social organization and reproduction in equids.there are two distinct types of social organization and, accordingly, two types of mating systems in equids. in the horse, plains zebra and mountain zebra, the adults live in non-territorial and cohesive one-male groups and in stallion groups. the family stallions have exclusive mating rights which are respected by all others. in grevy's zebra and in the african and asiatic wild asses, the stallions are permanently territorial and have exclusive mating rights within their territories. ecological ...19751060868
arthropod parasites of springbok, gemsbok, kudus, giraffes and burchell's and hartmann's zebras in the etosha and hardap nature reserves, namibia.a total of 48 springbok, 48 gemsbok, 23 kudus and 6 giraffes were examined for ticks and lice, while 9 burchell's zebras and 6 hartmann's mountain zebras were examined only for ticks. springbok and gemsbok were shot in both the etosha national park in the north and the hardap nature reserve in the south of namibia. all the other animals were shot in the etosha national park. a total of 7 ixodid tick species and 8 lice species were recovered. the springbok carried few ticks. the adults of a rhipi ...19921297955
primary structure of pancreatic polypeptide from four species of perissodactyla (przewalski's horse, zebra, rhino, tapir).pancreatic polypeptide (pp) has been purified from extracts of the pancreas of four species of odd-toed ungulates (perissodactyla): przewalski's horse, mountain zebra, white rhinoceros, and mountain tapir. the amino acid sequence of przewalski's horse pancreatic polypeptide was established as ala-pro-met-glu-pro-val-tyr-pro-gly-asp10-asn- ala-thr-pro-glu-gln-met-ala-gln-tyr20-ala-ala-glu-leu-arg-arg-tyr- ile-asn-met30 - leu-thr-arg-pro-arg-tyr.nh2. zebra pp was identical to przewalski's horse pp ...19911808025
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. xxvi. the mosaic of ixodid tick infestations on birds and mammals in the mountain zebra national park.sixteen species of ixodid ticks were collected over varying periods of time from 6 species of ground-frequenting birds and 15 species of small and large mammals in the mountain zebra national park, karoo, cape province. margaropus winthemi followed by rhipicephalus glabroscutatum and rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi were the most abundant species. the host preferences of 14 tick species and the seasonal abundances of 13 species were determined. small numbers of immature stages of only a few tick sp ...19911923374
mitochondrial dna of the extinct quagga: relatedness and extent of postmortem change.sequences are reported for portions of two mitochondrial genes from a domestic horse and a plains zebra and compared to those published for a quagga and a mountain zebra. the extinct quagga and plains zebra sequences are identical at all silent sites, whereas the horse sequence differs from both of them by 11 silent substitutions. postmortem changes in quagga dna may account for the two coding substitutions between the quagga and plains zebra sequences. the hypothesis that the closest relative o ...19872822938
some avian and mammalian hosts of amblyomma hebraeum and amblyomma marmoreum (acari: ixodidae).large numbers of birds, wild mammals and domestic stock from a variety of localities within the republic of south africa were examined for infestation with the ixodid ticks amblyomma hebraeum and amblyomma marmoreum. every warthog (phacochoerus aethiopicus), burchell's zebra (equus burchelli), impala (aepyceros melampus) and kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros) from the kruger national park in the north-eastern transvaal lowveld was infested with a. hebraeum. in the eastern cape province every helmet ...19873329327
interspecies variation in milk composition among horses, zebras and asses (perissodactyla: equidae).milk samples of four species of wild equids (onager, equus hemionus onager; mountain zebra, e. zebra hartmannae; plains zebra, e. burchelli; przewalski horse, e. caballus przewalskii) and two domesticated equids (ass, e. asinus; pony, e. caballus) were analysed. at mid to late lactation the milks of all species were very similar, containing on average 10-12% total solids, 1-2% fat, 1.6-1.8% true protein, 6-7% 'lactose', 0.3-0.5% ash, 0.08-0.12% calcium, 0.04-0.07% phosphorus and a calculated ene ...19883385068
the arrangement of the muscle layers at the equine ileocaecal junction.the muscle layers of the ileocaecal junctions of horses (n = 18), plains zebras (equus burchelli antiquorum) (n = 3), mountain zebras (equus zebra zebra) (n = 2), and a donkey were examined macroscopically and microscopically. the muscular tunic of the ileocaecal papilla was made up of 3 layers: an innermost circular layer which was a continuation of the circular muscle of the ileum, a central longitudinal layer which was a continuation of one part of the longitudinal layer of the ileum and an o ...19883392703
some wild hosts of the karoo paralysis tick, ixodes rubicundus neumann, 1904 (acari: ixodidae).a variety of mammal and bird species in the mountain zebra national park, eastern cape province, were examined for ixodes rubicundus. in addition, caracal (felis caracal) from the park and its vicinity as well as from the graaff-reinet region of the karoo were examined. amongst the animals collected, the red rock rabbit (pronolagus rupestris) was a preferred host of the immature stages of the tick. caracal were moderately good hosts of these stages and, with mountain reedbuck (redunca fulvoruful ...19873587926
