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[amino acid sequence of corticotropins from seiwhale (balaenoptera borealis) and pinwhale (balaenoptera physalus)].the corticotropins from two species of whales, e. g. seiwhale (balaenoptera borealis) and finwhale (balaenoptera physalus) were subjected to hydrolysis by trypsin, chymotrypsin and pepsin. the peptide fragments were separated by gel-filtration through sephadex and partition paper chromatography. the study of the amino acid sequence of the peptides obtained allowed to establish the primary structure of corticotropin from both species, which was found structurally identical to human corticotropin.1977201308
isolation and primary structure of adrenocorticotropin from several species of whale.the isolation of adrenocorticotropin (acth) from fin (balaenoptera physalus), sei (blaenoptera borelis) and sperm (physeter catodon) whale pituitaries is described. their primary structures have been elucidated by the fluorescein isothiocyanate method and revealed to be identical to the structure of the human hormone. fin whale exhibited an identical steroidogenic activity to that of the porcine hormone.1978217846
an investigation of north atlantic whales for trichinosis.in 1971, 81 finback (balaenoptera physalus), 119 sei (b. borealis), two piked (b. acutorostrata), 15 humpback (megaptera novaeangliae) and one sperm whale (physeter catodon) taken in the north atlantic off the newfoundland and nova scotia coasts were examined for the presence of trichinella spiralis. all 218 whales were negative for trichinosis.1976933319
involucrin-like proteins in non-primates.a monoclonal and two polyclonal antibodies to human involucrin were used to look for involucrin epitopes in other species. all antibodies react strongly with the same proteins of monkey, and both polyclonal antibodies react with specific proteins of cow and dog. one of the polyclonal antibodies also reacts with proteins of sheep, guinea pig, rat, and finback whale. the immunoreactive proteins from cow and dog could be purified using a procedure developed for human involucrin. the reaction with t ...19901688904
the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial dna of the fin whale, balaenoptera physalus.the composition of the mitochondrial dna (mtdna) of the fin whale, balaenoptera physalus, was determined. the length of the molecule is 16,398 bp, and its organization conforms with that of other mammals. the general similarity between the mtdna of the fin whale and the cow is greater than the similarity between the fin whale and other species (human, mouse, rat) in which the composition of the entire molecule has been described. the d-loop region of the mtdna of the fin whale is 81% identical t ...19911779436
the complete amino acid sequence of prolactin from the bullfrog, rana catesbeiana.the complete amino acid sequence of prolactin (prl) from an amphibian species, the bullfrog (rana catesbeiana), has been determined and conserved residues and domains were analyzed by sequence comparison of prls from 15 species of five major vertebrate classes. the bullfrog prl consists of 197 amino acid residues with three disulfide linkages formed between residues 4-11, 58-172, and 189-197. the bullfrog prl shows the highest identity with sea turtle prl (75%); lower identities with chicken prl ...19911916208
the complete amino acid sequence of prolactin from the sea turtle (chelonia mydas).the complete amino acid sequence of prolactin (prl) from a reptile, the sea turtle (chelonia mydas), was determined for the first time. sequence analysis was performed on fragments obtained from cleavage of intact and performic acid-oxidized hormone with lysyl endopeptidase, staphylococcus aureus protease, and o-iodosobenzoic acid employing manual edman degradation. the sea turtle prl consists of 198 amino acid residues with three disulfide linkages formed between residues 4-11, 58-173, and 190- ...19902289679
immunochemistry of sperm whale myoglobin. x. regions responsible for immunochemical cross-reaction with finback whale myoglobin. some general conclusions concerning immunochemical cross-reaction of proteins. 19714110827
interspecies correlations of cerebral cortical oxygen consumption, acetylcholinesterase activity and chloride content: studies on the brains of the fin whale (balaenoptera physalus) and the sperm whale (physeter catadon). 19734633360
studies on myoglobin from the finback whale (balaenoptera physalus). preparation, physicochemical and immunochemical characterization, differentiation from sperm-whale myoglobin, amino acid composition and end-terminal analyses.1. crystalline myoglobin was isolated from the skeletal muscle of the finback whale and fractionated, in its cyanmet form, into nine components (i-ix) by chromatography on cm-cellulose. also in the cyanmet form, it was resolved into six components by electrophoresis on starch gel. correspondence between the electrophoretic and chromatographic components was determined, and interconversion between components revealed by chromatography and electrophoresis. 2. the chromatographic myoglobin componen ...19664957175
studies on fin whale pancreatic proteases. ii. purification of the pancreatic proteases. 19695354027
the antibody response to myoglobin is independent of the immunized species. analysis in terms of replacements in the antigenic sites and in environmental residues of the cross-reactions of fifteen myoglobins with sperm-whale myoglobin antisera raised in different species.the recent determination of the entire antigenic structure of sperm-whale myoglobin with rabbit and goat antisera has permitted the examination of whether the antigenic structure recognized by antibodies depends on the species in which the antisera are raised. also, by knowledge of the antigenic structure, the molecular factors that determine and influence antigenicity can be better understood in terms of the effects of amino acid substitutions occurring in the antigenic sites and in the environ ...19806169338
isolation and characterization of beta-lipotropin from fin whale pituitary glands.the isolation and characterization of beta-lipotropin from fin whale (balaenoptera physalus) pituitary glands are described. the proposed primary structure is also presented. fin whale beta-lph exhibited an identical lipolytic activity when compared with human hormone.19807372408
post mortem investigations on cetaceans found stranded on the coasts of italy between 1990 and 1993.detailed pathological and virological examinations were carried out on 25 cetaceans found stranded between 1990 and 1993 on the coasts of six italian regions (latium, tuscany, apulia, abruzzo, veneto and sicily). there were 16 striped dolphins (stenella coeruleoalba), three bottlenosed dolphins (tursiops truncatus), three risso's dolphins (grampus griseus), one rough-toothed dolphin (steno bredanensis), one fin whale pup (balaenoptera physalus), and one minke whale (balaenoptera acutorostrata). ...19957631479
