isolation of edwardsiella tarda from three oregon sea mammals.edwardsiella tarda was isolated from the peritoneal exudate of a steller's sea lion (eumetopias jubata) with peritonitis resulting from a perforating colonic ulcer; from the liver of a harbor porpoise (phocena phocena) with metritis and peritonitis sequela to dystocia; and from the liver of a california sea lion (zalophus californianus) with peritonitis following fracture and necrosis of a lumbar vertebrae. these findings indicate e. tarda is a common opportunistic invader in sick or injured mar ...1978691128
the complete amino acid sequence of the major component myoglobin of amazon river dolphin (inia geoffrensis).the complete amino acid sequence of the major component myoglobin from amazon river dolphin, inia geoffrensis, was determined by specific cleavage of the protein to obtain large peptides which are readily degraded by the automatic sequencer. three easily separable peptides were obtained by cleaving the protein with cyanogen bromide at the methionine residues and four peptides were obtained by cleaving the methyl-acetimidated protein with trypsin at the arginine residues. from these peptides over ...19751191640
causes of mortality and parasites and incidental lesions in harbour porpoises (phocoena phocoena) from british waters.detailed post mortem examinations were carried out on 41 harbour porpoises (phocoena phocoena) found dead on the coast of the united kingdom. the commonest causes of death were entanglement in fishing gear, and parasitic and bacterial pneumonia. among the non-fatal conditions parasitoses of various organs were common and there was a very wide variety of other conditions. in total 295 diseases and other lesions were found, an average of 7.2 per animal.19921323164
pathology of morbillivirus infection in striped dolphins (stenella coeruleoalba) from valencia and murcia, spain.during the summer and fall of 1990 hundreds of striped dolphins (stenella coeruleoalba) died in the spanish mediterranean as a result of morbillivirus infection. a pathological investigation was carried out on dolphins from valencia and murcia which were among the first to die in the epizootic. the dolphins were in poor body condition and pneumonia was the main necropsy finding. microscopic lung lesions characterized by necrosis of bronchial and bronchiolar epithelium and infiltration of alveoli ...19921423061
morbillivirus infection in two common porpoises (phocoena phocoena) from the coasts of england and scotland.two common porpoises (phocoena phocoena), one found stranded on the isle of sheppey, kent, and the other in the moray firth, scotland, in late 1990, were examined post mortem. lesions of diffuse bronchointerstitial pneumonia were present in both animals; they were characterised by the infiltration of alveoli with leucocytes, macrophages and multinucleate syncytia, the necrosis of bronchial and bronchiolar epithelium, focal proliferation of type ii pneumocytes and occasional acidophilic cytoplasm ...19921441126
characteristics of a cetacean morbillivirus isolated from a porpoise (phocoena phocoena).a virus isolated from a porpoise during the 1988 seal epizootic was shown to be a morbillivirus. in order to determine the relationship of the virus to phocine distemper virus (pdv) a battery of monoclonal antibodies raised against canine distemper virus (cdv), pdv or the porpoise isolate were assessed for their ability to bind to cdv, pdv or porpoise virus epitopes in indirect immunofluorescence assays and elisas. the porpoise isolate contained several unique epitopes and several epitopes prese ...19921642556
histopathologic and immunocytochemical studies of distemper in harbor porpoises.during 1988 thousands of harbor seals (phoca vitulina) died in european seas as a result of morbillivirus infection. six harbor porpoises (phocoena phocoena) found stranded on the coast of northern ireland in late 1988 were submitted to our laboratory for necropsy. pneumonia was the main necropsy finding in three of these animals. microscopic lung lesions characterized by necrosis of bronchial and bronchiolar epithelium and infiltration of alveoli with leukocytes, lymphoid cells, macrophages, an ...19912017822
a review of the 1988 european seal morbillivirus epizootic of morbillivirus infection killed thousands of common seals (phoca vitulina) in european seas in 1988. most of the affected seals had respiratory signs and the main post mortem finding was acute pneumonia. the histopathological changes were similar to those of canine distemper. six common porpoises (phocoena phocoena) found stranded on the coast of northern ireland in late 1988 had similar lesions. morbillivirus infection also killed several thousand siberian seals (phoca siberica) ...19902288059
the diet of harbor porpoises (phocoena phocoena (l.)) in coastal waters of eastern canada, with special reference to the bay of fundy. 19744837270
candidiasis in captive cetaceans.disseminated candida albicans infections were found or suspected in 4 captive cetaceans. ketoconazole at a dosage of 2.5 mg/kg, bid, administered orally for 18 days, followed by 8 biweekly oral doses of levamisole hydrochloride at the rate of 9 mg/kg, resulted in regression of clinical signs of candidiasis in an adult male atlantic bottlenose dolphin (tursiops truncatus). a higher dosage of ketoconazole (6 mg/kg, bid) was effective in eliminating the shedding of c albicans from an adult male bel ...19826294033
lung-worms (nematoda: pseudaliidae) of harbour porpoises (phocoena phocoena) in norwegian waters: patterns of colonization.we studied the component community of lung-worms of the harbour porpoise, attempting to establish the relative importance of ecological and evolutionary factors on its development. the lungs of 64 porpoises by-caught in norwegian waters were examined for helminths. three pseudaliid species were detected. the porpoises appear to be readily colonized by lung-worms, the structure of the component community of calves being fairly similar to that of the remainder. prenatal and/or transmammary infecti ...19948022660
in vitro metabolism of 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl in relation to ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase activity in liver microsomes of some wildlife species and rat.a qualitative study was performed of the capacity of hepatic microsomes of several wildlife species to metabolize 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (tcb). hepatic microsomes of species environmentally exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs): harbour porpoise (phocoena phocoena), harbour seal (phoca vitulina), common tern (sterna hirundo), and hepatic microsomes from species experimentally exposed to pcbs: eider duck (somateria mollissima), rainbow trout (salmo gairdneri), flounder (platichthys f ...19948039554
calcium-binding protein-containing neuronal populations in mammalian visual cortex: a comparative study in whales, insectivores, bats, rodents, and primates.this study is focused on comparative analysis of gamma-aminobutyric acid-positive (gabaergic) neuronal populations in primary visual cortex of totally aquatic toothed whales and select terrestrial mammals with different evolutionary histories and various ecological adaptations. the distribution of neuronal populations containing the calcium-binding proteins calbindin and parvalbumin, which are recognized markers for the gabaergic neurons in cerebral cortex, is compared in five species of toothed ...19938324371
