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experiments on direct and secondary poisoning by fluoroacetamide (1081) in wildlife and domestic carnivores.fluoroacetamide (1081 or f.a.a) is used in israel for field rodent control. experiments on direct and secondary, short and long term poisoning caused by 1081 were carried out. mongoose (herpestes ichneumon), hyena (hyaena hyaena), cats and dogs were susceptible. barn owls (tyto alba), buzzards (buteo buteo) and black kites (milvus m. migrans) were markedly resistant. barn owls tolerated total direct poisoning ranging from 6.8 to 10.9, and a final dose ranging from 0.8 to 2.0 mg/kg. in secondary ...1979480523
the functional anatomy of the hindlimb of some african viverridae (carnivora).the functional anatomy of the hindlimb of 12 species of viverrids was studied with relation to locomotion. the animals were allocated to primary locomotor categories on the basis of their anatomy and locomotion. the climbing, arboreal walking category (nandinia binotata) is characterized by a small sacroiliac articulation, the iliopsoas inserts onto a medially located lesser trochanter and the femoral condyles are not posteriorly placed. the hindfoot is plantigrade and its structure permits cons ...19761255730
hematology and serum biochemistry of the egyptian mongoose, herpestes ichneumon. 19921474669
a scanning electron microscope study of the nematode spirura dentata (spiruroidea) with notes on the morphometric variations in a spanish population of this species.this work provides a detailed morphological description by optic and scanning electron microscopy of the nematode spirura dentara (mŏnnig, 1938), a parasite of herpestes ichneumon in southern and central spain, together with an analyses of the morphometric variations within this population. our findings in adult specimens include some important characters not recorded in previous descriptions, and contradict these in a few details: a) the four denticles arising from the inner wall of the oral op ...19958774776
the egyptian mongoose, herpestes ichneumon, is a possible reservoir host of visceral leishmaniasis in eastern sudan.investigations were made on possible reservoir hosts of leishmania donovani in 2 zoonotic foci of visceral leishmaniasis (vl) in dinder national park (dnp) and the peri-domestic habitats of adjacent villages of eastern sudan. animals were captured, in november 1997-1998 and april-may 1999 and examined for l. donovani infection using light microscopy and 2 sensitive polymerase chain reaction (pcr) systems. microscopy and pcr investigations were also used to determine the infection rates of l. don ...200111393826
bovine tuberculosis in a free ranging red fox (vulpes vulpes) from doñana national park (spain).during 1997 and 1998, a survey of iberian carnivores was conducted to study the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis in the doñana national park and surrounding areas in southwestern spain. post-mortem examinations were done on seven red foxes (vulpes vulpes), two egyptian mongoose (herpestes ichneumon), one weasel (mustela nivalis), two genets (genetta genetta), one iberian lynx (lynx pardinus), one eurasian badger (meles meles), and two polecats (mustela putorius). lesions suggestive of bovine ...200516107680
rickettsia sibirica isolation from a patient and detection in ticks, portugal.we report the first isolation of rickettsia sibirica (strain mongolotimonae) from the blood of a patient and detection by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) of the rickettsia in a rhipicephalus pusillus tick collected from a dead mongoose (herpestes ichneumon) in the alentejo region, portugal. we describe also the first pcr detection of a new rickettsia strain that is related to r. sibirica.200616836827
antibodies to mycobacterium bovis in wild carnivores from doñana national park (spain).we conducted a retrospective serologic survey for antibodies against the mpb70 protein of mycobacterium bovis in wild carnivores from doñana national park (southwestern spain). serum samples from 118 red foxes (vulpes vulpes), 39 iberian lynx (lynx pardinus), 31 eurasian badgers (meles meles), five egyptian mongoose (herpestes ichneumon), four european genet (genetta genetta), and one eurasian otter (lutra lutra) were analyzed using an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunoassay. antibodies a ...200617092907
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild carnivores from spain.serum samples from 282 wild carnivores from different regions of spain were tested for antibodies to toxoplasma gondii by the modified agglutination test using a cut-off value of 1:25. antibodies to t. gondii were found in 22 of 27 (81.5%) of iberian lynx (lynx pardinus), 3 of 6 european wildcats (felis silvestris), 66 of 102 (64.7%) red foxes (vulpes vulpes), 15 of 32 (46.9%) wolves (canis lupus), 26 of 37 (70.3%) eurasian badgers (meles meles), 17 of 20 (85.0%) stone martens (martes foina), 4 ...200717689869
ectoparasites of the endangered iberian lynx lynx pardinus and sympatric wild and domestic carnivores in spain.ectoparasites can cause important skin disorders in animals and can also transmit pathogens. the iberian lynx lynx pardinus has been stated to be the most endangered felid in the world and such vector-borne pathogens may threaten its survival. we surveyed 98 wild carnivores (26 iberian lynxes, 34 red foxes vulpes vulpes, 24 egyptian mongooses herpestes ichneumon, 11 common genets genetta genetta, two eurasian badgers meles meles, one polecat mustela putorius) and 75 domestic but free-ranging car ...200717897365
helminth parasites of the endangered iberian lynx (lynx pardinus) and sympatric carnivores.five critically endangered iberian lynxes (lynx pardinus) and 35 other sympatric carnivores (19 feral cats felis catus, 12 egyptian mongooses herpestes ichneumon, and 4 common genets genetta genetta) were analysed for helminths in sierra morena and doñana area (southern spain). ancylostoma tubaeforme, which was believed to be harmful for lynx cubs according to a previous study, was present in the only lynx and in 53% of cats analysed in doñana (80% in adult cats). other species shared in both ar ...200718021466
