observations of vaginal calculi in dolphins.vaginal calculi have been described from the common (delphinus delphis), pacific white-sided (lagenorhynchus obliquidens) and spotted (stenella attenuata) dolphins. we describe additional calculi found in six sexually mature d. delphis from southern california. three calculi were large (ca. 7 x 5 cm), exhibited concentric layer crystallization, and were unique from previously published descriptions. one calculus described previously and one in our sample appeared to be a fetal skeleton and skull ...19911920661
tetraphyllidean cysticerci in the peritoneal cavity of the common dolphin.cysticerci of the cestodes monorygma grimaldii and phyllobothrium delphini were encountered during necropsy of an adult common dolphin (delphinus delphis) found dead on the southeastern coast of australia. monorygma grimaldii cysticerci were found within highly organized retroperitoneal cysts, whereas p. delphini cysticerci in the subcutaneous blubber did not occupy specialized structures. there was a localized lymphoplasmacytic host response to the presence of cysticerci of both species, but m. ...19979391979
antibodies to brucella in marine mammals around the coast of england and wales.following the isolation of previously unrecognised species of brucella from stranded seals and cetaceans in scotland and northern england, a serological survey was carried out to investigate the range of marine mammal species which may have been exposed to brucella species around the coasts of england and wales, the prevalence of infection and the temporal and geographical distribution of seropositive animals. serum collected from 153 stranded marine mammals from the coasts of england and wales ...19979416675
macroparasites in cetaceans stranded on the northwestern spanish atlantic extensive parasitological survey was carried out during autopsy of 80 cetaceans representing 8 species within 4 families (delphinus delphis, stenella coeruleoalba, tursiops truncatus, grampus griseus, globicephala melas, kogia breviceps, phocoena phocoena and megaptera novaeangliae) collected on the northwestern spanish atlantic coast from february 1991 to october 1996. two species of tetraphyllidean cestodes (phyllobothrium delphini and monorygma grimaldii), 2 ascaridoid nematodes (anisakis ...19989676247
genetic control of the immune response to myoglobin. viii. control of antibody affinity.we have previously shown that the antibody response to mammalian myoglobins is under genetic control. in the present study we examined antibodies to sperm-whale. atlantic bottlenosed dolphin, black sea dolphin, horse and badger myoglobins, raised in high responder strains of mice, to ascertain whether there is genetic control of antibody affinity to mammalian myoglobins. using antisera of varying dilutions, the binding to 125i-labelled homologous myoglobins was studied by inhibition with homolog ...19816795280
relationship between body length and body weight of stenella styx gray and delphinus delphis linné from the western mediterranean. 19685728694
characterization and clinical manifestations of arcanobacterium phocae infections in marine mammals stranded along the central california coast.between 1994 and 2000, 141 arcanobacterium phocae isolates were recovered from marine mammals that stranded along the central california coast (usa). arcanobacterium phocae was cultured from tissue sites with abnormal discharge or evidence of inflammation in 66 california sea lions (zalophus californianus), 50 pacific harbor seals (phoca vitulina richardii), 19 northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris), five southern sea otters (enhydra lutris nereis), and one common dolphin (delphinus d ...200312685077
perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorinated hydrocarbons in marine mammals, fishes, and birds from coasts of the baltic and the mediterranean seas.perfluorooctanesulfonate (pfos; c8f17so3-), perfluorooctanesulfonamide (fosa; c8f17so2nh2), perfluorohexanesulfonate (pfhxs; c6f13so3-), and perfluorooctanoate (pfoa; c7f15co2-) were detected in 175 samples of liver and blood of bluefin tuna (thunnus thynnus), swordfish (xiphias gladius), common cormorants (phalacrocorax carbo), bottlenose dolphins (tursiops truncatus), striped dolphins (stenella coeruleoalba), common dolphins (delphinus delphi), fin whales (balenoptera physalus), and long-finne ...200212188342
are the mediterraneantop predators exposed to toxicological risk due to endocrine disrupters?man-made endocrine disrupting chemicals (edcs) range across all continents and oceans; some geographic areas are potentially more threatened than others: one of these is the mediterranean sea. this basin has limited exchange of water with the atlantic ocean and is surrounded by some of the most heavily populated and industrialized countries in the world. accordingly, levels of some xenobiotics are much higher here than in other seas and oceans. in this research the unexplored hypothesis that med ...200111795396
organochlorine compounds in common dolphins (delphinus delphis) from the atlantic and mediterranean waters of spain.blubber of free-ranging common dolphins (delphinus delphis) from the northwestern coast of spain (atlantic), sampled in 1984 and 1996, and of common dolphins entangled in fishing nets in the southwestern mediterranean, sampled during 1992 1994, was analysed for organochlorine pollutants. in the atlantic, concentration of all pollutants was significantly higher in males than in females. the overall tpcb/tddt ratio in this area was 3.35, which indicates a predominance of industrial inputs over tho ...200111504349
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild dolphins from the spanish mediterranean coast.although toxoplasma gondii infection has been found occasionally in cetaceans, little is known of the prevalence of antibodies to t. gondii in wild dolphins. antibodies to t. gondii were determined in serum samples from 58 dolphins stranded in the spanish mediterranean coast. modified agglutination test was used to determine t. gondii antibodies, and a titer of 1:25 was considered indicative of t. gondii infection. antibodies to t. gondii were found in 4 of 36 striped dolphins (stenella coeruleo ...200415270114
an insight into the epidemiology of dolphin morbillivirus worldwide.serum samples from 288 cetaceans representing 25 species and originating from 11 different countries were collected between 1995 and 1999 and examined for the presence of dolphin morbillivirus (dmv)-specific antibodies by an indirect elisa (ielisa) (n = 267) or a plaque reduction assay (n = 21). a total of 35 odontocetes were seropositive: three harbour porpoises (phocoena phocoena) and a common dolphin (delphinus delphis) from the northeastern (ne) atlantic, a bottlenose dolphin (tursiops trunc ...200111390111
isolation and characterization of a helicobacter sp. from the gastric mucosa of dolphins, lagenorhynchus acutus and delphinus delphis.gastric ulcerations in dolphins have been reported for decades. some of these lesions were associated with parasitic infections. however, cases of nonparasitic gastric ulcers with no clearly defined etiology also have been reported in wild and captive dolphins. considerable speculation exists as to whether dolphins have helicobacter-associated gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. the stomachs of seven stranded atlantic white-sided dolphins, lagenorhynchus acutus, and 1 common dolphin, delphinus d ...200011055919
