viruses and virus diseases of marine mammals.poxvirus and several serotypes of calicivirus cause recognizable disease in marine mammals. pox lesions in pinnipeds are raised and proliferative and are seen most frequently after confinement in captivity. in cetaceans, a poxvirus is associated with a much more benign and chronic lesion called a "tattoo." numerous caliciviruses of differing antigenic types have been isolated from vesicular lesions and aborted fetuses of northern fur seals and california sea lions as well as from clinically norm ...1979230170
plasma biochemical values of clinically-normal australian sea lions (neophoca cinerea).seventeen biochemical constituents were assayed in the blood plasma of clinically-normal australian sea lions (neophoca cinerea). the sea lions formed part of a breeding colony which inhabits the southern coast of kangaroo island, south australia. little variation was found in any of the values obtained from animals of different age and sex. the results were compared with values published for california sea lions (zalophus californianus), northern fur seals (callorhinus ursinus), harbor seals (p ...1979459034
parasites and associated pathology observed in pinnipeds stranded along the oregon coast.forty-two seals and sea lions found dead along the oregon coast were examined for parasites and associated pathology. nematode infections of the lung and/or gastrointestinal tract were the primary cause of death in 5 of 42 animals examined. new distribution records were established for pricetrema zalophi and zalophotrema hepaticum. new host records include z. hepaticum and diphyllobothrium cordatum in the steller's sea lion (eumetopias jubatus); nanophyetus salmincola in the california sea lion ...1978567698
prevalence of vesicular exanthema of swine antibodies among feral mammals associated with the southern california coastal zones.serum-neutralizing antibodies to both vesicular exanthema of swine virus (vesv) and san miguel sea lion virus (smsv) were found in a number of animal species having an association with the southern california coastal zones. california sea lions (zalophus californianus) had antibodies to 9 vesv types (a48, c52, d53, e54, f54, g55, i55, j56, and k56). fur seals (callorhinus ursinus) and elephant seal pups (mirounga angustirostris) were tested for antibodies to 6 vesv types and all were negative. c ...1978629463
red cell aggregation and viscoelasticity of blood from seals, swine and man.rbc aggregation and viscoelasticity parameters were determined for 40% suspensions of washed cells in autologous plasma from elephant seals (es), mirounga angustirostris, ringed seals (rs), phoca hispida, and swine, (ss), sus scrofa. interspecific comparisons including human (hs) blood data revealed unusual rheological properties of seal blood relative to that from pigs or man: 1) rbc aggregation extent, rate and sedimentation were lower for seals (ai = 0, zsr = .40, esr = 0 for rs blood) relati ...19902375957
blood viscosity in phocid seals: possible adaptations to diving.1. mean corpuscular volume (mcv) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (mchc) of phocid seal red blood cells (rbc) are elevated compared to those of most terrestrial mammalian species. the influence of these characteristics on blood flow was revealed by viscosity (vis) measurements. 2. rbc morphology and vis of whole blood from 7 harbor seals and 5 northern elephant seals were compared with blood of the domestic pig. samples were analysed for rbc count, white blood cell (wbc) count, tota ...19892760283
candidiasis in captive pinnipeds.diagnosis, treatment, and possible pathogenesis of candidiasis were studied in 5 species of pinnipeds in captivity: gray seal (halichoerus grypus), harbor seal (phoca vitulina), northern fur seal (callorhinus ursinus), california sea lion (zalophus californianus), and northern elephant seal (mirounga angustirostris). the animals were kept outdoors in a freshwater exhibit. candidiasis was characterized by purulent nasal discharge, inflammation of the lips at the mucocutaneous junction, periocular ...19846096327
amino acid composition of pinniped milk.the total amino acid concentration and the amino acid pattern, i.e. the relative proportion of each amino acid (protein-bound plus free) to the total amino acids, in the milks of the northern elephant seal, antarctic fur seal, california sea lion, and australian sea lion were determined. total amino acid concentration was 10% (w/v) or greater and did not vary significantly among species. the most abundant amino acids in the milks of all species were glutamate, proline and leucine. essential amin ...19957584837
generation of vntrs and heteroplasmy by sequence turnover in the mitochondrial control region of two elephant seal species.we describe an unusual repetitive dna region located in the 3' end of the light (l)-strand in the mitochondrial control region of two elephant seal species. the array of tandem repeats shows both vntr (variable-number tandem repeat) and sequence variation and is absent from 12 compared mammalian species, except for the occurrence in the same location of a distinct repetitive region in rabbit mtdna and a similar repeat in the harbor seal. the sequence composition and arrangement of the repeats di ...19938411208
sequence and characterization of phocine interleukin improve assessment of cellular immune responses in seals, northern elephant seal (mirounga angustirostris) interleukin 2 (il-2) has been characterized. the gene was cloned and sequenced from a 658 base pair (bp) cdna generated from total rna by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr). the sequence encoded a 154 amino acid (aa) polypeptide that included a 20 aa putative signal peptide. seal il-2 was found to share considerable identity with published sequences. nucleotide sequ ...19989476229
low-frequency amphibious hearing in pinnipeds: methods, measurements, noise, and ecology.aerial low-frequency (100-6400 hz) hearing thresholds were obtained for one california sea lion (zalophus californianus), one harbor seal (phoca vitulina), and one northern elephant seal (mirounga angustirostris). underwater thresholds over a similar frequency range (75-6300 or 6400 hz) were obtained for these three animals in addition to another california sea lion. such data are critical, not only for understanding mechanisms about amphibious hearing and relating them to pinniped ecology and e ...19989566340
leptospirosis in rehabilitated pacific harbor seals from california.renal disease was observed in two rehabilitated pacific harbor seals (phoca vitulina richardsii) from a facility in california (usa). the seals had leukocytosis and high serum phosphorus, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations. a retrospective study of leptospiral antibody serum titers indicated both seals had elevated titers to leptospira interrogans serovar grippotyphosa. a third seal, which died about the time when the index cases occurred, also had elevated titers to l. interrogan ...19989577797
blood lead concentrations in marine mammals validate estimates of 10(2)- to 10(3)-fold increase in human blood lead concentrations.measurements of ultra-low ambient blood lead (pbb) concentrations (mean +/- sd = 0.13 +/- 0.06 micrograms/dl) in northern elephant seal (mirounga angustirostris) validate previous estimates of ultra-low pbb levels in preindustrial humans. these estimates had been unsubstantiated, since pbb levels in this range had never been measured in any organisms prior to this study. similarities in pbb levels among these contemporary and preindustrial mammals are consistent with similarities in their measur ...19989719617
