sleep and cardiac rhythm in the gray seal.telemetric studies of electroencephalograms, electrocardiograms, and electroculograms and concurrent observations of behavior revealed that seals can sleep underwater, on the surface, or while hauled out. rapid eye movement preceded slow wave sleep and was accompanied by increased respiratory rate and rhythmic tachycardia. while slow wave sleep occurred under all sleep conditions, rapid eye movement occurred only when a seal was hanging at the water surface or hauled out, never underwater.1975163484
electron microscopic studies on the endometrium of the grey seal (halichoerus grypus) during its preparation for nidation.the uterine luminal and glandular epithelia of two mature grey seals, a species with obligate delayed implantation, have been examined. earlier studies of their corpora lutea had suggested that these females were in the pre-nidatory condition. ultrastructural features of these epithelia in the animal which possessed the more mature corpus luteum indicated that the luminal epithelium had attained a state of differentiation similar to that of the pre-attachment phase in the laboratory rat, a state ...1979226508
microcoulometric determination of total organochlorine pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in grey seal (halichoerus grypus) blubber. 1977402089
a study of the effects of methyl mercury, cadmium, arsenic, selenium, and a pcb, (aroclor 1254) on adrenal and testicular steroidogeneses in vitro, by the gray seal halichoerus in vitro study on the effects of the contaminants polychlorinated biphenyl (aroclor 1254) (pcb), methyl mercury (mehg), arsenic (as), cadmium (cd), and selenium (se) on the biosynthesis of steroid hormones in the gray seal (halichoerus grypus) indicated altered steroid biosynthesis. biotransformed delta4-androstene-3, 17-dione (delta 4a), dehydroepiandrosterone, 11-ketotestosterone (11-kt), and testosterone (t) were detected in all seal testicular incubates. yields of 11-kt were greatly incre ...1977405933
steroids in the plasma of the gray seal, halichoerus grypus. 1976955390
myocardial blood flow in the diving seal.grey seals exhibit a marked drop in heart rate, a slight decrease in ventricular contractility, and an essentially unchanged stroke volume upon diving. in the present study, we have demonstrated that the resulting drop in cardiac output is associated with a 90% reduction of coronary blood flow. such reduction of myocardial blood flow takes place despite a significant increase in effective coronary driving pressure, and is indicative of a 800% increase in coronary vascular resistance. this means ...19761258673
water flux and early signs of entrance into phase iii of fasting in grey seal pups.body water loss and turnover rate were measured in fasting newly weaned grey seal (halichoerus grypus) pups without access to water for 52 days, by use of bolus injections of deuterated water. total body water (n) was 41.8 +/- 2.3 (sd)% of total body weight at day 3 and 44.5 +/- 5.9 (sd)% at day 51 of fasting (p greater than 0.05), while the water content of body core decreased from 73 to 61% over the same period. the average water efflux rate in the same period was 362 +/- 17 (sd) ml d-1, the r ...19921318637
plasma thymulin concentrations, the thymus and organochlorine contaminant levels in seals infected with phocine distemper virus.blood samples collected from live common seals (phoca vitulina) and grey seals (halichoerus grypus) around the coast of scotland and northern ireland during, and immediately after, an epizootic caused by phocid distemper virus (pdv) were analysed for thymulin content. thymulin levels were compared with neutralization titres and concentrations of organochlorine contaminants (ddt and its metabolites, seven chlorinated biphenyl congeners) derived from blood and blubber samples collected from the sa ...19921594929
the descriptive epizootiology of phocine distemper in the uk during 1988/89.the 'time, place, individual' approach, widely used in characterising human epidemics, was applied to the 1988 phocine distemper virus (pdv) epizootic affecting north sea seals. estimates of time of death from 157 (69%) of the 228 dead seals necropsied in 1988 indicated that the number of carcasses which were found more than 14 days post mortem increased as the epizootic progressed. although information provided by epizootic curves based on when and where carcasses were reported are affected by ...19921594933
immune responses in common and grey seals during the seal epizootic.serological surveys of common and grey seals were performed to monitor the spread of the phocid distemper outbreak in 1988 and its effects on the host immune response. the disease affected mainly common seals; grey seals were largely unaffected but did have anti-cdv antibodies which developed during 1988. canadian seals, both common and grey, showed evidence of a morbillivirus infection but without the apparent mortality observed in british common seals. common seal circulating immunoglobulin le ...19921594937
the serological response of the common seal (phoca vitulina) and the grey seal (halichoerus grypus) to phocine distemper virus as measured by a canine distemper virus neutralisation test.the application of a canine distemper virus (cdv) neutralisation test revealed that antibody titres of up to 11,620 were present in the sera of common seals during the epizootic of phocine distemper in british waters. however, during the later stages of the epizootic and afterwards, a surprisingly high proportion of animals were still seronegative. titres of from 90 to 183 were common in diseased animals and were probably indicative of partial immunosuppression. a few animals with proven phocine ...19921594940
anti-canine distemper virus antibodies in common and grey seals. 19921621345
insulation and thermal balance of fasting harp and grey seal pups.1. harp and grey seal pups were examined during the post-weaning period to quantify their thermoregulatory abilities and thermal limits. 2. deep body temperatures of harp seals (37.8 +/- 0.8 degrees c) were not significantly different from those of grey seals (38.9 +/- 0.4 degrees c). 3. as blubber depth declined during the fast, temperature gradients extended increasingly deeper into the muscle layer potentially decreasing heat loss. 4. blubber conductivity (approximately 0.18 w/m/degrees c) di ...19911685375
