toxoplasma gondii antibodies in free-living african mammals.twelve species of free-living african mammals from kenya, tanzania, uganda and zambia were tested for antibodies to toxoplasma gondii using the indirect hemagglutination test. of 157 animals sampled, 20 (13%) were seropositive. t. gondii antibodies were detected in burchell's zebra, (equus burchelli), hippopotamus (hippopotamus amphibius), african elephant (loxodonta africana), defassa waterbuck (kobus defassa), lion (panthera leo), and rock hyrax (procavia capensis), the highest titers were fou ...19751195497
echinococcosis (hydatodosis) in wild animals of the kruger national park.echinococcosis has been diagnosed in the following wild species in the kruger national park : lion, panthera leo, spotted hyena, crocuta crocuta, cape hunting dog, lycaon pictus, burchell's zebra, equus burchelli antiquorum, buffalo, syncerus caffer, hippopotamus, hippopotamus amphibius, and impala, aepyceros melampus. infestation rates in the herbivores vary from 60% in zebra to less than 1% in impala. species like elephant, loxodonta africana, and blue wildebeest, connochaetes taurinus, do not ...19751219111
the response of animals to suxamethonium (succinyldicholine) and succinylmonocholine.the time which elapses before cessation of breathing, and blood pressure and blood gas changes after the intramuscular administration of suxamethonium, or a mixture of suxamethonium and hexamethonium, is compared in immobilised african elephants (loxodonta africana) and buffaloes (syncerus caffer). in addition, the respiratory responses of elephants and other animals to intravenous administration of suxamethonium and succinylmonocholine are reported on, as are the effects of darting animals with ...19911770482
anthrax in wildlife in the luangwa valley, abnormally high mortality among hippos (hippopotamus amphibius) in the luangwa river valley between june and november 1987 and estimated to number more than 4000 deaths was attributed to anthrax. several other species, particularly cape buffalo (syncerus caffer) and elephant (loxodonta africana), appear to have been affected. a smaller outbreak of anthrax in hippos occurred between august and september 1988, approximately 100 km up-river. a field study was arranged in august 1989 to assess th ...19911907048
proceedings: the rôle of the urogenital ducts of the african elephant, loxodonta africana. 19744819328
herpes nodules in the lung of the african elephant (loxodonta africana (blumebach, 1792)). 19714368768
an outbreak of encephalomyocarditis-virus infection in free-ranging african elephants in the kruger national park.a cluster of four deaths in late december 1993, marked the onset of an outbreak of disease of african elephants (loxodonta africana) in the kruger national park (knp) in south africa, which has an estimated population of 7,500 elephants. mortalities peaked in january 1994, with 32 deaths, and then declined steadily to reach pre-outbreak levels by september, but sporadic losses continued until november. during the outbreak altogether 64 elephants died, of which 53 (83%) were adult bulls. archival ...19958600443
respiratory and circulatory parameters of african elephants (loxodonta africana) anaesthetised with etorphine and azaperone.respiratory rate, heart rate, blood-gas tensions (po2 and pco2) and ph of arterial (a) and peripheral venous (v) blood, concentration of haemoglobin in arterial blood (hb), saturation of arterial haemoglobin with oxygen and the end-expiratory concentration of oxygen were measured in 22 juvenile african elephants (loxodonta africana) anaesthetised with etorphine and azaperone during a period of 35-65 minutes after they had assumed lateral recumbency. based on these parameters the alveolar-arteria ...19969120854
afrotropical culicoides: a redescription of c. (avaritia) kanagai khamala & kettle, 1971, reared from elephant dung in the kruger national park, south africa.the discovery of culicoides kanagai in south africa represents a new record for this species. the female is redescribed, and the male is described for the first time. culicoides (a.) dasyops clastrier, 1958 is shown to be closely related to it but c. (a.) alticola is only superficially related. short notes on the larval habitat of c. kanagai, the dung of the african elephant, loxodonta africana, are given. the dung of both the white rhinoceros, ceratotherium simum, and the black rhinoceros, dice ...19873444613
paenungulata: a comparison of the hemoglobin sequences from elephant, hyrax, and manatee.inspection of the amino acid differences among hemoglobin sequences of a wide range of mammalian species suggested that at alpha 19, alpha 110, alpha 111, beta 23, beta 44, and beta 56, synapomorphies group manatee (trichechus inungius, sirenia), indian and african elephant (elephas maximus and loxodonta africana, proboscidea), and rock hyrax (procavia habessinica, hyracoidea) into a monophyletic clade. results obtained by parsimony analysis provide evidence for this grouping--and thus support f ...19863444412
isolation and characterisation of immunoglobulin g and igg subclasses of the african elephant (loxodonta africana).immunoglobulins were precipitated from pooled african elephant sera with ammonium sulphate and separated by gel filtration and fast protein liquid chromatography (ion exchange). analysis of the fractions by sds-page showed igg of 150 kda with up to five subclasses, each having heavy chains of 57 kda and light chains of 27 kda. three monoclonal antibodies against human igg and polyclonal antibodies against canine, bovine, cameline, equine, phocine and feline igg showed strong cross-reactivity wit ...19989597308
elephant pituitary gonadotropins.we describe for the first time the purification and some properties of luteinizing hormone (lh) and follicle-stimulating hormone (fsh) isolated from anterior pituitary tissue of the african elephant (loxodonta africana). methodology previously applied to equine and donkey pituitaries was used to obtain purified preparations of elephant lh and fsh in yields of 8.8 and 0.48 mg, respectively, per 10 g pituitary powder. the preparations were characterized by hplc gel filtration and amino acid analys ...19902118115
afrotropical culicoides: c. (avaritia) loxodontis sp. nov., a new member of the imicola group (diptera: ceratopogonidae) associated with the african elephant in the kruger national park, south africa.culicoides (avaritia) loxodontis sp. nov., is described and illustrated from both sexes collected in south africa. it is the 5th species of the imicola group of the subgenus avaritia to be described from the afrotropical region, and is presently known only from the kruger national park where it has been collected in light-traps and reared from the dung of the african elephant (loxodonta africana) on various occasions. a number of character states, and statistical analyses of antennal and palpal ...19921513595
