antibodies to marine caliciviruses in the steller sea lion (eumetopias jubatus schreber).sera from 145 steller sea lions (76 adults, three subadults, 37 pups, and 29 fetuses) were tested for neutralizing antibodies to nine marine calicivirus serotypes. antibodies were found to san miguel sea lion virus (smsv) types 1, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10 and 13, and to tillamook (bovine) calicivirus, but no antibodies were found to the walrus calicivirus. titers (microtiter neutralization assay) ranged from 1:20 to 1:320, with many positive reactions at the higher dilutions (greater than or equal to 1:80 ...19873820427
prevalence and distribution of serum neutralizing antibodies to tillamook (bovine) calicivirus in selected populations of marine mammals.neutralizing antibodies to tillamook calicivirus (tcv) were found in sera collected from california sea lions (zalophus c. californianus lesson) in 1983 and 1984 and in sera collected from steller sea lions (eumetopias jubatus schreber) in 1976 and 1985. the combined prevalence of antibodies for these two species was 10/228 = 4.38%. titers ranged from 1:20 (five animals), to 1:40 (four animals), to 1:80 (one animal) by standard microtiter neutralization assay. the seropositive pinnipeds were dis ...19873820428
twenty years of trace metal analyses of marine mammals in alaska: evaluation and summation.the compilation of existing data on contaminants in the marine food chain is essential in addressing concerns regarding the magnitude of potential human exposures and in the evaluation of subsistence food safety. this paper presents a summary of studies on trace metals in tissues of alaska marine mammals from the 1970s to the present, along with derived mean tissue trace metal concentrations. the derived mean can serve as a norm against which future monitoring results may be compared, and may be ...199810093345
trichinellosis in the united states, 1991-1996: declining but not gone.since the u.s. public health service began recording statistics on trichinellosis in 1947, the number of cases reported by state health departments has decreased steadily. in the late 1940s, health departments reported an average of 400 cases and 10-15 deaths each year. from 1991 to 1996, the period covered in this report, three deaths in 230 cases were reported to the centers for disease control and prevention (an average of 38 cases per year), including 14 multiple case outbreaks from 31 state ...19999988325
population structure and gene flow of the atlantic walrus (odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) in the eastern atlantic arctic based on mitochondrial dna and microsatellite variation.the population structure of the atlantic walrus, odobenus rosmarus rosmarus, was studied using 11 polymorphic microsatellites and restriction fragment length polymorphism detected in the nadh-dehydrogenase nd1, nd2 and nd3/4 segments in mtdna. a total of 105 walrus samples were analysed from northwest (nw) greenland, east (e) greenland, svalbard and franz joseph land. two of the 10 haplotypes detected in the four samples were diagnostic for the nw greenland sample, which implied that the group o ...19989787444
arctic trichinosis: two alaskan outbreaks from walrus meat.the arctic form of trichinella spiralis that infects terrestrial and marine mammals is of importance in public health because persons living in arctic regions still depend on wild animals for economic subsistence. in 1975, an extended common-source epidemic of trichinosis attributed to consumption of walrus meat involved 29 persons in barrow, alaska. of those persons eating this meat, 64% became ill, and the rate of infection of persons eating meat prepared with little or no cooking was four tim ...1979571446
fourier-transform raman spectra of ivory. iii: identification of mammalian specimens.the ft-raman spectra of six mammalian ivories, other than elephant and mammoth, are presented and spectral differences formulated into a protocol for the identification of animal species from the ivory samples. in this study, sperm whale, walrus, wart hog, narwhal, hippopotamus and domestic pig are considered. the results, which are obtained non-destructively from a variety of specimens, suggest that ft-raman spectroscopy provides a potentially useful method for the identification of mammalian i ...19979477579
hunting poisons of the north pacific region.the hunting poisons of the north pacific region are discussed. the most important one used by the ainu was based on aconitum species (surku or suruku): on hokkaido, to some extent a. japonicum thumb. but probably mainly a. yezoense nakai and a. sachalinense fr. schm.; on southern sakhalin, perhaps a. fischeri reichb., a. maximum pall. ex dc., and/or a. sachalinense fr. schm.; and on the kuril islands, a. maximum pall. ex dc. poison from the japanese stingray dasyatis akajei (müller et henle) (ai ...1976781454
finding of trichinella spiralis in a walrus (odobenus rosmarus l.) in the thule district, northwest greenland. 19761250688
phylogeny of the carnivora (mammalia): congruence vs incompatibility among multiple data sets.the purpose of this study was to determine the higher-level phylogenetic relationships among carnivora, using a conditional data combination (cdc) approach to analyzing multiple data sets. new nucleotide sequences (851 base pairs from intron i of the transthyretin gene) among 22 representatives of the 11 families of carnivora were generated and analyzed in concert with, and comparison to, other mitochondrial and morphological character data. conditional data combination analyses of the four inde ...19989667990
review on persistent organic pollutants in the environment of greenland and faroe islands.the literature concerning persistent organic pollutants (pops) in the environment of greenland and the faroe islands covering the period up to 1995 has been revisited. it is difficult to compare data from earlier studies with those from more recent investigations. thus as the former quantified the content of cbs by comparison to a technical mixture of cbs (e.g. aroclor 1254), the latter analyses typically are quantified on a single congener level. single cb congeners have in some cases been dete ...199910230048
serologic survey for phocid herpesvirus-1 and -2 in marine mammals from alaska and russia.blood samples were collected from 1,042 marine mammals off the coast of alaska (usa) and russia during the period 1978 to 1994. eight species of pinnipeds were represented. sera were tested for presence of neutralizing antibodies to both the pb84 isolate of phocid herpesvirus-1 (phhv-1) and the 7848/han90 strain of phocid herpesvirus-2 (phhv-2). species-specific antibody prevalences ranged from 22% to 77% for phhv-1 and 11% to 50% for phhv-2. species-specific antibody prevalences for phhv-1 were ...19979249690
[rna-polymerase activity of pathogenic and nonpathogenic influenza a virus variants].the transcriptase activity of original mouse-apathogenic strains of human (a/ussr/05/81) and animal (a/walrus/massachusetts/1/80) influenza viruses and their pathogenic variants was studied. also rna-polymerase was studied in two types of antigenic recombinants produced by hybridization of the parental strains one of which (a/pr8/34) was pathogenic for mice. the nonpathogenic viruses under study were shown to have a low transcriptase activity, while pathogenic variants of these strains had a hig ...19846730432
