characterization of two new serotypes of san miguel sea lion virus.two new virus isolates, one from a california sea lion (zalophus californianus californianus) and the other from a northern fur seal (callorhinus ursinus) were partially characterized. their physicochemical characteristics were similar to those of vesicular exanthema of swine virus (vesv) and san miguel sea lion virus (smsv). the virion morphology was in both instances typically calicivirus. on the basis of this and the serum cross-neutralization testing, these isolates were classed as two new t ...197767101
muscle metabolic profiles and fiber-type composition in some marine mammals.1. hexokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, 3-hydroxyacyl-coa dehydrogenase, and malate dehydrogenase activities as well as fiber type composition were determined in skeletal muscles of the california sea lion (zalophus californianus), the sea otter (enhydra lutris), and the pacific white-sided dolphin (lagenorhynchus obliquidens). 2. the subcutaneous muscle of the sea lion had intermediate glycolytic and oxidative enzyme activities. 3. the locomotory muscles examined in the otter and porpoise did not ...1978318281
sucrase and cellular development.the cellular changes that take place as the intestinal cell migrates from crypt to villus are morphologically and biochemically remarkable. it is fortunate that many of these phenomena can be delineated by following enzymic activities. sucrase-isomaltase is a particularly fascinating enzyme complex because it is a marker of the differentiated cell. sucrase is inducible with steroids and protected by the substrate sucrose. purified enzyme can be used to stimulate production of specific antibodies ...1979396132
plasma biochemical values of clinically-normal australian sea lions (neophoca cinerea).seventeen biochemical constituents were assayed in the blood plasma of clinically-normal australian sea lions (neophoca cinerea). the sea lions formed part of a breeding colony which inhabits the southern coast of kangaroo island, south australia. little variation was found in any of the values obtained from animals of different age and sex. the results were compared with values published for california sea lions (zalophus californianus), northern fur seals (callorhinus ursinus), harbor seals (p ...1979459034
electrostatic effects in myoglobin. application of the modified tanford-kirkwood theory to myoglobins from horse, california grey whale, harbor seal, and california sea lion.the modified tanford-kirkwood electrostatic theory (shire et al., 1974a) was applied to ferrimyoglobins from the following animal species: sperm whale (physeter catodon), horse, california grey whale (eschrichtius gibbosus), harbor seal (phoca vitulina), and california sea lion (zalophus californianus). computations were made of the overall hydrogen ion titration curves of the proteins, and of ph and ionic strength variations of ionization equilibria for individual groups in the protein, with pa ...1975235950
viruses and virus diseases of marine mammals.poxvirus and several serotypes of calicivirus cause recognizable disease in marine mammals. pox lesions in pinnipeds are raised and proliferative and are seen most frequently after confinement in captivity. in cetaceans, a poxvirus is associated with a much more benign and chronic lesion called a "tattoo." numerous caliciviruses of differing antigenic types have been isolated from vesicular lesions and aborted fetuses of northern fur seals and california sea lions as well as from clinically norm ...1979230170
a new calicivirus isolated from a marine mammal.a new serotype of calicivirus, designated as san miguel sea lion virus type 6 (smsv-6), was isolated from vesicular lesions on the flipper of a california sea lion pup. serologic studies show that smsv-6 neutralizing antibodies (sn) occur frequently among california sea lions and occasionally among northern fur seals. feral swine, 1- to 6-week elephant seal pups and grey whales tested negative for smsv-6 antibody.1979227346
acute viral hepatitis in california sea lions.acute viral hepatitis was diagnosed in five california sea lions (zalophus californianus) stranded along the los angeles coast. light microscopy revealed large nuclear inclusion bodies in hepatocytes. electron microscopy provided evidence that these inclusion bodies were composed of adenovirus-like virions. attempts to grow the virus in cell culture systems were unsuccessful.1979521373
salmonellae in feral pinnipeds off the southern california coast.rectal swabs were collected from 90 northern fur seal (callorhinus ursinus) and 50 california sea lion (zalophus californianus) pups on san miguel island for salmonella screening. three serotypes (newport, heidelberg, and oranienburg) were recovered from 33% of the fur seals and 40% of the sea lions.1979522219
parasites and associated pathology observed in pinnipeds stranded along the oregon coast.forty-two seals and sea lions found dead along the oregon coast were examined for parasites and associated pathology. nematode infections of the lung and/or gastrointestinal tract were the primary cause of death in 5 of 42 animals examined. new distribution records were established for pricetrema zalophi and zalophotrema hepaticum. new host records include z. hepaticum and diphyllobothrium cordatum in the steller's sea lion (eumetopias jubatus); nanophyetus salmincola in the california sea lion ...1978567698
isolation of edwardsiella tarda from three oregon sea mammals.edwardsiella tarda was isolated from the peritoneal exudate of a steller's sea lion (eumetopias jubata) with peritonitis resulting from a perforating colonic ulcer; from the liver of a harbor porpoise (phocena phocena) with metritis and peritonitis sequela to dystocia; and from the liver of a california sea lion (zalophus californianus) with peritonitis following fracture and necrosis of a lumbar vertebrae. these findings indicate e. tarda is a common opportunistic invader in sick or injured mar ...1978691128
diethylcarbamazine citrate for prevention of heartworm (dirofilaria immitis) in the california sea lion (zalophus californianus). 1977585265
isolation of san miguel sea lion virus from samples of an animal food product produced from northern fur seal (callorhinus ursinus) carcasses.a virus was isolated from california sea lions (zalophus californianus californianus) and northern fur seals (callorhinus ursinus) in 1972. it was later named san miguel sea lion virus (smsv). state and federal livestock disease control agencies became concerned, because smsv was found to be indistinguishable from vesicular exanthema of swine virus and to cause (in laboratory trials) clinical signs in swine similar to those produced by vesicular exanthema of swine virus. ground carcasses of nort ...1978629435