studies on the parasites of zebras. v. nematodes of the burchell's and hartmann's mountain zebras from the etosha national park, south west africa/namibia.nine burchell's and 6 hartman's mountain zebras were culled during the 3 climatic periods characteristic of the etosha national park, south west africa/namibia, and were examined for helminths. the burchell's zebras ranged in age from 4 1/2 to 19 years and the mountain zebras from 3 1/2 to 13 years. twenty-five species of nematodes, belonging to the families atractidae, strongylidae, oxyuridae, onchocercidae and habronematidae, were recovered. of the family cyathostominae, the following species ...19873587931
the scrub hare, a reliable indicator of the presence of hyalomma ticks in the cape province.the host preferences of immature and adult hyalomma marginatum rufipes, hyalomma marginatum turanicum and hyalomma truncatum were studied at various localities in the cape province. the immature stages of all 3 ticks preferred scrub hares (lepus saxatilis) as hosts and were recovered from these animals even when few adult ticks were present on large herbivores in the locality. ground-frequenting birds were also infested, but only with immature h. marginatum rufipes and h. marginatum turanicum. s ...19873612673
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. xviii. the crowned guinea fowl (numida meleagris), an important host of immature ixodid ticks.the tick burdens of 10 crowned guinea fowl (numida meleagris), shot at approximately 3-monthly intervals in the mountain zebra national park, and of 21 crowned guinea fowl from the andries vosloo kudu reserve, the majority of which were shot at monthly intervals, were determined. no adult ticks were recovered from any of the guinea fowl. the birds in the mountain zebra national park harboured 4 species of ixodid ticks of which amblyomma marmoreum was the most abundant and most prevalent. three b ...19863725331
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. xix. ixodid ticks and fleas on rock dassies (procavia capensis) in the mountain-zebra national park.five or 6 rock dassies (procavia capensis) were shot at monthly intervals for 13 consecutive months in the mountain zebra national park and processed for arthropod parasite recovery. ten species of ixodid ticks and 2 flea species were recovered. the seasonal prevalence of the rock dassie ticks, haemaphysalis hyracophila and rhipicephalus distinctus, and of the immature stages of rhipicephalus arnoldi, a tick that usually infests the red rock rabbit (pronolagus rupestris), was determined. only 10 ...19863725332
dna sequences from the quagga, an extinct member of the horse determine whether dna survives and can be recovered from the remains of extinct creatures, we have examined dried muscle from a museum specimen of the quagga, a zebra-like species (equus quagga) that became extinct in 1883 (ref. 1). we report that dna was extracted from this tissue in amounts approaching 1% of that expected from fresh muscle, and that the dna was of relatively low molecular weight. among the many clones obtained from the quagga dna, two containing pieces of mitochondrial dna ...19846504142
arthropod parasites of hartmann's mountain zebra, equus zebra hartmannae, in south west africa/namibia.twelve hartmann's mountain zebra, equus zebra hartmannae, were shot for arthropod parasite recovery during the period june 1980-june 1981 on a farm in the khomas hochland region of south west africa/namibia. four species of gasterophilus larvae, 1 species of rhinoestrus larvae and 3 ixodid tick species were recovered. the seasonal prevalence of the gasterophilus species larvae and of rhipicephalus evertsi mimeticus was determined. three horses examined on the same farm were infested with larvae ...19846533510
studies on the parasites of zebras. iv. cylicodontophorus reineckei n.sp. (nematoda: strongylidae) from the burchell's zebra, equus burchelli antiquorum h. smith, 1841 and the mountain zebra, equus zebra hartmannae matschie, 1898.a new species of nematode, cylicodontophorus reineckei, was collected from burchell's zebra, equus burchelli antiquorum h. smith, 1841, in both the etosha national and kruger national parks and from mountain zebra, equus zebra hartmannae matschie, 1898, in the namib naukluft park in south west africa/namibia. these nematodes have an external leaf-crown with longer elements than those of the internal leaf-crown and a well-developed dorsal gutter. the very well-developed oesophageal funnel is both ...19846533516
scanning electron microscopy of strongylus spp. in zebra.the external ultrastructure of the anterior and posterior extremities of the nematodes, strongylus asini , strongylus vulgaris, strongylus equinus and strongylus edentatus, was studied with scanning electron microscopy (sem). fresh specimens of s. asini were collected from the caecum, ventral colon and vena portae of equus burchelli and equus zebra hartmannae ; s. vulgaris from the caecum, colon and arteria ileocolica of e. burchelli ; s. equinus from the ventral colon of e. z. hartmannae and s. ...19836676687
dental abnormalities in free-ranging cape mountain zebras (equus zebra zebra). 19846737614
horse haemoglobin phenotyping by agarose gel isoelectric focusing comparison of thoroughbreds with other using isoelectric focusing in thin agarose slab gels 1049 thoroughbred, 82 nooitgedachter, 45 percheron and 244 horses of other breeds were examined. the numbers of other equidae tested were 107 donkeys, 50 mules, 4 common zebras (equus burchelli boehmi) and 8 mountain zebras (equus zebra hartmannae). phenotypic data are presented for all tested animals and gene frequencies are calculated for the horses.19846742514
seminoma with multiple metastases in a zebra (equus zebra) x mare (equus caballus). 19836825656