lipoproteins in pinnipeds: analysis of a high molecular weight form of apolipoprotein e.we have examined the apolipoprotein content of the lipoproteins of several marine mammals by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. their apolipoprotein (apo) b-100, apob-48, and apoa-i migrated to virtually the same position as the comparable human apolipoproteins. in cetaceans (bottlenose dolphins and killer whales), the molecular mass of the apoe was identical to that of human apoe (35 kda). in contrast, in the lipoproteins of pinnipeds (harbor seals, sea lions, and walrus ...19911940617
the cytochemical localization of myoglobin in striated muscle of man and walrus. 19676033543
human plasma levels of pops, and diet among native people from uelen, chukotka.some of the people living in the chukotka peninsula of russia depend heavily on marine mammals, but little is known of the exact dietary patterns and plasma levels of pops among these populations. in this study, pops levels in plasma from 50 participants from the isolated community of uelen (bering strait) were determined and related to dietary information obtained through a food frequency questionnaire. the intake of marine mammals was high and the combined intake of blubber from walrus, seal a ...200312948250
the complete primary structure of the marine carnivora, galapagoes fur seal (arctocephalus galapagoensis, otariidae) hemoglobins.the complete primary structure of the two hemoglobin components of the fur seal (arctocephalus galapagoensis) is presented. the two components (hbi and hbii) occur in nearly equal amounts and have identical beta-chains; whereas the two alpha-chains (alpha i/alpha ii) differ by six exchanges ile/val, met/thr, ser/ala, pro/his, lys/gly, and thr/ala at positions 10, 34, 35, 50, 78, and 131, respectively. the components were isolated by deae-sephacel chromatography and were separated into the globin ...19911910457
toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum, sarcocystis neurona, and sarcocystis canis-like infections in marine mammals.toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum, sarcocystis neurona, and s. canis are related protozoans that can cause mortality in many species of domestic and wild animals. recently, t. gondii and s. neurona were recognized to cause encephalitis in marine mammals. as yet, there is no report of natural exposure of n. caninum in marine mammals. in the present study, antibodies to t. gondii and n. caninum were assayed in sera of several species of marine mammals. for t. gondii, sera were diluted 1:25, 1:50 ...200314580799
new calicivirus isolated from walrus.the nucleotide sequence and genome organization of a new member of caliciviridae was determined. cell culture inoculated with fecal matter from walrus was used to recover fragments of a new virus by suppression subtractive hybridization (ssh). the isolate was identified as a member of the vesivirus genus of caliciviridae and designated the name walrus calicivirus (wcv). sets of pcr primers spanning the entire putative genome were designed using known sequences of other vesiviruses. the assembled ...200415084403
neutralizing antibodies to phocine distemper virus in atlantic walruses (odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) from arctic canada.the first evidence of phocine distemper virus (pdv) infection in atlantic walruses (odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) from nottingham island, northwest territories, canada, is reported. blood samples were collected from three male walruses killed by inuit hunters in the fall of 1990. differential virus neutralization test for each animal yielded higher titers against pdv than against other members of the morbillivirus genus including canine distemper, peste des petits ruminants, rinderpest and measles ...19948151831
arctic indigenous women consume greater than acceptable levels of organochlorines.exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides through traditional food resources was examined for arctic indigenous women living in two cultural and environmental areas of the canadian arctic--one community representing baffin island inuit in eastern arctic and two communities representing sahtú dene/métis in western arctic. polychlorinated biphenyls, toxaphene, chlorobenzenes, hexachlorocyclohexanes, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, chlordane-related compounds and dieldrin ...19957562084
evaluating placental inter-ordinal phylogenies with novel sequences including rag1, gamma-fibrinogen, nd6, and mt-trna, plus mcmc-driven nucleotide, amino acid, and codon is essential to test a priori scientific hypotheses with independent data, not least to partly negate factors such as gene-specific base composition biases misleading our models. seven new gene segments and sequences plus bayesian likelihood phylogenetic methods were used to compare and test five recent placental phylogenies. these five phylogenies are similar to each other, yet quite different from fthose of previously proposed trees, and span waddell et al. [syst. biol. 48 (1999) 1] to murp ...200312878459
a preliminary investigation on the infectivity of trichinella larvae in traditional preparations of walrus meat.this study evaluated the infectivity of trichinella nativa in freshly frozen walrus meat and traditionally aged walrus meat (igunaq) associated with two human outbreaks of trichinellosis in the canadian arctic. trichinella larvae recovered from walrus meat stored at -20 degrees c for up to 20 months remained infective for guinea pigs inoculated with 135 or 716 larval doses. however, none of the 4-5 and 10-month-old igunaq preparations contained infective t. nativa larvae as measured by bioassays ...200415278445
antibodies to selected pathogens in free-ranging terrestrial carnivores and marine mammals in canada.antibody titres to selected pathogens (canine adenovirus [cav-2], feline herpesvirus [fhv], phocine herpesvirus [phv-1], canine distemper virus, dolphin morbillivirus [dmv], phocine distemper virus [pdv], parainfluenza virus type 3 [pi3], rabies virus, dolphin rhabdovirus [drv], canine coronavirus, feline coronavirus, feline leukaemia virus, borrelia burgdorferi and toxoplasma gondii) were determined in whole blood or serum samples from selected free-ranging terrestrial carnivores and marine mam ...200415338705
experimental trichinella infection in seals.the susceptibility of seals to infection with trichinella nativa and the cold tolerant characteristics of muscle larvae in seal meat were evaluated. two grey seals, halichoerus grypus, were inoculated with 5000 (100 larvae/kg) t. nativa larvae and two grey seals with 50000 (1000 larvae/kg). one seal from each dose group and two control seals were killed at 5 and 10 weeks post-inoculation (p.i.). at 5 weeks p.i., infection was established in both low and high dose seals with mean larval densities ...200314572509