prevalence of vesicular exanthema of swine antibodies among feral mammals associated with the southern california coastal zones.serum-neutralizing antibodies to both vesicular exanthema of swine virus (vesv) and san miguel sea lion virus (smsv) were found in a number of animal species having an association with the southern california coastal zones. california sea lions (zalophus californianus) had antibodies to 9 vesv types (a48, c52, d53, e54, f54, g55, i55, j56, and k56). fur seals (callorhinus ursinus) and elephant seal pups (mirounga angustirostris) were tested for antibodies to 6 vesv types and all were negative. c ...1978629463
nodular suppurative cutaneous cellulitis in a galapagos sea lion.necropsy was performed on a sea lion (zalophus californianus wollebaeki), sacrificed in an advanced (pre-terminal) stage of disease, possibly represenatative of the galapagos epizootic of 1970-71. predominant features of the disease were nonumbilicated multiple suppurative cutaneous nodules, debilitation and loss of motor power. histopathological studies of the skin lesions disclosed suppurative cellulitis, with leucocytic invasion extending, in some instances, to all layers of the epidermis. ps ...1975807749
premature parturition in the california sea lion.twenty percent of the california sea lion pups born on san miguel island die due to premature parturition. specimens collected from premature-partus animals resulted in recovery of a virus, san miguel sea lion virus, indistinguishable from vesicular exanthema of swine virus, and leptospira pomona from some of the premature cows and pups. the age range of 10 females delivering healthy pups in june was 10-14 years. with one exception, the ages in 10 aborting females was 6-8 years. the p,p'-dde le ...1976815567
hazards of disease transfer from marine mammals to land mammals: review and recent a 5-year study (1972-1977) of microbial agents isolated from both clinically normal and diseased marine mammals, it was shown that certain disease agents are widespread in a diversity of ocean populations and that some are also transmissible to a number of terrestrial mammal species. leptospira interrogans serovar pomona has been isolated repeatedly from 2 species of pinnipeds (zalophus californianus califonianus and callorhinus ursinus). some of the more important bacterial pathogens for lan ...1978738931
new marine calicivirus serotype infective for swine.a new serotype of calicivirus was isolated from california sea lions (zalophus californianus) with severe vesicular disease. neutralizing antibodies were found in 27 of 82 (32.9%) serum samples from california sea lions and in 15 of 146 (10.3%) serum samples from steller sea lions (eumetopias jubatus) tested. the seropositive animals were widely dispersed along the margins of the eastern pacific basin, from the bering sea to the santa barbara channel. seropositive samples were found from as earl ...19902167030
selenium toxicosis in three california sea lions (zalophus californianus).selenium poisoning occurs worldwide in nearly all domestic animals. acute selenium poisoning is associated with feeding high levels or injecting excessive amounts of selenium and is usually fatal. the acute poisoning may cause gastrointestinal disturbance, muscle weakness, depression of the central nervous system, prostration and death (1-2). chronic selenium poisoning in cattle, sheep and horses may result from the consumption of seleniferous plants over an extended period of time. chronic sele ...19892617840
vesicular exanthema of swine.vesicular exanthema of swine (ves) was first recognized in 1932. at the time, eradication measures and, later, quarantine procedures were instituted and extension of the disease to surrounding farms appeared to have been prevented. between 1932 and 1936, however, seemingly unrelated epizootics continued among swine herds being fed raw garbage. in 1936, ves disappeared only to reappear in 1939. the disease was contained within california until 1952, at which time it spread to all the major swine ...1976786969
protein sequence evidence for monophyly of the carnivore families procyonidae and mustelidae.the amino acid sequence of the eye lens protein alpha-crystallin a of the ring-tailed cat, bassariscus astutus, has been determined. the sequence of the bassariscus alpha a chain, which is 173 residues long, was compared with the previously determined set of 41 mammalian alpha a sequences. among the investigated carnivores (dog, cat, sloth bear, american mink, gray seal, and california sea lion) the bassariscus alpha a sequence exclusively shares two amino acid replacements with the alpha a chai ...19863444403
gonadotrophin in the term placenta of the dolphin (tursiops truncatus), the californian sea lion (zalophus californianus), the grey seal (halichoerus grypus) and man.chorionic gonadotrophin activity in extracts of the term placenta of a dolphin, a sea lion and a grey seal was measured by its effectiveness in increasing uterine weight in the mouse and by solid-phase ria using hcg as immunogen and labelled antigen. bioreactive (b) gonadotrophin was found in these placentae and, compared to the human term placenta, the concentration of cg in the dolphin was higher, in the sea lion similar and in the grey seal lower. the biological activity in each species was n ...19863701703
antibodies to marine caliciviruses in the steller sea lion (eumetopias jubatus schreber).sera from 145 steller sea lions (76 adults, three subadults, 37 pups, and 29 fetuses) were tested for neutralizing antibodies to nine marine calicivirus serotypes. antibodies were found to san miguel sea lion virus (smsv) types 1, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10 and 13, and to tillamook (bovine) calicivirus, but no antibodies were found to the walrus calicivirus. titers (microtiter neutralization assay) ranged from 1:20 to 1:320, with many positive reactions at the higher dilutions (greater than or equal to 1:80 ...19873820427
prevalence and distribution of serum neutralizing antibodies to tillamook (bovine) calicivirus in selected populations of marine mammals.neutralizing antibodies to tillamook calicivirus (tcv) were found in sera collected from california sea lions (zalophus c. californianus lesson) in 1983 and 1984 and in sera collected from steller sea lions (eumetopias jubatus schreber) in 1976 and 1985. the combined prevalence of antibodies for these two species was 10/228 = 4.38%. titers ranged from 1:20 (five animals), to 1:40 (four animals), to 1:80 (one animal) by standard microtiter neutralization assay. the seropositive pinnipeds were dis ...19873820428