bacterial isolates from california sea lions (zalophus californianus), harbor seals (phoca vitulina), and northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris) admitted to a rehabilitation center along the central california coast, 2 yr of bacteriologic culturing of 297 california sea lions (zalophus californianus), 154 harbor seals (phoca vitulina), and 89 northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris) stranded alive along the california coast, the most frequent isolates from inflammatory lesions in live animals were escherichia coli, streptococcus viridans, listeria ivanovii, beta-hemolytic streptococcus spp., and enterococcus spp. this is the first report of l. ivanovii isolation from a marine mammal. the common i ...19989732032
antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria isolated from pinnipeds stranded in central and northern california.over a 2-yr period (1994-1995), the antimicrobial susceptibilities of 129 bacterial isolates recovered from live stranded california sea lions (zalophus californianus), harbor seals (phoca vitulina), and northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris) were studied. nineteen genera of bacteria were isolated from various sites of inflammation; abscesses and umbilici were the most common sites. seventy-two percent of the bacterial isolated were gram negative, and the enterobacteriaceae (escherich ...19989809600
molecular genetic diversity and evolution at the mhc dqb locus in four species of pinnipeds.variation was investigated at exon 2 (including part of the putative peptide-binding region) of the class ii major histocompatibility complex (mhc) dqb locus for two congeneric phocid seal species and two congeneric otariid seal species. polymorphism in one phocid species, the southern elephant seal (mirounga leonina), was comparable to that seen in human populations, while the other phocid, the northern elephant seal (mirounga angustirostris), has been through a severe population bottleneck and ...199910335654
characterization of otostrongylus circumlitus from pacific harbor and northern elephant seals.otostrongylus circumlitus (railliet, 1899) from pacific harbor seals (phoca vitulina richardsi) and northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris) were examined using morphological and molecular methods to determine whether northern elephant seals along the central california coast are infected by the same species of otostrongylus as are pacific harbor seals in the same area. fixed nematodes were examined and measured using light microscopy. the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was used to amp ...200111227905
northern elephant seal platelets: analysis of shape change and response to platelet agonists.blood platelets have a vital role in the maintenance of normal mammalian hemostasis. rapid pressure changes and temperatures lower than 20 degrees c cause activation of human and terrestrial mammal platelets. elephant seals are routinely subjected to pressures as high as 150 atm, yet do not suffer from the thrombotic effects of platelet activation associated with rapid decompression. we examined the ultrastructure of northern elephant seal (mirounga angustirostris) platelets and their functional ...200111248288
a new perspective on adiposity in a naturally obese mammal.many mammals seasonally reduce body fat due to inherent periods of fasting, which is associated with decreased leptin concentrations. however, no data exist on the correlation between fat mass (fm) and circulating leptin in marine mammals, which have evolved large fat stores as part of their adaptation to periods of prolonged fasting. therefore, fm was estimated (by tritiated water dilution), and serum leptin and cortisol were measured in 40 northern elephant seal (mirounga angustirostris) pups ...200111701452
first report of a parasitic copepod (pennella balaenopterae) infestation in a infestation by the parasitic copepod pennella balaenopterae was found in a stranded, 8-mo-old, female northern elephant seal (mirounga angustirostris). diagnosis was based on the finding of the cephalothoraxes of 14 adult female copepods from three subcutaneous sites. bacteria cultured from lesion exudate included arcanobacterium phocae, escherichia coli, edwardsiella tarda, an enterococcus sp., and proteus mirabilis. the lesions were drained and irrigated with chlorhexidine, and the seal was ...200212216795
systemic mycosis caused by scedosporium apiospermum in a stranded northern elephant seal (mirounga angustirostris) undergoing rehabilitation.a recently weaned, stranded, male northern elephant seal (mirounga angustirostris) pup that had been undergoing rehabilitation was found severely obtunded with hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hypochloremia, and hypophosphatemia after a history of intermittent regurgitation. the animal was euthanatized, and gross postmortem findings included multifocal abscessation affecting brain, spleen, kidney, muscle, and subcutaneous tissue. scedosporium apiospermum and mixed bacteria were cultured from brain, ki ...200212398309
characterization and clinical manifestations of arcanobacterium phocae infections in marine mammals stranded along the central california coast.between 1994 and 2000, 141 arcanobacterium phocae isolates were recovered from marine mammals that stranded along the central california coast (usa). arcanobacterium phocae was cultured from tissue sites with abnormal discharge or evidence of inflammation in 66 california sea lions (zalophus californianus), 50 pacific harbor seals (phoca vitulina richardii), 19 northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris), five southern sea otters (enhydra lutris nereis), and one common dolphin (delphinus d ...200312685077
localization of aerial broadband noise by pinnipeds.although many pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses) emit broadband calls on land as part of their communication system, few studies have addressed these animals' ability to localize aerial broadband sounds. in this study, the aerial sound localization acuities of a female northern elephant seal (mirounga angustirostris), a male harbor seal (phoca vitulina), and a female california sea lion (zalophus californianus) were measured in the horizontal plane. the stimulus was broadband white noise ...200415139647
toxoplasmosis in an elephant seal (mirounga angustirostris).toxoplasma gondii infections in fish-eating marine mammals is intriguing and indicative of contamination of the sea environment with oocysts. toxoplasma gondii was identified in an elephant seal (mirounga angustirostris) that had encephalitis. tissue cysts were found in sections of cerebrum, and the diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining with t. gondii-specific polyclonal rabbit serum. this is the first report of t. gondii infection in an elephant seal.200415165069
immunoglobulin responses of northern elephant and pacific harbor seals naturally infected with otostrongylus circumlitus.immunoglobulin (ig) binding patterns of pacific harbor seals (phs, phoca vitulina richardsi) and northern elephant seals (nes, mirounga angustirostris) to tissues of adult otostrongylus circumlitus were examined by immunoblotting to investigate the role of age in the unusual response of juvenile nes to infection with o. circumlitus. serum was taken from nes between march 1997 and march 2001 and from phs between may 1996 and august 1999. the serum of seals infected with o. circumlitus contained a ...200415465714