[amino acid sequence of myoglobin from seals from lake baikal].the primary structure of myoglobin of the seal of lake baikal (east siberia) phoca siberica, determined by sequencing the whole protein and peptides obtained by the cyanogen bromide or proteinase cleavage and separated by the microcolumn liquid chromatography, was found to be identical to the primary structures of myoglobins of the harbour seal phoca vitulina largha and the grey seal halehoerus gryphus. it suggests that these species separated from a common ancestor less than seven million years ...19911807253
genetic evidence for three species within pseudoterranova decipiens (nematoda, ascaridida, ascaridoidea) in the north atlantic and norwegian and barents seas.genetic variation of 1017 specimens of codworm, pseudoterranova decipiens, collected from fish and seals at 23 sampling locations in the north atlantic and norwegian and barents seas, was analysed on the basis of 16 enzyme loci. three reproductively isolated species, provisionally designated p. decipiens a, b and c, were detected, showing distinct alleles at the following loci: mdh-1, 6pgdh, np, pgm, est-2 (between species a and b); mdh-3, 6pgdh, np, sod-1, adk, pgm, est-2, mpi (between a and c) ...19911869354
glucose and ketone body turnover in fasting grey seal pups.concentration and metabolic replacement (turnover) rate of glucose and ketone bodies were determined at intervals during a 52 day postweaning fast in five grey seal (halichoerus grypus) pups, using bolus injections of radiotracers. blood glucose was maintained at a high level throughout the fast, while beta-hydroxybutyrate increased 26 times from day 3 to day 37, whereafter it by and large was maintained. glucose replacement rate decreased to 56% of the day 9 value at day 37 and dropped further ...19911877355
[pcb methyl sulphone: comparison of tissue levels in baltic grey seals and a yusho patient].methyl sulphone metabolites of pcb and dde were isolated from different tissues of a baltic grey seal (halichoerus grypus). main components in the seal blubber were identified as 3-meso2-2,2',4',5,5'-pentacb, 4-meso2-2,2',4',5,5'-pentacb, 3-meso2-p,p'-dde, 4-meso2-2,2',3',4',5-pentacb and 4-meso2-2,2',3,4',5',6-hexacb. liver and lung in the seal contained different meso2-pcb pattern compared to all other tissues. these levels in the both tissues were estimated to be 28 and 15 ppm (lipid basis) w ...19911916599
adaptations to prolonged fasting in free-living weaned gray seal pups.the water and energy metabolism of 12 free-living gray seal pups during their postweaning fast was investigated using tritiated water for determination of rates of energy expenditure and water turnover and changes in body composition. changes in serum composition and urinary output were also measured. the duration of the postweaning fast ranged from 10 to greater than 28 days. the mean daily energy expenditure of pups was 12.0 +/- 1.0 (se) mj, equivalent to 2.7 times the basal metabolic rate pre ...19911996712
histochemical and biochemical observations on milk-fat-globule membranes from several mammalian species.a specific secretory product of the lactating mammary gland are triglyceride fat globules which are enveloped by a very complex membrane, the milk fat globule membrane (mfgm). in different mammalian species (man, rhesus monkey, horse, goat, sheep, cow, grey seal, camel, alpaka) the glycoproteins of this membrane have been analyzed by gel electrophoresis, western blotting and lectin histochemistry. a remarkable intra- and interspecific variability of these glycoproteins has been detected pointing ...19902091048
characterization and measurement of immunoglobulins in the grey seal (halichoerus grypus).immunoglobulin concentrations were measured in the serum and colostrum of adult and pup grey seals from north rona in the outer hebrides and the isle of may in the firth of forth. igg was shown to be the main immunoglobulin and two subclasses were identified. serum immunoglobulin content was low in the week-old pups and increased up to 5 weeks, although it remained substantially lower than in the adults. colostral immunoglobulins were high and cannot explain the low values in the pup serum. it i ...19902107217
isolation of an orthopoxvirus from pox-like lesions of a grey seal (halichoerus grypus). 19902169668
measurement of the body composition of living gray seals by hydrogen isotope dilution.the body composition of living gray seals (halichoerus grypus) can be accurately predicted from a two-step model that involves measurement of total body water (tbw) by 2h or 3h dilution and application of predictive relationships between body components and tbw that were derived empirically by slaughter chemical analysis. tbw was overestimated by both 2hho and 3hho dilution; mean overestimates were 2.8 +/- 0.9% (se) with 2h and 4.0 +/- 0.6% with 3h. the relationships for prediction of total body ...19902246176
morbillivirus infections of seals during the 1988 epidemic in the bay of heligoland: iii. transmission studies of cell culture-propagated phocine distemper virus in harbour seals (phoca vitulina) and a grey seal (halichoerus grypus): clinical, virological and serological results.eight harbour seals (phoca vitulina), two of them seronegative, six seropositive against pdv and a seronegative grey seal (halichoerus grypus) were exposed to a low doses of a cell culture-propagated phocine distemper virus isolate (pdv 2558/han 88). an intranasal route of inoculation was chosen. clinical signs, resembling those of 1988's seal disease and seroconversion were observed in both seronegative harbour seals. one of them succumbed to the infection. the virus was not transmitted to anot ...19902267888
use of a tiletamine-zolazepam mixture to immobilise wild grey seals and southern elephant seals.a mixture of tiletamine and zolazepam at a combined dose of 1 mg/kg was a reliable and safe agent for immobilising wild grey seals (halichoerus grypus) and southern elephant seals (mirouga leonina). the agent had a number of advantages over all the other agents used previously.19902309387
grey seal (halichoerus grypus) milk composition and its variation over lactation.analysis of 56 samples of grey seal milk produced a mean composition of 50% fat, 36.2% water, 12% protein, 0.7% lactose and 0.8% ash. for the first 3 days of lactation the fat content was particularly low while the water content was high, but during lactation the fat content increased whilst the water content fell. no trends were seen in protein, lactose or ash content.19902364254
