intussusception in a florida intussusception resulting from an embedded fishhook and a mass of nylon cord, monofilament line, and wire was determined to be the cause of death in a florida manatee (trichechus manatus latirostris). pathologic findings are given along with information on bacteria (edwardsiella tarda), pesticide residues (dde, pcb's and dieldrin), and parasites (chiorchis fabaceus).19751195505
composition of the milks of the bottlenose dolphin (tursiops trucatus) and the florida manatee (trichechus manatus latirostris).milk samples from four individual bottlenose (tursiops truncatus) and two florida manatees (trichechus manatus latirostris) of known lactation stages were analyzed for protein, carbohydrate and lipid composition, as well as for activity levels of alpha-lactalbumin, the regulatory protein of lactose synthase. the milk from both species had relatively high protein and lipid levels, as reported previously for other marine mammals. the major proportion of the lipid was in the form of triglycerides. ...19862873935
the digestive strategy and efficiency of the west indian manatee, trichechus manatus.during the winters of 1982/83 and 1983/84, samples of digesta were collected from nine sites along the gastrointestinal tracts of seven west indian manatees, trichechus manatus. the voluminous large intestine of the manatee is responsible for considerable water reabsorption, as well as being the major site of organic matter, nitrogen and crude fat digestion. cellulose digestion occurs primarily in the cecum and anterior portion of the colon in a pattern similar to terrestrial nonruminant herbivo ...19862876808
omphalitis and peritonitis in a young west indian manatee (trichechus manatus).mortality data for the west indian manatee (trichechus manatus) indicates that from 1979 to 1984 16% of the recorded deaths involved young juveniles. necropsy of a young manatee from the west coast of florida revealed an active infection of the umbilical area (omphalitis) extending down the umbilical artery and veins. a generalized peritonitis was present. bacterial cultures revealed streptococcus faecium, plesiomonas shigelloides, pseudomonas putrefaciens and escherichia coli.19873682102
purification and characterization of the major whey proteins from the milks of the bottlenose dolphin (tursiops truncatus), the florida manatee (trichechus manatus latirostris), and the beagle (canis familiaris).the major whey proteins of the milks of the dolphin, manatee, and beagle were purified by gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography and characterized and identified by molecular weight determination, amino acid analysis, n-terminal sequencing, and activity measurements. the major whey protein components from all three species were found to be monomeric beta-lactoglobulins. these proteins were all active in binding retinol. dolphin milk contained two beta-lactoglobulins (designated 1 and 2) ...19863707136
congenital malformations of the flipper in three west indian manatees, trichechus manatus, and a proposed mechanism for development of ectrodactyly and cleft hand in mammals.three cases of congenital ectrodactyly of the flipper in the manatee are described, including one case of bilaterally-symmetrical cleft hand. a hypothesis assumes that a defect in the apical ectodermal ridge (aer) in the developing hand plate of the early embryo is the initiating factor in the development of ectrodactylous and cleft hand malformations in man and other mammals. variations in the site, extent, and time of the aer defect will account for many of the morphologic variations observed ...19863955962
pathologic findings in manatees in florida.necropsy and microscopic examinations of 16 west indian manatees (trichechus manatus) revealed that the mortality of many of the animals was associated with environmental factors such as human-inflicted trauma and cold winters. natural disease processes accounted for the death of only 1 manatee. in 3 manatees, the cause of death could not be determined.19846511576
blood coagulation of the west indian manatee (trichechus manatus).blood was obtained from 10 clinically normal west indian manatees. many coagulation screening tests were performed on the blood as well as specific clotting factor assays. all clotting factors were present and their activities compared to those of the dog. the clotting factor activities of the intrinsic system of the manatee are much higher than those of the dog. factor x activity is about the same as that of the dog. the clotting factor activities of the extrinsic system seems to be less than t ...19827083860
interordinal mammalian relationships: evidence for paenungulate monophyly is provided by complete mitochondrial 12s rrna sequences.the complete mitochondrial 12s rrna sequences of 5 placental mammals belonging to the 3 orders sirenia, proboscidea, and hyracoidea are reported together with phylogenetic analyses (distance and parsimony) of a total of 51 mammalian orthologues. this 12s rrna database now includes the 2 extant proboscideans (the african and asiatic elephants loxodonta africana and elephas maximus), 2 of the 3 extant sirenian genera (the sea cow dugong dugon and the west indian manatee trichechus manatus), and 2 ...19968899726
phylogenetic position of mammoth and steller's sea cow within tethytheria demonstrated by mitochondrial dna we report dna sequences from mitochondrial cytochrome b gene segments (1,005 base pairs per species) for the extinct woolly mammoth (mammuthus primigenius) and steller's sea cow (hydrodamalis gigas) and the extant asian elephant (elephas maximus), the western indian manatee (trichechus manatus), and the hyrax (procavia capensis). these molecular data have allowed us to construct the phylogeny for the tethytheria. our molecular data resolve the trichotomy between the two species of living el ...19979089080
phylogeography of the west indian manatee (trichechus manatus): how many populations and how many taxa?to resolve the population genetic structure and phylogeography of the west indian manatee (trichechus manatus), mitochondrial (mt) dna control region sequences were compared among eight locations across the western atlantic region. fifteen haplotypes were identified among 86 individuals from florida, puerto rico, the dominican republic, mexico, columbia, venezuela, guyana and brazil. despite the manatee's ability to move thousands of kilometers along continental margins, strong population separa ...19989734072
manatee mortality in puerto rico./ the most pressing problem in the effective management of the west indian manatee (trichechus manatus) in puerto rico is mortality due to human activities. we assessed 90 cases of manatee strandings in puerto rico based on historical data and a coordinated carcass salvage effort from 1990 through 1995. we determined patterns of mortality, including type of event, condition of carcasses, spatial and temporal distribution, gender, size/age class, and the cause of death. the spatial distribution o ...200010594192
viral papillomatosis in florida manatees (trichechus manatus latirostris).the florida manatee (trichechus manatus latirostris) is one of the most endangered marine mammals in american coastal waters. naturally resistant to infectious disease, the manatee immune system appears highly developed to protect it against the harsh marine environment and the effects of human-related injury. in 1997, seven captive florida manatees developed multiple, cutaneous, pedunculated papillomas over a period of 6 months. approximately 3 years later, four of the seven manatees developed ...200211784121