cystacanths of bolbosoma vasculosum in the black scabbard fish aphanopus carbo, oceanic horse mackerel trachurus picturatus and common dolphin delphinus delphis from madeira, portugal.cystacanths of the acanthocephalan, bolbosoma vasculosum rudolphi 1819, were found to be encapsulated in the connective tissues of the viscera of the black scabbard fish, aphanopus carbo and oceanic horse mackerel, trachurus picturatusfrom madeira, atlantic ocean. juvenile worms were obtained from the intestine of a stranded common dolphin, delphinus delphis, also from madeira. cystacanths were 11-15 mm long, with a proboscis of 18-19 longitudinal rows, eight hooks per row, and two sets of trunk ...200010881281
epizootic of morbilliviral disease in common dolphins (delphinus delphis ponticus) from the black sea.forty-seven common dolphins (delphinus delphis ponticus) were stranded on the northern shores of the black sea between mid-july and early september 1994, more than in previous or subsequent years. two of the 47 dolphins were examined in detail to try to determine the cause of the increased stranding rate. their lesions included broncho-interstitial pneumonia with type ii epithelial cell hyperplasia and multinucleate syncytial cells, neuronal necrosis, gliosis, and non-suppurative meningitis of t ...199910097312
heavy metals in dolphins stranded on the french atlantic coast.heavy metal concentrations (total and organic hg, ti, cr, cu, zn, cd and pb) were determined in the muscle, liver and kidney of 36 dolphins stranded on the french atlantic coast between 1977 and 1990: 29 common dolphins delphinus delphis, five bottlenose dolphins tursiops truncatus and two striped dolphins stenella coeruleoalba. total hg concentration in the liver increased with age, while relative methylmercury concentration decreased, reflecting the existence of a slow demethylation process. t ...19989703697
long-term recording of gastric ulcers in cetaceans stranded on the galician (nw spain) coast.long-term (1990-1996) results of recording gastric ulcers in the common dolphin are presented for the nw spanish atlantic coast. the occurrence and abundance of cetacean carcasses (belonging to 10 species) with gastric ulcers are also given and discussed. ulcerations were detected in 17.2% of the animals examined, with 15% for common dolphins and 0 to 29.4% in other cetacean species. a positive relation was noted between ulcer counts and length and maturity of delphinus delphis. clusters of the ...19989676261
serological evidence of morbillivirus infection in small cetaceans from the southeast pacific.the presence of morbillivirus-specific serum antibodies was examined by an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ielisa) and virus neutralization tests in serum samples from 30 dusky dolphins (lagenorhynchus obscurus), 8 long-snouted common dolphins (delphinus capensis), 2 inshore and 6 offshore bottlenose dolphins (tursiops truncatus) and 20 burmeister's porpoises (phocoena spinipinnis) taken in fisheries off central peru in 1993-1995. the sera from six dusky dolphins, one common dolphin ...19989549850
[viruses of whales and dolphins].dna- and rna-genome viruses of whales and dolphins belong to families poxviridae, herpesviridae, adenoviridae, orthomyxoviridae, paramyxoviridae, togaviridae, picornaviridae. virological, serological and pathomorphological signs of infection have been registered in odontoceti (bottle-nosed dolphin, atlantic white-sided dolphin, striped dolphin, harbona porpoise, white-beaked dolphin, common dolphin, sperm whale, pilot whale, white whale) and musticeti (sei whale, fin whale, gray whale, and bowhe ...19969044706
a review of heavy metal and organochlorine levels in marine mammals in of toxic contaminants in marine mammal specimens collected around australia is currently uncoordinated and piecemeal. most states collect samples but there is little or no financial support for their analysis. this study combines data, published or unpublished, from 13 sources. heavy metals have been analysed in about 676 specimens; over 400 were for mercury levels in p. macrocephalus taken at a whaling station. the remaining samples were mostly from toothed whales, a few baleen whales (< ...19947973602
auditory brainstem response in dolphins.we recorded the auditory brainstem response (abr) in four dolphins (tursiops truncatus and delphinus delphis). the abr evoked by clicks consists of seven waves within 10 msec; two waves often contain dual peaks. the main waves can be identified with those of humans and laboratory mammals; in spite of a much longer path, the latencies of the peaks are almost identical to those of the rat. the dolphin abr waves increase in latency as the intensity of a sound decreases by only 4 microseconds/decibe ...19816940199
parasite communities of common dolphins (delphinus delphis) from patagonia: the relation with host distribution and diet and comparison with sympatric hosts.we studied the helminths of 18 common dolphins, delphinus delphis, from northern patagonia. parasites were found only in the gastrointestinal tract. four species were in the stomach, the nematode anisakis simplex, the acanthocephalan corynosoma cetaceum, and the digeneans braunina cordiformis and pholeter gastrophilus, plus 1 digenean in the hepatopancreatic ducts, oschmarinella rochebruni. infection levels were low (0-155 parasites). braunina cordiformis and c. cetaceum were the most prevalent ...200718163339
cloning and characterisation of the gh gene from the common dolphin (delphinus delphis).the sequence of growth hormone (gh) is generally strongly conserved in mammals, but episodes of rapid change occurred during the evolution of primates and artiodactyls, when the rate of gh evolution apparently increased at least 50-fold. as a result, the sequences of human and ruminant ghs differ substantially from those of other non-primate ghs. recent molecular studies have suggested that cetaceans are closely related to artiodactyls and may be deeply nested within the artiodactyl phylogenetic ...200212225773
marine mammals from northeast atlantic: relationship between their trophic status as determined by delta13c and delta15n measurements and their trace metal concentrations.the relationship between trophic position through delta13c and delta15n and trace metal concentrations (zn, cd, cu and hg) was investigated in the tissues of six marine mammal species from the northeast atlantic: striped dolphin stenella coeruleoalba, common dolphin, delphinus delphis, atlantic white-sided dolphin lagenorhynchus acutus, harbour porpoise phocoena phocoena, white beaked-dolphin lagenorhynchus albirostris, grey seal halichoerus grypus stranded on french channel and irish coasts. wh ...200312738219
[the oral prausnitz-küstner reaction in food allergies].the oral prausnitz-küstner (p-k) reaction was examined in 41 children suspected of ige-mediated food allergy. the recipients were served by their mothers in this study. a positive reaction was observed in 9 children when used hen's egg, cow's milk, chicken, buckwheat, red-bean, salmon or common-dolphin. among them, seven have had an anaphylactic skin reaction (systemic urticaria and/or angioedema) to the foods. the other two were babies who were fed only by the breast milk. therefore, the oral p ...19911892444