the mitochondrial dna molecule of sumatran orangutan and a molecular proposal for two (bornean and sumatran) species of orangutan.the complete mitochondrial dna (mtdna) molecule of sumatran orangutan, plus the complete mitochondrial control region of another sumatran specimen and the control regions and five protein-coding genes of two specimens of bornean orangutan were sequenced and compared with a previously reported complete mtdna of bornean orangutan. the two orangutans are presently separated at the subspecies level. comparison with five different species pairs-namely, harbor seal/grey seal, horse/donkey, fin whale/b ...19968875856
the complete mitochondrial dna (mtdna) of the donkey and mtdna comparisons among four closely related mammalian species-pairs.the nucleotide sequence of the complete mitochondrial genome of the donkey, equus asinus, was determined. the length of the molecule is 16,670 bp. the length, however, is not absolute due to pronounced heteroplasmy caused by variable numbers of two types of repetitive motifs in the control region. the sequence of the repeats is (a) 5'-cacaccca and (b) 5'-tgcgcgca, respectively. the order of (a) and (b) can be expressed as {n[2(a)+(b)]+m(a)}. in 32 different clones analyzed the number of n and m ...19968875857
evidence of brucella infection in marine mammals in the north atlantic ocean.between 1983 and 1996 a total of 1386 samples of serum were taken from four species of seal and three species of whale in the waters west of iceland, the area of pack-ice north-west of jan mayen, the northern coast of norway and the kola peninsula, the waters west of svalbard, and the barents sea; they were tested for the presence of anti-brucella antibodies with an indirect elisa (protein g conjugate). the positive sera were re-tested with classical brucellosis serological tests, such as the se ...199910378290
structural and functional organization of mammalian cerebral cortex; the correlation of neurone density with brain size; cortical neurone density in the fin whale (balaenoptera physalus l.) with a note on the cortical neurone density in the indian elephant. 195413211853
the amino acid sequence in fin-whale insulin. 196414228503
perfluorinated chemicals infiltrate ocean waters: link between exposure levels and stable isotope ratios in marine mammals.this is the first study to report on concentrations of perfluorinated organochemicals (focs) in marine mammals stranded along the southern north sea coast in relation to stable nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios (delta15n and delta13c). the presence of focs in top predators such as marine mammals would indicate a potential biomagnification of these compounds and their widespread occurrence. liver and kidney tissues of nine marine mammal species have been sampled. among all the measured focs comp ...200314717162
pathological findings in two fin whales (balaenoptera physalus) with evidence of morbillivirus infection.two immature female fin whales stranded on the belgian and french coastlines, were examined post mortem. the main gross findings were massive parasitic infestation, associated with a large thrombus in one whale, and severe emaciation. microscopical investigations revealed multinucleated syncytia with large intranuclear inclusion bodies in various tissues, and positive immunolabelling for morbillivirus antigens. other evidence of morbillivirus infection was provided by the demonstration of specif ...200011032676
some acoustical properties of the otic bones of a fin whale.the otic bones in this report are the tympanic bulla, the periotic, and the three ossicles (malleus, incus, and stapes) of an adult fin whale (balaenoptera physalus). the purpose was to determine if the periotic was denser than the other otic bones. it was found in one male adult fin whale that the density of all the otic bones is approximately the same, 2.50 kg/m3 with a maximum of 2.58. the lowest density was observed in the stapes (2.36). the sonic velocity seems to vary as the density but th ...19968730088
arterial windkessels in marine mammals.in marine mammals, the aortic arch is enlarged relative to the descending aorta to varying degrees in different species. the ratio of maximal diameter of the arch to that of the thoracic aorta is about 2.3 in the harbour seal (phoca vitulina), 3.6 in the weddell seal (leptonychotes weddelli) and 3.2 in the fin whale (balaenoptera physalus), compared with only 1.4 in the dog. this anatomical specialisation probably provides increased volume capacitance in the arterial circulation as an adaptation ...19958571227
comparative chromosome painting discloses homologous segments in distantly related mammals.comparative chromosome painting, termed zoo-fish, using dna libraries from flow sorted human chromosomes 1, 16, 17 and x, and mouse chromosome 11 discloses the presence of syntenic groups in distantly related mammalian orders ranging from primates (homo sapiens), rodents (mus musculus), even-toed ungulates (muntiacus muntjak vaginalis and muntiacus reevesi) and whales (balaenoptera physalus). these mammalian orders have evolved separately for 55-80 million years (myr). we conclude that zoo-fish ...19948054973
isolation and partial characterization of growth hormone from fin whale pituitary glands.a highly purified somatotropin (growth hormone) has been isolated from fin whale (balaenoptera physalus) pituitary glands in a yield of 1,014 mg/kg of wet weight tissue. the preparation was shown to be homogenous by isoelectric focusing on polyacrylamide with growth-promoting potency comparable to that of ovine growth hormone by the rat tibia test. the molecular weight was found to be 20,000 daltons by sds gel electrophoresis and 40,000 daltons by exclusion chromatography on sephadex g-100 at ph ...19807462187
primary structure of equine pituitary prolactin.equine prolactin was determined to be a single chain protein of 199 amino acid containing two tryptophan and six cysteine residues, as found in other mammalian prolactins. the primary sequence of equine prolactin was obtained by automated edman analyses of s-carboxymethylated protein and proteolytic fragments of modified protein. of the known prolactin sequences, equine prolactin shows closest homology with porcine (93%) and fin whale (87-91%) prolactins. genetic mutations have produced changes ...19883045032
prevalence of vesicular exanthema of swine antibodies among feral mammals associated with the southern california coastal zones.serum-neutralizing antibodies to both vesicular exanthema of swine virus (vesv) and san miguel sea lion virus (smsv) were found in a number of animal species having an association with the southern california coastal zones. california sea lions (zalophus californianus) had antibodies to 9 vesv types (a48, c52, d53, e54, f54, g55, i55, j56, and k56). fur seals (callorhinus ursinus) and elephant seal pups (mirounga angustirostris) were tested for antibodies to 6 vesv types and all were negative. c ...1978629463