primer extension enrichment reaction (peer): a new subtraction method for identification of genetic differences between biological specimens.we developed a conceptually new subtraction strategy for the detection and isolation of target dna and/or rna from complex nucleic acid mixtures, called primer extension enrichment reaction (peer). peer uses adapters and class iis restriction enzymes to generate tagged oligonucleotides from dsdna fragments derived from specimens containing an unknown target ('tester'). subtraction is achieved by selectively disabling these oligonucleotides by extension reaction using ddntps and a double stranded ...200616790564
vibrios on the half shell: what the walrus and the carpenter didn't least nine vibrio species have been associated with disease in the united states. vibrio fluvialis, v. hollisae, v. mimicus, and v. parahaemolyticus cause diarrheal diseases, but may also be encountered in extraintestinal infections such as wound and ear infections, septicemia, and cholecystitis. vibrio alginolyticus, v. damsela, v. metschnikovii, and v. vulnificus primarily cause extraintestinal disease. toxigenic v. cholerae o1 is the cause of epidemic cholera, whereas nontoxigenic v. chole ...19836625388
ultrastructural characteristics of nurse cell-larva complex of four species of trichinella in several hosts.the nurse cell-larva complex of nematodes of the genus trichinella plays an important role in the survival of the larva in decaying muscles, frequently favouring the transmission of the parasite in extreme environmental conditions. the ultrastructure of the nurse cell-larva complex in muscles from different hosts infected with t. nativa (a walrus and a polar bear), t. spiralis (horses and humans), t. pseudospiralis (a laboratory mouse) and t. papuae (a laboratory mouse) were examined. analysis w ...200111484383
serologic evidence of influenza a infection in marine mammals of arctic canada.a serologic survey of influenza a antibodies was undertaken on 1,611 blood samples from five species of marine mammals collected from arctic canada from 1984-98. sampling was done in 24 locations throughout the canadian arctic encompassing sachs harbor (72 degrees n, 125 degrees w), northwest territories in the west to loks land (63 degrees n, 64 degrees w), nunavut in the east, to eureka (80 degrees n, 86 degrees w), nunavut in the north to sanikiluaq (56 degrees n, 79 degrees w), nunavut in th ...200111763748
epidemiologic and serologic definition of primary and secondary trichinosis in the arctic.a large outbreak of trichinosis acquired from walrus in salluit in 1987 provided the immunologic and epidemiologic data from which two distinct clinical syndromes were identified. the first syndrome is the classic myopathic form with edema, fever, myalgia, and rash. the second is a persistent diarrheal illness with little edema or myalgia. the clinical presentations are paralleled by distinct differences in type and development of antibody response. the clinical and serologic profiles of the two ...19921569342
the squatters and the blowflies.cutaneous myiasis in australian sheep became an increasing problem in the early years of the 20th century after the import of the wrinkly vermont merinos and the introduction of lucillia cuprina. we abbott, a successful pastoralist in new south wales at that time, wrote a little-known and unusual description of early methods of control: a parody based on an episode in through the looking glass by lewis carroll. the plight of struck sheep and the lives and times of abbott, several other pastorali ...200212222603
impact of economic changes on the diet of chukotka natives.this paper describes and analyses changes in food composition and nutritional preferences among the chukchi and yupik of coastal chukotka in the last 15 years. the economic collapse of the infrastructure of chukotka region has resulted in many indigenous northerners reverting to the traditional subsistence economy. relatively expensive market foods are being replaced by cheaper ones, and by more readily available local foods. percent contribution of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates to total ca ...200415526927
cartoon characters as tobacco warning labels.multiple studies have indicated that the joe camel advertising campaign has been successful in marketing tobacco to children and adolescents, whereas other studies have reported that current tobacco warning messages are ineffective.200011115308
viral and bacterial serology of free-ranging pacific walrus.serum or heparinized plasma samples were obtained between 1994 and 1996 from 20 male and 20 female adult free-ranging pacific walrus (odobenus rosmarus divergens) from st. lawrence island and round island, alaska. samples were screened for antibodies to some potentially pathogenic bacteria and viruses. no sample had detectable antibody to brucella spp. three of 40 (8%) had low antibody titers to leptospira interrogans serovars. phocine distemper virus antibodies were not detected. serologic resp ...200211838234
antibodies to marine caliciviruses in the pacific walrus (odobenus rosmarus divergens illiger).sera from 155 pacific walruses (odobenus rosmarus divergens illiger), sampled in the chukchi sea during the summer of 1983, were tested for serum neutralizing (sn) antibodies to six marine calicivirus serotypes. serotypes tested included san miguel sea lion virus (smsv) types 1, 5, 8, and 10, previously isolated from northern fur seals (callorhinus ursinus linné) in the bering sea; walrus calicivirus (wcv), previously isolated from walrus feces collected off sea ice in the chukchi sea; and tilla ...19863712641
case in which in man the pericardium was unattached to the diaphragm, with a parallel illustration from the walrus. 187017230869
[immunochemical identification and study of interspecies thymus antigen-2].a new interspecific animal thymus antigen (agt-2) was identified. it was shown that agt-2 is a microglobulin with a molecular mass about 12 kda, electrophoretic mobility of alpha 1-globulins and isoelectric point of 4.6. heating of the protein to 80 degrees c for 30 min did not lead to the loss of its immunochemical activity. agt-2 was identified in extracts of bovine fetal thymus, spleen and liver. it was discovered in the extracts of the lung and colon of adult animals. cross-reactions were fo ...19883132993
[macromutation and evolution: the fixation of goldschmidt's macromutations as species and genus traits. hairlessness mutations in mammals].a brief survey of the development of concepts on the role of macromutations in evolution is given. contrary to iu. a. filipchenko (1926, 1927), who introduced the "micro- and macromutation" terms and believed that regularities of macroevolution could not be reduced to microevolutionary processes, the majority of "synthetists" explained any form of evolution by changes in allele frequencies. from the studies of drosophila homoeotic mutants r. goldschmidt (1940) developed the concept of "hopeful m ...19883049233
Otariodibacter oris gen. nov., sp. nov., a new member of the family Pasteurellaceae isolated from the oral cavity of pinnipeds.A total of 27 bacterial isolates from California sea lions and a walrus tentatively classified with the family Pasteurellaceae were further characterized by geno- and phenotypic tests. Phylogenetic analysis of partial 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequences showed that the isolates investigated formed a monophyletic group, tentatively designated Bisgaard taxon 57. According to 16S rRNA gene sequence, the closest related validly named species was Bisgaardia hudsonensis with 95 % similarity and the close ...201122199211