effects of brevetoxins on murine myeloma sp2/o cells: aberrant cellular division.massive deaths of manatees (trichechus manatus latirostris) during the red tide seasons have been attributed to brevetoxins produced by the dinoflagellate karenia brevis (formerly ptychodiscus breve and gymnodinium breve). although these toxins have been found in macrophages and lymphocytes in the lung, liver, and secondary lymphoid tissues of these animals, the molecular mechanisms of brevetoxicosis have not yet been identified. to investigate the effects of brevetoxins on immune cells, a murin ...200312745987
mycobacteriosis in two captive florida manatees (trichechus manatus latirostris).two male florida manatees (trichechus manatus latirostris) died at the marine aquarium in inagi city, tokyo, japan. acid-fast bacteria were demonstrated in tuberculoid nodules in the lungs from both manatees. mycobacterium marinum and m. fortuitum were isolated from one manatee; m. marinum and m. kansasii were cultured from the second animal. this report confirms the pathogenicity and potentially fatal outcome of mycobacterial infection in manatees. in addition, the pathologic response to infect ...200312885137
toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum, sarcocystis neurona, and sarcocystis canis-like infections in marine mammals.toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum, sarcocystis neurona, and s. canis are related protozoans that can cause mortality in many species of domestic and wild animals. recently, t. gondii and s. neurona were recognized to cause encephalitis in marine mammals. as yet, there is no report of natural exposure of n. caninum in marine mammals. in the present study, antibodies to t. gondii and n. caninum were assayed in sera of several species of marine mammals. for t. gondii, sera were diluted 1:25, 1:50 ...200314580799
evaluation of biochemical analytes in vitreous humor collected after death in west indian evaluate biochemical analytes in vitreous humor collected after death in west indian manatees (trichechus manatus latirostris).200515646579
characterization of surface interleukin-2 receptor expression on gated populations of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from manatees, trichechus manatus in vitro system to determine surface interleukin-2 receptor (il-2r) expression on mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) from free-ranging manatees, trichechus manatus latirostris was developed. human recombinant il-2, conjugated with a fluorescein dye was used in conjunction with flow cytometric analysis to determine changes in surface expression of il-2r at sequential times over a 48-h period of in vitro stimulation. surface expression of il-2r was detected on manatee ...200516112745
managing endangered species within the use-preservation paradox: the florida manatee (trichechus manatus latirostris) as a tourism attraction.a significant challenge to wildlife managers in tourism settings is to provide visitors with opportunities to observe rare and endangered wildlife while simultaneously protecting the target species from deleterious impacts. nearly 100,000 people annually visit crystal river, florida, usa to observe and swim with the florida manatee, an endangered species. this research aimed to investigate and describe human-manatee interactions in a tourism context, to understand the salient issues related to s ...200616362492
the visual pigments of the west indian manatee (trichechus manatus).manatees are unique among the fully aquatic marine mammals in that they are herbivorous creatures, with hunting strategies restricted to grazing on sea-grasses. since the other groups of (carnivorous) marine mammals have been found to possess various visual system adaptations to their unique visual environments, it was of interest to investigate the visual capability of the manatee. previous work, both behavioral (griebel & schmid, 1996), and ultrastructural (cohen, tucker, & odell, 1982; unpubl ...200616650454
application of fracture mechanics to failure in manatee rib bone.the florida manatee (trichechus manatus latirostris) is listed as endangered by the u.s. department of the interior. manatee ribs have different microstructure from the compact bone of other mammals. biomechanical properties of the manatee ribs need to be better understood. fracture toughness (k(c)) has been shown to be a good index to assess the mechanical performance of bone. quantitative fractography can be used in concert with fracture mechanics equations to identify fracture initiating defe ...200616706577
the elephants of zoba gash barka, eritrea: part 4. cholelithiasis in a wild african elephant (loxodonta africana).a 4.0-kg cholelith was found within the abdominal cavity of a dead wild african elephant (loxodonta africana) in eritrea. analysis of this cholelith by histochemistry, electron microscopy, electrospray mass spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy revealed it was composed of bile alcohols but no calcium, bilirubin, or cholesterol. bacteria were also found in the cholelith. similar, but smaller, bile stones have been identified previously in other wild african elephants and an excav ...200517312726
comparison of methods used to diagnose generalized inflammatory disease in manatees (trichechus manatus latirostris).manatees (trichechus manatus latirostris) are afflicted with inflammatory and infectious disease secondary to human interaction, such as boat strike and entanglement, as well as "cold stress syndrome" and pneumonia. white-blood-cell count and fever, primary indicators of systemic inflammation in most species, are insensitive in diagnosing inflammatory disease in manatees. acute phase-response proteins, such as haptoglobin and serum amyloid a, have proven to be sensitive measures of inflammation/ ...200617312794
chromosome painting among proboscidea, hyracoidea and sirenia: support for paenungulata (afrotheria, mammalia) but not tethytheria.despite marked improvements in the interpretation of systematic relationships within eutheria, particular nodes, including paenungulata (hyracoidea, sirenia and proboscidea), remain ambiguous. the combination of a rapid radiation, a deep divergence and an extensive morphological diversification has resulted in a limited phylogenetic signal confounding resolution within this clade both at the morphological and nucleotide levels. cross-species chromosome painting was used to delineate regions of h ...200717374594
six novel gammaherpesviruses of afrotheria provide insight into the early divergence of the gammaherpesvirinae.the afrotheria represent an early branching of placental mammals. only two herpesviruses from afrotheria have been previously identified, and the genus proboscivirus in the subfamily betaherpesvirinae has been proposed for them. six novel gammaherpesviruses were identified in four species in the superorder afrotheria by detection and analysis of their dna polymerase genes. elephantid herpesvirus 3 (elhv3) and elephantid herpesvirus 4 (elhv4) were identified from conjunctival swabs from asian ele ...200817884307
debromoaplysiatoxin in lyngbya-dominated mats on manatees (trichechus manatus latirostris) in the florida king's bay ecosystem.proliferation of the potentially toxic cyanobacterium, lyngbya, in florida lakes and rivers has raised concerns about ecosystem and human health. debromoaplysiatoxin (dat) was measured in concentrations up to 6.31 microg/g wet weight lyngbyatoxin a equivalents (wwlae) in lyngbya-dominated mats collected from natural substrates. dat was also detected (up to 1.19 microg/g wwlae) in lyngbya-dominated mats collected from manatee dorsa. ulcerative dermatitis found on manatees is associated with, but ...200818585400