depressed metabolism and low protein catabolism in fasting grey seal pups.grey seal pups (halichoerus grypus) were collected at the time of weaning (mid-october) and fasted for 52 days at thermoneutrality in separate cages. body weight decreased exponentially, while metabolic rate dropped 45% from an average of 2.95 +/- 0.15 (sem) w kg-1 at day 2 of fasting to a stable level of 1.62 +/- 0.06 (sem) w kg-1 from day 10 to day 47 of fasting. respiratory quotient was low, indicating extensive catabolism of triglycerides, while plasma cortisol was fairly stable at 110 +/- 8 ...19902368622
characterisation of the european seal morbillivirus.the elisa test originally developed for the detection of serum antibodies to rinderpest virus has been shown to detect cross-reacting antibodies in sera of diseased common and grey seals. analysis of sera collected from various seal populations is in progress to establish the correlation between different morbillivirus neutralisation tests, elisa tests and the disease status of the animals. rna purified from post-mortem tissues removed from diseased seals has been analysed by hybridisation with ...19902402877
natural causes of death in non-suckling grey seals (halichoerus grypus).thirty-four grey seals which died of natural causes were examined. they ranged in age from aborted fetuses to adults, but suckling pups were excluded from the study. the commonest primary cause of death was pneumonia and a variety of parasitoses occurred as secondary lesions.19892595979
in vitro effect of ivermectin on pseudoterranova decipiens survival.third larval stages (l3) removed from fish fillets, fourth larval stages (l4) raised in in vitro culture, and adults of pseudoterranova decipiens, collected from grey seal (halichoerus grypus) stomachs, were exposed to the broad spectrum anthelmintic, ivermectin. l3 and l4 parasites were exposed, in vitro, to 500, 100, 50, 20, 5 and 1 micrograms/ml concentrations of the drug, in culture media. adult p. decipiens were exposed in vitro to a concentration of 500 micrograms/ml ivermectin, only. cont ...19892723387
weight loss and catabolic adaptations to starvation in grey seal pups.five grey seal pups lost from 18 to 32% of their initial body weight during a 21 day starvation period. blubber fat mass density was 0.93 +/- 0.03 g/cm3. a considerable loss of blubber fat was recorded, but analysis of the weight loss and body size data indicated that blubber fat was retained for thermoregulatory reasons, particularly in the lean, smaller seals. it is possible that phocid seals during periods of negative energy balance have a higher rate of protein catabolism than normal for ter ...19852867854
sealpox in captive grey seals (halichoerus grypus) and their handlers.histopathologic, ultrastructural, and negative-staining studies indicated that nodular lesions on the flippers, head, and necks of recently weaned, captive grey seals (halichoerus grypus) were similar to sealpox lesions reported from several other species of seals. virions associated with the nodules were characteristic of the parapoxvirus subgroup of pox viruses. two of the three persons handling the seals developed nodular lesions similar to "milker's nodules," the characteristic lesion in per ...19873029439
further studies on grey seal (halichoerus grypus) pup mortality on north rona. 19883191378
the use of a ketamine-diazepam mixture to immobilise wild grey seals (halichoerus grypus) and southern elephant seals (mirounga leonina).a mixture of ketamine and diazepam, at doses of 6 mg/kg and 0.30 mg/kg respectively, proved to be a reliable and reasonably safe immobilisation agent for field work on grey and southern elephant seals. it was better than previously reported drugs used either singly or in combination.19883195003
nasal heat and water exchange in gray seals.metabolic rate (mr), expired air temperature (tex), respiratory frequency (f), respiratory minute volume (v), and skin (ts) and body (tb) temperatures were recorded in three gray seals (halichoerus grypus) at ambient air temperatures (ta) between -40 and +20 degrees c. at ta within the thermoneutral zone, mr averaged 3.7, while mean v was 0.26 at ta below -11 degrees c [apparent lower critical temperature (tlc)], both mr and v increased linearly with decreasing ta. ave ...19873425766
protein sequence evidence for monophyly of the carnivore families procyonidae and mustelidae.the amino acid sequence of the eye lens protein alpha-crystallin a of the ring-tailed cat, bassariscus astutus, has been determined. the sequence of the bassariscus alpha a chain, which is 173 residues long, was compared with the previously determined set of 41 mammalian alpha a sequences. among the investigated carnivores (dog, cat, sloth bear, american mink, gray seal, and california sea lion) the bassariscus alpha a sequence exclusively shares two amino acid replacements with the alpha a chai ...19863444403
causes of mortality and morbidity in wild juvenile and adult grey seals (halichoerus grypus). 19873594192
ascorbic acid concentrations in serum and urine of the grey seal (halichoerus grypus) on sable island. 19873654117
vitamin a status in the grey seal (halichoerus grypus) on sable island.vitamin a and beta-carotene concentrations in serum, liver and blubber fat were investigated in 65 grey seals of different age and sex in the pupping colony on sable island, canada to determine the vitamin a status. in none of the investigated samples could beta-carotene be detected. there were no differences in the concentration of vitamin a in serum, liver and blubber between male (213 micrograms/l, 376 micrograms/g, 22 micrograms/g respectively) and female (205 micrograms/l, 319 micrograms/g, ...19873679694
gonadotrophin in the term placenta of the dolphin (tursiops truncatus), the californian sea lion (zalophus californianus), the grey seal (halichoerus grypus) and man.chorionic gonadotrophin activity in extracts of the term placenta of a dolphin, a sea lion and a grey seal was measured by its effectiveness in increasing uterine weight in the mouse and by solid-phase ria using hcg as immunogen and labelled antigen. bioreactive (b) gonadotrophin was found in these placentae and, compared to the human term placenta, the concentration of cg in the dolphin was higher, in the sea lion similar and in the grey seal lower. the biological activity in each species was n ...19863701703