the lungworm, halocercus spp. (nematoda: pseudaliidae) in cetaceans from california.three cetaceans from monterey bay, california (usa), were infected with lung nematodes. a beaked whale calf, mesoplodon sp. was infected with adult halocercus sp. this represents a new host record for this nematode. the lungs of a northern right whale dolphin calf, lissodelphis borealis, contained an unidentified nematode similar in size to halocercus sp. the presence of phyllobothrium delphini-type cestode larvae in its blubber is evidence that the calf was feeding on invertebrates. a pregnant ...19938355360
histological investigations on the thyroid glands of marine mammals (phoca vitulina, phocoena phocoena) and the possible implications of marine 1988 and 1989, thousands of harbor seals (phoca vitulina) died in the north sea from phocine distemper infection. the morphology of thyroid glands from 40 harbor seals found dead on the north sea coastlines of schleswig-holstein, federal republic of germany, during an epizootic of phocine distemper, was compared with the morphology of thyroid glands from five healthy harbor seals collected in iceland. thyroid glands from seven harbor porpoises (phocoena phocoena) found dead in 1990 on the nor ...19938445768
characterization of morbilliviruses isolated from dolphins and porpoises in europe.a previously unidentified morbillivirus was isolated from two harbour porpoises (phocoena phocoena) that had died in the dutch waddensea (north sea) in 1990. this porpoise morbillivirus (pmv) and a dolphin morbillivirus (dmv), which had recently caused a heavy mortality in mediterranean striped dolphins (stenella coeruleoalba), were compared antigenically with other members of the genus morbillivirus, including the newly recognized phocine distemper virus type 1. dmv and pmv proved to be similar ...19938468554
prevalence of morbilliviruses among pinniped and cetacean species.since 1987, morbillivirus infections have caused serious disease outbreaks with high mortality among aquatic mammals. baikal seals (phoca sibirica) in siberia were involved in an outbreak caused by a virus closely related to canine distemper virus (cdv) in 1987. harbour seals (phoca vitulina) and grey seals (halichoerus grypus) in north-western europe were struck by a newly recognised morbillivirus of seals (pdv1). a serological survey has indicated that these morbillivirus infections frequently ...19938518442
morbilliviruses and morbillivirus diseases of marine recent years, serious disease outbreaks among seals and dolphins were attributed to infection with established or newly recognized morbilliviruses. the first identification of a morbillivirus as causative agent of mass mortality among marine mammals was in 1988, when the previously unrecognized phocine distemper virus (pdv) caused the death of 20,000 harbor seals (phoca vitulina) in northwestern europe. a similar epizootic among baikal seals (phoca sibirica) in siberia in 1987 was later attri ...19958548190
morbillivirus infections of aquatic mammals: newly identified members of the genus.several disease outbreaks, which have caused the deaths of many thousands of seals and dolphins during the last decade, have now been attributed to infections with newly identified morbilliviruses. outbreaks in the late eighties amongst harbour seals (phoca vitulina) and grey seals (halichoerus grypus) in northwestern europe and amongst baikal seals (phoca sibirica) in siberia were caused by the newly discovered phocine distemper virus and by a strain of canine distemper virus, respectively. alt ...19958588316
studies on the fetal development of the gubernaculum in cetacean males, like non-mammalian vertebrates and other testicond mammals, have intra-abdominal testes. there is no evidence of a processus vaginalis in them. testicondia in cetaceans is considered secondary as they are judged, evolutionarily, the descendants of terrestrial mammals (ungulates) with testis descent. a possible argument in support of the latter contention would be that cetacean fetuses develop gubernacula which are the primordia of the processus vaginalis and other structure ...19958597291
organochlorine residues in marine mammals from the northern hemisphere--a consideration of the composition of organochlorine residues in the blubber of marine mammals.levels of organochlorines (pcbs, sigma ddt, lindane and its isomers, hcb, chlordane, and toxaphene) were determined in blubber of marine mammals from the northern hemisphere. differences in both levels and ratios of organochlorine compounds were detected in different species of marine mammals living in the same region, e.g. blubber of harbour seals (phoca vitulina) accumulated significantly lower levels of lindane, hcb, toxaphene, and ddt and its metabolites than harbour porpoises (phocoena phoc ...19968685708
observations on the helminths of harbour porpoises (phocoena phocoena) and common guillemots (uria aalge) from the belgian and german coasts.between february 1990 and july 1991, 18 harbour porpoises (phocoena phocoena) and 248 common guillemots (uria aalge), found dead along the belgian and german coasts, were examined for their burden of helminths. a total of three species were found in the guillemots (one cestode, one nematode and one pentastomid), and six species in the porpoises (one trematode, one cestode and four nematodes). among the guillemots the burden of helminths was not statistically different between juvenile and adult ...19968888560
population structure of harbour porpoises phocoena phocoena in the seas around the uk and adjacent waters.the population structure of harbour porpoises from british and adjacent waters was studied by examining variability in a 200 bp (base pair) section of the control region of mitochondrial dna (mtdna) extracted from 327 animals. this region contained 20 variable sites giving rise to 24 different haplotypes. mean nucleotide diversity between all pairs of haplotypes was 0.81% (range 0-4%). the most common haplotype occurred in 63% of the samples and was recorded in all geographical areas; several ot ...19979061964
concentrations of chlorinated hydrocarbons and trace elements in marine mammal tissues archived in the u.s. national biomonitoring specimen bank.the u.s. national biomonitoring specimen bank (nbsb) provides for the long term storage of well documented and preserved specimens representing several types of environmental matrices. a major part of this inventory consists of marine mammal tissues (e.g., blubber, liver, kidney, and muscle). within the nbsb selected specimens are periodically analyzed for chlorinated hydrocarbons and trace elements. although only 20% of the 560 marine mammal specimens in the nbsb have been analyzed, the databas ...19979159906
concentration-dependent changes of pcb patterns in fish-eating mammals: structural evidence for induction of cytochrome sets on cb concentrations in fish-eating mammals from five laboratories were combined to test and refine a pharmacokinetic model. clear differences in pcb patterns were observed between species. the ability to metabolize chlorobiphenyl (cb) congeners with vicinal h-atoms only in the ortho- and meta-positions and with one ortho-chlorine substituent generally increased in the order otter < cetaceans (harbor porpoise, common dolphin) < phocid seals (harbor and grey seal), but the metabolism of ...19979353208
antibodies to brucella in marine mammals around the coast of england and wales.following the isolation of previously unrecognised species of brucella from stranded seals and cetaceans in scotland and northern england, a serological survey was carried out to investigate the range of marine mammal species which may have been exposed to brucella species around the coasts of england and wales, the prevalence of infection and the temporal and geographical distribution of seropositive animals. serum collected from 153 stranded marine mammals from the coasts of england and wales ...19979416675
