaining true wild horses. phs became extinct in the wild in the 1960s but survived in captivity, thanks to major conservation efforts. the current population is still endangered, with just 2,109 individuals, one-quarter of which are in chinese and mongolian reintroduction reserves [1]. these horses descend from a founding population of 12 wild-caught phs and possibly ...201526412128
recalibrating equus evolution using the genome sequence of an early middle pleistocene horse.the rich fossil record of equids has made them a model for evolutionary processes. here we present a 1.12-times coverage draft genome from a horse bone recovered from permafrost dated to approximately 560-780 thousand years before present (kyr bp). our data represent the oldest full genome sequence determined so far by almost an order of magnitude. for comparison, we sequenced the genome of a late pleistocene horse (43 kyr bp), and modern genomes of five domestic horse breeds (equus ferus caball ...201323803765
adaptation strategies to seasonal changes in environmental conditions of a domesticated horse breed, the shetland pony (equus ferus caballus).recent results suggest that the wild ancestor of the horse, the przewalski horse, exhibits signs of a hypometabolism. however, there are speculations that domestic animals lost the ability to reduce energy expenditure during food shortage and adverse environmental conditions. therefore, we investigated physiological and behavioural strategies employed by a robust domesticated horse breed, the shetland pony, over the course of a year under temperate conditions by measuring ambient temperature (t( ...201222399650
epidemiologic aspects of taylorella equigenitalis.contagious equine metritis (cem) is a sexually transmissible disease in mares. although the disease is commonly diagnosed by culturing the causative bacterium taylorella equigenitalis (t. equigenitalis) . false negative results do occur. a recently developed polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay, however, appeared to be much more sensitive, with initial results indicating an unexpected high incidence of the agent in selected horses. in this study, samples from 107 randomly selected mares with no ...199716728066
water use patterns of sympatric przewalski's horse and khulan: interspecific comparison reveals niche differences.acquiring water is essential for all animals, but doing so is most challenging for desert-living animals. recently przewalski's horse has been reintroduced to the desert area in china where the last wild surviving member of the species was seen before it vanished from china in the 1960s. its reintroduction placed it within the range of a close evolutionary relative, the con-generic khulan. determining whether or not these two species experience competition and whether or not such competition was ...201526161909
major histocompatibility complex variation in the endangered przewalski's horse.the major histocompatibility complex (mhc) is a fundamental part of the vertebrate immune system, and the high variability in many mhc genes is thought to play an essential role in recognition of parasites. the przewalski's horse is extinct in the wild and all the living individuals descend from 13 founders, most of whom were captured around the turn of the century. one of the primary genetic concerns in endangered species is whether they have ample adaptive variation to respond to novel selecti ...199910430594
the gastro-intestinal parasites community of the przewalski's horse, equus przewalskii poljakov, 1881, and the domestic horse in the chernobyl exclusion zone.a diagnostic deworming of 21 przewalski horses, free-living in the chernobyl exclusion zone ukraine, and of six stabled domestic horses, has been conducted eighteen years after the chernobyl nuclear disaster. this survey yielded 31 species (of 5 families and 3 classes, 28 species of nematodes, 1 species of cestodes, and 2 larvae of botflies). a total 29 and 19 helmith species has been recorded in the przewalski horse and domestic horse respectively. only six helmith species were common for the t ...200617007337
male infanticide and paternity analyses in a socially natural herd of przewalski's horses: sexual selection?the sexual selection hypothesis explains infanticide by males in many mammals. in our 11-year study, we investigated this hypothesis in a herd of przewalski's horses where we had witnessed infanticidal attacks. infanticide was highly conditional and not simply linked to takeovers. attacks occurred in only five of 39 cases following a takeover, and dna paternity revealed that, although infanticidal stallions were not the genetic fathers in four cases out of five, stallions present at birth did no ...200818328636
applying clinically proven human techniques for contraception and fertility to endangered species and zoo animals: a review.reversible contraception that does not alter natural behavior is a critical need for managing zoo populations. in addition to reversible contraception, other fertility techniques perfected in humans may be useful, such as in vitro fertilization (ivf) or oocyte and embryo banking for endangered species like amphibians and mexican wolves (canis lupus baileyi). furthermore, the genetics of human fertility can give a better understanding of fertility in more exotic species. collaborations were estab ...201324437091
phylogenetic relationships of german heavy draught horse breeds inferred from mitochondrial dna d-loop variation.we analysed a 610-bp mitochondrial (mt)dna d-loop fragment in a sample of german draught horse breeds and compared the polymorphic sites with sequences from arabian, hanoverian, exmoor, icelandic, sorraia and przewalski's horses as well as with suffolk, shire and belgian horses. in a total of 65 horses, 70 polymorphic sites representing 47 haplotypes were observed. the average percentage of polymorphic sites was 11.5% for the mtdna fragment analysed. in the nine different draught horse breeds in ...200717488360
horse domestication and conservation genetics of przewalski's horse inferred from sex chromosomal and autosomal sequences.despite their ability to interbreed and produce fertile offspring, there is continued disagreement about the genetic relationship of the domestic horse (equus caballus) to its endangered wild relative, przewalski's horse (equus przewalskii). analyses have differed as to whether or not przewalski's horse is placed phylogenetically as a separate sister group to domestic horses. because przewalski's horse and domestic horse are so closely related, genetic data can also be used to infer domesticatio ...200918931383