toxoplasmosis in a california sea lion (zalophus californianus).disseminated toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a female california sea lion that had been used in thermoregulation studies for about 4 years while housed in a small enclosure with a fresh-water pool at the university of hawaii, honolulu. toxoplasma gondii was demonstrated in and around necrotic lesions of the heart and the stomach. source of the infection was not established; however, studies on toxoplasmosis in cats were being conducted at the institution, and common caretakers attended both group ...1977835862
an epizootic of leptospirosis in california sea lions.between may and december 1984, an epizootic of leptospirosis in california sea lions (zalophus californianus) occurred along the west coast of the united states from monterey county, calif, northward to seattle, wash. clinical signs observed were severe depression, excessive thirst, and tucked-up posturing, with associated leukocytosis and increased globulin, bun, and creatinine values. effective antibiotic therapy consisted of tetracycline (22 mg/kg of body weight every 8 hours, orally) or pota ...19854077625
lactose synthetase in mammary gland of the california sea lion. 19724196975
the covalent structure of dog myoglobin.the primary structure of the myoglobin of the domestic dog (german shepherd) was studied. tryptic and thermolytic peptides were compared with the sequence of other known myoglobins; the stepwise automatic edman's degradation of the whole globin and also the chymotryptic digestion of the median fragment obtained by cnbr cleavage completed this sequence. comparison of the established dog myoglobin structure with those from other carnivora shows 16 differences versus badger, 20 versus harbour seal ...19761252463
isolation of a retrovirus and a herpesvirus from a captive california sea lion.a non-oncogenic retrovirus was isolated from an explanted skin biopsy from a captive california sea lion (zalophus californianus) with a history of recurring skin lesions. the morphology of the viral particles in electron photomicrographs was characteristic of a foamy virus, a retrovirus in the subfamily spumavirinae. viral cytopathic effects consistent with foamy virus infection were observed in subsequent explants of skin and lymph nodes and co-cultivated peripheral blood leukocytes. the sea l ...19863012127
ocular anterior segment disease in northern fur seals.eyes of 1,716 wild northern fur seals (callorhinus ursinus; 1,501 subadults and 215 adults) were examined for the prevalence of ocular anterior segment disease; 4.6% of the seals had clinically recognizable eye lesions. six seals had bilateral eye lesions. corneal scars were the most frequently observed lesion, followed by prominent lens sutures, cataracts, and iris depigmentations. corneal edema, active corneal ulceration, or inflammation was not observed. examination of normal corneas indicate ...19853878353
survey of diseases in free-living california sea lions. 19744373587
pasteurella multocida isolated from a california sea lion (zalophus californianus). 19685692913
leptospira pomona and reproductive failure in california sea lions. 19744443311
candidiasis in captive pinnipeds.diagnosis, treatment, and possible pathogenesis of candidiasis were studied in 5 species of pinnipeds in captivity: gray seal (halichoerus grypus), harbor seal (phoca vitulina), northern fur seal (callorhinus ursinus), california sea lion (zalophus californianus), and northern elephant seal (mirounga angustirostris). the animals were kept outdoors in a freshwater exhibit. candidiasis was characterized by purulent nasal discharge, inflammation of the lips at the mucocutaneous junction, periocular ...19846096327
a two-active site one-polypeptide enzyme: the isomaltase from sea lion small intestinal brush-border membrane. its possible phylogenetic relationship with sucrase-isomaltase.the enzyme responsible for all of the isomaltase activity and much of the maltase activity in the small intestine of the californian sea lion (zalophus californianus) was isolated by detergent solubilization of the brush-border membrane, followed by immunoadsorption chromatography using antibodies directed against rabbit sucrase-isomaltase. in 0.1% triton x-100, sea lion isomaltase occurs as a monomer of mr = 245,000 and is composed of a single polypeptide chain. as judged from the stoichiometry ...19846715326
disaccharidase-deficient animals have normal ultrastructure of intestinal brush border membranes.the intestinal disaccharidases, lactase, sucrase-isomaltase complex, and glucoamylase are proteins intimately associated with the brush-border membrane of the epithelial cell. these three enzyme activities are found in the intestine of the adult rat; lactase and glucoamylase activities are primarily associated with the intestine of the infant rat. only glucoamylase and isomaltase activities are detected in the intestine of the california sea lion, zalophus californianus. the activities of these ...19816794915
edema disease in a california sea lion.edema disease, similar to that occurring in swine, was diagnosed in a california sea lion (zalophus californianus). the prominent features included a thickened, edematous stomach wall and generalized fibrinoid necrosis of arterioles. a beta-hemolytic escherichia coli, serotype 0147:k . :h52, was the predominant organism isolated from the gastrointestinal tract. the organism caused fatal infection when administered orally and intraperitoneally to mice.19807005201
a new species of dipetalonema from the california sea lion and a report of microfilariae from a steller sea lion (nematoda: filarioidea). 19676062061
isolation of leptospira pomona from a naturally infected california sea lion, sonoma county, california. 19715156488
characterization of phocid herpesvirus-1 and -2 as putative alpha- and gammaherpesviruses of north american and european study the relationships between herpesvirus recently isolated from different pinniped species, antigenic and genetic analyses were performed. first, herpesviruses isolated from north american harbour seals (phoca vitulina), a californian sea lion (zalophus californianus) and a european grey seal (halichoerus grypus) were examined in an enzyme immunoassay (eia) with a panel of monoclonal antibodies which had previously been shown to allow typing of herpesviruses from european harbour seals int ...19968558126
the use of data loggers to determine the energetics and physiology of aquatic birds and deploying a data logger specifically designed for the purpose, it was possible to record heart rate, fh (beats/min), from free-ranging gentoo penguins, pygoscelis papua, and antarctic fur seals, arctocephalus gazella, at the british antarctic survey base at bird island. the heart rate data were then converted into oxygen consumption (vo2, mlo2 min-1 kg-1) and/or energy expenditure (w/kg) using equations that had been derived from calibration experiments. in these experiments the relationships ...19958728860