leptospirosis in northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris) stranded along the california coast.leptospirosis was identified in six northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris) that were stranded in 1995 along the coast of california (usa). histologic lesions in all seals included tubulointerstitial nephritis with tubular degeneration and necrosis. infection was confirmed through identification of spirochetes using an immunohistochemical stain for leptospira sp. antigens. one affected seal had an elevated titer to leptospira interrogans serovar pomona. four of the six seals developed ...200516107678
the composition of pulmonary surfactant from diving mammals.maintaining a functional pulmonary surfactant system at depth is critical for diving mammals to ensure that inspiration is possible upon re-emergence. the lipid and protein composition of lavage extracts from three pinniped species (california sea lion, northern elephant seal and ringed seal) were compared to several terrestrial species. lavage samples were purified using a nabr discontinuous gradient. concentrations of phospholipid classes and molecular species were measured using electrospray ...200616140043
the surface activity of pulmonary surfactant from diving mammals.pinnipeds (seals and sea lions) have developed a specialised respiratory system to cope with living in a marine environment. they have a highly reinforced lung that can completely collapse and reinflate during diving without any apparent side effects. these animals may also have a specialised surfactant system to augment the morphological adaptations. the surface activity of surfactant from four species of pinniped (california sea lion, northern elephant seal, northern fur seal and ringed seal) ...200616476655
salmonella and campylobacter spp. in northern elephant seals, california.campylobacter and salmonella spp. prevalence and antimicrobial drug sensitivity were determined in northern elephant seals that had not entered the water and seals that were stranded on the california coast. stranded seals had a higher prevalence of pathogenic bacteria, possibly from terrestrial sources, which were more likely to be resistant.200516485493
clinical blood values of the northern fur seal, callorhinus ursinus.clinical blood values are reported for 14 blood components in the northern fur seal (callorhinus ursinus) and compared with human clinical ranges. certain values such as cholesterol, globulins and blood urea nitrogen deviate markedly from published human values. the distribution of serum proteins in fur seals, man and northern elephant seals also are given and compared.197616502691
molecular phylogenetics and diagnosis of anisakis, pseudoterranova, and contracaecum from northern pacific marine mammals.individual specimens of anisakis, pseudoterranova, and contracaecum collected from marine mammals inhabiting northern pacific waters were used for comparative diagnostic and molecular phylogenetic analyses. forty-eight new sequences were obtained for this study of 14 anisakis taxa, 8 pseudoterranova taxa, 4 contracaecum taxa, and 4 outgroup species. partial 28s (lsu) and complete internal transcribed spacer (its-1, 5.8s, its-2) ribosomal dna was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and seq ...200516539026
infection with a novel gammaherpesvirus in northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris).twenty juvenile northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris) that died between 1998 and 2004 had ulcers on the tongue, palatine mucosa, and/or tonsils. histologic examination of the lesions revealed cytoplasmic swelling, nuclear pyknosis, and eosinophilic to amphophilic intranuclear inclusions bodies suggestive of herpesviral infection. electron microscopic examination and polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed the presence of a herpesvirus. subsequent dna sequencing identified this t ...200617255451
campylobacter insulaenigrae isolates from northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris) in california.there are only two reports in the literature demonstrating the presence of campylobacter spp. in marine mammals. one report describes the isolation of a new species, campylobacter insulaenigrae sp. nov., from three harbor seals (phoca vitulina) and a harbor porpoise (phocoena phocoena) in scotland, and the other describes the isolation of campylobacter jejuni, campylobacter lari, and an unknown campylobacter species from northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris) in california. in this st ...200717259365
mobilization of pcbs from blubber to blood in northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris) during the post-weaning fast.northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris) are characterized by extended fasting during which they rely entirely on their own body reserves. during fasts, lipids are mobilized from blubber to match the energy requirements of the animal. this transfer frees toxic fat-soluble pollutants into the blood circulation, which may exert adverse health effects, especially in young and developing animals. we investigated the dynamics of mobilization of polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) from the blubb ...200616963131
the effect of rehabilitation of northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris) on antimicrobial resistance of commensal escherichia coli.the aim of this study was to determine if antimicrobial drug use increases resistance of commensal gastrointensinal escherichia coli of wild northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris) treated in rehabilitation, and, if so, identify the risk factors involved. minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) levels of twelve antimicrobial drugs were determined for 289 e. coli isolates from 99 seals sampled at admission and 277 isolates obtained at release from rehabilitation using broth microdilution ...200918783898
prevalence and characterization of salmonella spp. among marine animals in the channel islands, california.salmonella enterica is a zoonotic pathogen that has been isolated from free-ranging marine mammals throughout the world, with animals in the channel islands of california (usa) showing the highest prevalence. the goal of this study was to determine prevalence, antimicrobial sensitivity and genetic similarity using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) of salmonella in several non-domestic animal species on san miguel and san nicolas islands. fecal samples were collected from 90 california sea ...200818828559
blood flow and metabolic regulation in seal muscle during order to examine myoglobin (mb) function and metabolic responses of seal muscle during progressive ischemia and hypoxemia, mb saturation and high-energy phosphate levels were monitored with nmr spectroscopy during sleep apnea in elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris). muscle blood flow (mbf) was measured with laser-doppler flowmetry (ldf). during six, spontaneous, 8-12 min apneas of an unrestrained juvenile seal, apneic mbf decreased to 46+/-10% of the mean eupneic mbf. by the end of apnea, ...200818840667
risk factors for infection with pathogenic and antimicrobial-resistant fecal bacteria in northern elephant seals in california.the goal of this study was to identify potential environmental and demographic factors associated with campylobacter jejuni (c. jejuni), salmonella enterica (salmonella spp.), and antimicrobial-resistant escherichia coli (e. coli) infection in northern elephant seals stranded along the california coastline.200819006978