only male fin whales sing loud songs.the low-frequency vocalizations of fin and blue whales are the most powerful and ubiquitous biological sounds in the ocean. here we combine acoustic localization and molecular techniques to show that, in fin whales, only males produce these vocalizations. this finding indicates that they may function as male breeding displays, and will help to focus concern on the impact of human-generated low-frequency sounds on recovering whale populations.200212075339
organochlorine levels in subcutaneous blubber biopsies of fin whales (balaenoptera physalus) and striped dolphins (stenella coeruleoalba) from the mediterranean sea.polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) and ddt compounds were determined in subcutaneous blubber of fin whales (balaenoptera physalus) and striped dolphins (stenella coeruleoalba) from the mediterranean sea. from 1990 to 1993, 68 fin whale and 89 dolphin blubber biopsies were analysed. the whales were sampled while passing through the ligurian sea, whereas the dolphins were collected in different areas of the mediterranean: the ligurian, tyrrhenian and ionian seas. total pcbs and ddts were 5.5-7.1 ppm ...199615091448
whale (balaenoptera physalus) haemoglobin: primary structure, functional characterisation and computer modelling studies.the functional properties of haemoglobin from the mediterranean whale balaenoptera physalus have been studied as functions of heterotropic effector concentration and temperature. particular attention has been given to the effect of carbon dioxide and lactate since the animal is specialised for prolonged dives often in cold water. the molecular basis of the functional behaviour and in particular of the weak interaction with 2,3-diphosphoglycerate is discussed in the light of the primary structure ...200312524033
perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorinated hydrocarbons in marine mammals, fishes, and birds from coasts of the baltic and the mediterranean seas.perfluorooctanesulfonate (pfos; c8f17so3-), perfluorooctanesulfonamide (fosa; c8f17so2nh2), perfluorohexanesulfonate (pfhxs; c6f13so3-), and perfluorooctanoate (pfoa; c7f15co2-) were detected in 175 samples of liver and blood of bluefin tuna (thunnus thynnus), swordfish (xiphias gladius), common cormorants (phalacrocorax carbo), bottlenose dolphins (tursiops truncatus), striped dolphins (stenella coeruleoalba), common dolphins (delphinus delphi), fin whales (balenoptera physalus), and long-finne ...200212188342
monitoring winter and summer abundance of cetaceans in the pelagos sanctuary (northwestern mediterranean sea) through aerial surveys.systematic long-term monitoring of abundance is essential to inform conservation measures and evaluate their effectiveness. to instigate such work in the pelagos sanctuary in the mediterranean, two aerial surveys were conducted in winter and summer 2009. a total of 467 (131 in winter, 336 in summer) sightings of 7 species was made. sample sizes were sufficient to estimate abundance of fin whales in summer (148; 95% ciôçè=ôçè87-254) and striped dolphins in winter (19,462; 95% ciôçè=ôçè12 939-29 2 ...201121829544
frequent loss and alteration of the moxd2 gene in catarrhines and whales: a possible connection with the evolution of olfaction.the moxd2 gene encodes a membrane-bound monooxygenase similar to dopamine-β-hydroxylase, and has been proposed to be associated with olfaction. in this study, we analyzed moxd2 genes from 64 mammalian species, and identified loss-of-function mutations in apes (humans, sumatran and bornean orangutans, and five gibbon species from the four major gibbon genera), toothed whales (killer whales, bottlenose dolphins, finless porpoises, baijis, and sperm whales), and baleen whales (minke whales and fin ...201425102179
fetal and early post-natal mineralization of the tympanic bulla in fin whales may reveal a hitherto undiscovered evolutionary trait.the evolution of the cetacean skeleton followed a path that differentiated this group from other terrestrial mammals about 50 million years ago [1], and debate is still going on about the relationships between cetacea and artiodactyla [2], [3], [4]. some skeletal traits of the basilosaurids (the more advanced forms of archaeocetes), such as the expansion of the peribullary air sinuses, dental modification and vertebral size uniformity [5] are maintained and further emphasized also in contemporar ...201222615912
endoparasite survey of free-swimming baleen whales (balaenoptera musculus, b. physalus, b. borealis) and sperm whales (physeter macrocephalus) using non/minimally invasive methods.a number of parasitic diseases have gained importance as neozoan opportunistic infections in the marine environment. here, we report on the gastrointestinal endoparasite fauna of three baleen whale species and one toothed whale: blue (balaenoptera musculus), fin (balaenoptera physalus), and sei whales (balaenoptera borealis) and sperm whales (physeter macrocephalus) from the azores islands, portugal. in total, 17 individual whale fecal samples [n = 10 (b. physalus); n = 4 (p. macrocephalus); n = ...201626593736
are the mediterraneantop predators exposed to toxicological risk due to endocrine disrupters?man-made endocrine disrupting chemicals (edcs) range across all continents and oceans; some geographic areas are potentially more threatened than others: one of these is the mediterranean sea. this basin has limited exchange of water with the atlantic ocean and is surrounded by some of the most heavily populated and industrialized countries in the world. accordingly, levels of some xenobiotics are much higher here than in other seas and oceans. in this research the unexplored hypothesis that med ...200111795396
cloning and characterization of the gene encoding growth hormone in finback whale (balaenoptera physalus).in mammals growth hormone (gh) is generally a strongly conserved protein, reflecting a slow rate of molecular evolution. however, during primate and artiodactyl evolution episodes of rapid change occurred, so that the ghs of higher primates and ruminants differ markedly from those of other mammals. to extend knowledge of gh evolution in cetartiodactyla (artiodactyla plus cetacea) we have previously characterized gh genes from several members of this group, including the common dolphin. surprisin ...200515993109
nondestructive biomarkers of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals in endangered species of wildlife.this paper explores the problem of endocrine disrupting chemicals (edcs) from the ecotoxicological point of view, focusing on nondestructive biomarkers of exposure to edcs for risk assessment of endangered species of wildlife. several edcs, such as polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons and toxic metals, tend to be biomagnified in the terrestrial and particularly the marine food chains. top predators tend to accumulate high concentrations of these contaminants which places them in a situation of ...199910467722