production of chitinase and beta-n-acetylglucosaminidase by intestinal bacteria of pinnipedian animals.the chitinase- and beta-n-acetylglucosaminidase(glcnacase)-producing ability of intestinal bacteria from pinnipedian animals was determined using fluorogenic 4-methylumbelliferone glycosides of n-acetylglucosamine oligosaccharides. intestinal microflora of a single cape fur seal, three california sea lions and three south american sea lions were characterized by a predominance of isolates of the bacteroidaceae and enterobacteriaceae families and the genus clostridium. of the 711 isolates tested ...19968987705
leptospirosis epizootic among california sea lions.a leptospira species is suspected of being the etiological agenit in a recent epizootic among california sea lions. the disease was confined to subadult males of the species zalophus c. californianus.19715576161
amino acid composition of pinniped milk.the total amino acid concentration and the amino acid pattern, i.e. the relative proportion of each amino acid (protein-bound plus free) to the total amino acids, in the milks of the northern elephant seal, antarctic fur seal, california sea lion, and australian sea lion were determined. total amino acid concentration was 10% (w/v) or greater and did not vary significantly among species. the most abundant amino acids in the milks of all species were glutamate, proline and leucine. essential amin ...19957584837
sequence and characterization of phocine interleukin improve assessment of cellular immune responses in seals, northern elephant seal (mirounga angustirostris) interleukin 2 (il-2) has been characterized. the gene was cloned and sequenced from a 658 base pair (bp) cdna generated from total rna by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr). the sequence encoded a 154 amino acid (aa) polypeptide that included a 20 aa putative signal peptide. seal il-2 was found to share considerable identity with published sequences. nucleotide sequ ...19989476229
low-frequency amphibious hearing in pinnipeds: methods, measurements, noise, and ecology.aerial low-frequency (100-6400 hz) hearing thresholds were obtained for one california sea lion (zalophus californianus), one harbor seal (phoca vitulina), and one northern elephant seal (mirounga angustirostris). underwater thresholds over a similar frequency range (75-6300 or 6400 hz) were obtained for these three animals in addition to another california sea lion. such data are critical, not only for understanding mechanisms about amphibious hearing and relating them to pinniped ecology and e ...19989566340
dermatitis caused by malassezia pachydermatis in a california sea lion (zalophus californianus). 19989569500
cyclic dermatitis associated with fusarium sp infection in pinnipeds.dermatitis associated with fusarium sp infection developed in 3 california sea lions (zalophus californianus) and 3 gray seals (halichoerus grypus) at the national zoological park in washington dc. the lesions were papular or nodular and were distributed mainly on the face, trunk, and flippers. one sea lion died 6 weeks after extensive cutaneous involvement. the lesions regressed after 1 mild exacerabtion in the other 2 sea lions. in the gray seals, the skin condition appeared to worsen during t ...19817328003
mental rotation in a california sea lion (zalophus californianus).mental rotation is a widely accepted concept that suggests an analogue mode of visual information-processing in certain visuospatial tasks. typically, these tasks demand the discrimination between the image and mirror-image of rotated figures, for which human subjects need an increasing reaction time depending on the angular disparity between the rotated figures. in pigeons, tests of this kind yielded a time-independent rotational invariance, suggested as being the result of a non-analogue infor ...19979172417
leptospirosis in california sea lions (zalophus californianus) stranded along the central california coast, 1981-1994.prevalence of leptospirosis was determined in california sea lions (zalophus californianus) stranded live along the central california (usa) coast between january 1981 and december 1994. clinical signs of renal disease were seen in 764 (33%) of 2338 animals examined; 545 (71%) of these 764 animals died, with similar gross lesions of nephritis. in silver impregnation stains of sections of formalin-fixed kidney, numerous loosely coiled spiral organisms were observed. leptospira pomona kenniwicki w ...19969359054
bacterial isolates from california sea lions (zalophus californianus), harbor seals (phoca vitulina), and northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris) admitted to a rehabilitation center along the central california coast, 2 yr of bacteriologic culturing of 297 california sea lions (zalophus californianus), 154 harbor seals (phoca vitulina), and 89 northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris) stranded alive along the california coast, the most frequent isolates from inflammatory lesions in live animals were escherichia coli, streptococcus viridans, listeria ivanovii, beta-hemolytic streptococcus spp., and enterococcus spp. this is the first report of l. ivanovii isolation from a marine mammal. the common i ...19989732032
antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria isolated from pinnipeds stranded in central and northern california.over a 2-yr period (1994-1995), the antimicrobial susceptibilities of 129 bacterial isolates recovered from live stranded california sea lions (zalophus californianus), harbor seals (phoca vitulina), and northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris) were studied. nineteen genera of bacteria were isolated from various sites of inflammation; abscesses and umbilici were the most common sites. seventy-two percent of the bacterial isolated were gram negative, and the enterobacteriaceae (escherich ...19989809600
leptospirosis in rehabilitated pacific harbor seals from california.renal disease was observed in two rehabilitated pacific harbor seals (phoca vitulina richardsii) from a facility in california (usa). the seals had leukocytosis and high serum phosphorus, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations. a retrospective study of leptospiral antibody serum titers indicated both seals had elevated titers to leptospira interrogans serovar grippotyphosa. a third seal, which died about the time when the index cases occurred, also had elevated titers to l. interrogan ...19989577797
phycotoxins.the 1997-1998 period brought many new developments to the phycotoxin field. there were several reviews on phycotoxins in general, on their toxicological evaluation, and on their analysis. the ecophysiology, biosynthesis, and metabolism of polyether toxins and paralytic shellfish poisoning (psp) toxins were also reviewed. the proceedings of the eighth international conference on harmful algae (vigo, spain, june 25-29, 1997) have been published and provide an excellent source of information on phy ...199910367395