effects of amino acid substitutions outside an antigenic site on protein binding to monoclonal antibodies of predetermined specificity obtained by peptide immunization: demonstration with region 145-151 (antigenic site 5) of myoglobin.monoclonal antibodies of predetermined specificity were prepared by immunization with a free (i.e., without coupling to any protein carrier) synthetic peptide representing region 145-151 of sperm whale myoglobin (spmb) and their cross-reactions with eight mb variants were determined. five mbs--bottle-nose dolphin myoglobin (bdmb), pacific common dolphin myoglobin (pdmb), horse myoglobin (hsmb), dog myoglobin (dgmb), and badger myoglobin (bgmb)--have an identical sequence in that region. neverthe ...19921466763
effects of amino acid substitutions outside an antigenic site on protein binding to monoclonal antibodies of predetermined specificity obtained by peptide immunization: demonstration with region 56-62 (antigenic site 2) of myoglobin.this work was carried out in order to study the effects of substitutions outside antigenic site 2 of sperm whale myoglobin (spmb) on the reactivity of protein variants with antisite 2 monoclonal antibodies (mabs). a synthetic peptide corresponding to region 56-62 (site 2) of spmb was used as an immunogen in mice in its free form (i.e., without coupling to any carrier) to prepare a panel of mabs whose predetermined specificity is directed, by design, against this region. the binding of three of t ...19921280438
the complete amino acid sequence of the major component myoglobin of amazon river dolphin (inia geoffrensis).the complete amino acid sequence of the major component myoglobin from amazon river dolphin, inia geoffrensis, was determined by specific cleavage of the protein to obtain large peptides which are readily degraded by the automatic sequencer. three easily separable peptides were obtained by cleaving the protein with cyanogen bromide at the methionine residues and four peptides were obtained by cleaving the methyl-acetimidated protein with trypsin at the arginine residues. from these peptides over ...19751191640
[cytoarchitectonics of the vestibular nucleic of the brain of the dolphin (delphinus delphis)].specific features of the structure of the vestibular complex of cetaceans correlating with specific features of the structural functional organization of these representatives of aquatic mammals were detected in a cytoarchitectonic investigation of the topography and strucutral organization of nuclei of the vestibular complex performed in delphinus delphis and compared with the organization of the corresponding structures of the brain of man and chimpanzee.1976985096
hepatic lesions in cetaceans stranded in the canary islands.this article describes the gross, histopathologic, and ultrastructural findings of the livers of cetaceans stranded on the coast of the canary islands between 1992 and 2000. a total of 135 cetaceans were included in the study, among which 25 were common dolphins (delphinus delphis), 23 atlantic spotted dolphins (stenella frontalis), 19 striped dolphins (stenella coeruleoalba), and 15 other species of dolphins and whales. the most common lesion observed in these animals was a nonspecific chronic ...200415017028
heavy metals in soft tissues of tursiops truncatus and delphinus delphis from west atlantic ocean by x-ray this work, the concentration of heavy metals in muscle, liver, fat tissue and skin is studied in 15 delphinus delphis and two tursiops truncatus dolphins, stranded along the portuguese coast of the atlantic ocean. sample collection was performed post-mortem and the tissues were kept frozen until analysed. sample preparation included lyophilising and grounding in a teflon mill to avoid contamination by metals. the obtained powder was prepared as pellets for each sample and analysed directly by ...200212146523
contamination by persistent organochlorines in cetaceans incidentally caught along brazilian coastal waters.wide ranges of organochlorine residues were determined in the blubber of franciscana (pontoporia blainvillei), estuarine dolphin (sotalia guianensis), atlantic spotted dolphin (stenella frontalis), and long-beaked common dolphin (delphinus capensis) incidentally caught along brazilian coastal waters. concentrations of ddts and pcbs were the highest, followed by chls, tcpmoh, dieldrin, tcpme, heptachlor epoxide, hcb, and hchs. unexpectedly, significant pollution of pcbs, ddts, tcpme, and tcpmoh w ...200415025172
levels of hexabromocyclododecane in harbor porpoises and common dolphins from western european seas, with evidence for stereoisomer-specific biotransformation by cytochrome p450.commercial hexabromocyclododecane (hbcd) is a high-production-volume flame-retardant applied in polystyrene foams. it contains three stereoisomers, of which gamma-hbcd always dominates. here we report on the levels of hbcd in blubber of harbor porpoise and common dolphin from different european seas. the highest total (sigma)-hbcd levels were measured in harbor porpoises stranded on the irish and scottish coasts of the irish sea (median concentration 2.9 microg (g of lipid)(-1)) and the northwes ...200515871242
concentration-dependent changes of pcb patterns in fish-eating mammals: structural evidence for induction of cytochrome sets on cb concentrations in fish-eating mammals from five laboratories were combined to test and refine a pharmacokinetic model. clear differences in pcb patterns were observed between species. the ability to metabolize chlorobiphenyl (cb) congeners with vicinal h-atoms only in the ortho- and meta-positions and with one ortho-chlorine substituent generally increased in the order otter < cetaceans (harbor porpoise, common dolphin) < phocid seals (harbor and grey seal), but the metabolism of ...19979353208
concentration and subcellular distribution of trace elements in liver of small cetaceans incidentally caught along the brazilian coast.concentrations of trace elements (v, cr, mn, fe, co, cu, zn, ga, as, se, rb, sr, mo, ag, cd, sb, cs, ba, t-hg, org-hg, tl and pb) were determined in liver samples of estuarine dolphin (sotalia guianensis; n = 20), franciscana dolphin (pontoporia blainvillei; n = 23), atlantic spotted dolphin (stenella frontalis; n = 2), common dolphin (delphinus capensis; n = 1) and striped dolphin (stenella coeruleoalba; n = 1) incidentally caught along the coast of sao paulo state and parana state, brazil, fro ...200415476836
lead contamination of small cetaceans in european waters--the use of stable isotopes for identifying the sources of lead exposure.lead concentrations and isotopic composition have been measured in bone and teeth of small cetaceans belonging to three species (delphinus delphis, phocoena phocoena and stenella coeruleoalba), to evaluate the toxicological risk and to determine sources of lead in the european waters. lead concentrations, far lower than threshold value inducing toxic effects in human, were higher in teeth than in bones, but highly correlated between the two tissues (r=0.92, p<0.001). large variations of 206pb/20 ...200616684562
gaussian mixture model classification of odontocetes in the southern california bight and the gulf of california.a method for the automatic classification of free-ranging delphinid vocalizations is presented. the vocalizations of short-beaked and long-beaked common (delphinus delphis and delphinus capensis), pacific white-sided (lagenorhynchus obliquidens), and bottlenose (tursiops truncatus) dolphins were recorded in a pelagic environment of the southern california bight and the gulf of california over a period of 4 years. cepstral feature vectors are extracted from call data which contain simultaneous ov ...200717407910