[the sequence of hemoglobins from an asiatic wild ass and a mountain zebra].the hemoglobins from an asiatic wild ass (equus hemionus kulan) and a mountain zebra (equus zebra) were analysed and the complete primary structure of the alpha and beta chains are described. the wild ass globin was separated in two alpha chains (alpha i and alpha ii) and one beta-chain by means of chromatography on cm-cellulose in 8m urea buffer at ph 6.5. the wild ass globin shows polymorphism in the alpha-chain like the horse hemoglobin. under the same chromatographic conditions only one alph ...19827061044
lice on helmeted guinea fowls at five localities in south africa.a total of 234 helmeted guinea fowls, numida meleagris coronata, were examined for lice at five localities in south africa. these were the mountain zebra national park in the eastern karoo, cape province; the andries vosloo kudu reserve and the farm bucklands, in valley bushveld, eastern cape province; the bontebok national park, south-western cape province; and the southern part of the kruger national park, eastern transvaal lowveld. a total of eight louse species, comprising amyrsidea desousai ...19937970579
helminth parasites of cape mountain zebras from cape providence, south africa.parasites were collected from 13 cape mountain zebras (equus zebra zebra) in the mountain zebra national park, south africa, during four seasons of 1983 and 1984. eighteen nematode species belonging to the families atractidae, habronematidae, and strongylidae, and one species of cestode were recovered. the most abundant nematodes were cyathostomum tetracanthum, cylicostephanus longiconus and probstmayria vivipara. only one of the 10 cyathostome nematodes recovered, c. longiconus was present in e ...19948028118
purification and characterization of insulin and the c-peptide of proinsulin from przewalski's horse, zebra, rhino, and tapir (perissodactyla).within the order perissodactyla, the primary structure of insulin has been strongly conserved. insulin from przewalski's horse and the mountain zebra (suborder hippomorpha) is the same as that from the domestic horse and differs from insulin from the white rhinoceros and mountain tapir (suborder ceratomorpha) by a single substitution (gly-->ser) at position 9 in the a-chain. a second molecular form of przewalski's horse insulin isolated in this study was shown to represent the gamma-ethyl ester ...19938454175
antibodies against equine herpesviruses in free-ranging mountain zebras from namibia.twenty-one blood samples of free-ranging mountain zebras (equus zebra) from namibia were tested for equine herpesvirus (ehv-1, -2, -3, -4) specific antibodies by immunofluorescence assay (ifa) and neutralization test (nt). additionally, type-specific nested polymerase chain reactions (nested pcr) were employed for detection of ehv-1, -2 and -4 dna. equine herpesvirus-1 antibodies were detected by ifa in all zebras, while only seven serum samples contained ehv-4 ifa antibodies. sera with high ifa ...19979391966
parasites of south african wildlife. xvi. helminths of some antelope species from the eastern and western cape provinces.the numbers and species of helminths recovered from one black wildebeest, connochaetes gnou, three eland, taurotragus oryx, 18 mountain reedbuck, redunca fulvorufula, one red hartebeest, aicelaphus buselaphus and two springbok, antidorcas marsupialis, in the mountain zebra national park, eastern cape province; two black wildebeest, two grey rhebuck, pelea capreolus, two mountain reedbuck and four springbok in the karoo national park, western cape province; two bontebok, damaliscus pygargus dorca ...200010843320
chromosomal distribution of the telomere sequence (ttaggg)(n) in the equidae.telomeres are a class of repetitive dna sequences that are located at chromosome termini and that act to stabilize the chromosome ends. the rapid karyotypic evolution of the genus equus has given rise to ten taxa, all with different diploid chromosome numbers. using fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish) we localized the mammalian telomere sequence, (ttaggg)(n), to the chromosomes of nine equid taxa. ttaggg signal was located at chromosome termini in all species, however additional signal was ...200111474195
chromosome homologies between man and mountain zebra (equus zebra hartmannae) and description of a new ancestral synteny involving sequences homologous to human chromosomes 4 and 8.using human chromosome painting probes, we looked for homologies between human and mountain zebra (equus zebra hartmannae, equidae, perissodactyla) karyotypes. except for two very short segments, all euchromatic regions were found to have a human homologous chromosome segment. conserved syntenies previously described in various mammalian orders were detected. each synteny corresponded to a chromosomal region homologous to two parts of human chromosomes: hsa3 and hsa21, hsa7 and hsa16, hsa12 and ...200111528128
in vitro isolation of equine piroplasms derived from cape mountain zebra (equus zebra zebra) in south africa.twenty blood samples of zebras (equus zebra zebra) from the karoo national park and the bontebok national park in south africa, all seropositive for theileria equi, were subjected to in vitro culture to identify carrier animals and to isolate the parasites. sixteen animals had a detectable parasitaemia in giemsa-stained blood smears examined before culture initiation, the remaining four animals were identified as t. equi carriers by in vitro culture. cultures were initiated either in an oxygen-r ...200212356165
comparative mapping in equids: the asine x chromosome is rearranged compared to horse and hartmann's mountain zebra.the x chromosomes of the extant equids, in general, share morphology and banding pattern similarities. however, the donkey x is, in part, an exception because of significantly different centromeric index and variant banding patterns in the pericentromeric region. to verify the underlying molecular basis of this difference, twelve equine bac clones were fish mapped to donkey (eas) and hartmann's mountain zebra (ezh) metaphase spreads. loci from the terminal region of xp and distal to terminal reg ...200212438800