identification and molecular characterization of beta-hemolytic streptococci isolated from harbor porpoises (phocoena phocoena) of the north and baltic seas.the present study was designed to identify and comparatively investigate 35 beta-hemolytic streptococci isolated from stranded harbor porpoises or from animals caught in fishing nets of the north and baltic seas. according to biochemical and serological data and to lectin agglutination tests with the lectin of arachis hypogaea, all 35 isolates could be classified in lancefield's serological group l and could be identified as streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae. all 35 group l streptoc ...19989650933
macroparasites in cetaceans stranded on the northwestern spanish atlantic extensive parasitological survey was carried out during autopsy of 80 cetaceans representing 8 species within 4 families (delphinus delphis, stenella coeruleoalba, tursiops truncatus, grampus griseus, globicephala melas, kogia breviceps, phocoena phocoena and megaptera novaeangliae) collected on the northwestern spanish atlantic coast from february 1991 to october 1996. two species of tetraphyllidean cestodes (phyllobothrium delphini and monorygma grimaldii), 2 ascaridoid nematodes (anisakis ...19989676247
actinobacillus scotiae sp. nov., a new member of the family pasteurellaceae pohl (1979) 1981 isolated from porpoises (phocoena phocoena).phenotypic and phylogenetic studies were performed on a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium isolated from three porpoises. biochemical and physiological studies indicated that the bacterium was related to the family pasteurellaceae. comparative 16s rrna gene sequencing studies confirmed these findings and demonstrated that the bacterium represents a hitherto unknown subline. the nearest phylogenetic relative of the unknown bacterium was actinobacillus delphinicola, an organism also originating f ...19989734048
bioaccumulation of selected trace elements in lung nematodes, pseudalius inflexus, of harbor porpoise (phocoena phocoena) in a polish zone of the baltic sea.concentrations of cd, pb, cu, zn, cr, co, ni, mn and fe were determined by aas in lung nematodes and their host organ of harbor porpoise in the polish zone of the baltic sea. correlation coefficients computed for all element pairs indicate significant co-associations between concentrations of zn and mn as well as mn and fe in p. inflexus and the host organ, and for the pair cu-cr in the parasite. based on both concentration and discrimination factors it is well documented that the metals studied ...19989800383
concentrations and biomagnification of 17 chlordane compounds and other organochlorines in harbour porpoise (phocoena phocoena) and herring from the southern baltic sea.four species of harbour porpoise (phocoena phocoena) and one herring (clupea harengus) sample from the southern baltic sea were analysed in an attempt to study the concentration and biomagnification of 17 chlordane related compounds (chls) including 12 components present in technical chlordane, the toxic metabolites oxychlordane and cis-hepatchlorepoxide and the photoconversion products photoheptachlor and two photo-cis-chlordanes. the concentration and biomagnification ability of chls were also ...19989828351
monophasic group b salmonella species infecting harbour porpoises (phocoena phocoena) inhabiting scottish coastal waters.a monophasic strain of salmonella group b having the antigenic structure 4, 12: a: - was isolated in culture from various tissues of 39 harbour porpoises (phocoena phocoena). the tissue from which the organism was recovered most frequently was lung in 33 animals and intestine in 16 animals, but it was also isolated from heart valve, liver, kidney, spleen, mesenteric lymph node, pulmonary lymph node, hepatic lymph node, urethra, sheath and epididymis. as far as we are aware this is the first reco ...199910189197
rhizopusmycosis in a harbor porpoise from the baltic sea.a case of systemic mycosis due to a rhizopus sp. infection is described in a dead-stranded, 10-yr-old, male harbor porpoise (phocoena phocoena) found on the beach of neustadt, schleswig-holstein on the baltic sea (germany). at necropsy, granulomatous mycotic lesions in brain, lung, kidneys, testis, and draining lymph nodes were found. in addition, a focal ulcerative gastritis of the first stomach, due to a nematode infection, was present and is suspected to be the portal of entry for the fungus.199910479093
thymic cysts in harbor porpoises (phocoena phocoena) from the german north sea, baltic sea, and waters of greenland.thymic cysts have not been previously reported in harbor porpoises (phocoena phocoena). two hundred forty stranded or "by-caught" harbor porpoises originating from the german north sea and baltic sea and 14 animals from the waters of greenland were necropsied. thymuses of 78 porpoises of the north sea and baltic sea were considered suitable for histopathologic examination based on the extent of postmortem autolysis. immunohistochemistry using an anti-cytokeratin antibody was employed to demonstr ...199910490206
phocoenobacter uteri gen. nov., sp. nov., a new member of the family pasteurellaceae pohl (1979) 1981 isolated from a harbour porpoise (phocoena phocoena).phenotypic and phylogenetic studies were performed on a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium isolated from the uterus of a porpoise. biochemical and physiological studies indicated that the bacterium was related to the family pasteurellaceae. comparative 16s rrna gene sequencing studies confirmed these findings and demonstrated that the bacterium represents a hitherto unknown subline within this family of organisms. based on the results of the phylogenetic analysis and phenotypic criteria, it is ...200010826796
immunohistological and serological investigation of morbillivirus infection in harbour porpoises (phocoena phocoena) from the german baltic and north sea.the role of morbillivirus infection as a cause of disease or death in harbour porpoises (phocoena phocoena) from the german north and baltic sea was investigated by serology, histology and immunohistochemistry. blood and tissue samples of lung, brain and lymph nodes from 74 stranded or by-caught harbour porpoises from german waters were collected between 1991 and 1997. according to dentinal growth layers and body length, animals were grouped into four age classes (neonates, 0-1, 1-4, 4-16 years ...200010865149
pulmonary pathology of harbour porpoises (phocoena phocoena) stranded in england and wales between 1990 and 1996.the pathological changes observed in the lungs of 197 freshly dead to moderately decomposed harbour porpoises (phocoenaphocoena) stranded in england and wales between october 1990 and december 1996 were reviewed. in 135 (69 per cent of the cases) macroscopic nematode infections of the bronchial tract with pseudalius inflexus and torynurus convolutus, either singly or in combination, were recorded, and 106 (54 per cent) also had p inflexus within the pulmonary blood vessels. all the macroscopical ...200010901214