some hematological values of free-ranging african elephants.blood samples were collected from 23 free-ranging african elephants(loxodonta africana) in tanzania. red and white blood cell counts, white blood cell differential, hemoglobin, blood copper, and blood inorganic phosphate were determined. no correlation of any of these measurements with age and sex was discernible, except that the total white count was significantly higher in females than in males in all age groups. the findings are compared with those previously reported for captive and free-ran ...19751113444
formation, function, and persistence of the corpora lutea of the african elephant (loxodonta africana. 19751113050
foot-and-mouth disease in the african elephant (loxodonta africana). 19734361515
prevalence of toxoplasma gondii antibodies in sera of domestic pigs and some wild game species from zimbabwe.serum samples of domestic pigs (sus scrofa), elands (taurotragus oryx), sable antelopes (hippotragus niger), warthogs (phacochoerus aethiopicus), bushpigs (koiropotamus [potamochoerus] koiropotamus), white rhinos (ceratotherium simus), african buffalos (syncerus caffer), wildebeest (connochaetas taurinus), and african elephants (loxodonta africana) from zimbabwe were tested for toxoplasma gondii igg antibodies by the modified agglutination test (mat) with whole formalized tachyzoites and mercapt ...199910219323
[epidemiologic study of bluetongue in sheep, cattle and different species of wild animals in the ivory coast].between 1992 and 1993, a serological survey was conducted in côte d'ivoire on 623 sera from sheep, 215 sera from cattle and 211 sera from wild herbivores. these sera were tested for bluetongue virus (btv) antibodies using an agar gel immunodiffusion test. the purpose of this survey was twofold: to establish the incidence of bluetongue in the country, and to analyse the putative role of btv in the reproductive pathology of sheep. seroprevalence was 52 +/- 4% in sheep, 95 +/- 3% in cattle, and 56 ...19947949349
flaccid trunk paralysis in free-ranging elephants (loxodonta africana) in epizootic of flaccid trunk paralysis began in free-ranging zimbabwean elephants (loxodonta africana) on the southern shore of lake kariba in 1989. it involved a selective neuropathy of peripheral nerves supplying the trunk, with axon and myelin degeneration, muscle atrophy, compensatory hypertrophy, and fine endomyseal fibrosis, without inflammatory changes.19947933290
african horsesickness epidemiology: five species of culicoides (diptera: ceratopogonidae) collected live behind the ears and at the dung of the african elephant in the kruger national park, south africa.during the culling of elephants (loxodonta africana) at five sites in the kruger national park, south africa, a total of 682 culicoides of five species of the subgenus avaritia were found live either behind the ears of elephants or attracted to the freshly disembowelled intestinal dung of elephants. the species are culicoides tororoensis khamala & kettle, 1971; c. kanagai khamala & kettle, 1971; c. loxodontis meiswinkel, 1992, and two undescribed species, i.e. culicoides sp. #50 and culicoides s ...19947596566
anthrax and cowdriosis in an african elephant (loxodonta africana). 19938236707
death of an african elephant from probable toxemia attributed to chronic pulpitis.a 31-year-old captive male african elephant (loxodonta africana) of 5,000-kg body weight died suddenly in ventral recumbency. lesions seen at necropsy were bilateral purulent pulpitis and periodontitis of both tusks, serous atrophy of coronary groove fat, grammocephalus cholangitis, myocardial and skeletal lipofuscinosis, and scattered segmental necrosis in the pectoral muscles. nonhemolytic streptococci, corynebacterium sp, peptostreptococcus anaerobius, fusobacterium nucleatum, and bacteroides ...19836643242
phosphate-haemoglobin interaction. the primary structure of the haemoglobin of the african elephant (loxodonta africana, proboscidea): asparagine in position 2 of the beta-chain.the primary structure of the haemoglobin of the african elephant (loxodonta africana) is reported. the sequence was determined by means of a sequenator. the haemoglobin differs in 26 amino acids in the alpha-chains and in 27 in the beta-chains from that of adult human haemoglobin. the haemoglobin of the african elephant, like that of the indian elephant and ilama, has only 5 binding sites for polyphosphate. this finding explains the low p(o2)50 value in whole blood as a result of the lower 2,3-b ...19846479896
serum enzyme activities in the african elephant (loxodonta africana).the serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alpha-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase and creatine phosphokinase have been measured in the african elephant. in general, the values were broadly comparable with those of man except that alanine aminotransferase was much lower and creatine phosphokinase higher. no variation due to age, sex, season or location was observed.1976955033
allozyme variation in a wild african elephant (loxodonta africana) population from the kruger national park, south africa.1. blood, liver, heart, testis, skin, eye, muscle and kidney samples were obtained from elephants (loxodonta africana) in the kruger national park during a culling programme in april 1992. 2. gene products of 25 protein coding loci in l. africana were examined by horizontal starch-gel electrophoresis. 3. eighteen protein coding loci (72%) displayed monomorphic gel banding patterns whereas only seven (28%) displayed polymorphic gel banding patterns. 4. average heterozygosity values for adults, yo ...19938403843
chromosomes of three elephants, two asian (elephas maximus) and one african (loxodonta africana). 19665921502
comparative studies of the respiratory functions of mammalian blood. 8. asian elephant (elephas maximus) and african elephant (loxodonta africana africana). 19725024177
surveillance and control of anthrax and rabies in wild herbivores and carnivores in namibia.anthrax has been studied intensively in etosha national park, namibia since 1966; in addition, since 1975, mortality due to rabies and all other causes has been recorded, totalling 6,190 deaths. standard diagnostic procedures demonstrated that at least 811 deaths (13%) were due to anthrax and 115 deaths (2%) were caused by rabies. of the total number of deaths due to anthrax, 97% occurred in zebra (equus burchelli), elephant (loxodonta africana), wildebeest (connochaetes taurinus) and springbok ...19938518440
reproduction of elephant, loxodonta africana, in the luangwa valley, zambia. 19725035330
ulcerative pododermatitis in free-ranging african elephant (loxodonta africana) in the kruger national park.the occurrence of severe lameness in adult african elephant bulls in a shrub mopane (colophospermum mopane) ecosystem was investigated. large ulcers in the soles of at least one front foot were seen in each of the recorded cases. microscopically, the lesion can be described as a severe, chronic-active, ulcerative, bacterial pododermatitis (complicated by hypersensitivity/septic vasculitis). a variety of bacteria were isolated from these lesions as well as from regional lymph nodes. streptococcus ...19979204500