a comparison of the intestinal helminth communities of equidae in southern africa.the intestinal helminth communities of 8 horses, 12 donkeys, 21 hartmann's mountain zebras, and 44 burchell's zebras were compared using the original data from 6 studies in south africa and namibia. necropsy and worm recovery techniques were comparable between the studies. sixty helminth species (58 nematode, 1 cestode, and 1 trematode species) were recorded. there were significant differences in the helminth community structures of the 4 equus species. the helminth communities of the 2 closely ...200415715215
effects of supplementary food on the winter inhibition of reproduction in male and female four-striped field mice (rhabdomys pumilio).the effects of winter food supplementation on reproduction in the seasonally breeding four-striped field mouse rhabdomys pumilio were investigated at mountain zebra national park in the eastern cape province of south africa. on both control and supplemented grids, reproductive activity in females was inhibited; no pregnant females were collected and juveniles were only present in the first winter month. the provision of additional food resulted in an increase in body mass and mass of the male an ...200515899150
mass spectral analysis of domestic and wild equine apoa-i and a-ii: detection of unique dimeric forms of pigs, humans, chimpanzees and probably other great apes, a cysteine at residue 6 enables apolipoprotein a-ii to form a homodimer. however, the apoa-iis of other primates, lacking a cysteine residue, are monomeric. we have already reported that horse apoa-iis form homodimers due also to a cysteine at residue 6. in this study, we wanted to determine whether other equine apoa-iis might be monomeric. the high density lipoproteins were ultracentrifugally isolated from the plasmas of a horse (equus ...200516230041
horse microsatellites and their amenability to comparative equid genetics.we investigated the applicability of microsatellite primers, designed in horses, for use in plains and mountain zebras. fifteen of the 20 tested horse-isolated primer pairs reliably amplified polymorphic loci in two wild equid species. we used this information to assess whether levels of genetic variation and repeat size differed in species from which microsatellites were isolated and in closely related target species. target equid species exhibited similar levels of genetic variation to the hor ...200616734687
klossiella equi infection in a hartmann's mountain zebra (equus zebra hartmannae).an 18-mo-old female hartmann's mountain zebra (equus zebra hartmannae) died secondary to a traumatically induced cervical fracture. microscopic examination of renal tissues revealed occasional coccidian sporocysts and budding sporonts containing sporoblasts encased within a bilaminated cell membrane within the renal tubules, compatible with a morphologic diagnosis of klossiella equi, a coccidian parasite of renal parenchyma in equids. repeated urinalyses of several hartmann's mountain zebra fail ...200617319148
sequencing of cdna and proximal promoter of equine hexokinase ii order to investigate the utilization of glucose in equine skeletal muscle, we determined the coding and proximal promoter sequences of the hexokinase type ii (hkii) gene in thoroughbred horse, grevy's zebra and hartmann's mountain zebra. the deduced amino acid sequence of thoroughbred horse hkii showed 100, 100, 94.4, 92.7 and 92.6% identities with grevy's zebra, hartmann's mountain zebra, human, mouse and rat hkiis, respectively. in equine hkiis, specific amino acid substitutions, ile 159 an ...200717454005
descriptive study of an outbreak of equine sarcoid in a population of cape mountain zebra (equus zebra zebra) in the gariep nature outbreak of equine sarcoid occurred in a population of cape mountain zebra (equus zebra zebra) at the gariep nature reserve located in the southern free state province of south africa in 1996. the course of the outbreak during 1996 to 2003 is described. during this period the average population size was 69 animals. initially (1996) all affected animals were removed from the population. new cases continued to manifest and the incidence varied between 4.6% and 17.6%. prevalence reached 24.7% in ...200617458342
karyotypic relationships among equus grevyi, equus burchelli and domestic horse defined using horse chromosome arm-specific probes.using laser microdissection we prepared a set of horse chromosome arm-specific probes. most of the probes were generated from horse chromosomes, some of them were derived from equus zebra hartmannae. the set of probes were hybridized onto e. grevyi chromosomes in order to establish a genome-wide chromosomal correspondence between this zebra and horse. the use of arm-specific probes provided us with more information on the mutual arrangement of the genomes than we could obtain by means of whole-c ...200717874215
prevalence and body distribution of sarcoids in south african cape mountain zebra (equus zebra zebra).there are no reports in the literature describing any tumours, and specifically sarcoids, in zebras. the equine sarcoid, a locally aggressive, fibroblastic skin tumour, is the most common dermatological neoplasm reported in horses. the cape mountain zebra (cmz) has been described as one of the most vulnerable mammals in south africa with current populations existing in isolated units. all south african cmz are descendants from no more than 30 individual animals originating from 3 populations, na ...200718237037