nephrolithiasis and pyelonephritis in two west indian manatees (trichechus manatus spp.).two west indian manatees (trichechus manatus spp.) were reported with severe emaciation. one animal was a florida manatee from the everglades; the other was an antillean manatee from cuba. on necropsy, both animals had nephrolithiasis, pyelonephritis, and moderate to severe renomegaly. histopathology revealed multifocal to diffuse pyelonephritis, interstitial nephritis, and nephrocalcinosis. the stones were analyzed and consisted primarily of calcium carbonate. serum chemistry values for the flo ...200818689658
comparison of serum lipid compositions, lipid peroxide, alpha-tocopherol and lipoproteins in captive marine mammals (bottlenose dolphins, spotted seals and west indian manatees) and terrestrial mammals.concentrations of serum lipid components, lipid peroxide (lpo) and alpha-tocopherol and electrophoretic patterns of lipoproteins in serum samples obtained from captive marine mammals and terrestrial mammals were compared. serum concentrations of total cholesterol, free fatty acid, and phospholipid in fish-eating animals were significantly higher than those in manatees and cows. serum lpo and alpha-tocopherol concentrations in the fish-eating animals were also significantly higher than those in m ...200918723198
[occurrence of cryptosporidium spp. infection in antillean manatee (trichechus manatus)].cryptosporidiosis is a zoonosis which can affect man and a wide range of domestic and wild animals, mainly immunodeficient individuals. the objective of this paper was reported the occurrence of a cryptosporidium infection in antillean manatee. after an unusual behavior of an antillean manatee kept in captivity at the centro mamíferos aquáticos, icmbio--fma, clinical examination and posterior fecal sampling was performed. fecal samples were examined by the kinyoun technique, direct immunofluores ...200919500463
additional records of metazoan parasites from caribbean marine mammals, including genetically identified anisakid nematodes.studies of marine mammal parasites in the caribbean are scarce. an assessment for marine mammal endo- and ectoparasites from puerto rico and the virgin islands, but extending to other areas of the caribbean, was conducted between 1989 and 1994. the present study complements the latter and enhances identification of anisakid nematodes using molecular markers. parasites were collected from 59 carcasses of stranded cetaceans and manatees from 1994 to 2006, including globicephala macrorhynchus, kogi ...200919582477
balaenophilus manatorum (ortíz, lalana and torres, 1992) (copepoda: harpacticoida) from loggerhead sea turtles, caretta caretta, from japan and the western mediterranean: amended description and geographical comparison.the ectoparasitic harpacticoid copepod, balaenophilus manatorum (ortíz, lalana and torres, 1992) (syn. balaenophilus umigamecolus ogawa, matsuzaki and misaki, 1997), has been reported on 3 species of marine turtles from the pacific and the mediterranean and from the west indian manatee off cuba in the caribbean. the 3 available descriptions of this species were made using light microscopy. in this paper, we provide an amended description of b. manatorum using scanning electronic microscopy (sem) ...201019958046
the insular cortex: a comparative perspective.the human insular cortex is involved in a variety of viscerosensory, visceromotor, and interoceptive functions, and plays a role in complex processes such as emotions, music, and language. across mammals, the insula has considerable morphologic variability. we review the structure and connectivity of the insula in laboratory animals (mouse, domestic cat, macaque monkey), and we present original data on the morphology and cytoarchitecture of insular cortex in less common species including a large ...201020512368
serum amyloid a (saa) as a biomarker of chronic infection due to boat strike trauma in a free-ranging florida manatee (trichechus manatus latirostris) with incidental polycystic kidneys.watercraft-related trauma is the predominant cause of human-induced mortality in manatees (trichechus manatus latirostris), a federal- and state-listed endangered species. pyothorax (documented in this case report) and other secondary infections are common sequelae of inhalation of water and the open wounds caused by boat propellers. these secondary infections can lead to the demise of the animal weeks to months after the traumatic incident when external wounds have healed. diagnosis of underlyi ...201122102678
novel snake papillomavirus does not cluster with other non-mammalian papillomaviruses.papillomaviruses (pvs) are associated with the development of neoplasias and have been found in several different species, most of them in humans and other mammals. we identified, cloned and sequenced pv dna from pigmented papilloma-like lesions of a diamond python (morelia spilota spilota). this represents the first complete pv genome discovered in a squamata host (mspv1). it consists of 7048 nt and contains the characteristic open reading (orf) frames e6, e7, e1, e2, l1 and l2. the l1 orf sequ ...201121910860
serological evidence of toxoplasma gondii infection in captive marine mammals in mexico.toxoplasma gondii infection in marine mammals is important because they are considered as a sentinel for contamination of seas with t. gondii oocysts, and toxoplasmosis causes mortality in these animals, particularly sea otters. serological evidence of t. gondii infection was determined in 75 captive marine mammals from four facilities in southern and central geographical regions in mexico using the modified agglutination test (mat). antibodies (mat, 1:25 or higher) to t. gondii were found in 55 ...201121944844
the west indian manatee (trichechus manatus) lacks a vomeronasal organ.completely aquatic marine mammals of the order cetacea such as whales and dolphins have a reduced or absent olfactory system and neither a vomeronasal organ nor an accessory olfactory bulb. in comparison, seals, which are only partially aquatic, have olfactory and accessory olfactory systems including the vomeronasal organ. thus, there seems to be a strong relation between the degree of adaptation to an aquatic environment and the degree of reduction in olfactory structures. sirenians, such as m ...20133843069
health assessment and seroepidemiologic survey of potential pathogens in wild antillean manatees (trichechus manatus manatus).the antillean manatee (trichechus manatus manatus), a subspecies of the west indian manatee, inhabits fresh, brackish, and warm coastal waters distributed along the eastern border of central america, the northern coast of south america, and throughout the wider caribbean region. threatened primarily by human encroachment, poaching, and habitat degradation, antillean manatees are listed as endangered by the international union for the conservation of nature. the impact of disease on population vi ...201222984521
multiple conformations are a conserved and regulatory feature of the rb1 5' utr.folding to a well-defined conformation is essential for the function of structured ribonucleic acids (rnas) like the ribosome and trna. structured elements in the untranslated regions (utrs) of specific messenger rnas (mrnas) are known to control expression. the importance of unstructured regions adopting multiple conformations, however, is still poorly understood. high-resolution shape-directed boltzmann suboptimal sampling of the homo sapiens retinoblastoma 1 (rb1) 5' utr yields three distinct ...201525999316