fine structure of the tapetum cellulosum of the grey seal (halichoerus grypus).the morphology of the tapetum lucidum of the grey seal (halichoerus grypus) has been studied by light and electron microscopy. the reflective layer in this species is a tapetum cellulosum situated in the choroid and covering the entire effective fundus. posteriorly the tapetum is composed of 30-35 layers of flattened polygonal cells. this number gradually declines to 15-20 layers in the extreme periphery. near the retinal epithelial layer the tapetal cells are larger and more regular (brick-like ...19863788459
retinal epithelial fine structure in the grey seal (halichoerus grypus).the morphology of the retinal epithelium and the closely associated choriocapillaris and bruch's membrane (complexus basalis) has been investigated in the eye of the grey seal (halichoerus grypus) by electron microscopy. the retinal epithelium is composed of a single layer of cuboidal cells joined laterally by apically-located junctional complexes. basally (sclerally) these cells display numerous infoldings while apically (vitreally) abundant processes enclose rod outer segments. internally the ...19863811817
potentially conflicting metabolic demands of diving and exercise in seals.metabolic replacement rates (ra) for glucose and free fatty acids (ffa) were determined during rest, exercise, and diving conditions in the gray seal using bolus injections of radiotracers. in the exercise experiments the seal swam at a metabolic rate elevated twofold over resting ra for glucose and ffa while resting were similar to values found in terrestrial mammals and other marine mammal species. during exercise periods glucose turnover increased slightly while ffa turnover changes were vari ...19853980347
use of carfentanil and a ketamine-xylazine mixture to immobilise wild grey seals (halichoerus grypus).carfentanil was used to anaesthetise 46 adult grey seals (halichoerus grypus) on 78 occasions during two breeding seasons. the mean dose was 9.92 micrograms/kg bodyweight during the first season and 10.22 micrograms/kg during the second. naloxone hydrochloride was used as the antagonist, averaging 0.53 mg/kg and 1.73 mg/kg over the two periods although the latter is probably unnecessarily high. ketamine and xylazine at a ratio of 5:1 were also used during the same two seasons, 57 seals being ana ...19853984197
energy sources in fasting grey seal pups evaluated with computed tomography.grey seal pups (halichoerus grypus) were collected at the time of weaning (early november) and starved for 31 days at thermoneutrality. during starvation body weight decreased linearly, whereas metabolic rate was stable at 1.58 +/- 0.13 (sd) w x kg-1. metabolic rate as related to body weight was significantly higher (p less than 0.01) than predicted by kleiber (the fire of life, new york: kreiger, 1975). respiratory quotient averaged 0.67 +/- 0.03 during the 1st wk but increased to an average of ...19854051033
the lipid composition of the blood of marine mammals. ii. atlantic bottlenose dolphins, tursiops truncatus and two species of seals, halichoerus grypus and phoca vitulina. 19714330449
[the reproduction of the grey seal, halichoerus grypus fabricius, in brittany]. 19744448304
uterine tumours in a grey seal (halichoerus grypus). 19715105853
the karyotype of the grey seal (halichoerus grypus). 19705525744
candidiasis in captive pinnipeds.diagnosis, treatment, and possible pathogenesis of candidiasis were studied in 5 species of pinnipeds in captivity: gray seal (halichoerus grypus), harbor seal (phoca vitulina), northern fur seal (callorhinus ursinus), california sea lion (zalophus californianus), and northern elephant seal (mirounga angustirostris). the animals were kept outdoors in a freshwater exhibit. candidiasis was characterized by purulent nasal discharge, inflammation of the lips at the mucocutaneous junction, periocular ...19846096327
characterization of ethoxyresorufin o-de-ethylase in grey seal halichoerus grypus.ethoxyresorufin o-de-ethylase (erod), a typical mixed function oxidase enzyme, was studied in liver and kidney of adult and pup grey seals, halichoerus grypus. erod activity was present in most liver samples but was only barely detectable in a few of the kidney samples. liver erod activity was greatest at ph 7.5-8.0; activity increased with temperature from 20 degrees c to a plateau starting at about 33 degrees c and extending to 37 degrees c, and fell off sharply above 37 degrees c. km values r ...19846151450
molecular cloning of seal myoglobin mrna.grey seal skeletal muscle containing high levels of myoglobin was used to prepare poly(a)+ rna. in vitro translation of this rna produced a range of polypeptides including myoglobin. cdna was prepared by reverse transcription of muscle poly(a)+ rna and cloned into the plasmid pat 153. 4% of cdna recombinants were shown to contain myoglobin cdna inserts. dna sequence analysis of one clone (psm 178) which contained a relatively large myoglobin cdna insert showed an incomplete cdna comprising the t ...19826185919
gonadotrophin and progesterone concentrations in placentae of grey seals (halichoerus grypus).chorionic gonadotrophin (cg) measured by bioassay and progesterone by immunoassay were present in the placentae of grey seals (halichoerus grypus) from about 20 days after implantation until parturition. during this period a small and significant decrease in the concentration and a large increase in the total amount of placental cg occurred. the biological activity of seal placental cg was neutralized with an anti-hcg serum. there was a correlation between fetal length and the total amount of pr ...19846512774
organization of the human myoglobin gene.cross-hybridization of the grey seal myoglobin gene to human dna detected a single human myoglobin gene plus an extensive family of sequences apparently related to the central exon of this gene. the functional human gene is 10.4 kb long and has a haemoglobin-like three exon/two intron structure with long non-coding regions similar to its seal homologue. at least 300 bp of 5'-flanking region are closely homologous between the two genes, with the exception of a divergent purine-rich region 68-114 ...19846571704