new calicivirus isolates from feces of walrus (odobenus rosmarus). 19836887446
occurrence of pasteurellaceae bacteria in the oral cavity of selected marine mammal species.the occurrence of bacteria belonging to pasteurellaceae in the oral cavity of captive marine mammals was investigated using culture and subsequent geno- and phenotypic characterization and phylogenetic analyses. a total of 89 bacterial isolates from pinnipeds tentatively classified with the family pasteurellaceae were further characterized by phylogenetic analysis of rpob gene sequences, which showed that the isolates investigated formed five distinct groups. four strains from california sea lio ...201223272350
trichinosis in the canadian arctic: report of five outbreaks and a new clinical syndrome.trichinosis is a serious but understudied medical problem in the arctic. forty-nine consecutive cases in the inuit population of northeastern canada are described. most developed the disease after eating raw walrus, and the clinical presentation of most of these cases differed from previously reported descriptions of classic trichinosis due to trichinella spiralis. unlike the classic syndrome of a brief period of diarrhea followed by fever, myalgia, muscle weakness, and edema, the most common pr ...19892760502
recent climate change in the arctic and its impact on contaminant pathways and interpretation of temporal trend data.the arctic has undergone dramatic change during the past decade. the observed changes include atmospheric sea-level pressure, wind fields, sea-ice drift, ice cover, length of melt season, change in precipitation patterns, change in hydrology and change in ocean currents and watermass distribution. it is likely that these primary changes have altered the carbon cycle and biological systems, but the difficulty of observing these together with sporadic, incomplete time series makes it difficult to ...200515866268
comparison of the convolutions of the seals and walrus with those of the carnivora, and of apes and man. 188817231763
outbreak of trichinellosis associated with consumption of game meat in west greenland.the inuit population of the arctic has always been at risk of acquiring trichinellosis and severe outbreaks have been recorded in alaska and canada. in west greenland, a number of large outbreaks took place during the 1940s and 1950s; they involved total 420 cases including 37 deaths. since then only sporadic cases have been reported. here, we describe an outbreak of infection with trichinella spp. after consumption of infected meat presumably from walrus or polar bear caught in western greenlan ...200516023294
the significance of the north water polynya to arctic top predators.the north water polynya (~76°n to 79°n and 70°w to 80°w) is known to be an important habitat for several species of marine mammals and sea birds. for millennia, it has provided the basis for subsistence hunting and human presence in the northernmost part of baffin bay. the abundance of air-breathing top predators also represents a potential source of nutrient cycling that maintains primary production. in this study, aerial surveys conducted in 2009 and 2010 were used for the first time to map th ...201223271401
temporal and spatial trends of persistent organochlorines in greenland walrus (odobenus rosmarus rosmarus).persistent organochlorines [pcbs, ddt and chlordane related compounds, dieldrin, toxaphene, hexachlorocyclohexane (hch), chlorobenzenes] were determined in blubber of atlantic walrus (odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) in 1978 and 1988 from the avanersuaq (thule) region of north-west greenland and in 1989 from ittoqqortoormiit (scoresbysund) in east greenland. lowest concentrations of organochlorines (ocs) were found in the samples from the avanersuaq region while much higher levels of all compounds, e ...200010682357
biodegradation of ivory (natural apatite): possible involvement of fungal activity in biodeterioration of the lewis chessmen.fungal biodeterioration of ivory was investigated with in vitro inoculation of samples obtained from boar and walrus tusks with the fungi aspergillus niger and serpula himantioides, species of known geoactive abilities. a combination of light and scanning electron microscopy together with associated analytical techniques was used to characterize fungal interactions with the ivory, including changes in ivory composition, dissolution and tunnelling, and the formation of new biominerals. the resear ...201323157656
the occurrence and ecology of trichinella in marine mammals.trichinella in marine mammals has a circumpolar arctic distribution and a narrow range of host species. it is commonly found in polar bears (ursus maritimus), and increasingly in walruses (odobenus rosmarus) where it presents a significant zoonotic hazard. this has resulted in the implementation of food safety programs in some arctic communities to test harvested walrus meat for trichinella larvae prior to consumption. trichinella has been reported infrequently in bearded seals (erignathus barba ...200011099845
viral and bacterial serology of six free-ranging bearded seals erignathus barbatus.serum or heparinized plasma samples were obtained from 3 male (2 adult and 1 weaned calf) and 3 adult female free-ranging bearded seals erignathus barbatus in may of 1994, 1995, or 1996. blood samples were obtained from animals taken in subsistence hunts near st. lawrence island, alaska and screened for antibodies to a suite of bacteria and viruses potentially pathogenic for pinnipeds and/or humans. no samples had detectable antibodies to brucella spp., phocine distemper virus, influenza a virus ...200818828565
arctic marine mammals and climate change: impacts and resilience.evolutionary selection has refined the life histories of seven species (three cetacean [narwhal, beluga, and bowhead whales], three pinniped [walrus, ringed, and bearded seals], and the polar bear) to spatial and temporal domains influenced by the seasonal extremes and variability of sea ice, temperature, and day length that define the arctic. recent changes in arctic climate may challenge the adaptive capability of these species. nine other species (five cetacean [fin, humpback, minke, gray, an ...200818494369
regional variability in food availability for arctic marine mammals.this review provides an overview of prey preferences of seven core arctic marine mammal species (amm) and four non-core species on a pan-arctic scale with regional examples. arctic marine mammal species exploit prey resources close to the sea ice, in the water column, and at the sea floor, including lipid-rich pelagic and benthic crustaceans and pelagic and ice-associated schooling fishes such as capelin and arctic cod. prey preferred by individual species range from cephalopods and benthic biva ...200818494364