novel hemotrophic mycoplasma identified in naturally infected california sea lions (zalophus californianus).the hemoplasmas are the trivial name for a group of erythrocyte-parasitizing, non-cultivable in vitro bacteria of the genus mycoplasma that have been described in several mammalian hosts worldwide. this study is the first report of hemoplasmas in marine mammals. edta anticoagulated whole blood samples from 137 california sea lions (zalophus californianus) and 20 northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris) admitted to the marine mammal center (sausalito, ca; or l ...201021111543
evolution of a major drug metabolizing enzyme defect in the domestic cat and other felidae: phylogenetic timing and the role of hypercarnivory.the domestic cat (felis catus) shows remarkable sensitivity to the adverse effects of phenolic drugs, including acetaminophen and aspirin, as well as structurally-related toxicants found in the diet and environment. this idiosyncrasy results from pseudogenization of the gene encoding udp-glucuronosyltransferase (ugt) 1a6, the major species-conserved phenol detoxification enzyme. here, we established the phylogenetic timing of disruptive ugt1a6 mutations and explored the hypothesis that gene inac ...201121464924
In pursuit of Irving and Scholander: a review of oxygen store management in seals and penguins.Since the introduction of the aerobic dive limit (ADL) 30 years ago, the concept that most dives of marine mammals and sea birds are aerobic in nature has dominated the interpretation of their diving behavior and foraging ecology. Although there have been many measurements of body oxygen stores, there have been few investigations of the actual depletion of those stores during dives. Yet, it is the pattern, rate and magnitude of depletion of O(2) stores that underlie the ADL. Therefore, in order ...201121957096
phocine distemper virus: current knowledge and future directions.phocine distemper virus (pdv) was first recognized in 1988 following a massive epidemic in harbor and grey seals in north-western europe. since then, the epidemiology of infection in north atlantic and arctic pinnipeds has been investigated. in the western north atlantic endemic infection in harp and grey seals predates the european epidemic, with relatively small, localized mortality events occurring primarily in harbor seals. by contrast, pdv seems not to have become established in european ha ...201425533658
prolonged fasting activates hypoxia inducible factors-1α, -2α and -3α in a tissue-specific manner in northern elephant seal pups.hypoxia inducible factors (hifs) are important regulators of energy homeostasis and cellular adaptation to low oxygen conditions. northern elephant seals are naturally adapted to prolonged periods (1-2 months) of food deprivation (fasting) which result in metabolic changes that may activate hif-1. however, the effects of prolonged fasting on hifs are not well defined. we obtained the full-length cdnas of hif-1α and hif-2α, and partial cdna of hif-3α in northern elephant seal pups. we also measur ...201323707926
comparisons and uncertainty in fat and adipose tissue estimation techniques: the northern elephant seal as a case study.fat mass and body condition are important metrics in bioenergetics and physiological studies. they can also link foraging success with demographic rates, making them key components of models that predict population-level outcomes of environmental change. therefore, it is important to incorporate uncertainty in physiological indicators if results will lead to species management decisions. maternal fat mass in elephant seals (mirounga spp) can predict reproductive rate and pup survival, but no one ...201526121044
hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase and inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase activities in three mammalian species: aquatic (mirounga angustirostris), semi-aquatic (lontra longicaudis annectens) and terrestrial (sus scrofa).aquatic and semiaquatic mammals have the capacity of breath hold (apnea) diving. northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris) have the ability to perform deep and long duration dives; during a routine dive, adults can hold their breath for 25 min. neotropical river otters (lontra longicaudis annectens) can hold their breath for about 30 s. such periods of apnea may result in reduced oxygen concentration (hypoxia) and reduced blood supply (ischemia) to tissues. production of adenosine 5'-tri ...201526283971
a recombinant antigen-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for lungworm detection in seals.pinnipeds are frequently infected by the lungworms otostrongylus circumlitus and parafilaroides gymnurus (metastrongyloidea). infections are frequently associated with secondary bacterial bronchopneumonia and are often lethal. to date, a reliable lungworm diagnosis in individual seals is only possible during necropsy as examination of faeces collected from resting places does not allow assignment to individuals. therefore, a diagnostic tool for lungworm detection in living seals is desirable for ...201526329933
pandemic h1n1 influenza isolated from free-ranging northern elephant seals in 2010 off the central california coast.interspecies transmission of influenza a is an important factor in the evolution and ecology of influenza viruses. marine mammals are in contact with a number of influenza reservoirs, including aquatic birds and humans, and this may facilitate transmission among avian and mammalian hosts. virus isolation, whole genome sequencing, and hemagluttination inhibition assay confirmed that exposure to pandemic h1n1 influenza virus occurred among free-ranging northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirost ...201323690933
isolation of leptospira from a phocid: acute renal failure and mortality from leptospirosis in rehabilitated northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris), california, usa.during rehabilitation, acute renal failure due to leptospirosis occurred in eight male northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris) that stranded along the central california coast in 2011. characteristic histologic lesions including renal tubular degeneration, necrosis, and mineralization, and mild lymphoplasmacytic interstitial nephritis were noted in the six animals examined. immunohistochemistry, bacterial culture, and pcr were positive in 2/3, 2/3, and 3/4 seals, respectively, and 6/8 ...201424807176
pharmacokinetic study of oral ε-aminocaproic acid in the northern elephant seal (mirounga angustirostris).ε-aminocaproic acid (eaca) is a lysine analogue antifibrinolytic drug used to treat bleeding disorders in humans and domestic animals. its use in zoological medicine is rare, and dosage is anecdotal. one possible application of eaca is to treat bleeding associated with prepatent otostrongylus arteritis in northern elephant seals ( mirounga angustirostris ) presenting to wildlife rehabilitation centers. this study used an in vitro model of hyperfibrinolysis and a thromboelastograph-based assay to ...201627468014
coccidioidomycosis and other systemic mycoses of marine mammals stranding along the central california, usa coast: 1998-2012.a wide range of systemic mycoses have been reported from captive and wild marine mammals from north america. examples include regionally endemic pathogens such as coccidioides and blastomyces spp., and novel pathogens like cryptococcus gattii, which appear may have been introduced to north america by humans. stranding and necropsy data were analyzed from three marine mammal stranding and response facilities on the central california coast to assess the prevalence, host demographics, and lesion d ...201525647598