epidemiological pattern of tattoo skin disease: a potential general health indicator for cetaceans.the presence of tattoo skin disease (tsd) was examined in 1392 free-ranging and dead odontocetes comprising 17 species from the americas, europe, south africa, new zealand and greenland. we investigated whether tsd prevalence varied with sex, age and health status. tsd was encountered in cetaceans from the pacific and atlantic oceans as well as in those from the north, mediterranean and tasman seas. no clear patterns related to geography and host phylogeny were detected, except that prevalence o ...200919750811
The dolphin cochlear nucleus: Topography, histology and functional implications.Despite the outstanding auditory capabilities of dolphins, there is only limited information available on the cytology of the auditory brain stem nuclei in these animals. Here, we investigated the cochlear nuclei (CN) of five brains of common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) and La Plata dolphins (Pontoporia blainvillei) using cell and fiber stain microslide series representing the three main anatomical planes. In general, the CN in dolphins comprise the same set of subnuclei as in other mammals. Ho ...201121987441
the distribution, navigation and orientation by the sun of delphinus delphis l. in the western mediterranean. 19685705202
acute and chronic gas bubble lesions in cetaceans stranded in the united kingdom.the first evidence suggestive of in vivo gas bubble formation in cetacea, including eight animals stranded in the uk, has recently been reported. this article presents the pathologic findings from these eight uk-stranded cetaceans and two additional uk-stranded cetacean cases in detail. hepatic gas-filled cavitary lesions (0.2-6.0 cm diameter) involving approximately 5-90% of the liver volume were found in four (two juvenile, two adult) risso's dolphins (grampus griseus), three (two adult, one j ...200515872375
studies on the fetal development of the gubernaculum in cetacean males, like non-mammalian vertebrates and other testicond mammals, have intra-abdominal testes. there is no evidence of a processus vaginalis in them. testicondia in cetaceans is considered secondary as they are judged, evolutionarily, the descendants of terrestrial mammals (ungulates) with testis descent. a possible argument in support of the latter contention would be that cetacean fetuses develop gubernacula which are the primordia of the processus vaginalis and other structure ...19958597291
organochlorine contaminant and retinoid levels in blubber of common dolphins (delphinus delphis) off northwestern spain.the effect of age, sex, nutritive condition and organochlorine concentration on blubber retinoid concentrations was examined in 74 common dolphins incidentally caught off northwestern spain. age and blubber lipid content were strong determinants of the retinoid concentrations in males, while these variables did not account for the variation found in females. retinoids were positively correlated with organochlorines in males and negatively in females. however, pollution levels were moderate and l ...200616260076
identification of highly brominated analogues of q1 in marine mammals.three novel halogenated organic compounds (hocs) have been identified in the blubber of marine mammals from coastal new england with the molecular formulae c(9)h(3)n(2)br(6)cl, c(9)h(3)n(2)br(7), and c(9)h(4)n(2)br(5)cl. they were identified using high and low resolution gas chromatography mass spectrometry (gcms) and appear to be highly brominated analogues of q1, a heptachlorinated hoc suspected to be naturally produced. these compounds were found in atlantic white sided dolphin (lagenorhynchu ...200616517037
automated extraction of odontocete whistle contours.many odontocetes produce frequency modulated tonal calls known as whistles. the ability to automatically determine time × frequency tracks corresponding to these vocalizations has numerous applications including species description, identification, and density estimation. this work develops and compares two algorithms on a common corpus of nearly one hour of data collected in the southern california bight and at palmyra atoll. the corpus contains over 3000 whistles from bottlenose dolphins, long ...201121973376
endocrine disruptors in mediterranean top marine endocrine disruptors (eds) range across all continents and oceans. some geographic areas are potentially more threatened than others: one of these is the mediterranean sea. levels of some xenobiotics are much higher here than in other seas and oceans. in this paper we review the final results of a project in which the hypothesis that mediterranean top predator species (such as large pelagic fish and marine mammals) are potentially at risk due to eds was investigated.200616758711
potential toxicological hazard due to endocrine-disrupting chemicals on mediterranean top predators: state of art, gender differences and methodological endocrine-disrupting chemicals (edcs) range across all continents and oceans. some geographic areas are potentially more threatened than others: one of these is the mediterranean sea. levels of some xenobiotics are much higher here than in other seas and oceans. in this paper we review the final results of a project supported by the italian ministry of the environment, in which the hypothesis that mediterranean top predator species (such as large pelagic fish and marine mammals) are pot ...200716996053
contamination level of mercury in red meat products from cetaceans available from south korea markets.levels of total mercury (t-hg) were surveyed in red meat (n=73) and liver (n=3) from toothed whales, dolphins and porpoises (odontocetes) sold for human consumption in the coastal cities of south korea. high concentrations of t-hg were found in the liver products of finless porpoises (18.7 and 156 microg/wet g) and common dolphins (13.2 microg/wet g). the t-hg concentrations in red meat products were highest in the false killer whale (9.66+/-12.3 microg/wet g, n=9), bottlenose dolphin (10.6+/-12 ...200717395215
occurrence of the ectoparasite isocyamus deltobranchium (amphipoda: cyamidae) on cetaceans from atlantic waters.the cyamids collected from a true's beaked whale (mesoplodon mirus), a common dolphin (delphinus delphis), and a harbour porpoise (phocoena phocoena) stranded in galicia (nw spain) were identified as isocyamus deltobranchium, extending the range of this species to the atlantic ocean. the three cetacean species examined are new hosts for this parasite. the microscopic examination of female specimens reveals that certain important taxonomic characters can be present or absent depending on the matu ...200818576834
classification of risso's and pacific white-sided dolphins using spectral properties of echolocation clicks.the spectral and temporal properties of echolocation clicks and the use of clicks for species classification are investigated for five species of free-ranging dolphins found offshore of southern california: short-beaked common (delphinus delphis), long-beaked common (d. capensis), risso's (grampus griseus), pacific white-sided (lagenorhynchus obliquidens), and bottlenose (tursiops truncatus) dolphins. spectral properties are compared among the five species and unique spectral peak and notch patt ...200818647003