hepatic carcinoma with spleen metastasis in a california sea lion from the gulf of california.a primary hepatic carcinoma with a neuroendocrine pattern was detected in an adult female california sea lion (zalophus californianus) found dead on granito island in the gulf of california (mexico) in january 1996. at necropsy, several light yellow nodules of different sizes were observed on the entire surface of the liver and spleen. microscopic examination of these nodules using routine haematoxylin-eosin stain, revealed cubic, polyhedral and pleomorphic cells with three to four bizarre mitot ...199910479092
epizootic vesicular disease in captive california sea epizootic of vesicular disease occurred in a group of semi-domesticated california sea lions (zalophus californianus) during the months of april and may 1997. ten castrated mature male sea lions, ages 12 to 19 yr, were housed in three adjacent open-ocean net enclosures in san diego bay (california, usa). four animals (40%) developed oral and extremity vesicles, anorexia, and were reluctant to perform learned behaviors. one animal developed vesicles but maintained a normal appetite and behavio ...200010941736
isolation of reptilian calicivirus crotalus type 1 from feral pinnipeds.ten virus isolates were obtained from three species of marine mammals sampled on san miguel island (california, usa) and 1,200 km north on rogue reef (oregon, usa) during tagging operations in 1986-87. seven of these 10 were derived from 30 sampled steller sea lion (eumetopias jubatus pups, while two of 10 were isolated from one of 19 sampled california sea lion (zalophus californianus californianus pups, and the remaining isolate was derived from 30 sampled northern fur seal (callorhinus ursinu ...19989706554
common metastatic carcinoma of california sea lions (zalophus californianus): evidence of genital origin and association with novel gammaherpesvirus.tissues from 10 adult california sea lions (zalophus californianus, seven females and three males) that had metastatic carcinoma in sublumbar area lymph nodes were examined histologically. a distinctive epithelial proliferative lesion interpreted as intraepithelial neoplasia was found in genital tracts of all ten animals; in vagina (5/7), cervix (7/7), uterus (3/7), penis (3/3) and prepuce (3/3). intraepithelial neoplasia closely resembled metastatic carcinomas and was directly contiguous with i ...200011105950
coccidioidomycosis in a bottlenose dolphin.a stranded bottlenose dolphin (tursiops truncatus gilli) succumbed to a pulmonary infection of coccidioides immitis. the dolphin initially presented with mild inspiratory dyspnea that rapidly worsened over 48 hr to include buoyancy abnormalities and finally death. at necropsy, caseous nodules were observed throughout the lungs and perihilar lymph nodes. on histological examination of tissues, double walled organisms containing endospores characteristic of c. immitis were observed in lung, perihi ...19989706575
electrophoretic detection of population variation within contracaecum ogmorhini (nematoda: ascaridoidea: anisakidae).this study examined genetic variation among specimens of contracaecum ogmorhini from different otariid hosts and geographical origins using a polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-based mutation detection approach. the first (its-1) and second (its-2) internal transcribed spacers (its) of ribosomal dna (rdna) were amplified individually by pcr, scanned for sequence variation by single-strand conformation polymorphism (sscp), and samples displaying variable sscp profiles were subjected to cycle sequenc ...200111465491
diagnosis and seroprevalence of leptospirosis in california sea lions from coastal california.the sensitivity and specificity of the microscopic agglutination test (mat) as a method for detection of exposure to leptospira spp. in california sea lions (zalophus californianus) were determined. sera came from individuals that demonstrated clinical signs of renal disease, had lesions suggestive of leptospirosis at necropsy, and had visible leptospires in silver stained kidney sections as positive controls. sera from unexposed captive individuals were used as negative controls. the test was 1 ...200211838231
otarine herpesvirus-1: a novel gammaherpesvirus associated with urogenital carcinoma in california sea lions (zalophus californianus).the incidence of neoplasia in california sea lions (csls) is considered to be unusually high. electron microscopic examination of some of these urogenital tumours revealed the presence of virions with typical herpes-like structure. while current attempts to cultivate this virus have not been successful, molecular studies employing dna extracted from tumour tissues allowed both the classification of the agent and its identification in tumours and archived tissue samples. two genome fragments gene ...200211888696
endocarditis associated with escherichia coli in a sea lion (zalophus californianus).endocarditis associated with escherichia coli was diagnosed in a 2-year-old male california sea lion (zalophus californianus). the diagnosis was based on light microscopic examination and bacterial isolation from the valvular lesion. this is the first case of bacterial endocarditis reported in a sea lion.200212033687
disseminated blastomycosis in two california sea lions (zalophus californianus).two captive california sea lions (zalophus californianus) from different facilities were diagnosed with disseminated blastomycosis. the first, a 12-yr-old male, died after a 3-wk history of progressive anorexia and lethargy. gross examination revealed acute jejunitis with focal perforation and associated peritonitis, along with severe purulent bronchopneumonia. the second, a 15-yr-old female, was euthanized after a 2-wk history of severe cutaneous ulceration and declining clinical condition. gro ...200010982135
characterization of otostrongylus circumlitus from pacific harbor and northern elephant seals.otostrongylus circumlitus (railliet, 1899) from pacific harbor seals (phoca vitulina richardsi) and northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris) were examined using morphological and molecular methods to determine whether northern elephant seals along the central california coast are infected by the same species of otostrongylus as are pacific harbor seals in the same area. fixed nematodes were examined and measured using light microscopy. the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was used to amp ...200111227905