morbillivirus infection in cetaceans stranded along the italian coastline: pathological, immunohistochemical and biomolecular findings.morbilliviruses are recognized as biological agents highly impacting the health and conservation status of free-ranging cetaceans worldwide, as clearly exemplified by the two dolphin morbillivirus (dmv) epidemics of 1990-1992 and 2006-2008 among mediterranean striped dolphins (stenella coeruleoalba). after these two epidemics, morbilliviral infection (mi) cases with peculiar neurobiological features were reported in striped dolphins stranded along the spanish coastline. affected cetaceans showed ...201322921372
dolphin morbillivirus and toxoplasma gondii coinfection in a mediterranean fin whale (balaenoptera physalus).although morbillivirus and toxoplasma gondii have emerged as important pathogens for several cetaceans populations over the last 20 years, they have never been identified together in a mysticete. in particular, morbilliviral infection has been never described in the mediterranean fin whale population.201222397492
retrospective seroepidemiological investigations against morbillivirus, toxoplasma gondii and brucella spp. in cetaceans stranded along the italian coastline (1998-2014).this study reports the results of seroepidemiological investigations carried out against morbillivirus, toxoplasma gondii and brucella spp. on blood serum samples collected from 70 cetacean specimens found stranded along the italian coastline between 1998 and 2014. a total number of 23 serum samples (32.8%) obtained from stenella coeruleoalba, tursiops truncatus, balaenoptera physalus and globicephala melas harboured anti-morbillivirus neutralizing antibodies. ten sera (16%) collected from s. co ...201526267096
complete nucleotide sequence of pig (sus scrofa) mitochondrial genome and dating evolutionary divergence within artiodactyla.the complete nucleotide sequence of the pig (sus scrofa) mitochondrial genome, containing 16613bp, is presented in this report. the genome is not a specific length because of the presence of the variable numbers of tandem repeats, 5'-cgtgcgtaca in the displacement loop (d-loop). genes responsible for 12s and 16s rrnas, 22 trnas, and 13 protein-coding regions are found. the genome carries very few intergenic nucleotides with several instances of overlap between protein-coding or trna genes, excep ...199910433971
lesions of morbillivirus infection in a fin whale (balaenoptera physalus) stranded along the belgian coast. 19989807793
identification of highly brominated analogues of q1 in marine mammals.three novel halogenated organic compounds (hocs) have been identified in the blubber of marine mammals from coastal new england with the molecular formulae c(9)h(3)n(2)br(6)cl, c(9)h(3)n(2)br(7), and c(9)h(4)n(2)br(5)cl. they were identified using high and low resolution gas chromatography mass spectrometry (gcms) and appear to be highly brominated analogues of q1, a heptachlorinated hoc suspected to be naturally produced. these compounds were found in atlantic white sided dolphin (lagenorhynchu ...200616517037
identification of sex in cetaceans by multiplexing with three zfx and zfy specific primers.we sequenced 540 nucleotides of the last exon in the zfy/zfx gene in two males and two females for eight cetacean species; four odontocetes (toothed whales) and four mysticetes (baleen whales). based upon the obtained nucleotide sequences, we designed two sets of oligonucleotide primers for specific amplification of the zfx and the zfy sequence in odontocetes and mysticetes, respectively. each primer set consisted of three oligonucleotides; one forward-orientated primer, which anneals to the zfy ...19968673273
endocrine disruptors in mediterranean top marine predators.man-made endocrine disruptors (eds) range across all continents and oceans. some geographic areas are potentially more threatened than others: one of these is the mediterranean sea. levels of some xenobiotics are much higher here than in other seas and oceans. in this paper we review the final results of a project in which the hypothesis that mediterranean top predator species (such as large pelagic fish and marine mammals) are potentially at risk due to eds was investigated.200616758711
nucleotide sequence of the d-loop region of the sperm whale (physeter macrocephalus) mitochondrial genome.we have amplified, by the polymerase chain reaction, and have sequenced the d-loop region of the mitochondrial dna from the sperm whale (physeter macrocephalus). the sperm whale d-loop was aligned with d-loop sequences from four other cetaceans (commerson's dolphin, orca, fin whale, and minke whale) and an out-group (cow). this alignment showed the sperm whale sequence to be larger than that of other cetaceans. in addition, some sequence blocks were highly conserved among all six species, sugges ...19938487632
comparison between the complete mtdna sequences of the blue and the fin whale, two species that can hybridize in nature.the sequence of the mitochondrial dna (mtdna) molecule of the blue whale (balaenoptera musculus) was determined. the molecule is 16,402 bp long and its organization conforms with that of other eutherian mammals. the molecule was compared with the mtdna of the congeneric fin whale (b. physalus). it was recently documented that the two species can hybridize and that male offspring are infertile whereas female offspring may be fertile. the present comparison made it possible to determine the degree ...19938308901
potential toxicological hazard due to endocrine-disrupting chemicals on mediterranean top predators: state of art, gender differences and methodological tools.man-made endocrine-disrupting chemicals (edcs) range across all continents and oceans. some geographic areas are potentially more threatened than others: one of these is the mediterranean sea. levels of some xenobiotics are much higher here than in other seas and oceans. in this paper we review the final results of a project supported by the italian ministry of the environment, in which the hypothesis that mediterranean top predator species (such as large pelagic fish and marine mammals) are pot ...200716996053
first report of pennella balaenopterae koren and danielssen, 1877 (copepoda: pennelidae) from turkey.a parasitic copepod, pennella balaenopterae koren and danielssen, 1877 (copepoda: pennelidae), has been reported from the fin whale, balaenoptera physalus (cetacaea: mysticeti), which was found dead on the avluk beach (yumurtalik seaport, iskenderun bay, northeastern mediterranean coast of turkey) in 6 may, 2002. this is the first report of pennella balaenopterae in the turkish seas.200717918069
the limbic lobe of the dolphin brain: a quantitative cytoarchitectonic study.in these cytoarchitectonic studies of the cortical limbic formations of the bottlenose dolphin and other whale brains we have carried out quantitative analyses of the entire limbic lobe, including all of its sectors: supracallosal, retrosplenial and temporal. the limbic lobe proper has been examined as well as transitional areas between the limbic lobe and the archicortical and paleocortical formations and the extralimbic neocortices, including the entorhinal area and presubiculum. analyses incl ...19827161482