hyperbaric computed tomographic measurement of lung compression in seals and dolphins.lung compression of vertebrates as they dive poses anatomical and physiological challenges. there has been little direct observation of this. a harbor and a gray seal, a common dolphin and a harbor porpoise were each imaged post mortem under pressure using a radiolucent, fiberglass, water-filled pressure vessel rated to a depth equivalent of 170 m. the vessel was scanned using computed tomography (ct), and supported by a rail and counterweighted carriage magnetically linked to the ct table movem ...201121697431
distribution patterns suggest biomagnification of halogenated 1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrroles (mbps).the halogenated 1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrroles (mbps) are a suite of marine natural products that have been detected in marine mammals worldwide. although their concentrations are similar to persistent organic pollutants that biomagnify, such as 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (cb-153), it is notyet clearthat these natural products also biomagnify. here we analyze mbps and cb-153 isolated from the blubber and liver of marine mammals stranded on the eastern coast of massachusetts. four odontocete sp ...200919209594
organohalogen contaminants and metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid and cerebellum gray matter in short-beaked common dolphins and atlantic white-sided dolphins from the western north atlantic.concentrations of several congeners and classes of organohalogen contaminants (ohcs) and/or their metabolites, namely organochlorine pesticides (ocs), polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs), hydroxylated-pcbs (oh-pcbs), methylsulfonyl-pcbs (meso(2)-pcbs), polybrominated diphenyl ether (pbde) flame retardants, and oh-pbdes, were measured in cerebrospinal fluid (csf) of short-beaked common dolphins (n = 2), atlantic white-sided dolphins (n = 8), and gray seal (n = 1) from the western north atlantic. in ...200919375836
the central vestibular complex in dolphins and humans: functional implications of deiters' nucleus.toothed whales (odontocetes; e.g., dolphins) are well-known for efficient underwater locomotion and for their acrobatic capabilities. nevertheless, in relation to other mammals including the human and with respect to body size, their vestibular apparatus is reduced, particularly the semicircular canals. concomitantly, the vestibular nerve and most of the vestibular nuclei are thin and small, respectively, in comparison with those in terrestrial mammals. in contrast, the lateral (deiters') vestib ...200919390175
the sero-prevalence of toxoplasma gondii in british marine mammals.serum samples from 101 stranded or bycatch cetaceans from british waters were screened for toxoplasma gondii-specific antibodies using the sabin feldman dye test. relatively high seropositivity was recorded in short-beaked delphinus delphis and this study presents the first documented case of toxoplasma in a humpback whale megaptera novaeangliae.200919430656
structural and functional characterization of delphinus delphis hemoglobin system.structural analysis of the hemoglobin (hb) system of delphinus delphis revealed a high globin multiplicity: hplc-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (esi-ms) analysis evidenced three major beta (beta1 16,022 da, beta2 16,036 da, beta3 16,036 da, labeled according to their progressive elution times) and two major alpha globins (alpha1 15,345 da, alpha2 15,329 da). esi-tandem mass and nucleotide sequence analyses showed that beta2 globin differs from beta1 for the substitution val126 --> leu ...200919554331
retrospective study of etiologic agents associated with nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis in stranded cetaceans in the canary islands.nineteen natural cases of etiologically undetermined encephalitides in free-ranging cetaceans were studied retrospectively. histological examination of the brains revealed variable degrees of nonsuppurative encephalitis or meningoencephalitis, characterized predominantly by perivascular lymphohistiocytic infiltrates. a pcr assay was used on brain and other available tissues to detect the presence of morbillivirus, herpesvirus, west nile virus, toxoplasma gondii, and brucella spp. in addition, im ...201424759718
morbillivirus infection in stranded common dolphins from the pacific ocean.from august 1995 to august 1997, six of 18 common dolphins (delphinus delphis) that stranded along beaches of southern california (usa) tested antibody positive for dolphin morbillivirus (dmv). titers ascertained by virus neutralization ranged from 1:50 to 1:910 while those determined by elisa ranged from 1:80 to 1:195. the first individual to strand survived and was released back into the pacific ocean 14 mo later. histopathologic examination of tissues from the other five dolphins did not reve ...19989813847
pathological and immunohistochemical study of gastrointestinal lesions in dolphins stranded in the canary islands.this paper describes the gross, histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of gastrointestinal lesions and regional lymph nodes of six common dolphins (delphinus delphis), 11 striped dolphins (stenella coeruleoalba) and six atlantic spotted dolphins (stenella frontalis) found stranded along the coasts of the canary islands. the most common lesion was chronic granulomatous gastritis of the glandular stomach, associated with the parasite pholeter gastrophilus, and characterised by t ...200616997997
static inflation and deflation pressure-volume curves from excised lungs of marine mammals.excised lungs from eight marine mammal species [harp seal (pagophilus groenlandicus), harbor seal (phoca vitulina), gray seal (halichoerus grypush), atlantic white-sided dolphin (lagenorhynchus acutus), common dolphin (delphinus delphis), risso's dolphin (grampus griseus), long-finned pilot whale (globicephala melas) and harbor porpoise (phocoena phocoena)] were used to determine the minimum air volume of the relaxed lung (mav, n=15), the elastic properties (pressure-volume curves, n=24) of the ...201122031747
gas bubbles in seals, dolphins, and porpoises entangled and drowned at depth in gillnets.gas bubbles were found in 15 of 23 gillnet-drowned bycaught harp (pagophilus groenlandicus), harbor (phoca vitulina) and gray (halichoerus grypus) seals, common (delphinus delphis) and white-sided (lagenorhyncus acutus) dolphins, and harbor porpoises (phocaena phocaena) but in only 1 of 41 stranded marine mammals. cases with minimal scavenging and bloating were chilled as practical and necropsied within 24 to 72 hours of collection. bubbles were commonly visible grossly and histologically in byc ...200919176498
mortality trends of stranded marine mammals on cape cod and southeastern massachusetts, usa, 2000 to understand the cause of death of 405 marine mammals stranded on cape cod and southeastern massachusetts between 2000 and 2006, a system for coding final diagnosis was developed and categorized as (1) disease, (2) human interaction, (3) mass-stranded with no significant findings, (4) single-stranded with no significant findings, (5) rock and/or sand ingestion, (6) predatory attack, (7) failure to thrive or dependent calf or pup, or (8) other. the cause of death for 91 animals could not be dete ...201020225675