molecular phylogenetic inference of the woolly mammoth mammuthus primigenius, based on complete sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome b and 12s ribosomal rna genes.complete sequences of cytochrome b (1,137 bases) and 12s ribosomal rna (961 bases) genes in mitochondrial dna were successfully determined from the woolly mammoth (mammuthus primigenius), african elephant (loxodonta africana), and asian elephant (elephas maximus). from these sequence data, phylogenetic relationships among three genera were examined. molecular phylogenetic trees reconstructed by the neighbor-joining and the maximum parsimony methods provided an identical topology both for cytochr ...19989493356
reproductive assessment of male elephants (loxodonta africana and elephas maximus) by ultrasonography.transrectal ultrasonography was performed on five wild and two captive male african elephants (loxodonta africana) and four captive male asian elephants (elephas maximus) to develop standards for assessment of reproductive health and status. the entire internal urogenital tract was visualized ultrasonographically by using a 3.5 mhz or a 7.5-mhz transducer in combination with a probe extension adapted for elephant anatomy. the findings were verified by postmortem ex situ ultrasound examinations i ...19989732024
the primary structure of the hemoglobin of the brazilian manatee (trichechus inunguis, sirenia).the hemoglobin of the brazilian manatee (trichechus inunguis, sirenia) consists of one component. we present the primary structures of the alpha- and beta-chains which have been separated by chromatography on carboxymethyl-cellulose cm-52. the sequences have been determined by automatic edman degradation with the film technique, using the native chains, tryptic peptides and the c-terminal prolyl-peptide obtained by acid hydrolysis of the asp-pro bond of the alpha-chains. compared to the correspo ...19883202957
plasma vitamin e and other analyte levels in nepalese camp elephants (elephas maximus).plasma concentrations of alpha-tocopherol (vitamin e) and other analytes in asian elephants (elephas maximus) in nepal were determined during typical work camp management of the elephants. elephants foraged for food for 4-6 hr each day under the control of mahouts and were also provided daily with cut forage and supplements of unhusked rice, cane molasses, and salt. blood samples were taken monthly for 1 yr without chemical restraint from 26 female elephants in four camps. elephants were 6-60+ y ...19989809597
eye lesions in the african elephant (loxodonta africana). 19695392356
comparison of growth characteristics of anaerobic fungi isolated from ruminant and non-ruminant herbivores during cultivation in a defined medium.anaerobic fungi were isolated from rumen fluid of a domestic sheep (ovis aries; a ruminant) and from faeces of five non-ruminants: african elephant (loxodonta africana), black rhinoceros (diceros bicornis), indian rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis), indian elephant (elephas maximus) and mara (dolichotis patagonum). the anaerobic fungus isolated from the sheep was a neocallimastix species and the isolates from non-ruminants were all species similar to piromyces spp. a defined medium is described w ...19911919514
endocrinology of the ovarian cycle and pregnancy in the asian (elephas maximus) and african (loxodonta africana) reviewing the literature, this paper assesses the current level of understanding of the hormonal control of the ovarian cycle and pregnancy in the elephant. data are compiled from two genera, elephas maximus and loxodonta africana, recognizing differences where known to exist. measurements of various steroid and peptide hormones, but most notably immunoreactive progesterone (ip), indicate an overall cycle length of 15-16 weeks, comprising an 8-11-week luteal phase and a shorter inter-luteal ( ...19989835363
chemical signals in the reproduction of asian (elephas maximus) and african (loxodonta africana) elephants.asian (elephas maximus) and african (loxodonta africana) elephants exhibit polygynous mating that involves female choice of mates and male-male competition for access to females. chemical signals mediate intersexual and intrasexual interactions associated with reproduction. the need for reliable and honest signals is accentuated by the markedly different social structure of adult males and females. adult female elephants live in matriarchal herds consisting of a dominant female and several gener ...19989835364
testosterone and dihydrotestosterone concentrations in elephant serum and temporal gland secretions.serum and temporal gland secretions (tgs) were obtained from mature wild african (loxodonta africana) and captive asian elephants (elephas maximus). samples were obtained from five cows and eight bulls culled for management purposes in kruger national park, south africa, and from four females and two males residing at the washington park zoo, portland, oregon. our purpose was to describe the levels of the androgens, testosterone (t), and dihydrotestosterone (dht), and to correlate these observat ...19846704470
interordinal mammalian relationships: evidence for paenungulate monophyly is provided by complete mitochondrial 12s rrna sequences.the complete mitochondrial 12s rrna sequences of 5 placental mammals belonging to the 3 orders sirenia, proboscidea, and hyracoidea are reported together with phylogenetic analyses (distance and parsimony) of a total of 51 mammalian orthologues. this 12s rrna database now includes the 2 extant proboscideans (the african and asiatic elephants loxodonta africana and elephas maximus), 2 of the 3 extant sirenian genera (the sea cow dugong dugon and the west indian manatee trichechus manatus), and 2 ...19968899726
clinical and pathological findings of a newly recognized disease of elephants caused by endotheliotropic herpesviruses.the unique clinical and pathological findings in nine asian (elephas maximus) and two african (loxodonta africana) elephants from north american zoos with a highly fatal disease caused by novel endotheliotropic herpesviruses are described. identification of the viruses by molecular techniques and some epidemiological aspects of the disease were previously reported. consensus primer polymerase chain reaction (pcr) combined with sequencing yielded molecular evidence that confirmed the presence of ...200010682740
contraceptive potential of the porcine zona pellucida vaccine in the african elephant (loxodonta africana).immunocontraception has been successful in controlling free-roaming equids; however, what is the potential for the immunocontraceptive control of the african elephant (loxodonta africana)? the porcine zona pellucida (pzp) glycoproteins share antigenic domains with the african elephant zona pellucida (elzp) glycoproteins, and anti-zona pellucida serum antibodies have been successfully stimulated. to determine the cross-reactivity of the pzp and elzp, immunocytochemistry was evaluated by light and ...199910735124