antibodies against leptospira interrogans in california sea lion pups from gulf of hundred and twenty-five serum samples from california sea lion (zalophus californianus californianus) pups, and one from an adult female from eight reproductive rookeries located in seven islands in the gulf of california (mexico), were collected during the 1994-96 reproductive seasons. these were tested for antibodies to 19 serovars of leptospira interrogans using a microscopic agglutination test (mat). forty-one samples (32%) had antibody levels from 1:20 to 1:320 to one or more serovars. ...199910073358
observations in 2001 on hookworms ( uncinaria spp.) in otariid pinnipeds.uncinaria spp. were recovered from the milk of california sea lions ( zalophus californianus) collected from the: (1) teats of a cow just after parturition (one parasitic third-stage larva, l(3)), (2) stomach of her nursing pup (two l(3)), and (3) stomach of a dead pup about 2 days old (one l(3), one headless, probably l(3), and four l(4)) on san miguel island, california in may 2001. this, in addition to earlier research, indicates transmammary transmission of hookworms in this host. uncinaria ...200312658464
characterization and clinical manifestations of arcanobacterium phocae infections in marine mammals stranded along the central california coast.between 1994 and 2000, 141 arcanobacterium phocae isolates were recovered from marine mammals that stranded along the central california coast (usa). arcanobacterium phocae was cultured from tissue sites with abnormal discharge or evidence of inflammation in 66 california sea lions (zalophus californianus), 50 pacific harbor seals (phoca vitulina richardii), 19 northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris), five southern sea otters (enhydra lutris nereis), and one common dolphin (delphinus d ...200312685077
evidence of leptospira interrogans infection in california sea lion pups from the gulf of california.forty-two urine and 96 blood and serum samples were obtained from california sea lion (zalophus californianus) pups from the gulf of california during the 2000 reproductive season. antibody prevalence to 13 serovars of leptospira interrogans was determined by microagglutination tests (mat); presence of pathogenic leptospires was detected by polymerase chain reaction (pcr). samples with antibody titers > or = 1:25 or 115 bp fragments on ethidium bromidestained 1.5% agarose gels were considered po ...200312685078
control of pulmonary surfactant secretion in adult california sea lions.marine mammals have a spectacular suite of respiratory adaptations to deal with the extreme pressures associated with deep diving. in particular, maintaining a functional pulmonary surfactant system at depth is critical for marine mammals to ensure that inspiration is possible upon re-emergence. pulmonary surfactant is secreted from alveolar type ii (atii) cells and is crucial for normal lung function. it is not known whether atii cells have the ability to continue to secrete pulmonary surfactan ...200414697251
canine distemper virus in a californian sea lion (zalophus californianus). 200415068043
sea lions and equivalence: expanding classes by exclusion.experiments have shown that human and nonhuman subjects are capable of performing new arbitrary stimulus-stimulus relations without error. when subjects that are experienced with matching-to-sample procedures are presented with a novel sample, a novel comparison, and a familiar comparison, most respond by correctly selecting the novel comparison in the presence of the new sample. this exclusion paradigm was expanded with two california sea lions that had previously formed two 10-member equivalen ...200212507014
genetic evidence for two sibling species within contracaecum ogmorhini johnston & mawson, 1941 (nematoda: anisakidae) from otariid seals of boreal and austral regions.genetic variation of contracaecum ogmorhini (sensu lato) populations from different otariid seals of the northern and southern hemisphere was studied on the basis of 18 enzyme loci as well as preliminary sequence analysis of the mitochondrial cyt b gene (260 bp). samples were collected from zalophus californianus in the boreal region and from arctocephalus pusillus pusillus, a. pusillus doriferus and a. australis from the austral region. marked genetic heterogeneity was found between c. ogmorhin ...200312567006
pcbs and ddt in the serum of juvenile california sea lions: associations with vitamins a and e and thyroid predators like california sea lions bioaccumulate high levels of persistent fat-soluble pollutants that may provoke physiological impairments such as endocrine or vitamins a and e disruption. we measured circulating levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (ddt) in 12 healthy juvenile california sea lions captured on año nuevo island, california, in 2002. we investigated the relationship between the contamination by pcbs and ddt and the circulati ...200515589659
meningoencephalitis in two stranded california sea lions (zalophus californianus) caused by aberrant trematode migration.meningoencephalitis caused by aberrant trematode migration is described in two california sea lions (zalophus californianus) admitted to a rehabilitation hospital between may and august 2001. both animals displayed seizure activity and were euthanized due to poor response to therapy. gross abnormal findings included liver flukes (zalophotrema hepaticum) in the bile ducts and areas of swelling and necrosis in the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem. histopathology revealed meningoencephalitis wi ...200415650108
pathology of domoic acid toxicity in california sea lions (zalophus californianus).over 100 free-ranging adult california sea lions (zalophus californianus) and one northern fur seal (callorhinus ursinus), predominantly adult females, were intoxicated by domoic acid (da) during three harmful algal blooms between 1998 and 2000 in central and northern california coastal waters. the vector prey item was northern anchovy (engraulis mordax) and the primary da-producing algal diatom was psuedonitzschia australis. postmortem examination revealed gross and histologic findings that wer ...200515753472
leptospirosis in northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris) stranded along the california coast.leptospirosis was identified in six northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris) that were stranded in 1995 along the coast of california (usa). histologic lesions in all seals included tubulointerstitial nephritis with tubular degeneration and necrosis. infection was confirmed through identification of spirochetes using an immunohistochemical stain for leptospira sp. antigens. one affected seal had an elevated titer to leptospira interrogans serovar pomona. four of the six seals developed ...200516107678