modular organizations of novel cetacean papillomaviruses.the phylogenetic position of cetacean papillomaviruses (pvs: omikron-pvs and upsilon-pvs) varies depending on the region of the genome analysed. they cluster together with alpha-pvs when analysing early genes and with xi-pvs and phi-pvs when analysing late genes. we cloned and sequenced the complete genomes of five novel pvs, sampled from genital and oesophageal lesions of free-ranging cetaceans: delphinus delphis (ddpv1), lagenorhynchus acutus (ttpv3 variant), and phocoena phocoena (pphpv1, pph ...201021195783
[the serum proteins of delphinus delphis linné (cetacea, odontoceti)]. 20164962182
morbillivirus-associated unusual mortality event in south australian bottlenose dolphins is largest reported for the southern hemisphere.cases of morbillivirus have been recorded in the southern hemisphere but have not been linked to significant marine mammal mortality. post-mortems were conducted on 58 carcasses (44 indo-pacific bottlenose dolphins, two common bottlenose dolphins, 12 short-beaked common dolphins) from south australia during 2005-2013, including an unusual mortality event (ume) in st vincent gulf bioregion (svg) during 2013. diagnostic pathology, circumstance of death, body condition, age and stomach contents wer ...201628083115
endocarditis associated with wohlfahrtiimonas chitiniclastica in a short-beaked common dolphin (delphinus delphis).wohlfahrtiimonas chitiniclastica is a rare cause of fatal septicemia in humans, and recently reported in a white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus). we describe fatal septicemia associated with w. chitiniclastica in a short-beaked common dolphin (delphinus delphis) with fibrinosuppurative and necrotizing pulmonic, aortic, and mitral valve endocarditis.201525375942
cloning and characterization of the gene encoding growth hormone in finback whale (balaenoptera physalus).in mammals growth hormone (gh) is generally a strongly conserved protein, reflecting a slow rate of molecular evolution. however, during primate and artiodactyl evolution episodes of rapid change occurred, so that the ghs of higher primates and ruminants differ markedly from those of other mammals. to extend knowledge of gh evolution in cetartiodactyla (artiodactyla plus cetacea) we have previously characterized gh genes from several members of this group, including the common dolphin. surprisin ...200515993109
radionuclides in marine mammals off the portuguese coast.radionuclide analyses were performed in tissue samples including muscle, gonad, liver, mammary gland, and bone of marine mammals stranded on the portuguese west coast during january-july 2006. tissues were collected from seven dolphins (delphinus delphis and stenella coeruleoalba) and one pilot whale (globicephala sp.). samples were analyzed for (210)po and (210)pb by alpha spectrometry and for (137)cs and (40)k by gamma spectrometry. po-210 concentrations in common dolphin's muscle (d. delphis) ...201121496976
first report of brucella ceti-associated meningoencephalitis in a long-finned pilot whale globicephala melas.fatal brucella ceti infection with histological lesions specific to the central nervous system has been described in only 3 species of cetaceans: striped dolphins stenella coeruleoalba, atlantic white-sided dolphins lagenorhynchus acutus and short-beaked common dolphins delphinus delphis. this paper describes the first report of a b. ceti-associated meningoencephalitis in a long-finned pilot whale globicephala melas, showing the increasing range of species susceptibility. brucella was recovered ...201526503778
meningoencephalitis and arthritis associated with brucella ceti in a short-beaked common dolphin (delphinus delphis).brucella species infection in marine mammal species has been reported to have a global distribution. in 2007, the description of brucella ceti was published and formally adopted for those isolates originating from cetaceans and pathologic lesions similar to those seen in terrestrial mammals infected with brucella spp. have been associated with its isolation. brucella ceti infection specific to the central nervous system has been described in two species of cetacean: striped dolphins (stenella co ...201323778612
host specificity of oschmarinella rochebruni and brachycladium atlanticum (digenea: brachycladiidae) in five cetacean species from western mediterranean waters.we investigated patterns of specificity of liver flukes (fam. brachycladiidae) in a community of cetaceans from the western mediterranean. the liver and pancreas of 103 striped dolphins, stenella coeruleoalba, 18 risso's dolphins, grampus griseus, 14 bottlenose dolphins, tursiops truncatus, 8 common dolphins, delphinus delphis, and 5 long-finned pilot whales, globicephala melas, were analysed for brachycladiid species. two species were found: oschmarinella rochebruni in striped dolphins (prevale ...201120359374
detection and molecular characterization of giardia and cryptosporidium in common dolphins (delphinus delphis) stranded along the galician coast (northwest spain).the ubiquitous protozoan parasites giardia and cryptosporidium have been detected from many species of captive and free-living wildlife, representing most mammalian orders. twenty species of marine mammals have been reported to inhabit galician waters and the region has one of the highest rates of stranding in europe. evidence from stranding, reported by-catches and sightings, suggests that the common dolphin (delphinus delphis) is the most abundant cetacean on the galician coast (northwest spai ...201424704342
intestinal helminth fauna of bottlenose dolphin tursiops truncatus and common dolphin delphinus delphis from the western mediterranean.we report on the intestinal helminth fauna of 15 bottlenose dolphins tursiops truncatus and 6 short-beaked common dolphins delphinus delphis from the western mediterranean. eight helminth species were found in bottlenose dolphin, i.e., the digeneans synthesium tursionis, brachycladium atlanticum, and pholeter gastrophilus, the nematode anisakis sp., and the cestodes tetrabothrius forsteri, diphyllobothrium sp., strobilocephalus triangularis, and tetraphyllidean plerocercoids. brachycladium atlan ...201323186358
meals on wheels? a decade of megafaunal visual and acoustic observations from offshore oil & gas rigs and platforms in the north and irish seas.a decade of visual and acoustic detections of marine megafauna around offshore oil & gas (o&g) installations in the north and irish seas are presented. marine megafauna activity was monitored visually and acoustically by joint nature conservation committee (jncc) qualified and experienced marine mammal observers (mmo) and passive acoustic monitoring (pam) operators respectively, with real-time towed pam in combination with industry standard software, pamguard. monitoring was performed during rou ...201627078153
perfluorinated compounds in minke whales (balaenoptera acutorostrata) and long-beaked common dolphins (delphinus capensis) from korean coastal waters.this is the first study to report the concentrations and accumulation profiles of pfcs in marine mammals from korea. the concentrations and profiles of 10 pfcs in the liver of minke whales and common dolphins from korean coastal waters were recorded in this study. the mean concentrations of pfos and pfunda were 3-20 times higher than that found for other pfcs analyzed. the concentrations of pfos in cetaceans from korea were relatively lower than those reported in other countries. inter-species d ...201020451932