mitochondrial dna variation, phylogeography and population structure of the asian elephant.we report the first genetic analysis of free-ranging asian elephants (elephas maximus). we sampled 118 elephants from sri lanka, bhutan/north india, and laos/vietnam by extracting dna from dung, pcr amplifying and sequencing 630 nucleotides of mitochondrial dna, including part of the variable left domain of the control region. comparison with african elephant (loxodonta africana) sequences indicated a relatively slow molecular clock in the proboscidea with a sequence divergence of approximately ...200010762406
etorphine-halothane anaesthesia in two five-year-old african elephants (loxodonta africana).anaesthesia of 2 five-year-old female african elephants (loxodonta africana) was required for dental surgery. the animals were each premedicated with 120 mg of azaperone 60 min before transportation to the hospital. before offloading, 1 mg etorphine was administered intramuscularly (i.m.) to each elephant to facilitate walking them to the equine induction/recovery room. for induction, 2 mg etorphine was administered i.m. to each animal. induction was complete within 6 min. surgical anaesthesia w ...199910855842
evaluation of a multiple-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in captive elephants.mycobacterium tuberculosis has become an important agent of disease in the captive elephant population of the united states, although current detection methods appear to be inadequate for effective disease management. this investigation sought to validate a multiple-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for screening of m. tuberculosis infection in captive elephants and to document the elephant's serologic response over time using a cross-sectional observational study design. serum s ...200011237135
mammary botryomycosis and mastectomy in an african elephant (loxodonta africana). 200312553584
matriarchs as repositories of social knowledge in african elephants.despite widespread interest in the evolution of social intelligence, little is known about how wild animals acquire and store information about social companions or whether individuals possessing enhanced social knowledge derive biological fitness benefits. using playback experiments on african elephants (loxodonta africana), we demonstrated that the possession of enhanced discriminatory abilities by the oldest individual in a group can influence the social knowledge of the group as a whole. the ...200111313492
elephants and human color-blind deuteranopes have identical sets of visual pigments.being the largest land mammals, elephants have very few natural enemies and are active during both day and night. compared with those of diurnal and nocturnal animals, the eyes of elephants and other arrhythmic species, such as many ungulates and large carnivores, must function in both the bright light of day and dim light of night. despite their fundamental importance, the roles of photosensitive molecules, visual pigments, in arrhythmic vision are not well understood. here we report that eleph ...200515781694
application of an enzyme-immunoassay (eia) for rapid screening of 5 alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione (dhp) in blood plasma of the asian elephant, elephas maximus.populations of african (loxodonta africana) and asian elephants (elephas maximus) in zoos and safari parks are at risk due to their low reproductive success. to extend the limited knowledge of their reproductive physiology, the development of easy and practical methods for the analysis of the relevant reproductive hormones is essential to support e.g. assisted reproduction. for the measurement of 5 alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione (dhp), the predominant ovarian gestagen in both species, an enzyme-immun ...200111413705
a variant of the endotheliotropic herpesvirus in asian elephants (elephas maximus) in european zoos.newly discovered, lethal elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (eehv) have been identified in both asian (elephas maximus) and african (loxodonta africana) elephants. carried by otherwise healthy african elephants they can be fatal mainly for young asian elephants. since zoos often harbour both elephant species, we conducted a survey on the presence of eehv in asian elephants from 12 european zoos, 3 circuses and 1 israeli zoo. here, we demonstrate that all eehv that have affected asian elepha ...200111423201
comparative cytogenetics of the african elephant (loxodonta africana) and asiatic elephant (elephas maximus).g- and c-banded karyotypes of the two extant species of the mammalian order proboscidea are presented for the first time. chromosome complements were 2n = 56 in both loxodonta africana and elephas maximus. comparisons between the species demonstrated a high level of chromosome band homology, with 26 conserved autosomal pairs. the normal diploid karyotype of l. africana had 25 acrocentric/telocentric and two metacentric/submetacentric autosomal pairs. e. maximus differed by having one less acroce ...200111528120
clostridium perfringens beta2-toxin in an african elephant (loxodonta africana) with ulcerative enteritis.a 22-year-old female african elephant (loxodonta africana) developed diarrhoea of unknown cause which lasted for two days. the animal was euthanased after it remained recumbent and refused to get up. gross pathological changes were present mainly in the gastrointestinal tract. the intestinal contents were watery and dark brown. several areas of the mucosa of the small intestine were covered minimally to moderately with fibrin and had a few 0.1 x 10 to 15 cm linear ulcerations. microscopical lesi ...200111761293
pharmacokinetics and effects of succinylcholine in african elephant (loxodonta africana) and impala (aepyceros melampus).the phenomenon of slow onset of succinylcholine (sch) effect in elephants was investigated by analyzing blood concentrations of sch and its metabolite choline in elephant and impala. to assess whether the slow onset phenomenon is related to the pharmacokinetics of sch following i.m. administration, we analyzed the time course of plasma concentrations of intact drug and its metabolite and determined its pharmacological effects. blood samples were obtained from anaesthetized elephant (n=6) and imp ...200211923057
an overview of the central nervous system of the elephant through a critical appraisal of the literature published in the xix and xx centuries.the two species of elephants (indian: elephas maximus and african: loxodonta africana) possess the largest brain among land mammals. due to its size, the elephant brain is discussed in virtually every paper dealing with the evolution of the central nervous system of mammals and comparative brain size. studies on the social habits of elephants also deal with the skills and the "intelligence" and brain size of these species. yet most of the descriptions and conclusions reported in comparative stud ...200111275412