the composition of pulmonary surfactant from diving mammals.maintaining a functional pulmonary surfactant system at depth is critical for diving mammals to ensure that inspiration is possible upon re-emergence. the lipid and protein composition of lavage extracts from three pinniped species (california sea lion, northern elephant seal and ringed seal) were compared to several terrestrial species. lavage samples were purified using a nabr discontinuous gradient. concentrations of phospholipid classes and molecular species were measured using electrospray ...200616140043
transmission of toxoplasma: clues from the study of sea otters as sentinels of toxoplasma gondii flow into the marine environment.toxoplasma gondii affects a wide variety of hosts including threatened southern sea otters (enhydra lutris nereis) which serve as sentinels for the detection of the parasite's transmission into marine ecosystems. toxoplasmosis is a major cause of mortality and contributor to the slow rate of population recovery for southern sea otters in california. an updated seroprevalence analysis showed that 52% of 305 freshly dead, beachcast sea otters and 38% of 257 live sea otters sampled along the califo ...200516157341
metastrongyloid nematode (otostrongylus circumlitus) infection in a stranded california sea lion (zalophus californianus)--a new host-parasite association.a stranded yearling male california sea lion was admitted to a rehabilitation center june 2003. on presentation, the sea lion was emaciated and had diarrhea and neutrophilia. two weeks later, the animal became anorexic, blood and mucus were observed around the oral cavity, and corneal opacity was noted in the right eye. hematology results at that time included leukocytosis consisting of neutrophilia with a left shift, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. despite supportive care, the sea lion died. on p ...200516244070
aerobic bacterial flora of the nasal cavity in gulf of california sea lion (zalophus californianus) pups.nasal swab samples from clinically healthy california sea lions pups (zalophus californianus) from six different reproductive rookeries in the gulf of california were collected to determine the type and frequency of the representative aerobic bacterial microflora of their nasal mucosa. a total of 114 samples were examined and 100 bacterial isolates were identified and typified by microbiological and biochemical standard tests. fifty four isolates corresponded to gram positive bacteria (54%) and ...200516266850
evaluation of mitogen-induced responses in marine mammal and human lymphocytes by in-vitro exposure of butyltins and non-ortho coplanar pcbs.the effects of exposure to butyltin compounds (bts: tributyltin; tbt, dibutyltin; dbt and monobutyltin; mbt) and non-ortho coplanar pcbs (iupac 77, 126 and 169) on marine mammals and human lymphocyte were evaluated. peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmcs) isolated from dall's porpoises (phocoenoides dalli), bottlenose dolphins (tursiops truncatus), a california sealion (zalophus californianus), a larga seal (phocoa largha) and humans (homo sapiens) were exposed at varying concentrations of bt ...200212395836
aerobic bacterial flora of the vagina and prepuce of california sea lions (zalophus californianus) and investigation of associations with urogenital investigate the association between genital bacterial infection and urogenital carcinoma in california sea lions (zalophus californianus), vaginal and preputial swabs for bacterial isolation were taken from 148 free-ranging and 51 stranded california sea lions including 16 animals with urogenital carcinoma. cytological examination of vaginal or preputial smears showed a majority (65.5%, 57/87) of animals examined had mild or no inflammation. aerobic bacteria were isolated from 116 (78.4%) wil ...200616326045
the surface activity of pulmonary surfactant from diving mammals.pinnipeds (seals and sea lions) have developed a specialised respiratory system to cope with living in a marine environment. they have a highly reinforced lung that can completely collapse and reinflate during diving without any apparent side effects. these animals may also have a specialised surfactant system to augment the morphological adaptations. the surface activity of surfactant from four species of pinniped (california sea lion, northern elephant seal, northern fur seal and ringed seal) ...200616476655
molecular phylogenetics and diagnosis of anisakis, pseudoterranova, and contracaecum from northern pacific marine mammals.individual specimens of anisakis, pseudoterranova, and contracaecum collected from marine mammals inhabiting northern pacific waters were used for comparative diagnostic and molecular phylogenetic analyses. forty-eight new sequences were obtained for this study of 14 anisakis taxa, 8 pseudoterranova taxa, 4 contracaecum taxa, and 4 outgroup species. partial 28s (lsu) and complete internal transcribed spacer (its-1, 5.8s, its-2) ribosomal dna was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and seq ...200516539026
pathology and preliminary characterization of a parapoxvirus isolated from a california sea lion (zalophus californianus).cutaneous pox-like lesions are a common complication in the rehabilitation of pinnipeds. however, the exact identity, taxonomy, and host range of pinniped parapoxviruses remain unknown. during a poxvirus outbreak in may 2003 in california sea lions (zalophus californianus) at a marine mammal rehabilitation facility, multiple raised, firm, 1-3-cm skin nodules from the head, neck, and thorax of one sea lion weanling pup that spontaneously died were collected. histologically, the nodules were chara ...200616699145
lesions associated with a novel mycoplasma sp. in california sea lions (zalophus californianus) undergoing rehabilitation.from july 1999 to november 2001, mycoplasma sp. was cultured from lesions in 16 california sea lions (zalophus californianus) undergoing rehabilitation. the mycoplasma sp. was the likely cause of death of four animals in which it was associated with either pneumonia or polyarthritis. the most common lesion associated with this bacterium was subdermal abscessation, found in 12 animals. other lesions included intramuscular abscesses, septic arthritis, and lymphadenopathy. infection was associated ...200616699147
temporal changes in the prevalence of parasites in two oregon estuary-dwelling fishes.the parasite faunas of juvenile english sole (parophrys vetulus) in 1971-1972 and staghorn sculpin (leptocottus armatus) in 1971 from yaquina bay, oregon, were compared with faunas found in the same estuary in 1997-2000 (english sole) and 1999-2000 (staghorn sculpin). the 7 most commonly occurring parasites in 1971 were compared with the same species observed during the same month and sampling sites in 1997-2000. multivariate community analysis of juvenile english sole parasites supported the su ...200415270100