strain discrimination of a novel serotype of salmonella from harbour porpoises (phocoena phocoena) by molecular techniques.the relatedness of 41 isolates of salmonella of a novel serotype (antigenic formula 4,12:a:-) of serogroup b, obtained from harbour porpoises (phocoena phocoena) stranded at various sites around the coastline of scotland, was assessed by two molecular typing methods. ribotyping showed that these isolates belonged to seven ecori (e) ribotypes and 11 psti (p) ribotypes that were, in each case, distinct but closely related. combined ribotyping data identified 15 different e/p ribotypes, the most co ...200010925042
post-mortem findings in harbour porpoises (phocoena phocoena) from the german north and baltic seas.between 1991 and 1996, necropsies were performed on 445 harbour porpoises (phocoena phocoena), in various states of preservation, stranded on german coasts or accidentally caught by german fishermen. the animals originated from the north and baltic seas, and 133 were considered suitable for histopathological, immunohistochemical and microbiological examination. most of the lesions in these 133 porpoises were caused by parasites, in particular in the respiratory tract, two-thirds of the animals e ...200111222006
an attempt to identify the evolutionary origin of a novel serotype of salmonella enterica isolated from harbour porpoises.the isolation since 1991 of a new serotype of salmonella enterica (antigenic formula 4,12:a:-) from harbour porpoises (phocoena phocoena) at post-mortem examination raised the question of its evolutionary origin. representative strains of s. enterica serotype 4,12:a:- and strains of eight other serotypes of serogroup 04 with phase-1 flagellar antigen h 'a' were examined by ecori ribotyping, is200 fingerprinting and pcr-based profiling. statistical analysis of results of multiple typing showed th ...200111339248
an insight into the epidemiology of dolphin morbillivirus worldwide.serum samples from 288 cetaceans representing 25 species and originating from 11 different countries were collected between 1995 and 1999 and examined for the presence of dolphin morbillivirus (dmv)-specific antibodies by an indirect elisa (ielisa) (n = 267) or a plaque reduction assay (n = 21). a total of 35 odontocetes were seropositive: three harbour porpoises (phocoena phocoena) and a common dolphin (delphinus delphis) from the northeastern (ne) atlantic, a bottlenose dolphin (tursiops trunc ...200111390111
evidence of infectious diseases in harbour porpoises (phocoena phocoena) hunted in the waters of greenland and by-caught in the german north sea and baltic sea.the pathological, microbiological and serological findings in harbour porpoises hunted in greenlandic waters were compared with the findings in animals accidentally caught in fishing gear in the german north sea and baltic sea. the body condition of the greenlandic animals was good, whereas nine of 23 german harbour porpoises were moderately to markedly emaciated. both groups were infested with parasites. in the greenlandic animals parasitism of the aural peribullar cavity with stenurus minor, o ...200111430682
unsteady-state gas exchange and storage in diving marine mammals: the harbor porpoise and gray seal.breath-by-breath measurements of end-tidal o(2) and co(2) concentrations in harbor porpoise reveal that the respiratory gas exchange ratio (r(r); co(2) output/o(2) uptake) of the first lung ventilation in a breathing bout after a prolonged breath-hold is always well below the animal's metabolic respiratory quotient (rq) of 0.85. thus the longest apneic pauses are always followed by an initial breath having a very low r(r) (0.6-0.7), which thereafter increases with each subsequent breath to value ...200111448852
immunohistochemical investigation of the cross-reactivity of selected cell markers from various species for characterization of lymphatic tissues in the harbour porpoise (phocoena phocoena).to facilitate a detailed investigation of cetacean lymphoid organs, 13 canine-, six bovine-, one equine-, one human- and four killer whale-specific monoclonal antibodies (mabs) directed against cell surface antigens of the haematopoietic system (including cd2, cd4, cd8, cd45r, mhc class ii, granulocyte, thrombocyte, pan-t cell and b-cell antigen), as well as a mab and a polyclonal antibody (pab) directed against the -peptide of the human cd3 complex, were tested for immunohistochemical cross-rea ...200111798248
pyogranulomatous myocarditis due to staphylococcus aureus septicaemia in two harbour porpoises (phocoena phocoena).staphylococcus aureus septicaemia was diagnosed in a dead, stranded harbour porpoise from the german baltic sea and in a live harbour porpoise by-caught in inner danish waters and taken into captivity. lesions included pyogranulomatous myocarditis, necrotising suppurative bronchopneumonia, pyelonephritis, osteomyelitis and leptomeningitis, and abscesses in lymph nodes and skeletal muscles. the captive animal had fibrinous suppurative epicarditis and pyogranulomatous myocarditis with abscesses. i ...200211918049
intercomparison studies on distribution and coassociations of heavy metals in liver, kidney, and muscle of harbor porpoise, phocoena phocoena, from southern baltic sea and coastal waters of denmark and greenland.the concentrations of selected metals such as cd, pb, cu, zn, cr, ni, mn, and fe were determined in liver, kidney, and muscle of harbor porpoise (phocoena phocoena) from three geographical regions, i.e., the baltic sea and danish and greenland coastal waters. the concentrations of cd in liver and kidney increased with age of the specimens analyzed. significant interspatial variations in both hepatic and renal levels of cd were also observed. average hepatic levels of cd in baltic, danish, and gr ...200211994793
immunohistological and serological investigations of morbillivirus infection in black sea harbour porpoises (phocoena phocoena).in the present study the occurrence of morbillivirus infection in harbour porpoises (phocoena phocoena) from the black sea was investigated. blood and tissue specimens of lung, brain and spleen from 73 stranded or by-caught harbour porpoises derived from the three black sea subregions such as bulgaria, georgia and ukraine were collected between 1997 and 1999 and processed for histology, immunohistochemistry and serology. age determination was performed according to dental growth layers and body ...200212034546
post-mortem findings and causes of death of harbour porpoises (phocoena phocoena) stranded from 1990 to 2000 along the coastlines of belgium and northern france.between the years 1990 and 2000, an attempt was made to determine the causes of death of 55 harbour porpoises stranded along the belgian and northern french coasts. from 1990 to 1996, only five carcasses were collected as against seven in 1997, eight in 1998, 27 in 1999 and eight in 2000. the sex ratio was normal and most of the animals were juvenile. the most common findings were emaciation, severe parasitosis and pneumonia. a few cases of fishing net entanglement were observed. the main micros ...200212056772
multivariate analysis of the bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) in the marine pelagic food web from the southern part of the baltic sea, poland.the concentration, pattern, bioaccumulation and biomagnification features of many chlorobiphenyl congeners including non- and mono-ortho chlorine substituted members have been determined in a pelagic food chain including mixed phyto- and zooplankton, herring (clupea harengus), harbour porpoise (phocoena phocoena) and black cormorants (phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) collected from the southern part of the baltic proper. tcdd (tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) toxic equivalents (teqs) in plankton, herri ...200212509047