cardiac output and its distribution through capillaries and a-v shunts in diving seals.regional blood flow and cardiac output were determined by distribution of radioactive microspheres injected via catheter into the left ventricle during experimental diving and recovery in juvenile spotted seals (phoca vitulina largha) and grey seals (halichoerus grypus). cardiac output was 9.7 l/min before diving, declined 90% during submersion and increased to 12.1 l/min after 40 s of recovery. left ventricular myocardial perfusion declined from 179 +/- 24 (21) to 25 +/- 2 (6) ml/min . 100 g at ...19836624500
the ancestral karyotype of carnivora: comparison with that of platyrrhine monkeys.the karyotypes of six species of carnivora (mungos mungo, paradoxurus hermaphroditus, potos flavus, mustela furo, felis serval, and halichoerus grypus), representative of five different families, were studied and compared. correspondence between almost all chromosome segments was found, and a presumed ancestral karyotype of carnivora is proposed. analogies to human chromosomes are also given, and the results obtained are in excellent agreement with previously published gene mapping data on man a ...19836861525
luteal regression, follicle growth and the concentration of some plasma steroids during lactation in grey seals (halichoerus grypus).ovaries of lactating grey seals, which had been shot, were measured to obtain the size of each follicle and corpus luteum. plasma samples were collected by temporarily immobilizing lactating females. the single corpus luteum regressed rapidly after pupping and circulating progesterone levels declined at parturition and remained low throughout most of lactation. a single wave of follicular growth began about the time of parturition and gave rise to a single mature follicle towards the end of lact ...19836887132
the pathology of the grey seal (haliochoerus grypus). ii. juveniles and adults. 19807225770
cyclic dermatitis associated with fusarium sp infection in pinnipeds.dermatitis associated with fusarium sp infection developed in 3 california sea lions (zalophus californianus) and 3 gray seals (halichoerus grypus) at the national zoological park in washington dc. the lesions were papular or nodular and were distributed mainly on the face, trunk, and flippers. one sea lion died 6 weeks after extensive cutaneous involvement. the lesions regressed after 1 mild exacerabtion in the other 2 sea lions. in the gray seals, the skin condition appeared to worsen during t ...19817328003
adaptive hormone changes in harp seals, phoca groenlandica, and gray seals, halichoerus grypus, during the postnatal period. 19807372092
the pathology of the grey seal (haliochoerus grypus). i. pups. 19807407541
genetic variation in phoca vitulina (the harbour seal) revealed by dna fingerprinting and rapds.genetic variation in two harbour seal (phoca vitulina) populations from the dutch wadden sea and scotland was examined by rapd analysis and dna fingerprinting. for comparison a population of grey seals (halichoerus grypus) was studied. the rapd method revealed a very low number of polymorphic bands. the multilocus dna fingerprinting technique showed very low levels of variation both within and between populations of the harbour seals. for one probe a significant difference in variation between p ...19957615403
pineal and thyroid functions in newborn seals.daily variations of pineal and plasma melatonin and plasma thyroid hormones were measured in harp seals (phoca groenlandica), grey seals (halichoerus grypus), and hooded seals (cystophora cristata), ranging in age from newborn to 14 days. in newborn harp seals the mean mass of the pineal gland was 273 mg (+/- 45 sem, n = 11), containing 49 ng (median) melatonin. in newborn, 4- and 10-day-old grey seals, the pineal mass was similar, weighing on average 337 mg (+/- 74, n = 6) and containing 90 ng ...19957628691
organochlorine and mercury contamination in united kingdom 1988 and 1989 tissue samples were obtained from the grey seal (halichoerus grypus) population found in the dee estuary in the north west of england and from harbour seals (phoca vitulina) from the populations in the wash and north east scotland and analysed for mercury and organochlorine compounds. adult seals from the dee estuary were highly contaminated with mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs), and one animal from the dee contained traces of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (ddt), s ...19937682371
a molecular view of pinniped relationships with particular emphasis on the true seals.phylogenetic analysis of conservative nucleotide substitutions in 18 complete sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of phocidae (true seals), odobenidae (walruses), and otariidae (sea lions and fur seals), plus three ursid and three felid sequences, identified the pinnipeds as monophyletic with otariidae and odobenidae on a common evolutionary branch. analysis of total nucleotide differences separated the evolutionary lineages of northern and southern phocids. both lineages are distin ...19957714914
milk intake, growth and energy consumption in pups of ice-breeding grey seals (halichoerus grypus) from the gulf of st. lawrence, this study we document growth, milk intake and energy consumption in nursing pups of ice-breeding grey seals (halichoerus grypus). change in body composition of the pups, change in milk composition as lactation progresses, and mass transfer efficiency between nursing mothers and pups are also measured. mass transfer efficiency between mother-pup pairs (n = 8) was 42.5 +/- 8.4%. pups were gaining a daily average of 2.0 +/- 0.7 kg (n = 12), of which 75% was fat, 3% protein and 22% water. the to ...19957738230
isolation of parapoxvirus from grey seals. 19957740722
isolation of a parapoxvirus from pox-like lesions in grey seals. 19947794344
transfer of fat-soluble vitamins and pcbs from mother to pups in grey seals (halichoerus grypus).lactation in seals is characterized by a rapid and enormous lipid transfer from mother to pups within a milk rich in lipids. since grey seals do not feed during lactation, all milk constituents are solely derived from body stores. monitoring levels of fat-soluble vitamins as well as pcbs in blubber and milk may give an insight into the mechanisms involved in their mobilization from blubber, transfer into milk and deposition in the blubber of pups. during lactation, total lipids in milk increased ...19947881814