serosurvey for toxoplasma gondii in arctic foxes and possible sources of infection in the high arctic of svalbard.samples (blood or tissue fluid) from 594 arctic foxes (alopex lagopus), 390 svalbard reindeer (rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus), 361 sibling voles (microtus rossiaemeridionalis), 17 walruses (odobenus rosmarus), 149 barnacle geese (branta leucopsis), 58 kittiwakes (rissa tridactyla), and 27 glaucous gulls (larus hyperboreus) from svalbard and nearby waters were assayed for antibodies against toxoplasma gondii using a direct agglutination test. the proportion of seropositive animals was 43% in ar ...200717950534
structure of ivory.profiles with all orientations have been used to visualize the 3d structure of ivory from tusks of elephant, mammoth, walrus, hippopotamus, pig (bush, boar, and warthog), sperm whale, killer whale, and narwhal. polished, forming, fractured, aged, and stained surfaces were prepared for microscopy using epi-illumination. tusks have a minor peripheral component, the cementum, a soft derivative of the enamel layer, and a main core of dentine=ivory. the dentine is composed of a matrix of particles 5- ...200818157860
137cs and 210po in pacific walrus and bearded seal from st. lawrence island, alaska.the activity concentration of cesium-137 ((137)cs) and naturally-occurring polonium-210 ((210)po) were measured in the muscle tissue, kidney and liver of pacific walrus (odobenus rosmarus divergens) and bearded seal (erignathus barbatus) collected by native hunters from the bering sea during may 1996. the mean (137)cs concentrations in muscle, liver and kidney of pacific walrus were 0.07, 0.09 and 0.07 bq kg(-1) (n=5, wet weight), respectively, and 0.17, 0.10, and 0.17 bq kg(-1) (n=2, wet weight ...200818371988
toxoplasmosis in captive dolphins (tursiops truncatus) and walrus (odobenus rosmarus).toxoplasma gondii infection in marine mammals is intriguing and indicative of contamination of the ocean environment and coastal waters with oocysts. toxoplasma gondii infection was detected in captive marine mammals at a sea aquarium in canada. antibodies to t. gondii were found in all 7 bottlenose dolphins (tursiops truncatus) tested. two of these dolphins, as well as a walrus (odobenus rosmarus) at the facility, died. encephalitis and t. gondii tissue cysts were identified in histological sec ...200919245284
from science to action and from action to science: the nunavik trichinellosis prevention program.during the 1980s, walrus-meat consumption caused infections with the parasite trichinella nativa in nunavik inhabitants. in response to these events, stakeholders set up the community-based nunavik trichinellosis prevention program (ntpp). the objectives of the present communication are to review the ntpp, describe how science and action were interwoven in its development and identify its assets and limitations. study design. descriptive study.201222789519
antidog igg secondary antibody successfully detects igg in a variety of aquatic mammals.serological tests play an important role in the detection of wildlife diseases. however, while there are many commercial assays and reagents available for domestic species, there is a need to develop efficient serological assays for wildlife. in recent years, marine mammals have represented a wildlife group with emerging infectious diseases, such as influenza, brucellosis, and leptospirosis. however, with the exception of disease-agent-specific assays or functional assays, few reports describe t ...201628080908
proteolytic specificity of the neutral zinc proteinase from bacillus mesentericus strain 76 determined by digestion of an alpha-globin chain.the proteolytic specificity of the neutral zinc proteinase from bacillus mesentericus strain 76 (mcp 76)/bacillus subtilis was determined by using the alpha-chain of walrus hemoglobin as substrate. the resulting peptides were fractionated by gel filtration and than isolated by reversed-phase hplc. the peptides were identified on the basis of their amino-acid compositions and aligned with the known sequence of the walrus alpha-chain. the proteolytic specificity of mcp 76, deduced from the experim ...19892514721
occurrence and genotypic analysis of trichinella species in alaska marine-associated mammals of the bering and chukchi seas.the zoonotic parasite trichinella is the causative agent of trichinellosis outbreaks in the circumpolar arctic. subsistence communities are particularly prone to trichinellosis due to traditional meat preparation methods and regional presence of a freeze-tolerant trichinella species (trichinella nativa). this study is the first application of a validated artificial digestion method in determining incidence of trichinella sp. in alaskan mammals. infection incidence in pinniped species (erignathus ...201424373515
sustaining a healthy human-walrus relationship in a dynamic environment: challenges for comanagement.native communities in the bering and chukchi seas have long relied on walrus for a multitude of nutritional, social, and cultural needs. impacts to walrus in the past have resulted in profound consequences to these communities. for example, on st. lawrence island during the 1878-1880 "great famine" as many as 2000 people (> 90% of the island's population) starved after the walrus herds were decimated by yankee whalers. loss of walrus was further confounded by a wave of fatal contagion and diffic ...200818494368
Use of Human Chorionic Gondadotropoin in a Male Pacific Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) to Induce Rut and Achieve a Pregnancy in a Nulliparous Female.Walrus in United States zoos have a very low reproductive rate of 11 births in 80 years, and little is known about Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) reproductive biology. To address this, we initiated a program in which detailed biological data were recorded on captive walrus. As part of a seven year study, one male and one female 16-year-old captive Pacific walrus were carefully monitored with weekly serum hormone analysis, daily glans penis smears for spermatozoa, and abdominal ult ...201122207706
the ancestral carnivore karyotype as substantiated by comparative chromosome painting of three pinnipeds, the walrus, the steller sea lion and the baikal seal (pinnipedia, carnivora).karyotype evolution in carnivora is thoroughly studied by classical and molecular cytogenetics and supplemented by reconstructions of ancestral carnivora karyotype (ack). however chromosome painting information from two pinniped families (odobenidae and otariidae) is noticeably missing. we report on the construction of the comparative chromosome map for species from each of the three pinniped families: the walrus (odobenus rosmarus, odobenidae-monotypic family), near threatened steller sea lion ...201626821159
genomic characterization of novel marine vesiviruses from steller sea lions (eumetopias jubatus) from alaska.marine vesiviruses were isolated in cell culture from oral and rectal swabs and vesicular fluid from alaskan steller sea lions (ssl; eumetopias jubatus). further characterization by rt-pcr, complete genomic sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses indicated that these viruses are most closely related to the marine vesiviruses, but are distinct viruses and represent two novel genotypes. the complete genome of these two ssl isolates was sequenced after cloning their viral cdna. the genomes were found ...200818765261