the evolution of a physiological system: the pulmonary surfactant system in diving mammals.pulmonary surfactant lines the alveolar air-water interface, varying surface tension with lung volume to increase compliance and prevent adhesion of respiratory surfaces. we examined whether the surfactant system of diving mammals exhibits adaptations for more efficient lung function during diving, to complement other respiratory adaptations. here we review adaptations at the molecular, compositional, functional and cellular levels and during development for animals beginning life on land and pr ...200616877052
otarine herpesvirus-1, not papillomavirus, is associated with endemic tumours in california sea lions (zalophus californianus).the purpose of this study was to determine if otarine herpesvirus-1 (othv-1) is associated with the presence of urogenital carcinomas in california sea lions. polymerase chain reaction (pcr) analysis with primers specific for othv-1 was used to compare the prevalence of othv-1 infection in 15 sea lions affected by urogenital carcinoma with that of age-matched and juvenile tumour-free animals, and animals with tumours of non-urogenital origin. the herpesvirus was more prevalent (100%) and more wi ...200617034810
california sea lions (zalophus californianus californianus) have lower chlorinated hydrocarbon contents in northern baja california, méxico, than in california, usa.chlorinated hydrocarbons (chs) were determined in blubber samples of 18 california sea lions (zalophus californianus californianus) that stranded dead along todos santos bay, ensenada, baja california, méxico, january 2000-november 2001. summation operatorddts were the dominant group (geometric mean 3.8 microg/g lipid weight), followed by polychlorinated biphenyls ( summation operatorpcbs, 2.96 microg/g), chlordanes (0.12 microg/g) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (0.06 microg/g). the summation operat ...200616297516
localization of aerial broadband noise by pinnipeds.although many pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses) emit broadband calls on land as part of their communication system, few studies have addressed these animals' ability to localize aerial broadband sounds. in this study, the aerial sound localization acuities of a female northern elephant seal (mirounga angustirostris), a male harbor seal (phoca vitulina), and a female california sea lion (zalophus californianus) were measured in the horizontal plane. the stimulus was broadband white noise ...200415139647
underwater sounds of pinnipeds.descriptions and analyses are presented of underwater sounds made by six species of seals in captivity, zalophus californianus, phoca vitulina, p. (pusa) hispida, p. (pagophilus) groenlandica, halichoerus grypus, and cystophora cristata. the suitability of these very faint sounds for echolocation is discussed.196317742884
marine mammal neoplasia: a review.a review of the published literature indicates that marine mammal neoplasia includes the types and distributions of tumors seen in domestic species. a routine collection of samples from marine mammal species is hampered, and, hence, the literature is principally composed of reports from early whaling expeditions, captive zoo mammals, and epizootics that affect larger numbers of animals from a specific geographic location. the latter instances are most important, because many of these long-lived, ...200617099143
seroepidemiology of parapoxvirus infections in captive and free-ranging california sea lions zalophus californianus.cutaneous nodular lesions caused by parapoxvirus infections are commonly observed in stranded pinnipeds following their arrival at rehabilitation facilities. an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed and validated to determine exposure to parapoxviruses in california sea lions zalophus californianus in captivity and in the wild. the diagnostic performance of this assay was evaluated using receiver-operating characteristic analysis. at a selected cut-off value, the calcu ...200616724559
maternal-fetal transfer of domoic acid in rats at two gestational time points.prenatal exposure to asymptomatic doses of domoic acid (da) causes learning and memory deficits later in life; therefore, we sought to measure distribution of da in maternal plasma and brain, prenatal brain, and amniotic fluid 1 hr after exposure, a time frame that normally encompasses acute seizure behavior.200718087593
estimating sustainable bycatch rates for california sea lion populations in the gulf of california.commercial and subsistence fisheries pressure is increasing in the gulf of california, mexico. one consequence often associated with high levels of fishing pressure is an increase in bycatch of marine mammals and birds. fisheries bycatch has contributed to declines in several pinniped species and may be affecting the california sea lion (zalophus californianus) population in the gulf of california. we used data on fisheries and sea lion entanglement in gill nets to estimate current fishing press ...200818410402
in vitro susceptibility of sea lion poxvirus to cidofovir.parapoxviruses of seals and sea lions are commonly encountered pathogens with zoonotic potential. the antiviral activity of the antiviral compounds isatin-beta-thiosemicarbazone, rifampicin, acyclovir, cidofovir and phosphonoacetic acid against a parapoxvirus (slpv-1) isolated from a californian sea lions (zalophus californianus) was evaluated. cidofovir was able to reduce virus-induced cytopathic effect of slpv-1 in confluent monolayers when used in concentrations greater than 2microg/ml. a dec ...200818485494
cyclical changes in seroprevalence of leptospirosis in california sea lions: endemic and epidemic disease in one host species?leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease infecting a broad range of mammalian hosts, and is re-emerging globally. california sea lions (zalophus californianus) have experienced recurrent outbreaks of leptospirosis since 1970, but it is unknown whether the pathogen persists in the sea lion population or is introduced repeatedly from external reservoirs.200717986335
a noninvasive demographic assessment of sea lions based on stage-specific abundances.a pressing need exists to develop new approaches for obtaining information on demographic rates without causing further threats to imperiled animal populations. in this paper, we illustrate and apply a data-fitting technique based on quadratic programming that uses stage-specific abundance data to estimate demographic rates and asymptotic population growth rates (lambda). we used data from seven breeding colonies of california sea lions (zalophus californianus) in the gulf of california, mexico. ...200818686587
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