detection of bovine papillomavirus dna in sarcoid-affected and healthy free-roaming zebra (equus zebra) populations in south africa.the endangered cape mountain zebra (equus zebra zebra) is protected in small numbers in a few isolated populations in south african game parks. since 1995, sarcoid lesions appeared in zebras in two of the parks. this study was undertaken to investigate if bovine papillomavirus (bpv) is associated with sarcoids in these zebras. a conventional pcr, targeting the e5 orf of bpv, and subsequent rflp analysis were initially used to demonstrate the presence of bpv-1 and -2 dnas in zebra sarcoid tumours ...200919428583
genetic diversity of piroplasms in plains zebra (equus quagga burchellii) and cape mountain zebra (equus zebra zebra) in south africa.seventy edta blood samples collected from plains zebra (equus quagga burchellii) and cape mountain zebra (equus zebra zebra) were screened for the presence of piroplasm parasite dna using quantitative t. equi-specific and b. caballi-specific taqman real-time pcr (qpcr) tests. t. equi parasite dna was detected in 60 samples, 19 of which were also positive for b. caballi. approximately 1480bp of the piroplasm 18s rrna gene was amplified and sequenced from 17 samples, while the v4 hypervariable reg ...201020833476
pathology and immunohistochemistry of papillomavirus-associated cutaneous lesions in cape mountain zebra, giraffe, sable antelope and african buffalo in south lesions associated with papillomaviruses have been reported in many animal species and man. bovine papillomavirus (bvp) affects mainly the epidermis, but also the dermis in several species including bovine, the best-known example being equine sarcoid, which is associated with bvp types 1 and 2. this publication describes and illustrates the macroscopic and histological appearance of bpv-associated papillomatous, fibropapillomatous or sarcoid-like lesions in cape mountain zebra (equus zebra ...201122135923
Treatment of equine sarcoid in seven Cape mountain zebra (Equus zebra zebra).Equine sarcoid has been diagnosed in endangered Cape mountain zebra (Equus zebra zebra) in at least two game reserves in South Africa, with prevalence as high as 53% in Bontebok National Park. Seven Cape mountain zebras with sarcoids were treated with either surgical excision, 5-fluorouracil, allogenous vaccine, or a combination of 5-fluorouracil and allogenous vaccine. One of the two sarcoids on one of the 5-fluorouracil-treated zebras was left untreated. The microscopic features of the tumors ...201122102662
a serologic and polymerase chain reaction survey of equine herpesvirus in burchell's zebras (equus quagga), hartmann's mountain zebras (equus zebra hartmannae), and thomson's gazelles (eudorcas thomsonii) in a mixed species savannah exhibit.reports of equine herpesvirus (ehv) 1 and ehv-9 causing clinical disease in a wide range of species have been well documented in the literature. it is thought that zebras are the natural hosts of ehv-9 both in the wild and in captive collections. concerns about potential interspecies transmission of ehv-1 and ehv-9 in a mixed species savannah exhibit prompted serologic and polymerase chain reaction surveys. eighteen burchell's zebras ( equus quagga ), 11 hartmann's mountain zebras ( equus zebra ...201628080902
reproduction in female hartmann's zebra, equus zebra hartmannae.ovaries, fetuses and plasma were collected from zebra mares shot in the etosha national park in namibia between 15 and 25 august 1983. ovarian weight was affected by reproductive status and most of the non-pregnant mares were anoestrous. the number of follicles varied between individuals and only pro-oestrous/oestrous mares had follicles larger than 20 mm in diameter. the largest follicle in pregnant mares was only 9 mm in diameter. corpora lutea and corpora albicantia were found in non-pregnant ...19883199369
testis size and onset of spermatogenesis in cape mountain zebras (equus zebra zebra).testis mass of adult cape mountain zebra stallions (mean 70.0 g) was appreciably less than that of other zebra species and domestic horses. the histological appearance of the testes of 11-, 24- and 29-month-old colts was typically prepubertal. spermatogenic activity of a 4-year-old stallion obtained at the end of summer was at a very low level, while a 4.5-year-old stallion obtained 6 weeks after the winter solstice showed a marked increase in spermatogenesis compared with the 4-year-old. stalli ...19883397947
blood chemical parameters in shot cape mountain zebra equus zebra zebra.serum levels of cortisol, sodium, potassium, chloride, urea, creatinine, total protein, albumin, phosphorus, aspartate transaminase, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, iron, total magnesium, total calcium, alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase were determined in 11 short cape mountain zebra equus zebra zebra.19854078840
reproductive characteristics of a free-ranging population of cape mountain zebra (equus zebra zebra).in a population of free-ranging cape mountain zebra, median age at first foaling was 67 months (range 38-105 months), median foaling interval was 25 months (range 13-69 months) and annual foaling rate was 32%. foaling rates of younger and older mares were similar. foals were born all year round with a peak corresponding to the rainy season (summer). conception occurred later in the season when the spring was dry.19853968662
studies on the parasites of zebra. ii. cylicostephanus longiconus n. sp. (nematoda: stronglyidae) from the mountain zebra, equus zebra hartmannae (matschie, 1898).a new species of nematode, cylicostephanus longiconus, was collected from mountain zebra, equus zebra hartmannae (matschie, 1898), on the kelpie farm in the khomas hochland, south west africa/namibia. these nematodes have 1 large dorsal and 2 small subventral teeth in the oesophageal funnel and submedian papillae with very long tips. the males have a very well-developed dermal collar and genital cone.19836646657