whence the red panda?the evolutionary history of the red panda (ailurus fulgens) plays a pivotal role in the higher-level phylogeny of the "bear-like" arctoid carnivoran mammals. characters from morphology and molecules have provided inconsistent evidence for placement of the red panda. whereas it certainly is an arctoid, there has been major controversy about whether it should be placed with the bears (ursids), ursids plus pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, walrus), raccoons (procyonids), musteloids (raccoons plus weasel ...200011083933
using exploratory factor analysis of ffq data to identify dietary patterns among yup'ik ffq developed by the center for alaska native health research for studies in yup'ik people includes market foods and subsistence foods such as moose, seal, waterfowl and salmon that may be related to disease risk. because the ffq contains >100 food items, we sought to characterize dietary patterns more simply for use in ongoing pharmacogenomics studies.201423290469
molecular phylogeny of the arctoidea (carnivora): effect of missing data on supertree and supermatrix analyses of multiple gene data sets.phylogenetic relationships of 79 caniform carnivores were addressed based on four nuclear sequence-tagged sites (sts) and one nuclear exon, irbp, using both supertree and supermatrix analyses. we recovered the three major arctoid lineages, ursidae, pinnipedia, and musteloidea, as monophyletic, with ursidae (bears) strongly supported as the basal arctoid lineage. within pinnipedia, phocidae (true seals) were sister to the otaroidea [otariidae (fur seals and sea lions) and odobenidae (walrus)]. ph ...200616814570
a colostrum trypsin inhibitor gene expressed in the cape fur seal mammary gland during lactation.the colostrum trypsin inhibitor (cti) gene and transcript were cloned from the cape fur seal mammary gland and cti identified by in silico analysis of the pacific walrus and polar bear genomes (order carnivora), and in marine and terrestrial mammals of the orders cetartiodactyla (yak, whales, camel) and perissodactyla (white rhinoceros). unexpectedly, weddell seal cti was predicted to be a pseudogene. cape fur seal cti was expressed in the mammary gland of a pregnant multiparous seal, but not in ...201626639991
enantioselective bioaccumulation of hexabromocyclododecane and congener-specific accumulation of brominated diphenyl ethers in an eastern canadian arctic marine food web.the extent of trophic transfer of the three diastereoisomers of hexabromocyclododecane (hbcd) and seven brominated diphenyl ether (bde) congeners was examined in components of an arctic marine food web from eastern canada. alpha and gamma-hbcd diastereoisomers were detected in all species and total (sigma) hbcd concentrations ranged from 0.6 +/- 0.2 pg/g (geometric mean +/- 1 x standard error (se), lipid weight (lw)) in arctic cod to 3.9 +/- 0.9 ng/g (lw) in narwhal. beta-hbcd was below method d ...200818546701
islands in the sea: extreme female natal site fidelity in the australian sea lion, neophoca cinerea.pinnipeds (seals, fur seals, sea lions and walrus) form large breeding aggregations with females often remaining faithful to a natal site or area. in these cases, females are philopatric to regional areas on broad geographical scales of hundreds to thousands of kilometers. an investigation of variation in a control region sequence of mtdna in the australian sea lion (neophoca cinerea) has shown a case of extreme female natal site fidelity that has resulted in almost fixed population differentiat ...200818042512
enamel ultrastructure of fossil and modern pinnipeds: evaluating hypotheses of feeding adaptations in the extinct walrus pelagiarctos.this study aimed to assess the enamel ultrastructure in modern otariid pinnipeds and in the extinct walrus pelagiarctos. teeth of the new zealand fur seal (arctocephalus forsteri), sea lion (phocarctos hookeri), and fossil walrus pelagiarctos thomasi were embedded, sectioned, etched, and analyzed via scanning electron microscopy. the enamel of nz otariids and pelagiarctos was prismatic and moderately thick, measuring 150-450 μm on average. it consisted of transversely oriented hunter-schreger ba ...201627142598
serum chemistry reference values in free-ranging north atlantic male walruses (odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) from the svalbard archipelago.information regarding health and disease is limited for walruses, a keystone species in arctic marine ecosystems. serum chemistry analysis is a useful clinical tool for the health assessment of walruses, but only a few captive pacific walruses have been evaluated.200919473331
a draft fur seal genome provides insights into factors affecting snp validation and how to mitigate them.custom genotyping arrays provide a flexible and accurate means of genotyping single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps) in a large number of individuals of essentially any organism. however, validation rates, defined as the proportion of putative snps that are verified to be polymorphic in a population, are often very low. a number of potential causes of assay failure have been identified, but none have been explored systematically. in particular, as snps are often developed from transcriptomes, par ...201626683564
novel sound production through contingency learning in the pacific walrus (odobenus rosmarus divergens).walruses (odobenus rosmarus) are highly vocal amphibious mammals with a range of anatomical specializations that can provide plasticity to their sound emissions. the objective of this descriptive study was to determine whether contingency learning could be used to increase variability and induce novelty in the acoustic behavior of walruses. the subjects were two twelve-year-old captive walruses, a male and a female that had previously been conditioned using food reinforcement to produce several ...200818038276
occurrence of can-sines and intron sequence evolution supports robust phylogeny of pinniped carnivores and their terrestrial relatives.investigating the dog genome we found 178965 introns with a moderate length of 200-1000 bp. a screening of these sequences against 23 different repeat libraries to find insertions of short interspersed elements (sines) detected 45276 sines. virtually all of these sines (98%) belong to the trna-derived can-sine family. can-sines arose about 55 million years ago before carnivora split into two basal groups, the caniformia (dog-like carnivores) and the feliformia (cat-like carnivores). genome compa ...200919563867
trichinellosis surveillance - united states, 2002-2007.trichinellosis is a parasitic disease caused by roundworms of the trichinella genus. humans are incidental hosts who become infected after ingestion of raw or undercooked meat containing encysted larvae of trichinella spp. common signs and symptoms of trichinellosis include eosinophilia, abdominal pain, fever, periorbital edema, and myalgia. national surveillance has documented a decline in the reported incidence of trichinellosis in the united states since 1947, the first year nationwide data w ...200919959986