molecular characterization of a novel gammaretrovirus in killer whales (orcinus orca).there are currently no published data documenting the presence of retroviruses in cetaceans, though the occurrences of cancers and immunodeficiency states suggest the potential. we examined tissues from adult killer whales and detected a novel gammaretrovirus by degenerate pcr. reverse transcription-pcr also demonstrated tissue and serum expression of retroviral mrna. the full-length sequence of the provirus was obtained by pcr, and a taqman-based copy number assay did not demonstrate evidence o ...200919812152
limited mhc polymorphism in whales.little is known about disease and genetic variation in aquatic mammalian species such as whales. in this paper human hla class i and class ii probes were used to study major histocompatibility complex (mhc) genes from two species of whale: fin (balaenoptera physalus) and sei (b. borealis). stronger signals were obtained on whale than on equivalent concentrations of mouse dna. evidence was obtained for several drb-related genes, a dna genes, one dqa gene, and multiple class i genes in whales. int ...19892562799
analysis of the c4 genes in baleen whales using a human cdna probe.we have used a human c4 cdna probe to investigate the complement component c4 gene in four members of the family balaenopteridae: fin whale (balaenoptera physalus), sei whale (b. borealis), minke whale (b. acutorostrata), and bryde's whale (b. edeni). restriction mapping of genomic dna from the first three species suggests the presence of only one locus in these species, and also shows that the c4 genes in the three species are very similar. we have used 14 restriction endonucleases to investiga ...19901975799
the complete mitochondrial dna sequence of the harbor seal, phoca vitulina.the nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial dna (mtdna) of the harbor seal, phoca vitulina, was determined. the total length of the molecule was 16,826 bp. the organization of the coding regions of the molecule conforms with that of other mammals, but the control region is unusually long. a considerable portion of the control region is made up of short repeats with the motif gtacac particularly frequent. the two rrna genes and the 13 peptide-coding genes of the harbor seal, fin whale, cow, huma ...19921593642
effects of amino acid substitutions outside an antigenic site on protein binding to monoclonal antibodies of predetermined specificity obtained by peptide immunization: demonstration with region 56-62 (antigenic site 2) of myoglobin.this work was carried out in order to study the effects of substitutions outside antigenic site 2 of sperm whale myoglobin (spmb) on the reactivity of protein variants with antisite 2 monoclonal antibodies (mabs). a synthetic peptide corresponding to region 56-62 (site 2) of spmb was used as an immunogen in mice in its free form (i.e., without coupling to any carrier) to prepare a panel of mabs whose predetermined specificity is directed, by design, against this region. the binding of three of t ...19921280438
effects of amino acid substitutions outside an antigenic site on protein binding to monoclonal antibodies of predetermined specificity obtained by peptide immunization: demonstration with region 15-22 (antigenic site 1) of myoglobin.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) of predetermined specificity were prepared by immunizing with a free (i.e., not conjugated to any carrier) synthetic peptide representing region 15-22 (site 1) of sperm whale myoglobin (spmb). the cross-reactions of mb variants with three mabs were studied in order to determine whether such interactions are influenced by substitutions outside the site. finback whale mb, which has no substitutions within region 15-22, showed lower cross-reactivity and relative binding ...19921280437
cross-reactivity of anti-human, anti-porcine and anti-bovine cytokine antibodies with cetacean tissues.the cross-reactivity of monoclonal antibodies specific for human, porcine and bovine cytokines was evaluated for three cetacean species: atlantic spotted dolphins (stenella frontalis), striped dolphins (stenella coeruleoalba) and fin whales (balaenoptera physalus). formalin-fixed and snap-frozen tissue sections of lung, spleen, liver and mesenteric lymph node were evaluated. t and b lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages were detected by use of anti-human cd3, igg and lysozyme polyclonal antibodi ...201020163803
fin whale mdh-1 and mpi allozyme variation is not reflected in the corresponding dna sequences.the appeal of genetic inference methods to assess population genetic structure and guide management efforts is grounded in the correlation between the genetic similarity and gene flow among populations. effects of such gene flow are typically genomewide; however, some loci may appear as outliers, displaying above or below average genetic divergence relative to the genomewide level. above average population, genetic divergence may be due to divergent selection as a result of local adaptation. con ...201424963377
[viruses of whales and dolphins].dna- and rna-genome viruses of whales and dolphins belong to families poxviridae, herpesviridae, adenoviridae, orthomyxoviridae, paramyxoviridae, togaviridae, picornaviridae. virological, serological and pathomorphological signs of infection have been registered in odontoceti (bottle-nosed dolphin, atlantic white-sided dolphin, striped dolphin, harbona porpoise, white-beaked dolphin, common dolphin, sperm whale, pilot whale, white whale) and musticeti (sei whale, fin whale, gray whale, and bowhe ...19969044706
crassicaudosis: a parasitic disease threatening the health and population recovery of large baleen whales.this communication briefly reviews knowledge of the systemic disease caused by crassicauda boopis in blue whales (balaenoptera musculus), fin whales (b. physalus) and humpback whales (megaptera novaeangliae). infections with this giant nematode characteristically incite a chronic inflammatory reaction of the blood vessels which drain the kidneys. in this critical location, the parasite-induced lesion can cause complete vascular occlusion and kidney failure. whale calves and juveniles typically s ...19921305859
isolation and characterization of fin whale prolactin.a highly purified prolactin preparation has been obtained from fin whale pituitaries by extraction with acid acetone. salt precipitation, isoelectric fractionation, and exclusion chromatography on sephadex g-100 and ion-exchange chromatography on deae-cellulose. fin whale prolactin was isolated in a yield of 250 mg/kg wet weight tissue. it was found to have a molecular weight (sds disc gel electrophoresis) of 23,600 daltons and an alpha-helix content (circular dichroism) of 50%. the amino acid c ...1975429099
serum chemistry and evidence of renal failure in the north atlantic fin whale population.serum electrolytes, urea nitrogen, creatinine, albumin and globulin were studied in fin whales (balaenoptera physalus) caught by commercial whalers in the north atlantic (denmark strait area). blood samples were obtained by catchment or cardiac puncture within 5-15 min of death and analyzed using automated spectrophotometric methods and flame photometry. osmolality was determined for two serum samples by a vapor pressure method. linear regressions determined for each measured serum variable vs. ...20133735585