comparative anatomy of the foramen ovale in the hearts of cetaceans.the structure of the cardiac foramen ovale from 17 species representing six cetacean families, the monodontidae, phocoenidae, delphinidae, ziphiidae, balaenidae and the balaenopteridae, was studied using the scanning electron microscope. eight white whale fetuses (delphinapterus leucas) and a narwhal fetus (monodon monoceros) represented the monodontidae; one fetal and nine neonatal harbour porpoises (phocoena phocoena) and a finless porpoise fetus (neophocoena phocoenoides) represented the phoc ...200717532800
the complete amino acid sequence of the major component myoglobin from the arctic minke whale, balaenoptera acutorostrata.the complete primary structure of the major component myoglobin from the arctic minke whale, balaenoptera acutorostrata, was determined by specific cleavage of the protein to obtain large peptides which are readily degraded by the automatic sequencer. over 80% of the amino acid sequence was established from the three peptides resulting from the cleavage of the apomyoglobin at the two methionine residues with cyanogen bromide along with the four peptides resulting from the cleavage of the methyla ...1977836810
accumulation of butyltin compounds in cetaceans from korean coastal on the occurrence and accumulation profiles of butyltins (bts), including tributyltin (tbt), in marine mammals are scarce. this is the first study to investigate residue levels and accumulation patterns of bts in cetaceans from korean coastal waters. the total concentrations of bts (sum of mono- to tri-butyltins) in minke whales (balaenoptera acutorostrata) and long-beaked common dolphins (delphinus capensis) ranged from 15.7 to 297 ng/g wet weight (mean: 100 ng/g wet weight) and from 59.0 ...201121474154
marine mammals as global pollution indicators for organochlorines.blubber tissues of the following marine mammals differing in their geographic distribution (north atlantic, north pacific, bering sea/arctic ocean), trophic level, and feeding habits were analyzed for their organochlorine contents: two seal species (harbor seals--phoca vitulina, northern fur seals--callorhinus ursinus), three toothed whale species (belukha whales--delphinapterus leucas, one common dolphin--delphinus delphis, one pilot whale--globicephala melaena), and one baleen whale species (a ...20139134673
[sound reception in marine mammals depending on sound parameters and conduction pathways].the interaction of complex sounds with the body tissues of black sea dolphin (tursiops truncatus) was studied by the method of instrumental conditioned reflexes with food reinforcement. the thresholds of detecting underwater acoustic signals of different frequencies for dolphin and northern fur seal (callorhinus ursinus) were measured as a function of pulse duration under conditions of full and partial (head above water) submergence of animals into water. it was found that sound conduction throu ...200610707286
marine mammal strandings in the new caledonia region, southwest pacific.four hundred twenty three marine mammals, in 72 stranding events, were recorded between 1877 and 2005 in new caledonia, the loyalty islands, and vanuatu in the southwest pacific. sixteen species were represented in this count, including: minke whale, balaenoptera acutorostrata (1 single stranding), sei whale, b. borealis (1 single stranding), blue whale, b. musculus (1 single stranding), humpback whale, megaptera novaeangliae (2 single strandings), giant sperm whale, physeter macrocephalus (18 s ...200616644500
first records of parasitic copepods (crustacea, siphonostomatoida) from marine fishes in korea.the knowledge of the biodiversity of parasitic copepods in south korea is increasing. interestingly we report here, some parasitic copepods considered as the first record of findings from korea. nine species of parasitic copepods (siphonostomatoida) including six genera of three different families [caligidae (7), lernaeopodidae (1), lernanthropidae (1)] were recovered from eight species of wild fishes in korea: 1) caligus hoplognathi yamaguti & yamasu, 1959 (♀, ♂) from the body surface of barred ...201526691264
[the physiology of the sonar system in black sea dolphins]. 20164772231
helicobacter cetorum infection in striped dolphin (stenella coeruleoalba), atlantic white-sided dolphin (lagenorhynchus acutus), and short-beaked common dolphin (delphinus delphus) from the southwest coast of england.helicobacter infection in cetaceans was first reported from the us in 2000 when the isolation of a novel helicobacter species was described from two atlantic white-sided dolphins (lagenorhynchus acutus). since then, helicobacter species have been demonstrated in cetaceans and pinnipeds from around the world. since 1990, the animal health and veterinary laboratories agency polwhele, truro, has been involved in the uk cetacean strandings investigation programme to establish the cause of death of c ...201424807181
comparison of pinniped and cetacean prey tissue lipids with lipids of their elasmobranch predator.the great white shark is known to include pinnipeds and cetaceans in its diet. both groups of marine mammals deposit thick blubber layers around their bodies. elasmobranchs do not produce adipose tissue, but rather store lipid in their livers, thus a great white predating on a marine mammal will deposit the lipids in its liver until required.201424632977
clostridium perfringens septicemia in a long-beaked common dolphin delphinus capensis: an etiology of gas bubble accumulation in adult female long-beaked common dolphin delphinus capensis live-stranded in la jolla, california, usa, on july 30, 2012 and subsequently died on the beach. computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed gas bubble accumulation in the vasculature, organ parenchyma, mandibular fat pads, and subdermal sheath as well as a gas-filled cavity within the liver, mild caudal abdominal effusion, and fluid in the uterus. gross examination confirmed these findings and also identified mild ulc ...201425320031
molecular characterization of poxviruses associated with tattoo skin lesions in uk cetaceans.there is increasing concern for the well-being of cetacean populations around the uk. tattoo skin disease (characterised by irregular, grey, black or yellowish, stippled cutaneous lesions) caused by poxvirus infection is a potential health indicatora potential health indicator for cetaceans. limited sequence data indicates that cetacean poxviruses (cpvs) belong to an unassigned genus of the chordopoxvirinae. to obtain further insight into the phylogenetic relationships between cpv and other chor ...201323967239
a robust design capture-recapture analysis of abundance, survival and temporary emigration of three odontocete species in the gulf of corinth, greece.while the mediterranean sea has been designated as a global biodiversity hotspot, assessments of cetacean population abundance are lacking for large portions of the region, particularly in the southern and eastern basins. the challenges and costs of obtaining the necessary data often result in absent or poor abundance information. we applied capture-recapture models to estimate abundance, survival and temporary emigration of odontocete populations within a 2,400 km2 semi-enclosed mediterranean b ...201627926926