contamination status and accumulation characteristics of heavy metals and arsenic in five seabird species from the central bering sea.seabirds are marine top predators and accumulate high levels of metals and metalloids in their tissues. contamination by metals in the highly productive offshore region has become a matter of public concern. it is home to 80% of the seabird population in the usa, 95% of northern fur seals (callorhinus ursinus), and major populations of steller sea lions (eumetopias jubatus), walruses (odobenus rosmarus) and whales. here, the concentrations of eight heavy metals (hg, cd, cr, co, ni, cu, zn and pb ...201728302954
dogs, cats, and kin: a molecular species-level phylogeny of carnivora.phylogenies underpin comparative biology as high-utility tools to test evolutionary and biogeographic hypotheses, inform on conservation strategies, and reveal the age and evolutionary histories of traits and lineages. as tools, most powerful are those phylogenies that contain all, or nearly all, of the taxa of a given group. despite their obvious utility, such phylogenies, other than summary 'supertrees', are currently lacking for most mammalian orders, including the order carnivora. carnivora ...201019900567
trichinellosis acquired in nunavut, canada in september 2009: meat from grizzly bear suspected.five cases of trichinellosis with onset of symptoms in september 2009, were reported in france, and were probably linked to the consumption of meat from a grizzly bear in cambridge bay in nunavut, canada. travellers should be aware of the risks of eating raw or rare meat products in arctic regions, particularly game meat such as bear or walrus meat.200919941776
carnivora: the primary structure of the pacific walrus (odobenus rosmarus divergens, pinnipedia) hemoglobin.the primary structure of the alpha- and beta-chains of the hemoglobin from the pacific walrus (odobenus rosmarus divergens, pinnipedia) is presented. sequence analysis revealed only one hemoglobin component whereas two bands were found in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. the globin chains were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography and the sequences determined by automatic liquid- and gas-phase sequencing of the chains and their tryptic peptides. the alpha-chains show 20 and the ...19892706084
immunohistochemical characterization of selected cell markers for the detection of hematopoietic cells in formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded lymphoid tissues of harbor seals (phoca vitulina) and walruses (odobenus rosmarus rosmarus).to facilitate a detailed investigation of pinniped lymphoid organs, 30 monoclonal antibodies (mab) as well as eight polyclonal antibodies (pab) of different species specificities directed against cell antigens of the hematopoietic system were tested for immunohistochemical cross-reactivity on formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded tissues of harbor seals (phoca vitulina) and a walrus (odobenus rosmarus rosmarus). six monoclonal and eight polyclonal antibodies showed specific immunoreactivities. l ...201020566219
the evolution of arctic marine mammals.this review deals only with the evolutionary history of core arctic marine mammals: polar bear (ursus maritimus), walrus (odobenus rosmarus), bearded seal (erignathus barbatus), harp seal (pagophilus groenlandica), ringed seal (phoca hispida), bowhead whale (balaena mysticetus), white whale (delphinapterus leucas), and narwhal (monodon monoceras). sections on the evolutionary background of pinnipeds and whales help to provide a better perspective on these core species. polar bears stemmed from b ...200818494361
thermal reference points as an index for monitoring body temperature in marine mammals.monitoring body temperature is essential in veterinary care as minor variations may indicate dysfunction. rectal temperature is widely used as a proxy for body temperature, but measuring it requires special equipment, training or restraining, and it potentially stresses animals. infrared thermography is an alternative that reduces handling stress, is safer for technicians and works well for untrained animals. this study analysed thermal reference points in five marine mammal species: bottlenose ...201526338544
radiocaesium (137cs) in marine mammals from svalbard, the barents sea and the north greenland sea.specific activities of the anthropogenic radionuclide, 137cs, were determined in marine mammals from svalbard and the barents and north greenland seas. muscle samples were collected from 12 polar bears, 15 ringed seals, 10 hooded seals, 7 bearded seals, 14 harp seals, one walrus, one white whale and one blue whale in the period 2000-2003. the mean concentrations (+/-sd) of 137cs were: 0.72+/-0.62 bq/kg wet weight (w.w.) for polar bears; 0.49+/-0.07 bq/kg w.w. for ringed seals; 0.25+/-0.10 bq/kg ...200616154620
organochlorine and metal contaminants in traditional foods from st. lawrence island, alaska.marine mammals (bowhead whale, walrus, and various seals) constitute the major component of the diet of the yupik people of st. lawrence island, alaska. st. lawrence island residents have higher serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (pcb) than in the general u.s. population. in order to determine potential sources, traditional food samples were collected from 2004 to 2009 and analyzed for pcbs, three chlorinated pesticides, and seven heavy metals (mercury, copper, zinc, arsenic, sele ...201121797772
a morbillivirus antibody survey of atlantic walrus, narwhal and beluga in canada.a longitudinal serologic survey was conducted for morbillivirus antibodies in atlantic walruses (odobenus rosmarus rosmarus), narwhal (monodon monoceros), and beluga (delphinapterus leucas) from the northwest territories, nunavut and the st. lawrence estuary (canada). sixty-five of 131 (50%) walruses sampled between 1984 and 1993 had detectable morbillivirus neutralizing antibodies. positive walrus were identified from four of five arctic sampling sites, to as far back as 1984. prevalence of mor ...200010941737
evolutionary conservation in genes underlying human psychiatric disorders.many psychiatric diseases observed in humans have tenuous or absent analogs in other species. most notable among these are schizophrenia and autism. one hypothesis has posited that these diseases have arisen as a consequence of human brain evolution, for example, that the same processes that led to advances in cognition, language, and executive function also resulted in novel diseases in humans when dysfunctional. here, the molecular evolution of the protein-coding regions of genes associated wi ...201424834046
bioaccumulation of persistent organochlorine pesticides (ocps) by gray whale and pacific walrus from the western part of the bering sea.the feeding habits of a gray whale (eschrichtius robustus) and a pacific walrus (odobenus rosmarus divergens), caught from the western bering sea in the summers of 2010 and 2011, have been studied, and concentration of persistent organochlorine pesticides (ocps) in their organs determined. the total ocp concentration (∑hch+∑ddt) in muscles and liver of the gray whales varies from 297 to 3581 and from 769 to 13,808 ng/g lipids, respectively. the total ocp concentration (∑hch+∑ddt) in muscles and ...201526169228