the lateral enamel lamina--component of tooth primordia in selected mammalian species.the lateral enamel lamina (lel) is a part of the enamel organ, which is probably not involved in tooth formation. it represents, besides the "stalk" of the tooth primordium, a second interconnection between enamel organ and oral epithelium or vestibular lamina. we detected the lel in the sheep (ovis aries), the dolphin (stenella attenuata), and the vole (microtus agrestis) by light microscopy and computer-aided three-dimensional reconstruction. the lel could be found in cap to bell stage tooth p ...200212494916
the elephant knee joint: morphological and biomechanical considerations.elephant limbs display unique morphological features which are related mainly to supporting the enormous body weight of the animal. in elephants, the knee joint plays important roles in weight bearing and locomotion, but anatomical data are sparse and lacking in functional analyses. in addition, the knee joint is affected frequently by arthrosis. here we examined structures of the knee joint by means of standard anatomical techniques in eight african (loxodonta africana) and three asian elephant ...200616420379
hepatocellular endoplasmic reticulum storage disease in an african elephant (loxodonta africana).large intracytoplasmic inclusions were observed in hepatocytes of a 7-year-old african elephant (loxodonta africana). the inclusions were oval to polyhedral with either a homogeneous glassy or a granular appearance. they were positive for the periodic acid-schiff (pas) reaction. electron microscopical examination revealed that the inclusions consisted of granular material with moderate electron-density and were membrane-bounded. the findings suggested that the inclusions were derived from endopl ...200312634098
mitochondrial cytochrome b of the lyakhov mammoth (proboscidea, mammalia): new data and phylogenetic analyses of elephantidae.the phylogenetic relationships between recent elephantidae (proboscidea, mammalia), that is to say extant elephants (asian and african) and extinct woolly mammoth, have remained unclear to date. the prevailing morphological scheme (mammoth grouped with asian elephant) is either supported or questioned by the molecular results. recently, the monophyly of woolly mammoths on mitochondrial grounds has been demonstrated (thomas, et al., 2000), but it conflicts with previous studies (barriel et al., 1 ...200312644401
serum amylase in the african elephant, (loxodonta africana). 1976975772
antral follicles develop in xenografted cryopreserved african elephant (loxodonta africana) ovarian tissue.the preservation of germ plasm from endangered species could augment captive breeding programs aimed at maintaining genetic diversity. mammalian female germ plasm (oocytes) is extremely difficult to collect and cryopreserve; however, a promising alternative is the cryopreservation of ovarian tissue. in the present study, athymic nude (nu/nu) balb/c mice were used to evaluate in vivo viability of cryopreserved ovarian tissue from institute of cancer research genotype (icr) mice or elephants. fema ...19989835381
endotheliotropic elephant herpesvirus, the first betaherpesvirus with a thymidine kinase gene.endotheliotropic elephant herpesvirus (elephantid herpesvirus 1; elhv-1) is apathogenic for african elephants (loxodonta africana), but causes fatal haemorrhagic disease in asian elephants (elephas maximus). this is thought to occur through transmission from african elephants in places where both species are housed, such as zoological gardens. the virus has caused considerable losses in north american and european zoological gardens and thus severely impedes breeding of the endangered asian elep ...200616963736
fundamental cryobiology of selected african mammalian spermatozoa and its role in biodiversity preservation through the development of genome resource banking.fundamental cryobiological characteristics of spermatozoa from threatened or endangered species must be determined for successful cryopreservation techniques to be established. in this study, spermatozoa from four diverse species, impala (aepyceros melampus), wart hog (phacochoerus aethiopicus), elephant (loxodonta africana), and lion (panthera leo), were collected by electroejaculation or epididymal aspiration. spermatozoal plasma membrane permeability to water (hydraulic conductivity, lp) and ...19989835382
comparative endocrinology of cycling and non-cycling asian (elephas maximus) and african (loxodonta africana) elephants.up to 14% of asian and 29% of african elephants in captivity are not cycling normally or exhibit irregular cycles based on progestin profiles. to determine if ovarian acyclicity is related to other disruptions in endocrine activity, serum pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, and ovarian hormones in weekly samples collected for 6-25 months were compared between normal cycling (n=22 each species) and non-cycling (n=6 asian; n=30 african) elephants. a subset of cycling females (n=4 asian, 7 african) also w ...200415081836
histogenesis of the chequered pattern of ivory of the african elephant (loxodonta africana).this study aimed to propose a hypothesis on the events which lead to the development of the characteristic chequered pattern of elephant ivory. twenty fragments of ivory and six elephant tusks were obtained through the national parks board of south africa. polished surfaces were prepared in sagittal and longitudinal planes and the characteristics of the distinctive chequered pattern described. light- and electron-microscopical techniques and image analyses were employed to determine the morpholo ...19989877328
evaluation of post-thaw asian elephant (elephas maximus) spermatozoa using flow cytometry: the effects of extender and cryoprotectant.although the development of semen cryopreservation in the african elephants (loxodonta africana) has been accomplished, effective procedures for cryopreservation of asian elephant (elephas maximus) spermatozoa have not been established. in the present study, we investigate the freezing methods for conservation of asian elephant spermatozoa under field conditions and identify the most suitable freezing protocols which provide acceptable post-thaw semen quality. semen was collected from two asian ...200415226027
automatic classification and speaker identification of african elephant (loxodonta africana) vocalizations.a hidden markov model (hmm) system is presented for automatically classifying african elephant vocalizations. the development of the system is motivated by successful models from human speech analysis and recognition. classification features include frequency-shifted mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (mfccs) and log energy, spectrally motivated features which are commonly used in human speech processing. experiments, including vocalization type classification and speaker identification, are pe ...200515759714