gas exchange of captive freely diving grey seals (halichoerus grypus).when at sea, phocids dive for long periods and spend a high percentage of their time submerged. this behaviour requires some combination of an increased oxygen storage capacity, rapid oxygen loading at the surface and reduced oxygen utilisation when submerged. to assess these adaptations, breath-by-breath ventilation was studied in four adult grey seals (two male, two female, 160-250 kg), freely diving in a large outdoor tank where surface access was restricted to one breathing hole. the dive pa ...19947931034
nasal heat and water exchange is not an effector mechanism for water balance regulation in grey seals.phocid seals may effectively restrict respiratory heat and water loss by nasal heat and water exchange (nhe), and respiratory heat loss is, in fact, subject to thermoregulatory control. we have investigated whether phocid seals also control nhe and respiratory water loss to regulate water balance. three resting juvenile female grey seals (halichoerus grypus) were subjected to: (i) 5 days of food and water deprivation, (ii) intravenous infusion of 1000 ml of a hypersomotic (930 mm) solution of th ...19947942059
the metabolic characteristics of the locomotory muscles of grey seals (halichoerus grypus), harbour seals (phoca vitulina) and antarctic fur seals (arctocephalus gazella).it is not known precisely how marine mammals are able to maintain muscle function during active swimming in breath-hold dives, when ventilation stops and heart rate falls. examination of muscle biochemistry and histochemistry can provide information on the relative importance of different metabolic pathways, the contractile potential of the muscle fibres, the oxygen storage capacity of the muscle and the capillary distribution in these animals. in this study, samples of locomotory muscle were ta ...19947964404
diseases and environmental contaminants in seals from the baltic and the swedish west coast.investigations have shown that baltic grey seal (halichoerus grypus) and ringed seal (phoca hispida) suffer from a disease complex described as a primary lesion in the adrenals causing secondary reactions in various other organs. studies on historical baltic grey seal skull bone material show that the prevalence of affected animals started to increase after world war ii. the disease complex explains the dramatic decrease in the baltic grey and ringed seal population during the 1960s and 1970s an ...19947973608
parapox infection in grey seals (halichoerus grypus) in the winter of 1991/92 there was an outbreak of parapox infection in grey seals (halichoerus grypus) around the coast of cornwall. pups were cared for at a seal rehabilitation centre and the infection occurred in most of them. the presence of parapox virus was confirmed by electron microscopy. the clinical and pathological findings, together with details of the morphology of the virus, are compared with those in previous outbreaks in north america.19948009786
effects of energy mobilization during fasting and lactation on plasma metabolites in the grey seal (halichoerus grypus).1. the effects of fasting and lactation on plasma metabolites and insulin as well as morphometric parameters related to the mobilization of energy reserves were investigated in grey seals (halichoerus grypus) of different ages and sex during the 4 week terrestrial breeding period on sable island, ns, canada. 2. clear differences in body length and girth between the sexes were already recognizable in juveniles. fasting and lactation caused a marked decrease in adipose tissue thickness and girth i ...19938101163
effects of fasting and lactation on blood chemistry and urine composition in the grey seal (halichoerus grypus).1. the effect of fasting and lactation on osmolality, electrolytes, zinc, protein, urea, uric acid, alkaline phosphatase and vitamin c (ascorbic acid) in plasma and urine was studied in grey seals (halichoerus grypus) during the breeding season. 2. plasma osmolality, electrolytes and proteins were not affected by lactation in females or by suckling and post-weaning fast in pups. higher levels of calcium, potassium and zinc were observed in fetal compared to maternal plasma. low urea levels in pl ...19938101164
identification and partial characterization of common seal (phoca vitulina) and grey seal (haliochoerus grypus) interleukin-6-like activities.interleukin-6 (il-6) is a pleiotropic molecule with many important immune modulatory actions. we have investigated the production of biological activity of this cytokine in two species of european seal. il-6-like activity was detected in supernatants from cultured peripheral blood leucocytes. this il-6-like activity had an apparent molecular weight of 17-26 kda, similar to that of human il-6. il-6-like activity was also detected in plasma taken from seals with symptoms of systemic infection, but ...19938270096
larval nematodes infecting amphiporeia virginiana (amphipoda: pontoporeioidea) on sable island, nova scotia.three species of larval nematodes were found infecting the nearshore subtidal amphipod amphiporeia virginiana collected from beaches on sable island, nova scotia. five and 2 sealworms, pseudoterranova decipiens s.l., were found in 2,020 and 2,044 amphipods, respectively, collected in 1991 and 1992, dissected, and examined microscopically. two sealworms, 1 paracuaria adunca and 1 ascarophis sp., were found in 5,157 amphipods collected in 1992 and enzymatically digested. infection with each specie ...19938277392
the nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial dna molecule of the grey seal, halichoerus grypus, and a comparison with mitochondrial sequences of other true seals.the sequence of the mtdna of the grey seal, halichoerus grypus, was determined. the length of the molecule was 16,797 base pairs. the organization of the molecule conformed with that of other eutherian mammals but the control region was unusually long due to the presence of two types of repeated motifs. the grey seal and the previously reported harbor seal, phoca vitulina, belong to different but closely related genera of family phocidae, true (or earless) seals. in order to determine the degree ...19938308902
[accumulation of hydroxylated pcb metabolites in blood].in order to investigate some potential accumulate properties of hydroxylated pcb metabolites, blood and tissues such as livers, kidneys, lungs and adipose tissue from rats exposed to a commercial pcb (aroclor 1254) were analyzed for hydroxylated pcbs (oh-pcbs). a large number of oh-pcbs were detected in the liver 1 day after exposure among which almost 13 have been identified in the blood. oh-pcbs were retained selectively in the blood probably due to binding between the oh-pcbs and a protein in ...19938330845