identification of bacteria in blood cultures from clinically ill captive antillean manatees (trichechus manatus manatus).between september 2001 and march 2013, 62 bacterial cultures (37 aerobic and 25 anaerobic) were performed on 37 blood samples from 23 antillean manatees ( trichechus manatus manatus) that were kept in captivity at the brazilian national center for research and conservation of aquatic mammals (cma) in pernambuco (cma-pe) and alagoas (cma-al), brazil. all of the animals sampled exhibited clinical signs at the time of sampling including abscesses (n = 8), debilitation and anorexia (n = 22), and pro ...201728363079
yeast microbiota of natural cavities of manatees (trichechus inunguis and trichechus manatus) in brazil and its relevance for animal health and management in captivity.the aim of this study was to characterize the yeast microbiota of natural cavities of manatees kept in captivity in brazil. sterile swabs from the oral cavity, nostrils, genital opening, and rectum of 50 trichechus inunguis and 26 trichechus manatus were collected. the samples were plated on sabouraud agar with chloramphenicol and incubated at 25 °c for 5 days. the yeasts isolated were phenotypically identified by biochemical and micromorphological tests. overall, 141 strains were isolated, of w ...201526308797
seasonal prevalence of antibodies to leptospira interrogans in antillean manatees from a landlocked lake in tabasco, mexico.factors that alter the dynamics of ecologic systems can influence transmission of infectious diseases and may lead to decreases in natural populations. leptospirosis is a cosmopolitan disease of zoonotic importance that affects most mammals. at the southern gulf of mexico, antillean manatees (trichechus manatus manatus) inhabit highly variable environments, with extended floods during the rainy season and drought conditions during the dry season that affect food availability and the thermal envi ...201424779468
disseminated toxoplasmosis toxoplasma gondii in a wild florida manatee trichechus manatus latirostris and seroprevalence in two wild populations.marine mammals are important indicators for ecosystem health and serve as sentinel species for infectious agents including zoonoses. histological examination of tissues from a stranded florida manatee trichechus manatus latirostris revealed protozoal cysts in the cerebrum and intrahistiocytic tachyzoites in the liver and caudal mesenteric lymph node. disseminated toxoplasma gondii infection was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer ...201627901507
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii in captive antillean manatee (trichechus manatus manatus) in brazil.antillean manatees ( trichechus manatus manatus) are aquatic mammals that inhabit marine waters from central america to the northeastern region of brazil, and they are an endangered species. infection with toxoplasma gondii through intake of water or food contaminated with oocysts has been reported among marine mammals. the present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of antibodies to t. gondii in west indian manatees living in captivity in northeastern brazil. serum samples from 55 west india ...201627468012
disseminated toxoplasmosis in antillean manatees trichechus manatus manatus from puerto rico.necropsies were conducted on 4 antillean manatees trichechus manatus manatus that were stranded in single events on the coastal beaches of puerto rico from august 2010 to august 2011. three manatees were emaciated and the gastrointestinal tracts were devoid of digesta. microscopically, all manatees had severe widespread inflammatory lesions of the gastrointestinal tract and heart with intralesional tachyzoites consistent with toxoplasma gondii identified by histological, ultrastructural and immu ...201223135141
fishery gear interactions from stranded bottlenose dolphins, florida manatees and sea turtles in florida, u.s.a.documenting the extent of fishery gear interactions is critical to wildlife conservation efforts, especially for reducing entanglements and ingestion. this study summarizes fishery gear interactions involving common bottlenose dolphins (tursiops truncatus truncatus), florida manatees (trichechus manatus latirostris) and sea turtles: loggerhead (caretta caretta), green turtle (chelonia mydas), leatherback (dermochelys coriacea), hawksbill (eretmochelys imbricata), kemp's ridley (lepidochelys kemp ...201424613263
structure and function of the gastrointestinal tract of the florida manatee, trichechus manatus latirostris.the florida manatee, trichechus manatus latirostris (sirenia: trichechidae), is the largest herbivorous marine mammal. previously, components of the gastrointestinal (gi) tract of the species have been described, but no comprehensive descriptions of the gross and microscopic anatomy existed. this study integrates function and structure of the entire florida manatee gi tract.19968800413
volatile fatty acid concentrations in the digestive tract of the west indian manatee, trichechus manatus.1. digesta samples were collected from five west indian manatees, trichechus manatus, for volatile fatty acid (vfa) analysis. 2. mean total vfa concentrations were low in the stomach and duodenum (18.6 and 12.3 mm/l, respectively). mean vfa concentrations were considerably higher in the cecum and colon (220.6 and 307.3 mm/l, respectively). 3. the relative proportions of the individual vfa's shifted from predominantly acetic acid in the foregut to a mixture of acetic, butyric and propionic acids ...19873677614
evidence of sirenian cold stress syndrome in dugongs dugong dugon from southeast queensland, australia.cold stress syndrome (css) is the term used to describe the range of clinical signs and chronic disease processes that can occur in florida, usa, manatees trichechus manatus latirostris exposed to water temperatures below 20°c for extended periods. although no cold-related adverse events have been described in the closely related dugong dugong dugon thus far, it has been established that they make movements in response to water temperatures lower than about 17 to 18°c. in this study, archive rep ...201323482380
evaluation of exertion and capture stress in serum of wild dugongs (dugong dugon).seven hundred fifty-one dugongs (dugong dugon) were pursued, captured, and handled for up to 20 min for population sampling. fifty of these dugongs were then removed from the water for up to 55 min for comprehensive medical examination. fifty whole blood and separated serum samples were analyzed for potassium, sodium, chloride, creatinine kinase (ck), aspartate aminotransferase (ast), alanine aminotransferase (alt), lactate dehydrogenase (ldh), urea, creatinine, glucose, anion gap, and total blo ...201222448507
characterization of highly informative cross-species microsatellite panels for the australian dugong (dugong dugon) and florida manatee (trichechus manatus latirostris) including five novel primers.the australian dugong (dugong dugon) and florida manatee (trichechus manatus latirostris) are threatened species of aquatic mammals in the order sirenia. sirenian conservation and management actions would benefit from a more complete understanding of genetic diversity and population structure. generally, species-specific microsatellite markers are employed in conservation genetic studies; however, robust markers can be difficult and costly to isolate. to increase the number of available markers, ...201021565032
a pcr assay for gender assignment in dugong (dugong dugon) and west indian manatee (trichechus manatus).gender assignment for some aquatic mammals in the field is difficult. molecular sexing from tissue biopsies is possible as males are heterogametic. here we describe a multiplex pcr assay that amplifies the male specific sry gene and differentiates zfx and zfy gametologues in two sirenian species, dugong (dugong dugon) and west indian manatee (trichechus manatus). the assay was validated with animals of known gender and proved accurate and robust to experimental failure.200821585866