antidog igg secondary antibody successfully detects igg in a variety of aquatic mammals.serological tests play an important role in the detection of wildlife diseases. however, while there are many commercial assays and reagents available for domestic species, there is a need to develop efficient serological assays for wildlife. in recent years, marine mammals have represented a wildlife group with emerging infectious diseases, such as influenza, brucellosis, and leptospirosis. however, with the exception of disease-agent-specific assays or functional assays, few reports describe t ...201628080908
the development of diving in marine endotherms: preparing the skeletal muscles of dolphins, penguins, and seals for activity during submergence.myoglobin is an important oxygen store for supporting aerobic diving in endotherms, yet little is known about its role during postnatal development. therefore, we compared the postnatal development of myoglobin in marine endotherms that develop at sea (cetaceans) to those that develop on land (penguins and pinnipeds). we measured myoglobin concentrations in the major locomotor muscles of mature and immature bottlenose dolphins (tursiops truncatus) and king penguins (aptenodytes patagonicus) and ...200111302529
accuracy of argos locations of pinnipeds at-sea estimated using fastloc gps.argos satellite telemetry is one of the most widely used methods to track the movements of free-ranging marine and terrestrial animals and is fundamental to studies of foraging ecology, migratory behavior and habitat-use. argos location estimates do not include complete error estimations, and for many marine organisms, the most commonly acquired locations (location class 0, a, b, or z) are provided with no declared error estimate.201020090942
genetic variability in guadalupe fur seals.the guadalupe fur seal (arctocephalus townsendi) population underwent one or two severe bottlenecks due to commercial sealing in the late 19th century. since then the protected population has been growing steadily around their only rookery, isla de guadalupe, mexico. we probed both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes using multilocus nuclear dna profiling and mitochondrial dna sequencing to estimate the level of genetic variability of the present population. unlike other pinniped populations that ...20089703686
findings in pinnipeds stranded along the central and northern california coast, 1984-1990.personnel at the marine mammal center (the center) treated 1,446 stranded marine mammals recovered from the central and northern california (usa) coast from 1984 through 1990, including california sea lions (zalophus californianus), northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris), pacific harbor seals (phoca vitulina richardsi), northern fur seals (callorhinus ursinus), steller sea lions (eumetopias jubatus), and guadalupe fur seals (arctocephalus townsendi). the primary disease findings in st ...19938355344
first molecular detection and characterization of herpesvirus and poxvirus in a pacific walrus (odobenus rosmarus divergens).herpesvirus and poxvirus can infect a wide range of species: herpesvirus genetic material has been detected and amplified in five species of the superfamily pinnipedia; poxvirus genetic material, in eight species of pinnipedia. to date, however, genetic material of these viruses has not been detected in walrus (odobenus rosmarus), another marine mammal of the pinnipedia clade, even though anti-herpesvirus antibodies have been detected in these animals.201425527906
uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (ugt) xenobiotic metabolizing activity and genetic evolution in pinniped species.there are various interspecies differences in xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. it is known that cats show slow glucuronidation of drugs such as acetaminophen and strong side effects due to the ugt1a6 pseudogene. recently, the ugt1a6 pseudogene was found in the northern elephant seal and otariidae was suggested to be ugt1a6-deficient. from the results of measurements of uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (ugt) activity using liver microsomes, the steller sea lion, northern fur seal, and ...201526179383
inflation and deflation pressure-volume loops in anesthetized pinnipeds confirms compliant chest and lungs.we examined structural properties of the marine mammal respiratory system, and tested scholander's hypothesis that the chest is highly compliant by measuring the mechanical properties of the respiratory system in five species of pinniped under anesthesia (pacific harbor seal, phoca vitulina; northern elephant seal, mirounga angustirostris; northern fur seal callorhinus ursinus; california sea lion, zalophus californianus; and steller sea lion, eumetopias jubatus). we found that the chest wall co ...201425426080
a retrospective survey of the ocular histopathology of the pinniped eye with emphasis on corneal disease.a retrospective review of globes from 70 pinnipeds submitted to the comparative ocular pathology laboratory of wisconsin (coplow) describing the type and frequency of ocular disease.201322812701
isotopic tracking of foraging and long-distance migration in northeastern pacific pinnipeds.we investigated the impact of foraging location (nearshore vs offshore) and foraging latitude (high vs middle) on the carbon (δ(13)c) and nitrogen (δ(15)n) isotope compositions of bone collagen of northern fur seals (callorhinus ursinus), harbor seals (phoca vitulina), california sea lions (zalophus californianus), and northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris). nearshore-foraging harbor seals from california had δ(13)c values 2.0‰ higher than female northern elephant seals foraging offsh ...199928307717
[histidine binding in the muscular tissue and total brain of the seal, callorhinus ursinus, phoca richardii pribilofensis and mirounga angustirostris]. 19675300188
the better to eat you with: the comparative feeding morphology of phocid seals (pinnipedia, phocidae).one adaptation crucial to the survival of mammalian lineages that secondarily transitioned from land to water environments was the ability to capture and consume prey underwater. phocid seals have evolved diverse feeding strategies to feed in the marine environment, and the objectives of this study were to document the specialized feeding morphologies and identify feeding strategies used by extant phocids. this study used principal component analysis (pca) to determine the major axes of diversif ...201626646351
evaluating hair as a predictor of blood mercury: the influence of ontogenetic phase and life history in pinnipeds.mercury (hg) biomonitoring of pinnipeds increasingly utilizes nonlethally collected tissues such as hair and blood. the relationship between total hg concentrations ([thg]) in these tissues is not well understood for marine mammals, but it can be important for interpretation of tissue concentrations with respect to ecotoxicology and biomonitoring. we examined [thg] in blood and hair in multiple age classes of four pinniped species. for each species, we used paired blood and hair samples to quant ...201626149950