bioaccumulation of 137cs in pelagic food webs in the norwegian and barents seas.knowledge and documentation of the levels of radioactive contamination in fish stocks important to norwegian fisheries is of major importance to norwegian consumers and fish export industry. in the present study, the bioaccumulation of caesium-137 ((137)cs) has been investigated in marine food webs in the barents and norwegian seas. the contents of (137)cs in the different organisms were generally low (<1 bq kg(-1) wet weight), but a marked bioaccumulation was apparent: the concentration of (137 ...200312527234
marine mammals from northeast atlantic: relationship between their trophic status as determined by delta13c and delta15n measurements and their trace metal concentrations.the relationship between trophic position through delta13c and delta15n and trace metal concentrations (zn, cd, cu and hg) was investigated in the tissues of six marine mammal species from the northeast atlantic: striped dolphin stenella coeruleoalba, common dolphin, delphinus delphis, atlantic white-sided dolphin lagenorhynchus acutus, harbour porpoise phocoena phocoena, white beaked-dolphin lagenorhynchus albirostris, grey seal halichoerus grypus stranded on french channel and irish coasts. wh ...200312738219
development of a standardized nomenclature for bronchoscopy of the respiratory system of harbor porpoises (phocoena phocoena).respiratory disease is common in captive and wild cetaceans. bronchoscopy may permit early diagnosis of respiratory disease in dolphins and porpoises. refinement of cetacean bronchoscopy requires development of a nomenclature system to facilitate description of the anatomic site at which lesions occur. a standard bronchoscopic nomenclature also permits serial evaluations of lesions and enhances communication between veterinarians. in this project, we adapted the bronchoscopic nomenclature devise ...200112790419
the distribution of octachlorostyrene (ocs) in environmental samples from europe.although octachlorostyrene (ocs) was never used as a commercial product, it may be produced during incineration and combustion processes involving chlorinated compounds. its environmental spreading was evaluated through the analysis of several representative samples. ocs could not be measured in soil samples collected from urban and rural areas or sediments, but was present (up to 5.41 ng/g dry weight) in industrial soil collected near chemically polluted areas. for aquatic biota samples, the oc ...200312948238
perfluorinated chemicals infiltrate ocean waters: link between exposure levels and stable isotope ratios in marine mammals.this is the first study to report on concentrations of perfluorinated organochemicals (focs) in marine mammals stranded along the southern north sea coast in relation to stable nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios (delta15n and delta13c). the presence of focs in top predators such as marine mammals would indicate a potential biomagnification of these compounds and their widespread occurrence. liver and kidney tissues of nine marine mammal species have been sampled. among all the measured focs comp ...200314717162
cetacean-reconstituted severe combined immunodeficient (scid) mice respond to vaccination with canine distemper vaccine.morbillivirus infections have been responsible for mass mortalities in several species of marine mammals. nevertheless, relatively little is known on the pathogenesis of the disease and the immune response to the agent, especially in cetaceans, hindering the treatment of individuals and the development of appropriate vaccines, given the difficulty of performing experimental work in marine mammals. the reconstitution of severe combined immunodeficient (scid) mice, which do not have the ability to ...200414741136
organotins in marine mammals and seabirds from norwegian increasing number of studies indicate that marine mammals and some seabirds are exposed to organotins. however, results from northern and arctic areas are few. here results from analysis of tributyltin (tbt), dibutyltin (dbt), monobutyltin (mbt), triphenyltin (tpht), diphenyltin (dpht) and monophenyltin (mpht) in harbour porpoise (phocoena phocoena), common seal (phoca vitulina), ringed seal (phoca hispida) and glaucous gull (larus hyperboreus) from norwegian territory are presented. relative ...200414760453
growth, fecundity and sex ratio of adult whaleworm (anisakis simplex; nematoda, ascaridoidea, anisakidae) in three whale species from the north-east atlantic.the growth rate, fecundity, and sex ratio of anisakis simplex in minke whales (balaenoptera acutorostrata), porpoises (phocoena phocoena) and long-finned pilot whales (globicephala melas) was studied on the basis of material from the north atlantic. a total of 8,135 mature a. simplex were collected from 24 minke whales, 11 porpoises and eight pilot whales. for both males and females, the prevalence was 100% for all three host species, with a mean intensity of 1,727, 262 and 139, respectively. th ...200414999465
unusually weak oxygen binding, physical properties, partial sequence, autoxidation rate and a potential phosphorylation site of beluga whale (delphinapterus leucas) myoglobin.we purified myoglobin from beluga whale (delphinapterus leucas) muscle (longissimus dorsi) with size exclusion and cation exchange chromatographies. the molecular mass was determined by mass spectrometry (17,081 da) and the isoelectric ph (9.4) by capillary isoelectric focusing. the near-complete amino acid sequence was determined and a phylogeny indicated that beluga was in the same clad as dall's and harbor porpoises. there were consensus motifs for a phosphorylation site on the protein surfac ...200415050527
organochlorine pesticide residue and pcbs in harbour porpoise (phocoena phocoena) incidentally caught in scandinavian waters.during norwegian and danish harbour porpoise projects 1987-1991, subcutaneous blubber samples of 34 male harbour porpoises (phocoena phocoena) were collected. animals from three geographical locations, ranging from 56 degrees n, 12 degrees e to 71 degrees n, 26 degrees e, were chosen in order to study the organochlorine (oc) contamination in this species inhabiting the northeastern part of the north atlantic ocean, the northern north sea and kattegat, at the locations of tufjord, vestlandet and ...199515091526
development of a lymphocyte-transformation-assay for peripheral blood lymphocytes of the harbor porpoise and detection of cytokines using the reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction.impairment of immune function is suggested to play a contributing role for the increasing incidence of infectious diseases in the harbor porpoise (phocoena phocoena) of the north and baltic seas. both, lymphocyte-transformation-assay of peripheral blood lymphocytes (pbmc) and detection of cytokine expression are important tools for the characterization of the cellular immune response. to evaluate optimal parameters for the lymphocyte-transformation-assay isolated blood lymphocytes from four heal ...200415127842
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild dolphins from the spanish mediterranean coast.although toxoplasma gondii infection has been found occasionally in cetaceans, little is known of the prevalence of antibodies to t. gondii in wild dolphins. antibodies to t. gondii were determined in serum samples from 58 dolphins stranded in the spanish mediterranean coast. modified agglutination test was used to determine t. gondii antibodies, and a titer of 1:25 was considered indicative of t. gondii infection. antibodies to t. gondii were found in 4 of 36 striped dolphins (stenella coeruleo ...200415270114