enterolithiasis in a confined hartman's mountain zebra.enterolithiasis was observed on necropsy of a hartman's mountain zebra (equus zebra hartmannae). a single enterolith had caused obstruction and rupture of the small colon. the gross lesions are described and the possible etiology discussed.19751152174
androgen receptor gene polymorphism in zebra species.androgen receptor genes (ar) have been found to have associations with reproductive development, behavioral traits, and disorders in humans. however, the influence of similar genetic effects on the behavior of other animals is scarce. we examined the loci ar glutamine repeat (arq) in 44 grevy's zebras, 23 plains zebras, and three mountain zebras, and compared them with those of domesticated horses. we observed polymorphism among zebra species and between zebra and horse. as androgens such as tes ...201526236645
molecular phylogeny of extant equids and effects of ancestral polymorphism in resolving species-level phylogenies.short divergence times and processes such as incomplete lineage sorting and species hybridization are known to hinder the inference of species-level phylogenies due to the lack of sufficient informative genetic variation or the presence of shared but incongruent polymorphism among taxa. extant equids (horses, zebras, and asses) are an example of a recently evolved group of mammals with an unresolved phylogeny, despite a large number of molecular studies. previous surveys have proposed trees with ...201222846684
description of gastric ulcers and of their suspected, associated risk factors in deceased wild equids at the réserve africaine de sigean, france (2010-2016).gastric ulcers are common in domestic horses and foals, affecting at least 90% of unmedicated racehorses in active training. despite these high prevalences in domestic horses, literature about this condition in wild equids is almost nonexistent. the presence of gastric ulcers was evaluated at necropsy in six species of wild equids that died at the réserve africane de sigean, a safari park in the south of france from 2010 to 2016. among the 55 individuals that died during that period, a descripti ...201728920797
tyrosine hydroxylase containing neurons in the thalamic reticular nucleus of male we report the unusual presence of thalamic reticular neurons immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase in equids. the diencephalons of one adult male of four equid species, domestic donkey (equus africanus asinus), domestic horse (equus caballus), cape mountain zebra (equus zebra zebra) and plains zebra (equus quagga), were sectioned in a coronal plane with series of sections stained for nissl substance, myelin, or immunostained for tyrosine hydroxylase, and the calcium-binding proteins parva ...202033086098
effect of social organisation on interspecific differences in overmarking behaviour of foals in african equids.overmarking remains an unstudied topic in juvenile mammals. we have previously documented a very high rate of overmarking by foals in four captive african equid species: mountain zebra (equus zebra), plains zebra (equus quagga), grévy's zebra (equus grevyi), and african wild ass (equus africanus). african equids vary interspecifically in their social organisation. since differences in social organisation affect many mammalian behaviours, in this study we investigated interspecific differences in ...202031728806
molecular characterization in the toll-like receptor 9 gene of cape mountain zebra (equus zebra zebra) from three populations.toll-like receptors (tlr) are a family of proteins that signal activation of the innate immune response through the recognition of a variety of pathogen molecular compounds. here, we characterized the complete tlr9 gene in cape mountain zebra (equus zebra zebra) from three populations in south africa and compared sequences to a variety of horse and donkey breeds. overall, we identified six single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps). a single snp (g586s) was non-synonymous, whereas the remaining snps ...202031734289
a southern african origin and cryptic structure in the highly mobile plains zebra.the plains zebra (equus quagga) is an ecologically important species of the african savannah. it is also one of the most numerous and widely distributed ungulates, and six subspecies have been described based on morphological variation. however, the within-species evolutionary processes have been difficult to resolve due to its high mobility and a lack of consensus regarding the population structure. we obtained genome-wide dna polymorphism data from more than 167,000 loci for 59 plains zebras f ...201829358610
where is the game? wild meat products authentication in south africa: a case study.wild animals' meat is extensively consumed in south africa, being obtained either from ranching, farming or hunting. to test the authenticity of the commercial labels of meat products in the local market, we obtained dna sequence information from 146 samples (14 beef and 132 game labels) for barcoding cytochrome c oxidase subunit i and partial cytochrome b and mitochondrial fragments. the reliability of species assignments were evaluated using blast searches in genbank, maximum likelihood phylog ...201323452350