movements and corridors of african elephants in relation to protected areas.understanding how mammals satisfy their need for space in fragmenting ecosystems is crucial for ecosystem conservation. using state-of-the-art global positioning system (gps) technology we tracked 11 focal african elephants (loxodonta africana) in kenya at 3-hourly fix intervals and collected between 34 and 406 days per individual. our recordings gave a high spatio-temporal resolution compared to previous studies and allowed novel insights into range use. the actual ranges of the tracked elephan ...200515770465
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii in farm-reared ostriches and wild game species from hundred and seventy one serum samples from 10 game species from zimbabwe were tested for igg antibodies to toxoplasma gondii infection using the modified agglutination test (mat). significantly higher seroprevalences were found in the felidae (panthera leo) (92% of 26), bovidae (tragelaphus species) (55.9% of 34) and farm-reared struthionidae (struthio camelus) (48% of 50) compared to the other groups tested. among the bovidae, the nyala (tragelaphus angasii) had the highest seroprevalence o ...200515777687
quantitative analysis of voltage-gated potassium currents from primary equine (equus caballus) and elephant (loxodonta africana) articular this comparative study, we have established in vitro models of equine and elephant articular chondrocytes, examined their basic morphology, and characterized the biophysical properties of their primary voltage-gated potassium channel (kv) currents. using whole cell patch-clamp electrophysiological recording from first-expansion and first-passage cells, we measured a maximum kv conductance of 0.15 +/- 0.04 ps/pf (n = 10) in equine chondrocytes, whereas that in elephant chondrocytes was signifi ...200515802557
two cases of atypical mycobacteriosis caused by mycobacterium szulgai associated with mortality in captive african elephants (loxodonta africana).mycobacterium szulgai was associated with mortality in two captive african elephants (loxodonta africana) housed at lincoln park zoo. the first elephant presented with severe, acute lameness of the left rear limb. despite extensive treatments, the animal collapsed and died 13 mo after initial presentation. necropsy revealed osteomyelitis with loss of the femoral head and acetabulum and pulmonary granulomas with intralesional m. szulgai. the second elephant collapsed during transport to another i ...200717469283
milk composition of a free-ranging african elephant (loxodonta africana) cow during early lactation.only one study previously reported comprehensively on the composition of african elephant's (loxodonta africana) milk that was collected from 30 dead animals. in the current study milk was obtained from a tame but free-ranging african elephant cow without immobilization during the period when she was 4-47 days postpartum. at the respective collection times the nutrient content was 21.8 and 25.0 g protein; 56.0 and 76.0 g fat; 71.1 and 26.0 g sugars per kilogram of milk. the protein fraction, res ...200515961336
population pharmacokinetics of pyrazinamide in elephants.this study was undertaken to characterize the population pharmacokinetics (pk), therapeutic dose, and preferred route of administration for pyrazinamide (pza) in elephants. twenty-three african (loxodonta africana) and asian (elephas maximus) elephants infected with or in contact with others culture positive for mycobacterium tuberculosis were dosed under treatment conditions. pza was dosed daily at 20-30 mg/kg via oral (fasting or nonfasting state) or rectal (enema or suppository) administratio ...200516207301
genomic inferences from afrotheria and the evolution of elephants.recent genetic studies have established that african forest and savanna elephants are distinct species with dissociated cytonuclear genomic patterns, and have identified asian elephants from borneo and sumatra as conservation priorities. representative of afrotheria, a superordinal clade encompassing six eutherian orders, the african savanna elephant was among the first mammals chosen for whole-genome sequencing to provide a comparative understanding of the human genome. elephants have large and ...200516226885
noninvasive genotyping and mendelian analysis of microsatellites in african savannah elephants.we obtained fresh dung samples from 202 (133 mother-offspring pairs) savannah elephants (loxodonta africana) in samburu, kenya, and genotyped them at 20 microsatellite loci to assess genotyping success and errors. a total of 98.6% consensus genotypes was successfully obtained, with allelic dropout and false allele rates at 1.6% (n = 46) and 0.9% (n = 37) of heterozygous and total consensus genotypes, respectively, and an overall genotyping error rate of 2.5% based on repeat typing. mendelian ana ...200516251516
metagenomics to paleogenomics: large-scale sequencing of mammoth dna.we sequenced 28 million base pairs of dna in a metagenomics approach, using a woolly mammoth (mammuthus primigenius) sample from siberia. as a result of exceptional sample preservation and the use of a recently developed emulsion polymerase chain reaction and pyrosequencing technique, 13 million base pairs (45.4%) of the sequencing reads were identified as mammoth dna. sequence identity between our data and african elephant (loxodonta africana) was 98.55%, consistent with a paleontologically bas ...200616368896
complete mitochondrial genome and phylogeny of pleistocene mammoth mammuthus primigenius.phylogenetic relationships between the extinct woolly mammoth (mammuthus primigenius), and the asian (elephas maximus) and african savanna (loxodonta africana) elephants remain unresolved. here, we report the sequence of the complete mitochondrial genome (16,842 base pairs) of a woolly mammoth extracted from permafrost-preserved remains from the pleistocene epoch--the oldest mitochondrial genome sequence determined to date. we demonstrate that well-preserved mitochondrial genome fragments, as lo ...200616448217
six novel gammaherpesviruses of afrotheria provide insight into the early divergence of the gammaherpesvirinae.the afrotheria represent an early branching of placental mammals. only two herpesviruses from afrotheria have been previously identified, and the genus proboscivirus in the subfamily betaherpesvirinae has been proposed for them. six novel gammaherpesviruses were identified in four species in the superorder afrotheria by detection and analysis of their dna polymerase genes. elephantid herpesvirus 3 (elhv3) and elephantid herpesvirus 4 (elhv4) were identified from conjunctival swabs from asian ele ...200817884307
in vitro succinylcholine hydrolysis in plasma of the african elephant (loxodonta africana) and impala (aepyceros melampus).in elephants the time lapsed from i.m. injection of an overdose of the muscle relaxant succinylcholine (such) until death, is significantly longer than in impala. to determine a difference in the rate of such hydrolysis, once the drug enters the circulation, contributes to this phenomenon we have measured the rate of hydrolysis of such in elephant and impala plasma, and by elephant erythrocytes. rate of hydrolysis was determined by incubating such in plasma or erythrocyte lysate at 37 degrees c ...200312524024