population structure of anisakis simplex (nematoda) in harbor porpoises phocoena phocoena off denmark.the population structure and habitat selection of anisakis simplex in 35 harbor porpoises off denmark are described. the nematodes were collected from the stomach and duodenal ampulla and were categorized as third-stage larvae, fourth-stage larvae, subadults, and adults. the porpoises harbored 8,043 specimens of a. simplex. the proportion of adults and subadults increased with infrapopulation size. the number of development stages across infrapopulations covaried significantly (kendall's test of ...200415562589
relationships between polychlorinated biphenyls and health status in harbor porpoises (phocoena phocoena) stranded in the united investigate possible relationships between polychlorinated biphenyl (pcb) exposure and infectious disease mortality in harbor porpoises (phocoena phocoena) in united kingdom waters, summed blubber concentrations of 25 chlorobiphenyl congeners (sigma25cb) in healthy harbor porpoises that died of acute physical trauma (mainly by-catch; n = 175) were compared with sigma25cb values in animals that died of infectious disease (n = 82). the infectious disease group had significantly greater sigma25c ...200515683190
levels of hexabromocyclododecane in harbor porpoises and common dolphins from western european seas, with evidence for stereoisomer-specific biotransformation by cytochrome p450.commercial hexabromocyclododecane (hbcd) is a high-production-volume flame-retardant applied in polystyrene foams. it contains three stereoisomers, of which gamma-hbcd always dominates. here we report on the levels of hbcd in blubber of harbor porpoise and common dolphin from different european seas. the highest total (sigma)-hbcd levels were measured in harbor porpoises stranded on the irish and scottish coasts of the irish sea (median concentration 2.9 microg (g of lipid)(-1)) and the northwes ...200515871242
acute and chronic gas bubble lesions in cetaceans stranded in the united kingdom.the first evidence suggestive of in vivo gas bubble formation in cetacea, including eight animals stranded in the uk, has recently been reported. this article presents the pathologic findings from these eight uk-stranded cetaceans and two additional uk-stranded cetacean cases in detail. hepatic gas-filled cavitary lesions (0.2-6.0 cm diameter) involving approximately 5-90% of the liver volume were found in four (two juvenile, two adult) risso's dolphins (grampus griseus), three (two adult, one j ...200515872375
investigations of the potential influence of environmental contaminants on the thymus and spleen of harbor porpoises (phocoena phocoena).harbor porpoises from the german north and baltic seas exhibit a higher incidence of bacterial infections compared to whales from less polluted arctic waters. the potential adverse effect of environmental contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) and heavy metals on the immune system and the health status of marine mammals is still discussed controversially. the aim of the present study was to investigate the possible influence of pcb, polybrominated diphenyl ether (pbde), toxaphene, ...200515984767
macroparasites in stranded and bycaught harbour porpoises from german and norwegian waters.parasitological investigations were carried out on harbour porpoises phocoena phocoena originating from 3 different areas: the german north sea (28), the german baltic (18) and norwegian waters (22). the individuals were bycaught in gill-nets or found stranded during the period 1997 to 2000. a total of 7 species of parasites was identified from the investigated organs. these originated mainly from the respiratory tract and comprised 1 ascaridoid nematode (anisakis simplex), 4 pseudaliid nematode ...200515997825
accumulation of organotin compounds and mercury in harbour porpoises (phocoena phocoena) from the danish waters and west greenland.the concentrations of butyltin (summation operatorbt=tbt+dbt+mbt) and mercury (hg) were determined in the liver of 35 harbour porpoises (phocoena phocoena), which were found dead along the coastlines or caught as by-catch in the danish north sea and the inner danish waters. in addition, three harbour porpoises hunted in west greenland were analysed. high levels of butyltin and mercury, within the range of 68-4605 mg bt/kg ww and 0.22-92 mg hg/kg ww, were found in the liver of the danish harbour ...200516227073
identification and characterization of tandem repeats in exon iii of dopamine receptor d4 (drd4) genes from different mammalian this study we have identified and characterized dopamine receptor d4 (drd4) exon iii tandem repeats in 33 public available nucleotide sequences from different mammalian species. we found that the tandem repeat in canids could be described in a novel and simple way, namely, as a structure composed of 15- and 12- bp modules. tandem repeats composed of 18-bp modules were found in sequences from the horse, zebra, onager, and donkey, asiatic bear, polar bear, common raccoon, dolphin, harbor porpoi ...200516332176
differences in the response of a striped dolphin (stenella coeruleoalba) and a harbour porpoise (phocoena phocoena) to an acoustic alarm.small cetacean bycatch in gillnet fisheries may be reduced by deterring odontocetes from nets acoustically. however, different odontocete species may respond differently to acoustic signals from alarms. therefore, in this study a striped dolphin and a harbour porpoise were subjected simultaneously to sounds produced by the xp-10 experimental acoustic alarm. the alarm produced 0.3s tonal signals randomly selected from a set of 16 with fundamental frequencies between 9 and 15khz, with a constant p ...200616439011
bartonella henselae in porpoise blood.we report detection of bartonella henselae dna in blood samples from 2 harbor porpoises (phocoena phocoena). by using real-time polymerase chain reaction, we directly amplified bartonella species dna from blood of a harbor porpoise stranded along the northern north carolina coast and from a pre-enrichment blood culture from a second harbor porpoise. the second porpoise was captured out of habitat (in a low-salinity canal along the northern north carolina coast) and relocated back into the ocean. ...200516485476
identification and characterization of a tandem repeat in exon iii of the dopamine receptor d4 (drd4) gene in cetaceans.a large number of mammalian species harbor a tandem repeat in exon iii of the gene encoding dopamine receptor d4 (drd4), a receptor associated with cognitive functions. in this study, a drd4 gene exon iii tandem repeat from the order cetacea was identified and characterized. included in our study were samples from 10 white-beaked dolphins (lagenorhynchus albirostris), 10 harbor porpoises (phocoena phocoena), eight sperm whales (physeter macrocephalus), and five minke whales (balaenoptera acutoro ...200616495430
identification of highly brominated analogues of q1 in marine mammals.three novel halogenated organic compounds (hocs) have been identified in the blubber of marine mammals from coastal new england with the molecular formulae c(9)h(3)n(2)br(6)cl, c(9)h(3)n(2)br(7), and c(9)h(4)n(2)br(5)cl. they were identified using high and low resolution gas chromatography mass spectrometry (gcms) and appear to be highly brominated analogues of q1, a heptachlorinated hoc suspected to be naturally produced. these compounds were found in atlantic white sided dolphin (lagenorhynchu ...200616517037