follicular fluid composition in the grey seal (halichoerus grypus) during the oestrous cycle.during the period of lactational oestrus, the corpus luteum of ovaries of grey seals decreased in size following the birth of the pup, while on the contralateral ovary one major large follicle rapidly expanded. these large follicles had the highest concentration of oestradiol (4282 +/- 609 ng ml-1) and progesterone (499 +/- 168 ng ml-1). osmolality (322 +/- 3 mosmol kg-1) and the intrafollicular concentration of electrolytes (na: 126 +/- 1; cl: 96 +/- 1; ca: 1.3 +/- 0.1 mumol ml-1) and proteins ...19938345458
fatty acid composition in liver and blubber of the saimaa ringed seal (phoca hispida saimensis) compared with that of the ringed seal (phoca hispida botnica) and grey seal (halichoerus grypus from the baltic.1. the main differences in fatty acid composition of blubber between the saimaa seal (phoca hispida saimensis) and the baltic seals (phoca hispida botnica and halichoerus grypus) were, that in fresh water the proportions of polyunsaturated c18 acids and arachidonic acid (20:4 omega 6) were high. 2. the trend became more evident when data on ringed seals from northern oceans were compared with the present data. 3. the proportions of exogenous 20:1 and 22:1 were extremely low in ringed seals from ...19938365111
mixed poxvirus and calicivirus infections of grey seals (halichoerus grypus) in cornwall. 19938384390
male mating success and paternity in the grey seal, halichoerus grypus: a study using dna fingerprinting.grey seals breed colonially on remote coastal sites. within the colony, males compete aggressively for access to the females. we compare field observations of breeding behaviour with paternity, as determined by dna fingerprinting, in the breeding colony on the island of north rona. in 89% of cases where paternity was assigned, the father was observed near the mother during her perioestrous period, although in some cases this was discovered retrospectively. however, the most likely candidate male ...19938394580
cardiac responses of grey seals during diving at sea.heart rate, swimming speed and diving depth data were collected from free-ranging grey seals, halichoerus grypus, as they foraged and travelled in the sea around the hebrides islands off western scotland. information was collected on a tracking yacht using a combination of sonic and radio telemetry. diving heart rate declined as a function of dive duration. in long dives, grey seals employed extreme bradycardia, with heart rates falling to 4 beats min-1 for extended periods, despite the animal b ...19938440964
mammalian spinal biomechanics. i. static and dynamic mechanical properties of intact intervertebral joints.four-point bending was used to apply pure extension and flexion moments to the ligamentous lumbosacral spine and pelvic girdle of monkey (macaca fascicularis), rabbit (domestic and wild, oryctolagus cuniculus), badger (meles meles), wallaby (wallabia rufogrisea frutica), sheep (ovis aries), seal (phoca vitulina) and tiger (panthera tigris). the absolute ranges of angular change in lumbar-lumbar joints (from x-radiographs) were considerable and similar in monkey and wallaby (greater in flexion) a ...19938440968
mammalian spinal biomechanics. ii. intervertebral lesion experiments and mechanisms of bending resistance.three-point cyclic bending was applied to intervertebral joint complexes (three vertebrae with two intervertebral discs) of monkey (macaca fascicularis), wallaby (wallabia rufogrisea frutica), tiger (panthera tigris), jaguar (panthera onca) and seal (halichoerus grypus). force-displacement loops were recorded for intact specimens in both extension and flexion. reductions in peak forces at given displacements were measured, following lesions of ventral ligaments, superspinous ligaments, interspin ...19938440969
phocine distemper in a harp seal (phoca groenlandica) from the gulf of st. lawrence, canada.the first case of phocine distemper in a seal from canadian waters and the first case of clinical phocine distemper in a harp seal, phoca groenlandica, is reported. a two-month-old female harp seal stranded on prince edward island in may 1991. significant clinical findings were lethargy and severe conjunctivitis. pulmonary congestion was the main necropsy finding, and histological lesions included diffuse demyelinating nonsuppurative encephalitis and mild multifocal interstitial pneumonia. acido ...19938445769
the use of monoclonal antibodies specific for seal immunoglobulins in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect canine distemper virus-specific immunoglobulin in seal plasma samples.a method is described for the measurement of antigen-specific immunoglobulin in seal pup plasmas. four monoclonal antibodies (h1a, h13a, h24b and h49a) raised against grey seal (halichoerus grypus) immunoglobulin were used in an elisa procedure. levels of canine distemper virus (cdv) specific macroglobulin (igm like protein) were found to peak approximately 10 days after the first vaccination. levels of other smaller cdv-specific immunoglobulins (igg like protein) also increased after vaccinatio ...19938459104
relationship between blood buffering properties, erythrocyte ph and water content, in gray seals (halichoerus grypus).the separated plasma of gray seals (halichoerus grypus) has an unusually high non-bicarbonate buffering capacity (beta nb = d[hco3-]/dph = -21 slykes; slyke = mmol l-1 ph unit-1). to examine whether this represents a trait of mammalian carnivora, or is related instead to deep diving, we examined blood from dog and killer whale, respectively. the beta nb of separated plasma of dog was typically low (-4 to -8 slykes), as in other mammals, whereas that of the whale (-13.5 slykes), while significant ...19938475752
prevalence of morbilliviruses among pinniped and cetacean species.since 1987, morbillivirus infections have caused serious disease outbreaks with high mortality among aquatic mammals. baikal seals (phoca sibirica) in siberia were involved in an outbreak caused by a virus closely related to canine distemper virus (cdv) in 1987. harbour seals (phoca vitulina) and grey seals (halichoerus grypus) in north-western europe were struck by a newly recognised morbillivirus of seals (pdv1). a serological survey has indicated that these morbillivirus infections frequently ...19938518442