lactose-enhanced cellulase production by microbacterium sp. isolated from fecal matter of zebra (equus zebra).a cellulase-producing bacterial strain designated z5 was isolated from the fecal matter of zebra (equus zebra). the strain was identified as microbacterium sp. on the basis of 16s rdna sequence analysis. the effect of substrates like cmc, avicel, starch, maltose, sucrose, glucose, fructose, galactose, and lactose on cellulase production was also determined. lactose as the sole carbon source induced cellulase production in this bacterial strain and a positive synergistic effect of lactose and cmc ...201021107842
interstitial telomeric sites and nors in hartmann's zebra (equus zebra hartmannae) chromosomes.interstitial telomeric sites (itss) are considered as signatures of chromosomal rearrangements that take place during karyotype evolution. understanding that equids have undergone rapid karyotype evolution compared with the average in other mammals, a search of these signatures was carried out in the hartmann's mountain zebra (equus zebra hartmannae; ezh) chromosomes. six consistent itss were identified on five of the zebra chromosomes (ezh1p, 1q, 2q, 5q, 6q and 11q). the location of these itss ...200212498342
in vitro maturation and fertilization of oocytes recovered from free-ranging burchell's zebra (equus burchelli) and hartmann's zebra (equus zebra hartmannae).a noninvasive repeatable method to harvest oocytes for in vitro fertilization (ivf) could potentially be used to assist reproduction in endangered equid species. the objectives of this study were to evaluate a specific transvaginal ultrasound-guided oocyte recovery procedure for use in zebra mares and the general applicability of ivf procedures in zebra. ovaries were collected from burchell's zebra (equus burchelli) and hartmann's zebra (equus zebra hartmannae) mares at routine culling for expt. ...19979365936
prevalence of cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in cattle and wildlife in morogoro region, tanzania.prevalences of cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in cattle (n = 486) on five selected farms in morogoro municipality and three species of herbivorous wildlife (n = 87) from mikumi national park, morogoro, tanzania, were determined using the modified ziehl-neelsen staining technique. of 486 bovine faecal samples, 5.3% were positive for cryptosporidium spp. the prevalence of cryptosporidium was higher in calves less than 3 months of age compared to weaned calves and adults. cryptosporidium spp. oocysts ...19979234442
studies on the parasites of zebras. iii nematodes of the mountain zebra from the farm "kelpie" and the namib-naukluft park, south west africa/namibia.twelve mountain zebra which were culled at monthly intervals on the farm " kelpie " in south west africa/namibia were examined for helminths. the zebras varied in age from 2-15 years, the middle group of which, aged 4-7 years, had the highest worm burdens. fourteen species of nematodes belonging to the families atractidae , strongylidae , oxyuridae , setariidae and spiruridae were recovered. the highest worm burdens were those of crossocephalus sp. with 692-61 066 680 and probstmayria vivipara w ...19836676691
the ixodid tick burdens of various large ruminant species in south african nature reserves.the ixodid tick burdens of eland (taurotragus oryx), greater kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros), nyala (tragelaphus angasi), bushbuck (tragelaphus scriptus) and giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) in the kruger national park, transvaal; of african buffalo (syncerus caffer) and nyala in the hluhluwe game reserve, natal; and of gemsbok (oryx gazella) in the mountain zebra national park, an eland in the thomas baines nature reserve and an eland and greater kudu in the andries vosloo kudu reserve, eastern ...19836646664
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. xx. arthropod parasites of the cape mountain zebra (equus zebra zebra).the arthropod parasite burdens of 14 cape mountain zebra (equus zebra zebra), shot for survey purposes in the mountain zebra national park in the eastern cape province, were determined. three species of gasterophilus larvae and 9 ixodid tick species were recovered. larvae of gasterophilus pecorum were the most numerous of the fly larvae recovered and margaropus winthemi was the most abundant tick. two horses examined in the park were infested with 3 species of gasterophilus larvae and 7 species ...19863763164
descriptions of incisors of known-age cape mountain zebras, equus zebra zebra, from the mountain zebra national park.twelve sets of incisors of cape mountain zebras, 9 of which were from known-age individuals ranging in age from 11 months to 19 years, from the mountain zebra national park, are described and depicted to illustrate not only the eruption and replacement sequence, but also the changes with increasing age in the configuration of the occlusal surfaces and of the infudibulum. infundibula persist in maxillary incisors longer than in mandibular incisors. shallow infundibula were still present in the ma ...19873627729
discovery of a novel species, theileria haneyi n. sp., infective to equids, highlights exceptional genomic diversity within the genus theileria: implications for apicomplexan parasite surveillance.a novel apicomplexan parasite was serendipitously discovered in horses at the united states - mexico border. phylogenetic analysis based on 18s rdna showed the erythrocyte-infective parasite to be related to, but distinct from, theileria spp. in africa, the most similar taxa being theileria spp. from waterbuck and mountain zebra. the degree of sequence variability observed at the 18s rdna locus also suggests the likely existence of additional cryptic species. among described species, the genome ...201829885436