myth, marula, and elephant: an assessment of voluntary ethanol intoxication of the african elephant (loxodonta africana) following feeding on the fruit of the marula tree (sclerocarya birrea).africa can stir wild and fanciful notions in the casual visitor; one of these is the tale of inebriated wild elephants. the suggestion that the african elephant (loxodonta africana) becomes intoxicated from eating the fruit of the marula tree (sclerocarya birrea) is an attractive, established, and persistent tale. this idea now permeates the african tourist industry, historical travelogues, the popular press, and even scholastic works. accounts of ethanol inebriation in animals under natural con ...200616555195
elephant brain. part i: gross morphology, functions, comparative anatomy, and evolution.we report morphological data on brains of four african, loxodonta africana, and three asian elephants, elephas maximus, and compare findings to literature. brains exhibit a gyral pattern more complex and with more numerous gyri than in primates, humans included, and in carnivores, but less complex than in cetaceans. cerebral frontal, parietal, temporal, limbic, and insular lobes are well developed, whereas the occipital lobe is relatively small. the insula is not as opercularized as in man. the ...200616782503
generalized perceptual linear prediction features for animal vocalization analysis.a new feature extraction model, generalized perceptual linear prediction (gplp), is developed to calculate a set of perceptually relevant features for digital signal analysis of animal vocalizations. the gplp model is a generalized adaptation of the perceptual linear prediction model, popular in human speech processing, which incorporates perceptual information such as frequency warping and equal loudness normalization into the feature extraction process. since such perceptual information is ava ...200616875249
towards the delineation of the ancestral eutherian genome organization: comparative genome maps of human and the african elephant (loxodonta africana) generated by chromosome painting.this study presents a whole-genome comparison of human and a representative of the afrotherian clade, the african elephant, generated by reciprocal zoo-fish. an analysis of afrotheria genomes is of special interest, because recent dna sequence comparisons identify them as the oldest placental mammalian clade. complete sets of whole-chromosome specific painting probes for the african elephant and human were constructed by degenerate oligonucleotide-primed pcr amplification of flow-sorted chromoso ...200312965023
plasma and erythrocyte fatty acids in captive asian (elephas maximus) and african (loxodonta africana) elephants.the fatty acid components of the plasma triglycerides and the phospholipid fractions of the red blood cells of a captive group of two african (loxodonta africana) and four asian (elephas maximus) elephants were investigated. all the animals received the same diet of hay, fruits and vegetables, and concentrates. a comparison with data from free-ranging african elephants or asian work-camp elephants showed that the captive elephants had lower proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (pufas), and ...200312885214
the elephants of zoba gash barka, eritrea: part 4. cholelithiasis in a wild african elephant (loxodonta africana).a 4.0-kg cholelith was found within the abdominal cavity of a dead wild african elephant (loxodonta africana) in eritrea. analysis of this cholelith by histochemistry, electron microscopy, electrospray mass spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy revealed it was composed of bile alcohols but no calcium, bilirubin, or cholesterol. bacteria were also found in the cholelith. similar, but smaller, bile stones have been identified previously in other wild african elephants and an excav ...200517312726
characterisation of the sympathetic nervous system of asian (elephas maximus) and african (loxodonta africana) elephants based on urinary catecholamine analyses.assessing the welfare status of captive animals using non-invasive measurements of hormones is of growing interest because this can serve as an effective tool to facilitate the optimization of environmental and husbandry conditions. both the african elephant (loxodonta africana) and the asian elephant (elephas maximus) exhibit extremely low breeding success in captivity, and because elevated levels of stress may negatively influence reproductive functions, this study sought to establish a method ...200717336981
chromosome painting among proboscidea, hyracoidea and sirenia: support for paenungulata (afrotheria, mammalia) but not tethytheria.despite marked improvements in the interpretation of systematic relationships within eutheria, particular nodes, including paenungulata (hyracoidea, sirenia and proboscidea), remain ambiguous. the combination of a rapid radiation, a deep divergence and an extensive morphological diversification has resulted in a limited phylogenetic signal confounding resolution within this clade both at the morphological and nucleotide levels. cross-species chromosome painting was used to delineate regions of h ...200717374594
network scaling reveals consistent fractal pattern in hierarchical mammalian societies.recent studies have demonstrated that human societies are hierarchically structured with a consistent scaling ratio across successive layers of the social network; each layer of the network is between three and four times the size of the preceding (smaller) grouping level. here we show that similar relationships hold for four mammalian taxa living in multi-level social systems. for elephant (loxodonta africana), gelada (theropithecus gelada) and hamadryas (papio hamadryas hamadryas) baboon, succ ...200818765349
the properties of geophysical fields and their effects on elephants and other animals.geophysical properties of acoustic, seismic, electric, and magnetic waveforms create opportunities and constraints for animals' communication and sensory monitoring of the environment. the geometric spreading of waves differs; at some frequencies, transmission is most efficient and has minimal noise. the spreading properties of seismic waves favor long-distance propagation for communication and environmental monitoring, and would benefit elephants (elephas maximus and loxodonta africana), such a ...200212083604
forest elephant crisis in the congo basin.debate over repealing the ivory trade ban dominates conferences of the convention on international trade in endangered species of wild fauna and flora (cites). resolving this controversy requires accurate estimates of elephant population trends and rates of illegal killing. most african savannah elephant populations are well known; however, the status of forest elephants, perhaps a distinct species, in the vast congo basin is unclear. we assessed population status and incidence of poaching from ...200717407383