plasma angiotensin ii, arginine vasopressin and atrial natriuretic peptide in free ranging and captive seals and sea lions.we used radioimmunoassay methods to quantify arginine vasopressin (avp), atrial natriuretic peptide (anp), and angiotensin ii (ang ii) in plasma samples from harbor seals (phoca vitulina richardsii), weddell seals (leptonychotes weddellii), northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris), ringed seals (phoca hispida), california sea lions (zalophus californianus), and steller sea lions (eumetopias jubatus). plasma concentrations of avp, anp, and ang ii in these pinniped species were within the ...19989568367
eotaria citrica, sp. nov., a new stem otariid from the "topanga" formation of southern california.a new taxon of stem otariid, eotaria citrica sp. nov., is described from the upper burdigalian to lower langhian "topanga" formation of orange county, california. the new species is described from mandibular and dental remains that show a unique combination of plesiomorphic and derived characters. specifically, it is characterized by having trenchant and prominent paraconid cusps in p3-m1, lingual cingula of p2-4 with faint crenulations, premolars and molars with vestigial metaconid, bilobed roo ...201728243536
bisgaardia miroungae sp. nov., a new member of the family pasteurellaceae isolated from the oral cavity of northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris), and emended description of the genus bisgaardia.a total of 17 bacterial isolates from northern elephant seals, tentatively classified within the family pasteurellaceae, were further characterized by genotypic and phenotypic tests. phylogenetic analysis of partial 16s rrna and rpob gene sequences showed that the isolates investigated formed a monophyletic group, closely related to the genus bisgaardia within the family pasteurellaceae. the rpob gene sequence similarity was 97.2-100 % within the group and 16s rrna gene sequence comparisons show ...201525368140
thyroid function testing in elephant seals in health and disease.northern elephant seal skin disease (nessd) is a severe, ulcerative, skin condition of unknown cause affecting primarily yearling northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris); it has been associated with decreased levels of circulating thyroxine (t4) and triiodothyronine (t3). abnormalities of the thyroid gland that result in decreased hormone levels (hypothyroidism) can result in hair loss, scaling and secondary skin infections. however, concurrent illness (including skin ailments) can sup ...200818190914
social status and mating activity in elephant seals.individually marked male elephant seals, mirounga angustirostris, observed on an island off central california participate in a social hierarchy resembling the peck order of domestic chickens. individuals achieve status by fighting and maintain it by stereotyped threat displays. the higher the status of a male, the more readily he approaches and copulates with females. four percent of the males inseminated 85 percent of the females.196917780180
blood oxygen depletion during rest-associated apneas of northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris).blood gases (p(o)2, p(co)2, ph), oxygen content, hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration were measured during rest-associated apneas of nine juvenile northern elephant seals. in conjunction with blood volume determinations, these data were used to determine total blood oxygen stores, the rate and magnitude of blood o(2) depletion, the contribution of the blood o(2) store to apneic metabolic rate, and the degree of hypoxemia that occurs during these breath-holds. mean body mass was 66+/-9.7 kg (+ ...200717644675
northern elephant seals memorize the rhythm and timbre of their rivals' voices.the evolutionary origin of rhythm perception, a cognitive ability essential to musicality, remains unresolved [1-5]. the ability to perceive and memorize rhythmic sounds is widely shared among humans [6] but seems rare among other mammals [7, 8]. although the perception of temporal metrical patterns has been found in a few species, this ability has only been demonstrated through behavioral training [9] (but see [10] for an example of spontaneous tempo coordination in a bonobo), and there is no e ...201728736171
instrumentation for the remote monitoring of physiological and behavioral variables.few commercial products are available for investigators who wish to monitor multiple physiological and behavioral variables in unrestrained subjects. when telemetry is not practical, e.g., in studies of at-sea diving physiology, one of the only options is to design and build a custom data-logging instrument. this paper describes how a data logger was developed for the successful long-term monitoring of dive depth, swim speed, heart rate, water temperature, and multiple body temperatures from fre ...19989804606
fishing gear-related injury in california marine wildlife.we reviewed medical records from select wildlife rehabilitation facilities in california to determine the prevalence of injury in california brown pelicans (pelecanus occidentalis), gulls (larus spp.), and pinniped species (zalophus californianus, mirounga angustirostris, and phoca vitulina) due to fishing gear entanglement and ingestion from 2001 to 2006. of 9,668 brown pelican, gull, and pinniped cases described during the 6-yr study period (2001-06), 1,090 (11.3%) were fishing gear-related. p ...200919395745
organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in california sea lions.concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs), ddts, chlordanes, hchs, hexachlorobenzene (hcb), dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (tcpme), and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (tcpmoh) were measured in the blubber of california sea lions (zalophus californianus) collected in 2000. ddts were the most predominant contaminants, followed by pcbs, chlordanes, tcpme, hchs, tcpmoh, dieldrin, and heptachlor epoxide. concentrations of pcbs and ddts varied from a few microg/g to s ...200415261406
factors affecting levels of genetic diversity in natural populations.genetic variability is the clay of evolution, providing the base material on which adaptation and speciation depend. it is often assumed that most interspecific differences in variability are due primarily to population size effects, with bottlenecked populations carrying less variability than those of stable size. however, we show that population bottlenecks are unlikely to be the only factor, even in classic case studies such as the northern elephant seal and the cheetah, where genetic polymor ...19989533122
abolition of peroxiredoxin-5 mitochondrial targeting during canid human, the subcellular targeting of peroxiredoxin-5 (prdx5), a thioredoxin peroxidase, is dependent on the use of multiple alternative transcription start sites and two alternative in-frame translation initiation sites, which determine whether or not the region encoding a mitochondrial targeting sequence (mts) is translated. in the present study, the abolition of prdx5 mitochondrial targeting in dog is highlighted and the molecular mechanism underlying the loss of mitochondrial prdx5 during e ...201324023783
growth in pinnipeds.this review presents summary figures of, and fits growth curves to, data on body lengths (as standard length, sl, whenever possible) of pinnipeds at ages estimated to o.i y. (1) generalized von bertalanffy (vb) growth curves are fitted to most data: lx = l infinity (i - ea(x-x0)b, lx is length at age x, x0 is the origin of the curve (here chosen a priori as time of initiation of embryonic growth), l infinity is asymptotic length, a (which is negative) determines rate of approach to the asymptote ...19938457634
organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and butyltin compounds in blubber and livers of stranded california sea lions, elephant seals, and harbor seals from coastal california, usa.concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs), ddts (p,p'-dde, p,p'-ddd, p,p'-ddt), chlordanes (chls; cis-chlordane, cis-nonachlor, trans-nonachlor, and oxychlordane), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (hchs), hexachlorobenzene (hcb), tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (tcpme), tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (tcpmoh), and mono- (mbt), di-(dbt), and tri-butyltin (tbt) were determined in blubber and livers of 15 california sea lions (zalophus californianus), 6 northern elephant seals (mirounga augustirost ...200111385594
seals and sea lions are what they eat, plus what? determination of trophic discrimination factors for seven pinniped species.mixing models are a common method for quantifying the contribution of prey sources to the diet of an individual using stable isotope analysis; however, these models rely upon a known trophic discrimination factor (hereafter, tdf) that results from fractionation between prey and animal tissues. quantifying tdfs in captive animals is ideal, because diet is controlled and the proportional contributions and isotopic values of all prey items are known.201627060839
sexing pinnipeds with zfx and zfy loci.we developed and tested a protocol for determining the sex of individual pinnipeds using the sex-chromosome-specific genes zfx and zfy. we screened a total of 368 seals (168 crabeater, lobodon carcinophaga; 159 weddell, leptonychotes weddellii; and 41 ross, ommatophoca rossii) of known or unknown sex and compared the molecular sex to the sex assigned at the time of biopsy sample collection in the ross and amundsen seas, antarctica. we also screened 6 captive northern elephant seals (mirounga ang ...200717548861
changes in the plasma levels of vasoactive hormones during apnea in seals.prolonged and repetitive breath-hold periods (apnea) during and sleep are a routine component in the ecological physiology of marine mammals. seals are among the few mammals in which control of heart rate (hr) can be studied independent of respiration, without pharmacochemical manipulation. we hypothesized that the vasoactive hormones angiotensin ii (ang ii), arginine vasopressin (avp), and atrial natriuretic peptide (anp) were involved in the control of cardiovascular function in seals, and tha ...19989568368
metabolic biochemistry and the making of a mesopelagic mammal.large seals such as northern and southern elephant seals and weddell seals are able to dive for startling duration and enormous depth. the current dive duration record is 120 minutes (recorded for the southern elephant seal); the current depth record is 1.5 km (recorded for the northern elephant seal). equally striking is the widespread observation that these seals when at sea spend close to 90% of the time submerged and often at great depth. for practical purposes, these species can be viewed a ...19921612137
bronchograms and tracheograms of seals under pressure.radiograms of the upper portion of the respiratory system were obtained at pressures up to 31.6 atmospheres absolute in the weddell seal, leptonychotes weddelli, and the northern elephant seal, mirounga angustirostris. the trachea was considerably compressed but not fully collapsed at the highest pressures. no measurable change in the size of the bronchioles and smaller bronchi was observed. measurements of total lung volume obtained simultaneously showed that the seals consistently dived with a ...19705447537
purine nucleoside phosphorylase and xanthine oxidase activities in erythrocytes and plasma from marine, semiaquatic and terrestrial mammals.purine nucleoside phosphorylase (pnp) and xanthine oxidase (xo) are key enzymes involved in the purine salvage pathway. pnp metabolizes purine bases to synthetize purine nucleotides whereas xo catalyzes the oxidation of purines to uric acid. in humans, pnp activity is reported to be high in erythrocytes and xo activity to be low in plasma; however, xo activity increases after ischemic events. xo activity in plasma of northern elephant seals has been reported during prolonged fasting and rest and ...201424530799
plasmatic coagulation and fibrinolysis in healthy and otostrongylus-affected northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris).prepatent otostrongylus arteritis results in hemorrhagic diathesis in free-ranging northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris) attributed to aberrant larval migration of the lungworm, otostrongylus circumlitus. clinical signs are often nonspecific, including lethargy, anorexia, and blepharospasm, but can progress to spontaneous frank hemorrhage and death within 72 hours of onset. previously published case reports describe coagulopathy with prolonged pt and aptt, normal to elevated platelet ...201728902964
oxygen minimum zone: an important oceanographic habitat for deep-diving northern elephant seals, mirounga angustirostris.little is known about the foraging behavior of top predators in the deep mesopelagic ocean. elephant seals dive to the deep biota-poor oxygen minimum zone (omz) (>800 m depth) despite high diving costs in terms of energy and time, but how they successfully forage in the omz remains largely unknown. assessment of their feeding rate is the key to understanding their foraging behavior, but this has been challenging. here, we assessed the feeding rate of 14 female northern elephant seals determined ...201728861230
ultrastructural, sensory and functional anatomy of the northern elephant seal (mirounga angustirostris) facial vibrissae.vibrissae (whiskers) play a key role in underwater orientation in foraging phocids through vibrotactile sensation processing. our aim was to evaluate the structure of northern elephant seal (nes) vibrissae by means of light (lm) and transmission electron microscopy (tem), in order to elucidate their function. vibrissal follicles were processed using standardized laboratory methods and lm/tem techniques. individual follicular axonal numbers were counted and axonal diameter measured and averaged. ...201728833509
molecular population genetics of the northern elephant seal mirounga angustirostris.the northern elephant seal, mirounga angustirostris, was heavily hunted and declared extinct in the 19th century. however, a colony remained on remote guadalupe island, mexico and the species has since repopulated most of its historical distribution. here, we present a comprehensive evaluation of genetic variation in the species. first, we assess the effect of the demographic bottleneck on microsatellite variability and compare it with that found in other pinnipeds, demonstrating levels of varia ...201728821186
variation in adrenal and thyroid hormones with life-history stage in juvenile northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris).the classical approach to quantifying the impact of stressors on wildlife is through characterization of hormones associated with the generalized stress response. however, interpretation of hormone data can be difficult due to the range of natural variation within a species and potential confounds of individual and life-history variables. blood adrenal and thyroid hormones were measured in 144 chemically immobilized yearling northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris) to characterize varia ...201728782534