vertebral anatomy in the florida manatee, trichechus manatus latirostris: a developmental and evolutionary analysis.the vertebral column of the florida manatee presents an unusual suite of morphological traits. key among these are a small precaudal count, elongate thoracic vertebrae, extremely short neural spines, lack of a sacral series, high lumbar variability, and the presence of six instead of seven cervical vertebrae. this study documents vertebral morphology, size, and lumbar variation in 71 skeletons of trichechus manatus latirostris (florida manatee) and uses the skeletons of trichechus senegalensis ( ...200717516429
estimating cause-specific mortality rates using recovered carcasses.stranding networks, in which carcasses are recovered and sent to diagnostic laboratories for necropsy and determination of cause of death, have been developed to monitor the health of marine mammal and bird populations. these programs typically accumulate comprehensive, long-term datasets on causes of death that can be used to identify important sources of mortality or changes in mortality patterns that lead to management actions. however, the utility of these data in determining cause-specific ...200919204341
proximate nutrient analyses of four species of submerged aquatic vegetation consumed by florida manatee (trichechus manatus latirostris) compared to romaine lettuce (lactuca sativa var. longifolia).free-ranging florida manatees (trichechus manatus latirostris) consume a variety of sea grasses and algae. this study compared the dry matter (dm) content, proximate nutrients (crude protein [cp], ether-extracted crude fat [ee], nonfiber carbohydrate [nfc], and ash), and the calculated digestible energy (de) of sea grasses (thalassia testudinum, halodule wrightii, and syringodium filiforme) collected in spring, summer, and winter, and an alga (chara sp.) with those of romaine lettuce (lactuca sa ...201021370638
helminths of the florida manatee, trichechus manatus latirostris, with a discussion and summary of the parasites of sirenians.we examined 215 florida manatees (trichechus manatus latirostris) at necropsy to determine the helminth fauna. six species were identified: heterocheilus tunicatus (nematoda: ascaridoidea); anoplocephala sp. (cestoda: cyclophyllidea); and 4 species of trematodes, cochleotrema cochleotrema (digenea: opisthotrematidae), chiorchis fabaceus (digenea: paramphistomatidae), nudacotyle undicola (digenea: nudacotylidae), and moniligerum blairi (digenea: opisthotrematidae). seventy-three percent of the ma ...19883397825
comparative anatomy of the ciliary body of the west indian manatee (trichechus manatus) and selected examine the anatomy of the ciliary body in the west indian manatee (trichechus manatus), paying close attention to its vascularization and to compare to those of its distant relative, the african elephant (loxodonta africana), the amphibious hippopotamus (hippopotamus amphibius) and the aquatic short-finned pilot whale (globicephala macrorhynchus).200616359360
structure and presumptive function of the iridocorneal angle of the west indian manatee (trichechus manatus), short-finned pilot whale (globicephala macrorhynchus), hippopotamus (hippopotamus amphibius), and african elephant (loxodonta africana).the iridocorneal angles of prepared eyes from the west indian manatee, short-finned pilot whale, hippopotamus and african elephant were examined and compared using light microscopy. the manatee and pilot whale demonstrated capacity for a large amount of aqueous outflow, probably as part of a system compensating for lack of ciliary musculature, and possibly also related to environmental changes associated with life at varying depths. the elephant angle displayed many characteristics of large herb ...200312641841
comparison of lipids in selected tissues of the florida manatee (order sirenia) and bottlenose dolphin (order cetacea; suborder odontoceti).the position, porosity and oil-filled nature of the zygomatic process of the squamosal bone (zpsb) of the florida manatee, trichechus manatus latirostris, suggest that it may have a similar sound conduction function to that of the intramandibular fat body (imfb) of the bottlenose dolphin, tursiops truncatus, and other odontocetes. to examine this possibility we determined the lipid composition of the zpsb and adipose tissue from the dorsal part of the head region of the florida manatee, and comp ...200212091108
fatal systemic salmonellosis in a florida manatee ( trichechus manatus latirostris).a subadult male florida manatee ( trichechus manatus latirostris) stranded dead on florida's atlantic coast in january 2015. necropsy and histopathologic findings confirmed chronic systemic bacterial infection caused by salmonella enterica serotype iv 50:z4,z23,:- involving renal, respiratory, lymphatic, and skeletal systems. this was a unique case of systemic salmonellosis in a florida manatee.201728463629
evolution of the mc5r gene in placental mammals with evidence for its inactivation in multiple lineages that lack sebaceous glands.mc5r is one of five melanocortin receptor genes found in placental mammals. mc5r plays an important role in energy homeostasis and is also expressed in the terminal differentiation of sebaceous glands. among placental mammals there are multiple lineages that either lack or have degenerative sebaceous glands including cetacea (whales, dolphins, and porpoises), hippopotamidae (hippopotamuses), sirenia (manatees and dugongs), proboscidea (elephants), rhinocerotidae (rhinos), and heterocephalus glab ...201729277542
retrospective survey for pathogens in stranded marine mammals in northeastern brazil: brucella spp. infection in a clymene dolphin ( stenella clymene).:  we surveyed 13 carcasses of marine mammals (12 trichechus manatus and one stenella clymene) that had stranded in northeastern brazil during 1990-2013 for infectious diseases by screening tissues from the collection of the brazilian national center of research and conservation of aquatic mammal, chico mendes institute for biodiversity conservation. brucella spp. and mycobacterium spp. were investigated by culturing and pcr of tissue samples, whereas sarcocystidae parasites, leptospira spp., an ...201828982019
fatty acid profiles as a potential lipidomic biomarker of exposure to brevetoxin for endangered florida manatees (trichechus manatus latirostris).fatty acid signature analysis (fasa) is an important tool by which marine mammal scientists gain insight into foraging ecology. fatty acid profiles (resulting from fasa) represent a potential biomarker to assess exposure to natural and anthropogenic stressors. florida manatees are well studied, and an excellent necropsy program provides a basis against which to assess this budding tool. results using samples from 54 manatees assigned to four cause-of-death categories indicated that those animals ...201020880571
temporal resolution of the florida manatee (trichechus manatus latirostris) auditory system.auditory evoked potential (aep) measurements of two florida manatees (trichechus manatus latirostris) were measured in response to amplitude modulated tones. the aep measurements showed weak responses to test stimuli from 4 khz to 40 khz. the manatee modulation rate transfer function (mrtf) is maximally sensitive to 150 and 600 hz amplitude modulation (am) rates. the 600 hz am rate is midway between the am sensitivities of terrestrial mammals (chinchillas, gerbils, and humans) (80-150 hz) and do ...200516001184