genetic studies of blood markers in przewalski's horses.ninety-six przewalski's horses (equus przewalskii) were blood typed using systems of inherited blood variants known to be highly effective for parentage testing of domestic horses (e. caballus). sixteen red cell antigenic factors detected using sera prepared by alloimmunization of domestic horses were shown to be inherited in six systems (a, c, d, p, q, and u) and in the same patterns as domestic horses. family data confirmed autosomal, codominant inheritance at five loci of serum protein varian ...20133584938
discovery of lost diversity of paternal horse lineages using ancient dna.modern domestic horses display abundant genetic diversity within female-inherited mitochondrial dna, but practically no sequence diversity on the male-inherited y chromosome. several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this discrepancy, but can only be tested through knowledge of the diversity in both the ancestral (pre-domestication) maternal and paternal lineages. as wild horses are practically extinct, ancient dna studies offer the only means to assess this ancestral diversity. here we s ...201121863017
identification of genes with nonsynonymous snp in jeju horse by whole-genome resequencing reveals a functional role for immune response.jeju horse (natural monument number 347) is a breed of horse that has experienced long-term isolation and domestication in jeju island, south korea. we evaluated genetic features of this breed, including snp, by whole-genome resequencing using an illumina hiseq 2000. a total of 5,986,852 snp were identified in 4 jeju horses and were divided into homozygous and heterozygous snp (2,357,099 and 3,629,753 snp, respectively). it revealed that 63.8% of these snp resided in intergenic regions. immune r ...201627065251
il26 gene inactivation in equidae.interleukin-26 (il26) is a member of the il10 cytokine family. the il26 gene is located between two other well-known cytokines genes of this family encoding interferon-gamma (ifng) and il22 in an evolutionary conserved gene cluster. in contrast to humans and most other mammals, mice lack a functional il26 gene. we analyzed the genome sequences of other vertebrates for the presence or absence of functional il26 orthologs and found that the il26 gene has also become inactivated in several equid sp ...201323808390
monitoring ovarian function and pregnancy by evaluating excretion of urinary oestrogen conjugates in semi-free-ranging przewalski's horses (equus przewalskii).immunoreactive urinary oestrogen conjugates were assessed in daily urine samples (approximately 5 samples/week) collected from 8 przewalski's mares maintained under semi-free-ranging pasture conditions. the relative percentage contributions of immunoreactive urinary oestrogens during different reproductive stages (oestrus, luteal phase, early, mid- and late gestation) were determined using high-pressure liquid chromatography. in general, conjugated forms of oestrone (oestrone sulphate and oestro ...19911847420
identification of genetic variation on the horse y chromosome and the tracing of male founder lineages in modern breeds.the paternally inherited y chromosome displays the population genetic history of males. while modern domestic horses (equus caballus) exhibit abundant diversity within maternally inherited mitochondrial dna, no significant y-chromosomal sequence diversity has been detected. we used high throughput sequencing technology to identify the first polymorphic y-chromosomal markers useful for tracing paternal lines. the nucleotide variability of the modern horse y chromosome is extremely low, resulting ...201323573227
genetics of four plasma protein loci in equus przewalskii: new alleles at the prealbumin, postalbumin and transferrin loci.this paper reports genetic variation at the prealbumin (pr), postalbumin (pa) and transferrin (tf) loci in equus przewalskii found using thin layer isoelectric focusing and an amphoteric separator. the method resolves all three loci plus serum esterase (es) on a single gel, and typing of all four loci is readily achieved. in addition to the esterase alleles previously reported by fisher & scott (1979), five alleles were found at the pr locus, three at the pa locus and six at the tf locus. analys ...19836614596
is leadership a reliable concept in animals? an empirical study in the horse.leadership is commonly invoked when accounting for the coordination of group movements in animals, yet it remains loosely defined. in parallel, there is increased evidence of the sharing of group decisions by animals on the move. how leadership integrates within this recent framework on collective decision-making is unclear. here, we question the occurrence of leadership in horses, a species in which this concept is of prevalent use. the relevance of the three main definitions of leadership--dep ...201526010442
highlight: a massively parallel sequencing approach uncovers ancient origins and high genetic variability of endangered przewalski's horses. 201121920904
[are zoo przewalski horses domesticated horses?].analysed were the brain case capacities and brain weights of wild przewalski horses, przewalski horses from zoological gardens and domesticated horses. domesticated horses have about 14% less brain case capacity and 16% less brain weight than wild przewalski horses. przewalski horses from zoological gardens also have about 14% less brain capacity than wild przewalski horses. the brain weight of przewalski horses from zoological gardens shows no difference to the brain weight of domesticated hors ...20069741183
rare alleles, mhc and captive breeding.in recent years, more detailed genetic information has become available for individuals of endangered species in captive breeding programs. there have been suggestions that this information be used to identify rare alleles, particularly those at the mhc, that can be subsequently selected for captive breeding programs. first, we summarize the current information on the mhc relevant to conservation genetics, so that such a possible breeding program is seen in a proper perspective. for example, ver ...19948032133
[endoparasites--prevention in ungulates in fenced enclosures: experiences with a pilot project in the dählhölzli zoo in bern].in the animal zoo dählhölzli berne all ungulates are continuously monitored since 1984 (qualitatively and quantitatively) in the context of an epidemiological study on gastrointestinal strongyles. fecal sampling occurs every two weeks in the "parasite risk group", every four to six weeks in the so called "non-risk group". risk group-animals repeatedly show increased fecal egg counts, whereas among non-risk group-animals only ascarid eggs in przewalski-horses and wild boars can become significant ...19938316818
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