noninvasive detection of equid herpesviruses in fecal samples.equid herpesviruses (ehvs) are pathogens of equid and nonequid hosts that can cause disease and fatalities in captivity and in the wild. ehvs establish latent infections but can reactivate, and most ehvs are shed via the nasal passage. therefore, nasal swabs are generally used for ehv monitoring. however, invasive sampling of wild equids is difficult. while feces is a commonly used substrate for detecting other pathogens, to our knowledge, ehvs have never been detected in feces of naturally infe ...201930446563
translocation a potential corridor for equine piroplasms in cape mountain zebra (equus zebra zebra).translocation of animals in fragmented habitats is an important means of dispersal and gene flow, however, the movement of animals has led to the spread of various diseases globally and wildlife are often the reservoirs of these diseases. currently, cape mountain zebra are translocated within south africa as a management method for augmentation of isolated and fragmented populations. the movement of pathogens due to translocations in local regions have gone largely unchecked, particularly where ...201931080728
compared to etorphine-azaperone, the ketamine-butorphanol-medetomidine combination is also effective at immobilizing zebra (equus zebra).to compare immobilization efficacy of a nonpotent opioid drug combination, ketamine-butorphanol-medetomidine (kbm) to the preferred etorphine-azaperone (ea) combination in zebras.201931176572
genetic characteristics and phylogenetic relationship of parascaris spp. from equus zebra, e. caballus, and e. asinus.the equine parascaris spp. is large, parasitic nematodes, and predominantly focuses on the intestine of foals and young weanlings. there are two roundworms, parascaris equorum and parascaris univalens, recognized among equine hosts. in this study, all fifty-nine parascaris worms were harvested from three different equine hosts (twenty specimens from equus zebra, twenty specimens from e. caballus, and nineteen specimens from e. asinus). the ribosomal gene (its) and mitochondrial genes (cox1 and n ...201931303209
lessons for conservation management: monitoring temporal changes in genetic diversity of cape mountain zebra (equus zebra zebra).the cape mountain zebra (equus zebra zebra) is a subspecies of mountain zebra endemic to south africa. the cape mountain zebra experienced near extinction in the early 1900's and their numbers have since recovered to more than 4,800 individuals. however, there are still threats to their long-term persistence. a previous study reported that cape mountain zebra had low genetic diversity in three relict populations and that urgent conservation management actions were needed to mitigate the risk of ...201931365543
population genetic diversity and hybrid detection in captive zebras.zebras are members of the horse family. there are three species of zebras: the plains zebra equus quagga, the grevy's zebra e. grevyi and the mountain zebra e. zebra. the grevy's zebra and the mountain zebra are endangered, and hybridization between the grevy's zebra and the plains zebra has been documented, leading to a requirement for conservation genetic management within and between the species. we characterized 28 microsatellite markers in grevy's zebra and assessed cross-amplification in p ...201526294133
contrasting results from molecular and pedigree-based population diversity measures in captive zebra highlight challenges facing genetic management of zoo populations.zoo conservation breeding programs manage the retention of population genetic diversity through analysis of pedigree records. the range of demographic and genetic indices determined through pedigree analysis programs allows the conservation of diversity to be monitored relative to the particular founder population for a species. such approaches are based on a number of well-documented founder assumptions, however without knowledge of actual molecular genetic diversity there is a risk that pedigr ...201727981608
laterality of suckling behaviour in three zebra species.although side preference while suckling is an easily characterised lateralised behaviour, few studies have been conducted. we observed laterality in suckling behaviour in three captive zebra species to test two hypotheses: laterality affected by the foal (motor laterality) and laterality affected by the mother. in total we observed 35 foals of grevy's, plains, and mountain zebra in two zoos and recorded 5128 successful suckling bouts and 9095 unsuccessful suckling attempts. at the population lev ...201322762148
evidence of african horse sickness virus infection of equus zebra hartmannae in the south-western khomas region, namibia.equine mortalities suspected to be due to african horse sickness (ahs) were reported from the arid khomas region, namibia, in 2008. the area was previously considered a localized ahs-free area. hartmann's mountain zebra (equus zebra hartmannae), a potential but unconfirmed reservoir host of african horse sickness virus (ahsv), occurs in the region. between 2009 and 2010 serum, blood and tissue samples from 31 culled e. z. hartmannae were analysed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactio ...201728406577
rapidly evolving repetitive dnas in a conservative genome: a test of factors that affect chromosomal evolution.the hypothesis that tandemly repeated dna sequences may facilitate chromosomal rearrangements was tested by comparing a conservatively evolving karyotype of a bat species (macrotus waterhousii) with data published for a rapidly evolving karyotype of an equid species (equus zebra). empirical data generated from the phylogenetic screening of rapidly evolving repetitive dnas from approximately 0.1% of the m. waterhousii genome showed only one sequence that was repetitive in m. waterhousii but low i ...19947981939
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