neuron types in the presumptive primary somatosensory cortex of the florida manatee (trichechus manatus latirostris).within afrotherians, sirenians are unusual due to their aquatic lifestyle, large body size and relatively large lissencephalic brain. however, little is known about the neuron type distributions of the cerebral cortex in sirenians within the context of other afrotherians and aquatic mammals. the present study investigated two cortical regions, dorsolateral cortex area 1 (dl1) and cluster cortex area 2 (cl2), in the presumptive primary somatosensory cortex (s1) in florida manatees (trichechus man ...201526613530
manatee cerebral cortex: cytoarchitecture of the frontal region in trichechus manatus latirostris.members of the order sirenia are unique among mammals in being the only totally aquatic herbivores. they display correspondingly specialized physiological, behavioral and anatomical features. there have been few reports concerning sirenian neuroanatomy, and most of these have consisted of gross anatomical observations. our interest in sirenia stems from the desire to understand neuroanatomical specializations in the context of behavior and the effort to elucidate trends in mammalian brain evolut ...19892611642
a note on the duodenum of the west indian manatee (trichechus manatus), with emphasis on the duodenal glands.the anatomy of the duodenum of the west indian manatee has both macroscopic and microscopic features that are unusual when compared to other mammalian forms. macroscopically, the voluminous duodenal ampulla and the paired duodenal diverticula are distinctive. the general microscopic structure of the manatee duodenum is not unusual, but the duodenal glands secrete an acid mucin (sialomucin). the cells of these glands appear to be intermediate between classical serous and mucous cell types. these ...19827148376
detection and identification of plasma progesterone metabolites in the female florida manatee (trichechus manatus latirostris) using gc/ms/ms.florida manatees (trichechus manatus latirostris) have relatively low peripheral concentrations of progesterone (p4). the objective of this study was to determine if these relatively low p4 concentrations are associated with a high ratio of progestin metabolites and to document metabolite concentrations from individual blood samples obtained from manatees during diestrus or pregnancy. metabolites known to exist in elephants-terrestrial manatee relatives-were targeted. these included 5alpha-reduc ...200919464047
bipolaris hawaiiensis as an emerging cause of cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis in an antillean manatee trichechus manatus manatus.phaeohyphomycoses are emerging and opportunistic diseases caused by dematiaceous fungi that infect many animal species. this paper describes a case of cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis in an antillean manatee trichechus manatus manatus caused by bipolaris hawaiiensis. blackish skin lesions were observed in an antillean manatee calf held captive in brazil. direct examination of skin scraping from the affected areas revealed the presence of dematious hyphae. culture of skin fragments led to the isolatio ...201525667338
antifungal resistance and virulence among candida spp. from captive amazonian manatees and west indian manatees: potential impacts on animal and environmental health.this work aimed at evaluating the antifungal susceptibility and production of virulence factors by candida spp. isolated from sirenians in brazil. the isolates (n = 105) were recovered from the natural cavities of amazonian and west indian manatees and were tested for the susceptibility to amphotericin b, itraconazole, and fluconazole and for the production of phospholipases, proteases, and biofilm. the minimum inhibitory concentrations (mics) for amphotericin b ranged from 0.03 to 1 µg/ml, and ...201626813966
phylogeography and sex-biased dispersal across riverine manatee populations (trichechus inunguis and trichechus manatus) in south america.phylogeographic patterns and sex-biased dispersal were studied in riverine populations of west indian (trichechus manatus) and amazonian manatees (t. inunguis) in south america, using 410bp d-loop (control region, mitochondrial dna) sequences and 15 nuclear microsatellite loci. this multi-locus approach was key to disentangle complex patterns of gene flow among populations. d-loop analyses revealed population structuring among all colombian rivers for t. manatus, while microsatellite data sugges ...201223285054
occurrence of cryptosporidium spp. in antillean manatees (trichechus manatus) and amazonian manatees (trichechus inunguis) from brazil.infections by cryptosporidium spp. in aquatic mammals is a major concern due to the possibility of the waterborne transmission of oocysts. the aim of the present study was to report the occurrence of cryptosporidium spp. in antillean manatees (trichechus manatus) and amazonian manatees (trichechus inunguis) from brazil. fecal samples were collected and processed using kinyoun's method. positive samples were also submitted to the direct immunofluorescence test. the results revealed the presence o ...201122204053
comments on "intraspecific and geographic variation of west indian manatee (trichechus manatus spp.) vocalizations" [j. acoust. soc. am. 114, 66-69 (2003)].this letter concerns the paper "intraspecific and geographic variation of west indian manatee (trichechus manatus spp.) vocalizations" [nowacek et al., j. acoust. soc. am. 114, 66-69 (2003)]. the purpose here is to correct the fundamental frequency range and information on intraindividual variation in the vocalizations of amazonian manatees reported by nowacek et al. (2003) in citing the paper "signature information and individual recognition in the isolation calls of amazonian manatees, trichec ...200616838493
phylogeography, phylogeny and hybridization in trichechid sirenians: implications for manatee conservation.abstract the three living species of manatees, west indian (trichechus manatus), amazonian (trichechus inunguis) and west african (trichechus senegalensis), are distributed across the shallow tropical and subtropical waters of america and the western coast of africa. we have sequenced the mitochondrial dna control region in 330 trichechus to compare their phylogeographic patterns. in t. manatus we observed a marked population structure with the identification of three haplotype clusters showing ...200616448411
phylogeography and population genetics of the endangered amazonian manatee, trichechus inunguis natterer, 1883 (mammalia, sirenia).we used mitochondrial dna control region sequences to examine phylogeography and population differentiation of the endangered amazonian manatee trichechus inunguis. we observe lack of molecular differentiation among localities and we find weak association between geographical and genetic distances. however, nested clade analysis supports restricted gene flow and/or dispersal with some long-distance dispersal. although this species has a history of extensive hunting, genetic diversity and effecti ...200515660933
development and validation of quantitative pcr assays to measure cytokine transcript levels in the florida manatee ( trichechus manatus latirostris).cytokines have important roles in the mammalian response to viral and bacterial infections, trauma, and wound healing. because of early cytokine production after physiologic stresses, the regulation of messenger rna (mrna) transcripts can be used to assess immunologic responses before changes in protein production. to detect and assess early immune changes in endangered florida manatees ( trichechus manatus latirostris), we developed and validated a panel of quantitative pcr assays to measure mr ...201829369729