the insular cortex: a review.the human insular cortex forms a distinct, but entirely hidden lobe, situated in the depth of the sylvian fissure. here, we first review the recent literature on the connectivity and the functions of this structure. it appears that this small lobe, taking up less than 2% of the total cortical surface area, receives afferents from some sensory thalamic nuclei, is (mostly reciprocally) connected with the amygdala and with many limbic and association cortical areas, and is implicated in an astonish ...201222230626
bioindicators of organochlorine pesticides in the sea of okhotsk and the western bering sea.organochlorine pesticides (ocps), such as hchs and ddts, are still used as pesticides in the southern hemisphere and can reach the north pacific due to long range atmospheric transfer. marine mammals (pacific walrus odobenus rosmarus divergens, gray whale eschrichtius robustus), the seabirds (pacific gull larus schistisagus, crested auklet aethia cristatella, auklet crumb aethia pusilla, northern fulmar fulmarus glacialis, and grey petrel oceanodroma furcata) and pacific salmon (pink oncorhynchu ...201728528412
spatial and temporal trends and effects of contaminants in the canadian arctic marine ecosystem: a review.recent studies have added substantially to our knowledge of spatial and temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals in the canadian arctic marine ecosystem. this paper reviews the current state of knowledge of contaminants in marine biota in the canadian arctic and where possible, discusses biological effects. the geographic coverage of information on contaminants such as persistent organochlorines (ocs) (pcbs, ddt- and chlordane-related compounds, hexachlorocyclohexanes, t ...199910466228
a comparison of blood nitric oxide metabolites and hemoglobin functional properties among diving mammals.the ability of marine mammals to hunt prey at depth is known to rely on enhanced oxygen stores and on selective distribution of blood flow, but the molecular mechanisms regulating blood flow and oxygen transport remain unresolved. to investigate the molecular mechanisms that may be important in regulating blood flow, we measured concentration of nitrite and s-nitrosothiols (sno), two metabolites of the vasodilator nitric oxide (no), in the blood of 5 species of marine mammals differing in their ...201727993597
albicetus oxymycterus, a new generic name and redescription of a basal physeteroid (mammalia, cetacea) from the miocene of california, and the evolution of body size in sperm sperm whales are represented by only three species (physeter macrocephalus, kogia breviceps and kogia sima), but their fossil record provides evidence of an ecologically diverse array of different forms, including morphologies and body sizes without analog among living physeteroids. here we provide a redescription of ontocetus oxymycterus, a large but incomplete fossil sperm whale specimen from the middle miocene monterey formation of california, described by remington kellogg in 1925. th ...201526651027
effect of climate change on runoff of campylobacter and cryptosporidium from land to surface water.faeces originating from wildlife, domestic animals or manure-fertilized fields, is considered an important source of zoonotic pathogens to which people may be exposed by, for instance, bathing or drinking-water consumption. an increase in runoff, and associated wash-off of animal faeces from fields, is assumed to contribute to the increase of disease outbreaks during periods of high precipitation. climate change is expected to increase winter precipitation and extreme precipitation events during ...201626986498
pinniped phylogeny and a new hypothesis for their origin and dispersal.the relationships and the zoogeography of the three extant pinniped families, otariidae (sea lions and fur seals), odobenidae (one extant species, the walrus), and phocidae (true seals), have been contentious. here, we address these topics in a molecular study that includes all extant species of true seals and sea lions, four fur seals and the walrus. contrary to prevailing morphological views the analyses conclusively showed monophyletic pinnipedia with a basal split between otarioidea (otariid ...200616815048
first molecular detection and characterization of herpesvirus and poxvirus in a pacific walrus (odobenus rosmarus divergens).herpesvirus and poxvirus can infect a wide range of species: herpesvirus genetic material has been detected and amplified in five species of the superfamily pinnipedia; poxvirus genetic material, in eight species of pinnipedia. to date, however, genetic material of these viruses has not been detected in walrus (odobenus rosmarus), another marine mammal of the pinnipedia clade, even though anti-herpesvirus antibodies have been detected in these animals.201425527906
chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in arctic marine 1976, the presence of chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants (chcs) had been demonstrated in fur seal (callorhinus ursinus), ringed seal (phoca hispida), hooded seal (cystophora cristata), bearded seal (erignathus barbatus), walrus (obdobenus rosmarus divergens), beluga (delphinapterus leucas), porpoise (phocoena phocoena) and polar bear (ursus maritimus) in various parts of the arctic. in spite of this early interest, very little subsequent research on contaminants in arctic marine mammals was ...19947973601
analysis of zp1 gene reveals differences in zona pellucida composition in carnivores.the zona pellucida (zp) is an extracellular envelope that surrounds mammalian oocytes. this coat participates in the interaction between gametes, induction of the acrosome reaction, block of polyspermy and protection of the oviductal embryo. previous studies suggested that carnivore zp was formed by three glycoproteins (zp2, zp3 and zp4), with zp1 being a pseudogene. however, a recent study in the cat found that all four proteins were expressed. in the present study, in silico and molecular anal ...201728679462
from science to action and from action to science: the nunavik trichinellosis prevention program.during the 1980s, walrus-meat consumption caused infections with the parasite trichinella nativa in nunavik inhabitants. in response to these events, stakeholders set up the community-based nunavik trichinellosis prevention program (ntpp). the objectives of the present communication are to review the ntpp, describe how science and action were interwoven in its development and identify its assets and limitations.201228417730
nasal mites (acari:halarachnidae) in the spotted seal, phoca largha pallas, and other pinnipeds of alaskan waters.the nasal passages of 349 pinnipeds of seven species were examined for halarachnid mites. each of seven steller sea lions (eumetopias jubatus), 75 of 99 harbor seals (phoca vitulina), and four of 71 spotted seals (p. largha) were infected, but none of 28 walruses (odobenus rosmarus), 43 ringed seals (phoca hispida), 58 ribbon seals (p. fasciata), and 43 bearded seals (erignathus barbatus) was infected. the sea lions harbored orthohalarachne attenuata (banks, 1910) and o. diminuata (doetschman, 1 ...19827097872
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