the sizes of elephant groups in zoos: implications for elephant welfare.this study examined the distribution of 495 asian elephants (elephas maximus) and 336 african elephants (loxodonta africana) in 194 zoos, most of which were located in europe (49.1%) and north america (32.6%). cows outnumbered bulls 4 to 1 (loxodonta) and 3 to 1 (elephas). groups contained 7 or fewer: mean, 4.28 (sigma = 5.73). one fifth of elephants lived alone or with one conspecific. forty-six elephants (5.5%) had no conspecific. many zoos ignore minimum group sizes of regional zoo associatio ...200919107664
microbiology of the external ear canal in six african elephants (loxodonta africana).samples collected from both external ear canals of six adult female african elephants (loxodonta africana) were cultured for fungi, yeasts and aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. all the samples produced heavy growths of several aerobic bacteria, but anaerobic bacteria were rare and no fungi or yeasts were isolated. the most common bacterium isolated was staphylococcus epidermidis, which was cultured from 11 of the 12 ears. acinetobacter calcoaceticus lwoffi, alpha-haemolytic streptococcus and coryn ...200919234325
methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus skin infections from an elephant calf--san diego, california, 2008.methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa) infections are a major cause of human skin and soft tissue infections in the united states. mrsa colonization and infection also have been observed in turtles, bats, seals, sheep, rabbits, rodents, cats, dogs, pigs, birds, horses, and cattle, and mrsa infections with an epidemiologic link to animal contact have been reported in veterinary personnel, pet owners, and farm animal workers. on january 29, 2008, the county of san diego health and huma ...200919265780
mammalian genome projects reveal new growth hormone (gh) sequences. characterization of the gh-encoding genes of armadillo (dasypus novemcinctus), hedgehog (erinaceus europaeus), bat (myotis lucifugus), hyrax (procavia capensis), shrew (sorex araneus), ground squirrel (spermophilus tridecemlineatus), elephant (loxodonta africana), cat (felis catus) and opossum (monodelphis domestica).mammalian growth hormone (gh) sequences have been shown previously to display episodic evolution: the sequence is generally strongly conserved but on at least two occasions during mammalian evolution (on lineages leading to higher primates and ruminants) bursts of rapid evolution occurred. however, the number of mammalian orders studied previously has been relatively limited, and the availability of sequence data via mammalian genome projects provides the potential for extending the range of gh ...200817574247
pulmonary aspergillosis in an african elephant (loxodonta africana).a 26-year-old female african elephant (loxodonta africana) with a history of purulent pododermatitis, recurrent abdominal pain, and severe weight loss died spontaneously after a period of deteriorating disease. the main pathological finding was a severe bilateral pyogranulomatous, partially necrotizing pneumonia with numerous intralesional fungal hyphae. at microbiological examination aspergillus spp. were isolated. the present case indicates that mycotic pneumonia should to be considered as a d ...200919425315
the three-dimensional locomotor dynamics of african (loxodonta africana) and asian (elephas maximus) elephants reveal a smooth gait transition at moderate speed.we examined whether elephants shift to using bouncing (i.e. running) mechanics at any speed. to do this, we measured the three-dimensional centre of mass (cm) motions and torso rotations of african and asian elephants using a novel multisensor method. hundreds of continuous stride cycles were recorded in the field. african and asian elephants moved very similarly. near the mechanically and metabolically optimal speed (a froude number (fr) of 0.09), an inverted pendulum mechanism predominated. wi ...200817594960
wild african elephants (loxodonta africana) discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar conspecific seismic alarm calls.the ability to discriminate between call types and callers as well as more subtle information about the importance of a call has been documented in a range of species. this type of discrimination is also important in the vibrotactile environment for species that communicate via vibrations. it has recently been shown that african elephants (loxodonta africana) can detect seismic cues, but it is not known whether they discriminate seismic information from noise. in a series of experiments, familia ...200717672633
pharmacokinetics of orally administered ibuprofen in african and asian elephants (loxodonta africana and elephas maximus).the pharmacokinetic parameters of s(+) and r(-) ibuprofen were determined in 20 elephants after oral administration of preliminary 4-, 5-, and 6-mg/kg doses of racemic ibuprofen. following administration of 4 mg/kg ibuprofen, serum concentrations of ibuprofen peaked at 5 hr at 3.9 +/- 2.07 microg/ml r(-) and 10.65 +/- 5.64 microg/ml s(+) (mean +/- sd) in african elephants (loxodonta africana) and at 3 hr at 5.14 +/- 1.39 microg/ml r(-) and 13.77 +/- 3.75 microg/ml s(+) in asian elephants (elepha ...200717679510
serum antibody titers following routine rabies vaccination in african evaluate serum antibody titers in captive african elephants (loxodonta africana) following routine vaccination with a commercially available, inactivated rabies vaccine.200919827985
assisted reproduction in female rhinoceros and elephants--current status and future perspective.over the last few decades, rhinoceroses and elephants became important icons in the saga of wildlife conservation. recent surveys estimate the wild asian (elephas maximus) and african (loxodonta africana) elephant populations to be, at most, 50 250 and 637 600 respectively. for the five rhinoceros species, black (diceros bicornis), white (ceratotherium simum), indian (rhinoceros unicornis), javan (rhinoceros sondaicus) and sumatran rhinoceros (dicerorhinus sumatrensis), the population estimates ...200717688600
the distribution, density and three-dimensional histomorphology of pacinian corpuscles in the foot of the asian elephant (elephas maximus) and their potential role in seismic communication.both asian (elephas maximus) and african (loxodonta africana) elephants produce low-frequency, high-amplitude rumbles that travel well through the ground as seismic waves, and field studies have shown that elephants may utilize these seismic signals as one form of communication. unique elephant postures observed in field studies suggest that the elephants use their feet to 'listen' to these seismic signals, but the exact sensory mechanisms used by the elephant have never been characterized. the ...200717711421
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