investigating seagrass in toxoplasma gondii transmission in florida (trichechus manatus latirostris) and antillean (t. m. manatus) manatees.toxoplasma gondii is a feline protozoan reported to cause morbidity and mortality in manatees and other marine mammals. given the herbivorous nature of manatees, ingestion of oocysts from contaminated water or seagrass is presumed to be their primary mode of infection. the objectives of this study were to investigate oocyst contamination of seagrass beds in puerto rico and determine the seroprevalence of t. gondii in antillean (trichechus manatus manatus) and florida (t. m. latirostris) manatees ...201729256429
the presence of ovarian cysts in a captive antillean manatee (trichechus manatus manatus l. 1758).several pathological changes associated with reproductive systems of marine mammals have been reported in primary literature. however, no such records exist regarding ovarian cysts in the antillean manatee (trichechus manatus manatus l. 1758).201728810859
identifying coagulopathies in the pathophysiology of cold stress syndrome in the florida manatee trichechus manatus latirostris.cold stress syndrome (css) in the florida manatee trichechus manatus latirostris has been defined as morbidity and mortality resulting from prolonged exposure to water temperatures <20°c. the pathophysiology is described as multifactorial, involving nutritional, immunological and metabolic disturbances; however, the exact mechanisms are unknown. we hypothesized that thromboembolic complications contribute to the pathophysiology of css in addition to the previously described factors. during the w ...201728792416
development of a quantitative pcr assay for measurement of trichechid herpesvirus 1 load in the florida manatee ( trichechus manatus latirostris).trichechid herpesvirus 1 (trhv-1) is currently the only known herpesvirus in any sirenian. we hypothesized that stress may lead to recrudescence of trhv-1 in manatees, thus making trhv-1 a potential biomarker of stress. we optimized and validated a trhv-1 real-time quantitative probe hybridization pcr (qpcr) assay that was used to quantify trhv-1 in manatee peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmcs). average baseline trhv-1 loads in a clinically healthy wild florida manatee ( trichechus manatus ...201728467282
proposal and application of a novel disseminated intravascular coagulation scoring system in the florida manatee (trichechus manatus latirostris).disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (dic) is an acquired disorder of hemostasis resulting in activation of the coagulation and fibrinolytic pathways. it is reported secondarily to multiple disease processes and can be associated with increased mortality. previous research at tampa's lowry park zoo (lpz) demonstrated that florida manatees ( trichechus manatus latirostris) with cold stress syndrome (css) demonstrated thromboembolic disease. the object of this retrospective study was to establi ...201728363081
treatment of pulmonicola cochleotrema infection with ivermectin-praziquantel combination in an antillean manatee (trichechus manatus manatus).the aim of this study was to report the use of an oral combination of ivermectin plus praziquantel in the treatment of a pulmonicola cochleotrema in an antillean manatee ( trichechus manatus manatus). a female manatee was found exhibiting respiratory changes and the presence of parasites in the nares. based on clinical manifestations presented by the manatee, a symptomatic therapeutic protocol was employed, which included an anthelmintic treatment using a combination of ivermectin plus praziquan ...201728363040
detection of hydrodynamic stimuli by the postcranial body of florida manatees (trichechus manatus latirostris).manatees live in shallow, frequently turbid waters. the sensory means by which they navigate in these conditions are unknown. poor visual acuity, lack of echolocation, and modest chemosensation suggest that other modalities play an important role. rich innervation of sensory hairs that cover the entire body and enlarged somatosensory areas of the brain suggest that tactile senses are good candidates. previous tests of detection of underwater vibratory stimuli indicated that they use passive move ...201728194485
the florida manatee (trichechus manatus latirostris) immunoglobulin heavy chain suggests the importance of clan iii variable segments in repertoire diversity.manatees are a vulnerable, charismatic sentinel species from the evolutionarily divergent afrotheria. manatee health and resistance to infectious disease is of great concern to conservation groups, but little is known about their immune system. to develop manatee-specific tools for monitoring health, we first must have a general knowledge of how the immunoglobulin heavy (igh) chain locus is organized and transcriptionally expressed. using the genomic scaffolds of the florida manatee (trichechus ...201728131767
from the worm in a bottle of mezcal: idna confirmation of a leech parasitizing the antillean manatee.invertebrate-derived ingested dna (idna) is quickly proving to be a valuable, non-invasive tool for monitoring vertebrate species of conservation concern. using the dna barcoding locus, we successfully identified both the blood-feeding leech haementeria acuecueyetzin and its blood meal-the latter is shown to be derived from the caribbean manatee, trichechus manatus . dna amplification was successful despite the fact that the specimen was fixed in mezcal (a beverage distilled from agave). we repo ...201627391275
normal hemostatic profiles and coagulation factors in healthy free-living florida manatees ( trichechus manatus latirostris).hemostatic disorders presumptively play an important role in the pathophysiology of several important disease conditions in the florida manatee ( trichechus manatus latirostris). prior to pursuing such clinical implications, it is essential to establish normal hemostatic profiles in clinically healthy animals. during annual health assessments of free-living manatees organized by the us geological survey, blood samples were collected from 12 healthy animals from the atlantic coast and 28 from the ...201627525595
influence of manatees' diving on their risk of collision with watercraft.watercraft pose a threat to endangered florida manatees (trichechus manatus latirostris). mortality from watercraft collisions has adversely impacted the manatee population's growth rate, therefore reducing this threat is an important management goal. to assess factors that contribute to the risk of watercraft strikes to manatees, we studied the diving behavior of nine manatees carrying gps tags and time-depth recorders in tampa bay, florida, during winters 2002-2006. we applied a bayesian formu ...201627049326
reproductive neoplasms in wild and long-term captive female florida manatees (trichechus manatus latirostris).few reports of neoplastic diseases in manatees exist in the veterinary literature. this case series presents reproductive neoplasia noted in eight wild and long-term captive female florida manatees (trichechus manatus latirostris) obtained through carcass recovery and animal rehabilitation programs between april 2009 and may 2014. all cases were evaluated histologically, and diagnoses of uterine carcinoma (n = 1), granulosa cell tumor (n = 2), ovarian adnexal tumor (n = 1), and leiomyoma (n = 5) ...201526667547
metals in bone tissue of antillean manatees from the gulf of mexico and chetumal bay, mexico.concentrations of seven metals (as, cd, cr, cu, pb, ni, and zn) were analyzed in 33 bone tissue samples of antillean manatees (trichechus manatus manatus) found dead in lagoons and rivers of tabasco and campeche in the gulf of mexico and chetumal bay in the caribbean region. the concentrations of cr, cu, pb, and zn were significantly different between regions, with greater levels found in the gulf of mexico group than in the mexican caribbean group (p < 0.05). pb concentrations differed signific ...201626519079