characterization of phocid herpesvirus-1 and -2 as putative alpha- and gammaherpesviruses of north american and european study the relationships between herpesvirus recently isolated from different pinniped species, antigenic and genetic analyses were performed. first, herpesviruses isolated from north american harbour seals (phoca vitulina), a californian sea lion (zalophus californianus) and a european grey seal (halichoerus grypus) were examined in an enzyme immunoassay (eia) with a panel of monoclonal antibodies which had previously been shown to allow typing of herpesviruses from european harbour seals int ...19968558126
microsatellite variation in grey seals (halichoerus grypus) shows evidence of genetic differentiation between two british breeding colonies.eight highly variable microsatellite loci were used to examine the genetic variability and differentiation of grey seals (halichoerus grypus) at two widely spaced british breeding colonies. samples were collected from adults and pups on the island of north rona, off the north-west coast of scotland, and on the isle of may, situated at the mouth of the firth of forth on the east coast. highly significant differences in allele frequencies between these two sites were found for all eight loci, indi ...19958564005
lipoprotein lipase activity and its relationship to high milk fat transfer during lactation in grey seals.lipoprotein lipase regulates the hydrolysis of circulating triglyceride and the uptake of fatty acids by most tissues, including the mammary gland and adipose tissue. thus, lipoprotein lipase is critical for the uptake and secretion of the long-chain fatty acids in milk and for the assimilation of a high-fat milk diet by suckling young. in the lactating female, lipoprotein lipase appears to be regulated such that levels in adipose tissue are almost completely depressed while those in the mammary ...19958576451
morbillivirus infections of aquatic mammals: newly identified members of the genus.several disease outbreaks, which have caused the deaths of many thousands of seals and dolphins during the last decade, have now been attributed to infections with newly identified morbilliviruses. outbreaks in the late eighties amongst harbour seals (phoca vitulina) and grey seals (halichoerus grypus) in northwestern europe and amongst baikal seals (phoca sibirica) in siberia were caused by the newly discovered phocine distemper virus and by a strain of canine distemper virus, respectively. alt ...19958588316
leucocyte interleukin-1-like activity in the common seal (phoca vitulina) and grey seal (halichoerus grypus).interleukin-1 (il-1) is an important cytokine with predominantly proinflammatory activities, which have been characterized in many mammals. this study showed the production of il-1-like bioactivity by cultured seal leucocytes. increasing concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (lps) (0-1 micrograms/ml) stimulated an increase in measurable il-1-like activity in cell culture supernates. this activity increased for the first 24 h after lps stimulation and the substance responsible had an apparent mole ...19958592051
epizootiology of morbillivirus infection in north american harbor seals (phoca vitulina) and gray seals (halichoerus grypus).a longitudinal study of morbillivirus infection among harbor (phoca vitulina) and gray (halichoerus grypus) seals on the atlantic coast of north america was carried out between 1980 and 1994. serology also was carried out on harbor seals from the pacific northwest coast collected in 1992 and 1993. the prevalence of morbillivirus neutralizing antibodies was significantly (p < 0.0001) higher in gray (73%, n = 296) than in harbor seals (37%, n = 387) from the atlantic. titers were significantly (p ...19958592380
selective retention of hydroxylated pcb metabolites in blood.polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) are important environmental contaminants, and their toxicity to wildlife and humans are of major concern. pcbs form persistent and abundant metabolites, pcb methyl sulfones, that accumulate in biota. we now report that certain hydroxylated pcb metabolites show a strong and selective accumulation in mammalian blood. plasma from experimentally pcb-dosed rats and blood from environmentally exposed grey seals (halichoerus grypus) and humans were analyzed. among all p ...19948593850
isolation of a parapoxvirus from a grey seal (halichoerus grypus).a grey seal (halichoerus grypus) developed cutaneous pocks which progressed to involve the skin extensively, necessitating euthanasia. macroscopically and histologically the lesions resembled previous descriptions of parapoxvirus infections of seals and virus particles were observed in preparations of a scab and a skin lesion. suspensions of the scab and skin lesion were prepared and inoculated on to monolayer cultures of grey seal kidney cells. after 25 days in culture and three passages, cytop ...19958644435
organochlorine compounds in blubber, liver and brain in neonatal grey seal pups.the present study focuses on the distribution and accumulation of persistent organochlorine compounds in different tissues and organs of grey seal (halichoerus grypus) pups. thus, levels of drins (aldrin, dieldrin, endrin), chlordanes (heptachlor, heptachlorepoxide, oxychlordane, transnonachlor), ddts (p,p'-dde, o,p'-ddd, p,p'-ddd, o,p'-ddt, p,p'-ddt) and 22 pcb congeners were determined in samples of brain, fat, and liver of 0-10 days old grey seal pups from the species' main breeding site in n ...19968653379
the "phoca standard": an external molecular reference for calibrating recent evolutionary divergences.comparison of the complete mitochondrial dna (mtdna) of the high-arctic ringed seal (phoca hispida) and the sub-arctic harbour (p. vitulina) and grey (halichoerus grypus) seals shows that they are genetically equidistant from one another. we relate the evolutionary divergence of the three species to expanding glaciation in the arctic basin and establish, in conjunction with mtdna data, a standard reference for calibration of recent divergence events among mammalian taxa. in the present study, we ...19968660422
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