pathological findings in harbour porpoises (phocoena phocoena) from norwegian and icelandic waters.a study of 37 by-caught harbour porpoises from icelandic and norwegian waters showed that most were in good or moderate nutritional condition and none was severely emaciated. mild infection with lungworms (halocercus invaginatus, pseudalius inflexus, torynurus convolutus) was found in 84% of the icelandic and 91% of the norwegian animals, usually associated with bronchopneumonia which was rarely severe. most (91%) of the animals had parasites in the stomach and intestine (anisakis simplex, contr ...200616527299
molecular phylogenetics and diagnosis of anisakis, pseudoterranova, and contracaecum from northern pacific marine mammals.individual specimens of anisakis, pseudoterranova, and contracaecum collected from marine mammals inhabiting northern pacific waters were used for comparative diagnostic and molecular phylogenetic analyses. forty-eight new sequences were obtained for this study of 14 anisakis taxa, 8 pseudoterranova taxa, 4 contracaecum taxa, and 4 outgroup species. partial 28s (lsu) and complete internal transcribed spacer (its-1, 5.8s, its-2) ribosomal dna was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and seq ...200516539026
levels of the flame retardants hexabromocyclododecane and tetrabromobisphenol a in the blubber of harbor porpoises (phocoena phocoena) stranded or bycaught in the u.k., with evidence for an increase in hbcd concentrations in recent years.within the u.k. marine mammals stranding program, analysis of brominated flame retardants began in 1999. initially, the focus of attention was the brominated diphenyl ethers. since the withdrawal of the pentamix and octamix polybrominated diphenyl ether (pbde) formulations from the eu market prior to august 2004, two other high-volume products, hexabromocyclododecane (hbco) and tetrabromobisphenol a (tbbp-a), have been included. we report the concentrations of these compounds in the blubber of h ...200616646450
the risk of infection from polychlorinated biphenyl exposure in the harbor porpoise (phocoena phocoena): a case-control approach.the objective of this study was to determine whether the risk of mortality from infectious disease in harbor porpoise in u.k. waters increased with high exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs), using a case-control study design. this is the first time that data from a long-term marine mammal strandings scheme have been used to estimate any increase in risk. the exposure odds ratio (or) from a logistic regression model with infectious disease deaths as cases and physical trauma deaths as con ...200616675424
lead contamination of small cetaceans in european waters--the use of stable isotopes for identifying the sources of lead exposure.lead concentrations and isotopic composition have been measured in bone and teeth of small cetaceans belonging to three species (delphinus delphis, phocoena phocoena and stenella coeruleoalba), to evaluate the toxicological risk and to determine sources of lead in the european waters. lead concentrations, far lower than threshold value inducing toxic effects in human, were higher in teeth than in bones, but highly correlated between the two tissues (r=0.92, p<0.001). large variations of 206pb/20 ...200616684562
intracranial granuloma caused by asporogenic aspergillus fumigatus in a harbour porpoise (phocoena phocoena). 200617012612
marine mammal neoplasia: a review.a review of the published literature indicates that marine mammal neoplasia includes the types and distributions of tumors seen in domestic species. a routine collection of samples from marine mammal species is hampered, and, hence, the literature is principally composed of reports from early whaling expeditions, captive zoo mammals, and epizootics that affect larger numbers of animals from a specific geographic location. the latter instances are most important, because many of these long-lived, ...200617099143
echolocation signals of wild harbour porpoises, phocoena phocoena.field recordings of harbour porpoises (phocoena phocoena) were made in the inner danish waters with a vertical array of three or four hydrophones. the back-calculated source level ranged from 178 to 205 db re 1 mupa pp @ 1 m with a mean source level of 191 db re 1 mupa pp @ 1 m. the maximum source level was more than 30 db above what has been measured from captive animals, while the spectral and temporal properties were comparable. calculations based on the sonar equation indicate that harbour p ...200717170148
campylobacter insulaenigrae isolates from northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris) in california.there are only two reports in the literature demonstrating the presence of campylobacter spp. in marine mammals. one report describes the isolation of a new species, campylobacter insulaenigrae sp. nov., from three harbor seals (phoca vitulina) and a harbor porpoise (phocoena phocoena) in scotland, and the other describes the isolation of campylobacter jejuni, campylobacter lari, and an unknown campylobacter species from northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris) in california. in this st ...200717259365
mass-dependent predation risk and lethal dolphin-porpoise small birds, mass-dependent predation risk (mdpr) is known to make the trade-off between avoiding starvation and avoiding predation dependent on individual mass. this occurs because carrying increased fat reserves not only reduces starvation risk but also results in a higher predation risk due to reduced escape flight performance and/or the increased foraging exposure needed to maintain a higher body mass. in principle, the theory of mdpr could also apply to any animal capable of storing ener ...200717698485
whale lice (isocyamus delphinii) on a harbour porpoise (phocoena phocoena) from german waters. 200717938412
shipboard measurements of the hearing of the white-beaked dolphin lagenorhynchus albirostris.this is the first report of an underwater audiogram from a dolphin in a capture-and-release scenario. two bow-riding white-beaked dolphins lagenorhynchus albirostris (a female and a male) were captured using the hoop-net technique in faxaflói bay, iceland. the dolphins were transferred to a stretcher and hoisted into a plastic research tank on board a small fishing vessel. two underwater transducers were used to cover the frequency range from 16 to 215 khz. two human eeg electrodes mounted in su ...200818245641
pfos and pfoa in the livers of harbour porpoises (phocoena phocoena) stranded or bycaught around the uk. 200818281063
isolation and characterization of brucella from the lungworms of a harbor porpoise (phocoena phocoena).adult female nematodes identified as pseudalius inflexus were collected from the lungs of a juvenile male harbor porpoise (phocoena phocoena) found dead on a beach in cornwall, uk. classic and molecular typing methods, immunologic and electron microscopy immunolabeling techniques, provided evidence of brucella sp. infection within the uterine tissue of nematodes of this marine mammal. this finding presents further evidence to suggest parasites should be considered as a potential means of transfe ...200818436657
evidence of exposure to brucella sp. in harbor porpoises (phocoena phocoena) from the bay of fundy, canada.novel strains of brucella recently have been discovered in marine mammals. to investigate brucella exposure and infection in a general population of cetaceans, blood and tissue samples were collected and analyzed from wild harbor porpoises (phocoena phocoena) incidentally caught in fishing gear in the bay of fundy, canada. two of 170 (1.2%) animals had detectable antibodies against brucella, but no organisms were isolated from genital swabs or tissues from 22 and 8 porpoises, respectively. genet ...200818436684