establishment of reference values for various coagulation tests in healthy florida manatees (trichechus manatus latirostris) and evaluation of coagulation in debilitated manatees during establish reference ranges for coagulation parameters in healthy florida manatees (trichechus manatus latirostris) and compare results with those for debilitated manatees undergoing treatment at a rehabilitation facility.201526480015
debris ingestion by the antillean manatee (trichechus manatus manatus).the antillean manatee inhabits coastal regions of north and northeastern brazil and currently is considered an endangered species in the country. aiming to gather information for the development of public policies focusing on the conservation of manatees, the national center for research and conservation of aquatic mammals of the chico mendes institute for biodiversity has been rescuing, rehabilitating and releasing these mammals since the 1980s. over the last 36 years, 40 manatees were released ...201526431561
molecular characterization of novel mucosotropic papillomaviruses from a florida manatee (trichechus manatus latirostris).we isolated two new manatee papillomavirus (pv) types, tmpv3 and tmpv4, from a florida manatee (trichechus manatus latirostris). two pv types were previously isolated from this species. tmpv1 is widely dispersed amongst manatees and a close-to-root pv; not much is known about tmpv2. the genomes of tmpv3 and tmpv4 were 7622 and 7771 bp in size, respectively. both pvs had a genomic organization characteristic of all pvs, with one non-coding region and seven orfs, including the e7 orf that is absen ...201526395390
the relationship between acoustic habitat, hearing and tonal vocalizations in the antillean manatee (trichechus manatus manatus, linnaeus, 1758).the antillean manatee (trichechus manatus manatus) is an endangered marine mammal that inhabits the caribbean sea and riverine systems in central america. their acoustic behavior is relevant for individual identification, mating and parental care. manatees produce tonal sounds with highest energy in the second harmonic (usually 5 khz), and their audiogram indicates sensitivity from 0.3 khz to 90 khz with lowest thresholds in the 16 to 18 khz range. we recorded manatees in the san san river, a hi ...201526340942
establishment of echocardiographic parameters of clinically healthy florida manatees (trichechus manatus latirostris).a standardized echocardiographic technique was recently established for the florida manatee (trichechus manatus latirostris). there are no available published data on normal echocardiographic parameters in any sirenian species. the purpose of this study was to report reference parameters for various echocardiographic measurements. these parameters are intended to serve as a comparison for future research into the prevalence of cardiac diseases in the manatee and to aid in diagnosing animals with ...201526056870
sublethal red tide toxin exposure in free-ranging manatees (trichechus manatus) affects the immune system through reduced lymphocyte proliferation responses, inflammation, and oxidative stress.the health of many florida manatees (trichechus manatus latirostris) is adversely affected by exposure to blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, karenia brevis. k. brevis blooms are common in manatee habitats of florida's southwestern coast and produce a group of cyclic polyether toxins collectively referred to as red tide toxins, or brevetoxins. although a large number of manatees exposed to significant levels of red tide toxins die, several manatees are rescued from sublethal exposure and are suc ...201525678466
eight-choice sound localization by manatees: performance abilities and head related transfer functions.two experiments investigated the ability and means by which two male florida manatees (trichechus manatus latirostris) may determine the direction of a sound source. an eight-choice discrimination paradigm was used to determine the subjects' sound localization abilities of five signal conditions covering a range of frequencies, durations, and levels. subjects performed above the 12.5% chance level for all broadband frequencies and were able to localize sounds over a large level range. errors wer ...201525533765
acoustical and anatomical determination of sound production and transmission in west indian (trichechus manatus) and amazonian (t. inunguis) manatees.west indian (trichechus manatus) and amazonian (t. inunguis) manatees are vocal mammals, with most sounds produced for communication between mothers and calves. while their hearing and vocalizations have been well studied, the actual mechanism of sound production is unknown. acoustical recordings and anatomical examination were used to determine the source of sound generation. recordings were performed on live captive manatees from puerto rico, cuba and colombia (t. manatus) and from peru (t. in ...201425044536
digestive efficiencies of ex situ and in situ west indian manatees (trichechus manatus latirostris).digestive efficiencies (dm) of ex situ and in situ manatees (trichechus manatus latirostris) were, for the first time, assessed using manganese (mn(2+)) as a naturally occurring marker. the dm of ex situ manatees determined using [mn(2+)] did not differ significantly from the dm assessed using lignin, supporting the efficacy of the manganese approach. gastrointestinal tract samples, obtained from recently dead animals, showed [mn(2+)] concentrations were lowest in the stomach and remained low in ...201524457923
conservative management of pneumothorax and pneumoperitoneum in two florida manatees (trichechus manatus latirostris).two distressed florida manatees (trichechus manatus latirostris) were reported to the florida fish and wildlife conservation commission. the first animal was determined to be an abandoned, emaciated calf. the second animal was a nursing calf that had sustained watercraft-related trauma. both animals were captured and transported to tampa's lowry park zoo, where diagnostic evaluations, including physical examinations, blood work, computed tomography (ct), and radiographs were performed. radiograp ...201324450060
assessement of serum amyloid a levels in the rehabilitation setting in the florida manatee (trichechus manatus latirostris).the acute phase protein serum amyloid a (saa) has been previously shown to have value as a biomarker of inflammation and infection in many species, including manatees (trichechus manatus latirostris). in the current study, results from an automated assay for saa were used in a rehabilitation setting. reference intervals were established from clinically normal manatees using the robust method: 0-46 mg/l. more than 30-fold higher mean saa levels were observed in manatees suffering from cold stress ...201324450049
variation in the hindgut microbial communities of the florida manatee, trichechus manatus latirostris over winter in crystal river, florida.the florida manatee, trichechus manatus latirostris, is a hindgut-fermenting herbivore. in winter, manatees migrate to warm water overwintering sites where they undergo dietary shifts and may suffer from cold-induced stress. given these seasonally induced changes in diet, the present study aimed to examine variation in the hindgut bacterial communities of wild manatees overwintering at crystal river, west florida. faeces were sampled from 36 manatees of known sex and body size in early winter wh ...201424215517
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