massive consumption of gelatinous plankton by mediterranean apex predators.stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were used to test the hypothesis that stomach content analysis has systematically overlooked the consumption of gelatinous zooplankton by pelagic mesopredators and apex predators. the results strongly supported a major role of gelatinous plankton in the diet of bluefin tuna (thunnus thynnus), little tunny (euthynnus alletteratus), spearfish (tetrapturus belone) and swordfish (xiphias gladius). loggerhead sea turtles (caretta caretta) in the oceanic stage an ...201222470416
marine mammals in the mediterranean sea: an overview.despite being a small part of the world's oceans, the mediterranean sea hosts a diverse marine mammal fauna, with a total of 28 different species known to occur, or to have occurred, in the region. species currently recognised as regular in the mediterranean-the mediterranean monk seal (monachus monachus) and 11 cetaceans (fin whale, balaenoptera physalus; sperm whale, physeter macrocephalus; cuvier's beaked whale, ziphius cavirostris; short-beaked common dolphin, delphinus delphis; long-finned ...201727770981
dolphin morbillivirus in a cuvier's beaked whale (ziphius cavirostris), italy.dolphin morbillivirus (dmv) has caused several mortality events in mediterranean striped (stenella coeruleoalba) and bottlenose (tursiops truncatus) dolphins populations since 19; in the last 5 years, the virus was reported to infect new hosts in this basin, such as fin whales (balaenoptera physalus), sperm whales (physeter macrocephalus), and even a harbor seal (phoca vitulina). very recently, a calf cuvier's beaked whale (ziphius cavirostris) calf stranded on the southern italian coastline wit ...201728197145
genomic and structural investigation on dolphin morbillivirus (dmv) in mediterranean fin whales (balaenoptera physalus).dolphin morbillivirus (dmv) has been deemed as one of the most relevant threats for fin whales (balaenoptera physalus) being responsible for a mortality outbreak in the mediterranean sea in the last years. knowledge of the complete viral genome is essential to understand any structural changes that could modify virus pathogenesis and viral tissue tropism. we report the complete dmv sequence of n, p/v/c, m, f and h genes identified from a fin whale and the comparison of primary to quaternary stru ...201728134317
mediterranean fin whales (balaenoptera physalus) threatened by dolphin morbillivirus.during 2011-2013, dolphin morbillivirus was molecularly identified in 4 stranded fin whales from the mediterranean sea. nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, and hemagglutinin gene sequences of the identified strain were highly homologous with those of a morbillivirus that caused a 2006-2007 epidemic in the mediterranean. dolphin morbillivirus represents a serious threat for fin whales.201626812485
low density of top predators (seabirds and marine mammals) in the high arctic pack ice.the at-sea distribution of top predators, seabirds and marine mammals, was determined in the high arctic pack ice on board the icebreaker rv polarstern in july to september 2014. in total, 1,620 transect counts were realised, lasting 30 min each. the five most numerous seabird species represented 74% of the total of 15,150 individuals registered: kittiwake rissa tridactyla, fulmar fulmarus glacialis, puffin fratercula arctica, ross's gull rhodostethia rosea, and little auk alle alle. eight cetac ...201627777810
is it 'boom times' for baleen whales in the pacific arctic region?the marine ecosystem in the pacific arctic region has experienced dramatic transformation, most obvious by the loss of sea ice volume (75%), late-summer areal extent (50%) and change in phenology (four to six weeks longer open-water period). this alteration has resulted in an opening of habitat for subarctic species of baleen whales, many of which are recovering in number from severe depletions from commercial whaling in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. specifically, humpback, fin and min ...201627601724
on the rudimentary hind-limb of a great fin-whale (baloenoptera musculus) in comparison with those of the humpback whale and the greenland right-whale. 189317232044
the use of a non-lethal tool for evaluating toxicological hazard of organochlorine contaminants in mediterranean cetaceans: new data 10 years after the first paper published in mpb.in the mediterranean sea, top predators, and particularly cetacean odontocetes, accumulate high concentrations of organochlorine contaminants and toxic metals, incurring high toxicological risk. in this paper we investigate the use of the skin biopsies as a non-lethal tool for evaluating toxicological hazard of organochlorines in mediterranean cetaceans, presenting new data 10 years after the paper published by fossi and co-workers [mar. poll. bull. 24 (9) (1992) 459] in which this new methodolo ...200312907191
first molecular determination of herpesvirus from two mysticete species stranded in the mediterranean sea.herpesvirus can infect a wide range of animal species: mammals, birds, reptiles, fish, amphibians and bivalves. in marine mammals, several alpha- and gammaherpesvirus have been identified in some cetaceans and pinnipeds species. to date, however, this virus has not been detected in any member of the balaenoptera genus.201526573533
extensively remodeled, fractured cetacean tympanic bullae show that whales can survive traumatic injury to the ears.underwater human activities and anthropogenic noise in our oceans may be a major source of habitat degradation for marine life. this issue was highlighted by the opening of the united states eastern seaboard for seismic oil and gas exploration in 2014, which generated massive media coverage and widespread concern that seismic surveys could kill or deafen whales. we discovered 11 new specimens of fractured and healed cetacean ear bones, out of a survey of 2127 specimens housed in museum collectio ...201626391309
a protein a/g indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of anti-brucella antibodies in arctic wildlife.a species-independent indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ielisa) based on chimeric protein a/g was established for the detection of anti-brucella antibodies in arctic wildlife species and compared to previously established brucellosis serological tests for hooded seals (cystophora cristata), minke whales (balaenoptera acutorostrata), sei whales (balaenoptera borealis), fin whales (balaenoptera physalus), and polar bears (ursus maritimus), as well as bacteriology results for reindeer and ...201323572454