occurrence of a monophasic strain of salmonella group b isolated from cetaceans in england and wales between 1990 and 2002.between september 1990 and december 2002, 511 cetacean carcasses stranded or caught in commercial fisheries in england and wales were examined post mortem. salmonella group b was isolated from 60 of 279 (21.51%) harbour porpoises (phocoena phocoena), predominantly from lung tissue. forty-three of the salmonella group b isolates were subsequently serotyped and all found to have the antigenic structure o4,12:a:-. the annual proportion of harbour porpoises testing positive for salmonella o4,12:a:- ...200818492065
brucella ceti associated pathology in the testicle of a harbour porpoise (phocoena phocoena).brucellosis is reported increasingly in marine mammals and the marine species of brucella are capable of causing community acquired zoonotic infections in humans as well as abortion in cattle as a result of experimental infection. this case report describes pathology associated with an isolate of brucella ceti that was successfully cultured from, and immunolabelled in, the testis and epididymis of an adult sexually mature free-living harbour porpoise (phocoena phocoena). this is the first report ...200818514217
occurrence of the ectoparasite isocyamus deltobranchium (amphipoda: cyamidae) on cetaceans from atlantic waters.the cyamids collected from a true's beaked whale (mesoplodon mirus), a common dolphin (delphinus delphis), and a harbour porpoise (phocoena phocoena) stranded in galicia (nw spain) were identified as isocyamus deltobranchium, extending the range of this species to the atlantic ocean. the three cetacean species examined are new hosts for this parasite. the microscopic examination of female specimens reveals that certain important taxonomic characters can be present or absent depending on the matu ...200818576834
bartonella species detection in captive, stranded and free-ranging cetaceans.we present prevalence of bartonella spp. for multiple cohorts of wild and captive cetaceans. one hundred and six cetaceans including 86 bottlenose dolphins (71 free-ranging, 14 captive in a facility with a dolphin experiencing debility of unknown origin, 1 stranded), 11 striped dolphins, 4 harbor porpoises, 3 risso's dolphins, 1 dwarf sperm whale and 1 pygmy sperm whale (all stranded) were sampled. whole blood (n = 95 live animals) and tissues (n = 15 freshly dead animals) were screened by pcr ( ...200818721502
incidence of brucella species in marine mammals of the german north this study, organ samples from 426 common seals phoca vitulina, 298 harbour porpoises phocoena phocoena, 34 grey seals halichoerus grypus and 10 other marine mammals were assessed for the presence of brucella species. forty-seven common seals, 2 harbour porpoises and 1 grey seal were found to be positive for these bacteria. a total of 91 brucella strains were successfully isolated, due to the fact that brucella spp. were found in more than one organ sample in 15 animals. the primary organ in ...200818828563
bartonella henselae in captive and hunter-harvested beluga (delphinapterus leucas).previously, we reported the isolation of bartonella henselae from the blood of harbor porpoises (phocoena phocoena) and loggerhead sea turtles (caretta caretta) from the north carolina coast. hematologic, pathologic, and microbiologic findings surrounding the death of a juvenile captive beluga in vancouver initiated an outbreak investigation designed to define the molecular prevalence of bartonella infection in belugas. using polymerase chain reaction analyses targeting the intergenic spacer reg ...200818957643
isolation of mycobacterium mageritense from the lung of a harbor porpoise (phocoena phocoena) with severe granulomatous investigation of a harbor porpoise (phocoena phocoena) found dead on the beach of the island of vlieland, the netherlands, revealed severe granulomatous changes in the right lung lobe. ziehl neelsen staining demonstrated relatively large acid-fast rods. mycobacterial culture yielded a fast-growing mycobacterium, which was identified by molecular biological methods as mycobacterium mageritense. autolysis prevented histopathology. it was tentatively concluded that the granulomatous cha ...200818957658
a significant downturn in levels of hexabromocyclododecane in the blubber of harbor porpoises (phocoena phocoena) stranded or bycaught in the uk: an update to an earlier paper, we reported data indicating a sharp increase in hexabromocyclododecane concentrations in the blubber of 85 harbor porpoises from the uk, from about 2001 onward. that time trend was evaluated using data from 1994-2003, generated on a diastereoisomer basis using lc-ms. in this paper we report additional data for 138 animals collected during 2003-2006. sigmahbcd concentrations ranged from <10 to 11,500 microg kg(-1) wet weight (up to 12,800 microg kg(-1) lipid weight) and tbbp- ...200819174878
gas bubbles in seals, dolphins, and porpoises entangled and drowned at depth in gillnets.gas bubbles were found in 15 of 23 gillnet-drowned bycaught harp (pagophilus groenlandicus), harbor (phoca vitulina) and gray (halichoerus grypus) seals, common (delphinus delphis) and white-sided (lagenorhyncus acutus) dolphins, and harbor porpoises (phocaena phocaena) but in only 1 of 41 stranded marine mammals. cases with minimal scavenging and bloating were chilled as practical and necropsied within 24 to 72 hours of collection. bubbles were commonly visible grossly and histologically in byc ...200919176498
distribution patterns suggest biomagnification of halogenated 1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrroles (mbps).the halogenated 1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrroles (mbps) are a suite of marine natural products that have been detected in marine mammals worldwide. although their concentrations are similar to persistent organic pollutants that biomagnify, such as 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (cb-153), it is notyet clearthat these natural products also biomagnify. here we analyze mbps and cb-153 isolated from the blubber and liver of marine mammals stranded on the eastern coast of massachusetts. four odontocete sp ...200919209594
a bayesian uncertainty analysis of cetacean demography and bycatch mortality using age-at-death data.wildlife ecologists and managers are challenged to make the most of sparse information for understanding demography of many species, especially those that are long lived and difficult to observe. for many odontocete (dolphin, porpoise, toothed whale) populations, only fertility and age-at-death data are feasibly obtainable. we describe a bayesian approach for using fertilities and two types of age-at-death data (i.e., age structure of deaths from all mortality sources and age structure of anthro ...200819263888
concentrations of chlorinated and brominated contaminants and their metabolites in serum of harbour seals and harbour porpoises.harbour seals (phoca vitulina) and harbour porpoises (phocoena phocoena) are top predators in the north sea and consequently accumulate a variety of pollutants in their tissues. concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes) and their hydroxylated metabolites (ho-pcbs and ho-pbdes) were measured in serum of wild harbour seals (n=47) and captive harbour porpoises (n=21). both species exhibit long life spans and do not have extreme situations, such as co ...200919303641
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