range extension for the common dolphin (delphinus sp.) to the colombian caribbean, with taxonomic implications from genetic barcoding and phylogenetic analyses.the nearest known population of common dolphins (delphinus sp.) to the colombian caribbean occurs in a fairly restricted range in eastern venezuela. these dolphins have not been previously reported in the colombian caribbean, likely because of a lack of study of the local cetacean fauna. we collected cetacean observations in waters of the guajira department, northern colombia (~11°n, 73°w) during two separate efforts: (a) a seismic vessel survey (december 2009-march 2010), and (b) three coastal ...201728192446
magnetic resonance imaging study of adipose tissues in the head of a common dolphin (delphinus delphis): structure identification and influence of a freezing-thawing cycle.magnetic resonance imaging (mri) was used to scan the head of a common dolphin (delphinus delphis) in order to visualize the different adipose tissues involved in echolocation functioning and to precisely delineate their anatomical topology. mri scans were performed on the head taken from a freshly stranded carcass and repeated after a 2-week freezing time followed by thawing. the main fatty organs of the head, that is the melon, the mandibula bulba, the bursae cantantes, and their different con ...201727990670
identification of a novel cetacean polyomavirus from a common dolphin (delphinus delphis) with tracheobronchitis.a female short-beaked common dolphin calf was found stranded in san diego, california in october 2010, presenting with multifocal ulcerative lesions in the trachea and bronchi. viral particles suggestive of polyomavirus were detected by em, and subsequently confirmed by pcr and sequencing. full genome sequencing (ion torrent) revealed a circular dsdna genome of 5,159 bp that was shown to form a distinct lineage within the genus polyomavirus based on phylogenetic analysis of the early and late tr ...201323874559
immunopathological study of parasitic cholangitis in cetaceans.this paper describes the immunophenotype of cellular inflammatory infiltrates in chronic cholangitis in six common dolphins (delphinus delphis), four striped dolphins (stenella coeruleoalba), three atlantic spotted dolphins (stenella frontalis) and one pygmy sperm whale (kogia breviceps) found stranded along the coasts of the canary islands (spain). a panel of 5 antibodies previously tested in dolphins (anti-cd3, -igg, -mhc class ii, -s100 protein and -lysozyme) were used. the present work also ...201323809732
atypical residency of short-beaked common dolphins (delphinus delphis) to a shallow, urbanized embayment in south-eastern australia.short-beaked common dolphins (delphinus delphis) are typically considered highly mobile, offshore delphinids. this study assessed the residency of a small community of short-beaked common dolphins in the shallow, urbanized port phillip bay, south-eastern australia. the ability to identify common dolphins by their dorsal fin markings and coloration using photo-identification was also investigated. systematic and non-systematic boat surveys were undertaken between 2007 and 2014. results showed tha ...201627703709
pulmonary angiomatosis and hemangioma in common dolphins (delphinus delphis) stranded in canary islands.vascular tumors and disorders, like angiomatosis, are rarely described in cetacean species. a retrospective histological study was carried out on lung samples from 35 common dolphins (delphinus delphis) stranded in the canary islands coasts looking for morphological vascular changes and likely related causes. twenty-five out of thirty-five (71%) common dolphins showed focal or multifocal angiomatosis-like lesions. a high association between this type of vascular proliferation and parasitic infes ...201222467071
inferring cetacean population densities from the absolute dynamic topography of the ocean in a hierarchical bayesian framework.we inferred the population densities of blue whales (balaenoptera musculus) and short-beaked common dolphins (delphinus delphis) in the northeast pacific ocean as functions of the water-column's physical structure by implementing hierarchical models in a bayesian framework. this approach allowed us to propagate the uncertainty of the field observations into the inference of species-habitat relationships and to generate spatially explicit population density predictions with reduced effects of sam ...201525785692
common dolphin (delphinus delphis) bycatch in new zealand commercial trawl fisheries.marine mammals are regularly reported as bycatch in commercial and artisanal fisheries, but data are often insufficient to allow assessment of these incidental mortalities. observer coverage of the mackerel trawl fishery in new zealand waters between 1995 and 2011 allowed evaluation of common dolphin delphinus delphis bycatch on the north island west coast, where this species is the most frequently caught cetacean. observer data were used to develop a statistical model to estimate total captures ...201323717614
pops in the south latin america: bioaccumulation of ddt, pcb, hcb, hch and mirex in blubber of common dolphin (delphinus delphis) and fraser's dolphin (lagenodelphis hosei) from compounds, in particular organochlorines, are highly persistent compounds which accumulate in biotic and abiotic substrates. marine mammals bioaccumulate and biomagnify persistent organic pollutants (pops) through diet. ∑pcb (26 pcb congeners), ∑ddt (pp-ddt, pp-ddd, pp-dde), ∑hch (α-hch, β-hch, γ-hch, δ-hch), hcb and mirex were analyzed from samples of subcutaneous adipose tissue of common dolphins, delphinus delphis, and fraser's dolphins, lagenodelphis hosei, obtained in 1999 and 2012. ...201627509073
diversity and distribution patterns of cetaceans in the subtropical southwestern atlantic outer continental shelf and slope.temporal and spatial patterns of cetacean diversity and distribution were investigated through eight ship-based surveys carried out during spring and autumn between 2009 and 2014 on the outer continental shelf (~150m) and slope (1500m) off southeastern and southern brazil (~23°s to ~34°s). the survey area was divided into southeast and south areas according to their oceanographic characteristics. twenty-one species were observed in 503 sightings. the overall number of species was similar between ...201627243455
skull shapes of the lissodelphininae: radiation, adaptation and asymmetry.within delphinidae, the sub-family lissodelphininae consists of 8 southern ocean species and 2 north pacific species. lissodelphininae is a result of recent phylogenetic revisions based on molecular methods. thus, morphological radiation within the taxon has not been investigated previously. the sub-family consists of ecologically diverse groups such as (1) the cephalorhynchus genus of 4 small species inhabiting coastal and shelf waters, (2) the robust species in the lagenorhynchus genus with th ...201627027647
marine mammals in the mediterranean sea: an overview.despite being a small part of the world's oceans, the mediterranean sea hosts a diverse marine mammal fauna, with a total of 28 different species known to occur, or to have occurred, in the region. species currently recognised as regular in the mediterranean-the mediterranean monk seal (monachus monachus) and 11 cetaceans (fin whale, balaenoptera physalus; sperm whale, physeter macrocephalus; cuvier's beaked whale, ziphius cavirostris; short-beaked common dolphin, delphinus delphis; long-finned ...201727770981
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