metabolic expenditures of lunge feeding rorquals across scale: implications for the evolution of filter feeding and the limits to maximum body size.bulk-filter feeding is an energetically efficient strategy for resource acquisition and assimilation, and facilitates the maintenance of extreme body size as exemplified by baleen whales (mysticeti) and multiple lineages of bony and cartilaginous fishes. among mysticetes, rorqual whales (balaenopteridae) exhibit an intermittent ram filter feeding mode, lunge feeding, which requires the abandonment of body-streamlining in favor of a high-drag, mouth-open configuration aimed at engulfing a very la ...201223024769
polychlorinated naphthalenes (pcns) in sub-arctic and arctic marine mammals, 1986-2009.a selection of pcn congeners was analyzed in pooled blubber samples of pilot whale (globicephala melas), ringed seal (phoca hispida), minke whale (balaenoptera acutorostrata), fin whale (balaenoptera physalus), harbour porpoise (phocoena phocoena), hooded seal (cystophora cristata) and atlantic white-sided dolphin (lagenorhynchus acutus), covering a time period of more than 20 years (1986-2009). a large geographical area of the north atlantic and arctic areas was covered. pcn congeners 48, 52, 5 ...201222356752
methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (meo-pbdes) are major contributors to the persistent organobromine load in sub-arctic and arctic marine mammals, 1986-2009.a selection of meo-bde and bde congeners were analyzed in pooled blubber samples of pilot whale (globicephala melas), ringed seal (phoca hispida), minke whale (balaenoptera acutorostrata), fin whale (balaenoptera physalus), harbor porpoise (phocoena phocoena), hooded seal (cystophora cristata), and atlantic white-sided dolphin (lagenorhynchus acutus), covering a time period of more than 20 years (1986-2009). the analytes were extracted and cleaned-up using open column extraction and multi-layer ...201222225820
increasing levels of long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (pfcas) in arctic and north atlantic marine mammals, 1984-2009.temporal variations in concentrations of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (pfcas) and sulfonic acids (pfsas), including perfluorooctane sulfonate (pfos) and perfluorooctanoate (pfoa) structural isomers, were examined in livers of pilot whale (globicephala melas), ringed seal (phoca hisida), minke whale (balaenoptera acutorostrata), harbor porpoise (phocoena phocoena), hooded seal (cystophora cristata), atlantic white-sided dolphin (lagenorhynchus acutus) and in muscle tissue of fin whales (balaen ...201222051347
polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes) in marine mammals from arctic and north atlantic regions, 1986-2009.a selection of pbde congeners was analyzed in pooled blubber samples of pilot whale (globicephala melas), ringed seal (phoca hispida), minke whale (balaenoptera acutorostrata), fin whale (balaenoptera physalus), harbor porpoise (phocoena phocoena), hooded seal (cystophora cristata) and atlantic white-sided dolphin (lagenorhynchus acutus), covering a time period of more than 20 years (1986-2009). the analytes were extracted and cleaned-up using open column extraction and multi-layer silica gel co ...201221802148
occipital ossification of balaenopteroid mysticetes.the bones of the posterior portion of the mammalian skull often exhibit incomplete ossification of the joints between the bones at the time of birth, with complete ossification at some point after birth. the sequence of ossification of these joints in mysticetes can be used to characterize the relative age in the calf and early juvenile ontogenetic stages. this study examined occipital joints ossification of 38 dry prepared neonate specimens in four mysticete species from two families (eschricht ...201121290612
comparative anatomy of the foramen ovale in the hearts of cetaceans.the structure of the cardiac foramen ovale from 17 species representing six cetacean families, the monodontidae, phocoenidae, delphinidae, ziphiidae, balaenidae and the balaenopteridae, was studied using the scanning electron microscope. eight white whale fetuses (delphinapterus leucas) and a narwhal fetus (monodon monoceros) represented the monodontidae; one fetal and nine neonatal harbour porpoises (phocoena phocoena) and a finless porpoise fetus (neophocoena phocoenoides) represented the phoc ...200717532800
the use of non destructive biomarkers in the study of marine mammals.marine mammals have been subject to heavy anthropogenic pressure by direct killing and chemical pollution all over the world. most studies of contamination and biomarker responses in marine mammals have been conducted using animals killed by hunting out of a total of 12 cetacean species studied, 45 of the specimens were obtained by sacrificing the animal; out of a total of eight pinniped species studied, 40 of the specimens were obtained by killing. the development of a series of non destructive ...199723899212
complete amino acid sequence of the major component myoglobin from the humpback whale, megaptera novaeangliae.the complete primary structure of the major component myoglobin from the humpback whale, megaptera novaeangliae, was determined by specific cleavage of the protein to obtain large peptides which are readily degraded by the automatic sequencer. over 80% of the amino acid sequence was established from the three peptides resulting from the cleavage of the acetimidated apomyoglobin at the three arginine residues with trypsin. the further digestion of the central cyanogen bromide peptide with trypsin ...1978698193
complete amino acid sequence of the major component myoglobin of finback whale (balaenoptera physalus).the complete amino acid sequence of the major component myoglobin from finback whale, balaenoptera physalus, was determined by the automated edman degradation of several large peptides obtained by specific cleavages of the protein. three easily separable peptides were obtained by cleaving with cyanogen bromide at the two methionine residues and one large peptide was isolated after cleavage with (2-p-nitrophenylsulfenyl)-3-methyl-3'-bromoindolenine. more than 60% of the covalent structure was est ...1978656375
skin biopsy of mediterranean cetaceans for the investigation of interspecies susceptibility to xenobiotic contaminants.various studies on mediterranean cetaceans have revealed bioaccumulation of contaminants such as organochlorines (ocs) and heavy metals. the susceptibility of these animals to organic pollutants and the relationship between bioaccumulation and population decline (as in the case of delphinus delphis) are unexplored fields. in this study, we used a non-destructive approach (skin biopsy) to explore oc bioaccumulation processes and mixed-function oxidase activity (bpmo) in four species of cetaceans: ...200411460743
whale milk. i. fin whate (balaenoptera physalus) and beluga whale (delphinapterus leucas) milk: gross composition and fatty acid constitution. 19695406771