insulin induces a shift in lipid and primary carbon metabolites in a model of fasting-induced insulin resistance.prolonged fasting in northern elephant seals (nes) is characterized by a reliance on lipid metabolism, conservation of protein, and reduced plasma insulin. during early fasting, glucose infusion previously reduced plasma free fatty acids (ffa); however, during late-fasting, it induced an atypical elevation in ffa despite comparable increases in insulin during both periods suggestive of a dynamic shift in tissue responsiveness to glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.201728757815
increased sensitivity of thyroid hormone-mediated signaling despite prolonged fasting.thyroid hormones (th) can increase cellular metabolism. food deprivation in mammals is typically associated with reduced thyroid gland responsiveness, in an effort to suppress cellular metabolism and abate starvation. however, in prolonged-fasted, elephant seal pups, cellular th-mediated proteins are up-regulated and th levels are maintained with fasting duration. the function and contribution of the thyroid gland to this apparent paradox is unknown and physiologically perplexing. here we show t ...201728743556
adult male northern elephant seals maintain high rates of glucose production during extended breeding fasts.many species undergo natural fasts as part of their life histories. extended fasting is associated with increased β-oxidation of fatty acids and reduced oxidation of glucose to minimize commitment of body protein to gluconeogenesis. however, the metabolic strategies used to sustain extended fasts simultaneous with high rates of energy expenditure are not well understood. studies in fasting adult female and weanling northern elephant seals (nes) have revealed high rates of endogenous glucose prod ...201728421289
fasting increases the phosphorylation of ampk and expression of sirtuin1 in muscle of adult male northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris).fasting typically suppresses thyroid hormone (th)-mediated cellular events and increases sirtuin 1 (sirt1) activity. ths may regulate metabolism through nongenomic pathways and directly through activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (ampk). adult male elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris) are active, hypermetabolic, and normothermic during their annual breeding fast, which is characterized by stable th levels. however, the contribution of th to maintenance of their fas ...201728242816
optic nerve, superior colliculus, visual thalamus, and primary visual cortex of the northern elephant seal (mirounga angustirostris) and california sea lion (zalophus californianus).the northern elephant seal (mirounga angustirostris) and california sea lion (zalophus californianus) are members of a diverse clade of carnivorous mammals known as pinnipeds. pinnipeds are notable for their large, ape-sized brains, yet little is known about their central nervous system. both the northern elephant seal and california sea lion spend most of their lives at sea, but each also spends time on land to breed and give birth. these unique coastal niches may be reflected in specific evolu ...201728188622
blubber transcriptome response to acute stress axis activation involves transient changes in adipogenesis and lipolysis in a fasting-adapted marine mammal.stress can compromise an animal's ability to conserve metabolic stores and participate in energy-demanding activities that are critical for fitness. understanding how wild animals, especially those already experiencing physiological extremes (e.g. fasting), regulate stress responses is critical for evaluating the impacts of anthropogenic disturbance on physiology and fitness, key challenges for conservation. however, studies of stress in wildlife are often limited to baseline endocrine measureme ...201728186107
thyroid hormone-stimulated increases in pgc-1α and ucp2 promote life history-specific endocrine changes and maintain a lipid-based metabolism.thyroid hormones (ths) regulate metabolism, but are typically suppressed during times of stressful physiological conditions, including fasting. interestingly, prolonged fasting in northern elephant seal pups is associated with reliance on a lipid-based metabolism and increased levels of circulating ths that are partially attributed to active secretion as opposed to reduced clearance. this apparent paradox is coupled with complementary increases in cellular th-mediated activity, suggesting that i ...201727903512
effects of environmental variables on surface temperature of breeding adult female northern elephant seals, mirounga angustirostris, and pups.pinnipeds spend extended periods of time on shore during breeding, and some temperate species retreat to the water if exposed to high ambient temperatures. however, female northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris) with pups generally avoid the water, presumably to minimize risks to pups or male harassment. little is known about how ambient temperature affects thermoregulation of well insulated females while on shore. we used a thermographic camera to measure surface temperature (ts) of 1 ...201627712667
serum pop concentrations are highly predictive of inner blubber concentrations at two extremes of body condition in northern elephant seals.long-lived, upper trophic level marine mammals are vulnerable to bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (pops). internal tissues may accumulate and mobilize pop compounds at different rates related to the body condition of the animal and the chemical characteristics of individual pop compounds; however, collection of samples from multiple tissues is a major challenge to ecotoxicology studies of free-ranging marine mammals and the ability to predict pop concentrations in one tissue from ...201627503056
endocrine response to realimentation in young northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris): indications for development of fasting adaptation.most organisms undergo changes in their environment, both predictably and unpredictably, which require them to alter priorities in nutrient allocation with regards to food availability. species that more predictably encounter extended periods of limited food resources or intake while mitigating the negative effects of starvation are considered to be fasting adapted. northern elephant seals (nes) are one such species and routinely undergo extended periods of fasting for breeding, molting, as well ...201627288636
eye histology and ganglion cell topography of northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris).northern elephant seals are one of the deepest diving marine mammals. as northern elephant seals often reach the bathypelagic zone, it is usually assumed that their eyes possess evolutionary adaptations that provide better ability to see in dim or scotopic environments. the purpose of this study was to carefully describe anatomical and histological traits of the eye that may improve light sensitivity. northern elephant seals have large, somewhat elliptical eyes, with equatorial and anteroposteri ...201626950409
oxidative stress in northern elephant seals: integration of omics approaches with ecological and experimental studies.northern elephant seals experience conditions that increase oxidative stress (os), including extended fasting, ischemia and hypoxia during breath-holds, and immune responses during colonial breeding. increased os is suggested by increases in tissue and plasma concentrations of pro-oxidant enzymes nadph oxidase and xanthine oxidase (xo). serum cortisol concentrations were positively associated with xo concentrations and damage markers. elephant seals exhibit robust anti-oxidant responses as evide ...201626924792
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