high source levels and small active space of high-pitched song in bowhead whales (balaena mysticetus).the low-frequency, powerful vocalizations of blue and fin whales may potentially be detected by conspecifics across entire ocean basins. in contrast, humpback and bowhead whales produce equally powerful, but more complex broadband vocalizations composed of higher frequencies that suffer from higher attenuation. here we evaluate the active space of high frequency song notes of bowhead whales (balaena mysticetus) in western greenland using measurements of song source levels and ambient noise. four ...201223300591
mysticete (baleen whale) relationships based upon the sequence of the common cetacean dna satellite.the genomes of all extant cetaceans are characterized by the presence of the so-called common cetacean dna satellite. in the mysticetes (whalebone whales) the repeat length of the satellite is 1,760 bp. in the odontocetes (toothed whales), other than the family delphinidae, the repeat length is usually approximately 1,740 bp. the delphinidae are characterized by a repeat length of approximately 1,580 bp. it has been shown in odontocetes that the satellite evolves in concert and that differences ...19921435232
carpus of the greenland right-whale (baloena mysticetus) and of fin-whales. 189517232120
the influence of sea ice, wind speed and marine mammals on southern ocean ambient sound.this paper describes the natural variability of ambient sound in the southern ocean, an acoustically pristine marine mammal habitat. over a 3-year period, two autonomous recorders were moored along the greenwich meridian to collect underwater passive acoustic data. ambient sound levels were strongly affected by the annual variation of the sea-ice cover, which decouples local wind speed and sound levels during austral winter. with increasing sea-ice concentration, area and thickness, sound levels ...201728280544
cetacean records along a coastal-offshore gradient in the vitória-trindade chain, western south atlantic ocean.oceanic waters are difficult to assess, and there are many gaps in knowledge regarding cetacean occurrence. to fill some of these gaps, this article provides important cetacean records obtained in the winter of 2010 during a dedicated expedition to collect visual and acoustic information in the vitória-trindade seamounts. we observed 19 groups of cetaceans along a 1300-km search trajectory, with six species being identified: the humpback whale (megaptera novaeangliae, n = 9 groups), the fin whal ...201425055095
trace elements in tissues of cetacean species rarely stranded along the israeli mediterranean coast.in this paper we present the concentrations of hg, cd, se, pb, cu, mn, zn and fe in organs of 6 non-common specimens of cetaceans that were stranded along the israeli mediterranean coast (imc), during 2002-2010: two fin whales, one minke whale, one cuvier's beaked whale, one rough-toothed dolphin, and one risso's dolphin. most of the specimens were calves stranded by accident. concentrations of hg and cd were low in tissues of the baleen whales and higher in the toothed whales, with maximum conc ...201424680714
minke whale genome and aquatic adaptation in cetaceans.the shift from terrestrial to aquatic life by whales was a substantial evolutionary event. here we report the whole-genome sequencing and de novo assembly of the minke whale genome, as well as the whole-genome sequences of three minke whales, a fin whale, a bottlenose dolphin and a finless porpoise. our comparative genomic analysis identified an expansion in the whale lineage of gene families associated with stress-responsive proteins and anaerobic metabolism, whereas gene families related to bo ...201424270359
accounting for the effects of lipids in stable isotope (δ13c and δ15n values) analysis of skin and blubber of balaenopterid whales.stable isotope values (δ(13)c and δ(15)n) of darted skin and blubber biopsies can shed light on habitat use and diet of cetaceans, which are otherwise difficult to study. non-dietary factors affect isotopic variability, chiefly the depletion of (13)c due to the presence of (12)c-rich lipids. the efficacy of post hoc lipid-correction models (normalization) must be tested.201223124665
low-frequency whale and seismic airgun sounds recorded in the mid-atlantic ocean.beginning in february 1999, an array of six autonomous hydrophones was moored near the mid-atlantic ridge (35 degrees n-15 degrees n, 50 degrees w-33 degrees w). two years of data were reviewed for whale vocalizations by visually examining spectrograms. four distinct sounds were detected that are believed to be of biological origin: (1) a two-part low-frequency moan at roughly 18 hz lasting 25 s which has previously been attributed to blue whales (balaenoptera musculus); (2) series of short puls ...200415101661
species identification using genetic tools: the value of nuclear and mitochondrial gene sequences in whale conservation.dna sequence analysis is a powerful tool for identifying the source of samples thought to be derived from threatened or endangered species. analysis of mitochondrial dna (mtdna) from retail whale meat markets has shown consistently that the expected baleen whale in these markets, the minke whale, makes up only about half the products analyzed. the other products are either unregulated small toothed whales like dolphins or are protected baleen whales such as humpback, bryde's, fin, or blue whales ...20069768497
complete amino acid sequence of the myoglobin from the pacific sei whale, balaenoptera borealis.the complete amino acid sequence of the major component myoglobin from pacific sei whale, balaenoptera borealis, was determined by specific cleavage of the protein to obtain large peptides which are readily degraded by the automatic sequencer. the acetimidated apomyoglobin was selectively cleaved at its two methionyl residues with cyanogen bromide and at its three arginyl residues by trypsin. from the sequence analysis of four of these peptides and the apomyoglobin, over 75% of the covalent stru ...1979454658
inhibitory activities for thrombin and factor xa of whale heparin: comparative studies on two preparations from different species.whale intestinal heparin preparations from balaenoptera physalus l. (bp) and balaenoptera borealis l. (bb) were fractionated by affinity chromatography on a column of antithrombin iii (at)-sepharose 4b. the yields of high-affinity fractions for at (ha) from bp and bb were 86.8 and 13.3%, respectively, in total. the inhibitory activities for thrombin of bp and bb and their ha and those for factor xa of the latter were compared in the presence of at. the results indicated that the inhibitory activ ...19863775773
melanin granules melanophages and a fully-melanized epidermis are common traits of odontocete and mysticete cetaceans.the cellular mechanisms used to counteract or limit damage caused by exposure of marine vertebrates to solar ultraviolet (uv) radiation are poorly understood. cetaceans are vulnerable because they lack protective skin appendages and are obliged to surface continuously to breathe, thus being exposed repeatedly to uv light. although molecular mechanisms of photoprotection of cetaceans have been studied, there is limited knowledge about their epidermal structure and photoprotective effectors.201727943433
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