levels of heavy metals and metalloids in critically endangered iberian lynx and other wild carnivores from southern spain.the iberian lynx (lynx pardinus) is the most endangered felid in the world with a wild population which probably stands at less than 200 individuals inhabiting two areas in southern spain (doñana and sierra morena) that are known to have been contaminated by heavy metals and metalloids due to a long history of mining activities. this contamination may pose a threat to long term conservation efforts and hence, the concentrations of seven elements (as, se, cd, zn, cu, pb, hg) were determined in th ...200818455757
disease threats to the endangered iberian lynx (lynx pardinus).the iberian lynx, (lynx pardinus), is the most endangered felid in the world. to determine whether sympatric carnivores are reservoirs of pathogens posing a disease risk for the lynx, evidence of exposure to 17 viral, bacterial and protozoan agents was investigated in 176 carnivores comprising 26 free-living lynx, 53 domestic cats, 28 dogs, 33 red foxes (vulpes vulpes), 24 egyptian mongooses (herpestes ichneumon), 10 common genets (genetta genetta) and 2 eurasian badgers (meles meles) in the are ...200918555712
neospora caninum antibodies in wild carnivores from spain.serum samples from 251 wild carnivores from different regions of spain were tested for antibodies to neospora caninum by the commercial competitive screening enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (c-elisa) and confirmed by neospora agglutination test (nat) and/or by indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat). samples with antibodies detected by at least two serological tests were considered seropositive. antibodies to n. caninum were found in 3.2% of 95 red foxes (vulpes vulpes); in 21.4% of 28 wolve ...200818556128
characterization of widespread canine leishmaniasis among wild carnivores from spain.visceral leishmaniasis (vl) is an emerging zoonotic parasitic disease caused by leishmania infantum in mediterranean countries, with sand flies (phlebotomus spp.) as vectors and dogs as the main domestic reservoir. the role of wild carnivores in the epidemiology of leishmaniasis is still controversial. in order to determine the prevalence of natural infection with l. infantum in wild carnivores from spain, we analyzed 217 samples by pcr and western blotting and used restriction fragment length p ...200818579311
leptospirosis in wild and domestic carnivores in natural areas in andalusia, spain.leptospirosis is a zoonosis that affects humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. carnivores are at the top of the feeding chain, thus being exposed to pathogens through their preys. from june 2004 to april 2007, we analyzed for evidences of contact with 14 serovars of leptospira interrogans sensu lato serum (analyzed by indirect microscopic agglutination test) and urine or kidney samples (analyzed by microscopic observation, immunostaining and culture) collected from 201 wild and domestic carniv ...200918973450
role of the domestic dog as a reservoir host of leishmania donovani in eastern sudan.abstract:200919534802
Levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in the critically endangered Iberian lynx and other sympatric carnivores in Spain.Accumulation of organochlorine compounds is well studied in aquatic food chains whereas little information is available from terrestrial food chains. This study presents data of organochlorine levels in tissue and plasma samples of 15 critically endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) and other 55 wild carnivores belonging to five species from three natural areas of Spain (Doñana National Park, Sierra Morena and Lozoya River) and explores their relationship with species diet. The Iberian lynx, w ...201122099537
large-scale serosurvey of besnoitia besnoiti in free-living carnivores in spain.the disease bovine besnoitiosis is responsible for severe economic losses caused by the protozoan besnoitia besnoiti. the identity of the definitive host (dh) of this parasite has yet to be determined, although it is presumed to be a carnivore. with the aim of advancing in the identification of b. besnoiti dh, a necessary step in implementing control strategies, the contact rate of 205 free-roaming carnivores with this parasite in spain was studied. the study included 16 wolves (canis lupus), 41 ...201222770702
coxiella burnetii dna detected in domestic ruminants and wildlife from portugal.coxiella burnetii is the etiological agent of q fever or coxiellosis, a zoonosis mainly affecting domestic ruminants. information on the population structure and epidemiology of c. burnetii in animals is scarce in portugal. evidence of c. burnetti infection was sought in domestic, wild and captive animals based on the detection of bacterial dna. tissue samples from 152 domestic animals (cattle=24, goats=51, sheep=76 and swine=1), 55 wild carnivores (egyptian mongoose=45, red fox=4, common genet= ...201526345258
snapshot of viral infections in wild carnivores reveals ubiquity of parvovirus and susceptibility of egyptian mongoose to feline panleukopenia virus.the exposure of wild carnivores to viral pathogens, with emphasis on parvovirus (cpv/fplv), was assessed based on the molecular screening of tissue samples from 128 hunted or accidentally road-killed animals collected in portugal from 2008 to 2011, including egyptian mongoose (herpestes ichneumon, n = 99), red fox (vulpes vulpes, n = 19), stone marten (martes foina, n = 3), common genet (genetta genetta, n = 3) and eurasian badger (meles meles, n = 4). a high prevalence of parvovirus dna (63%) w ...201323527182
occurrence and molecular genotyping of giardia duodenalis and cryptosporidium spp. in wild mesocarnivores in spain.there is a surprisingly scarce amount of epidemiological and molecular data on the prevalence, frequency, and diversity of the intestinal protozoan parasites giardia duodenalis and cryptosporidium spp. in wildlife in general and mesocarnivore species in particular. consequently, the extent of the cyst/oocyst environmental contamination attributable to these wild host species and their potential implications for public veterinary health remain largely unknown. in this molecular epidemiological su ...201728215875
survey of mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in road-killed wild carnivores in portugal.a survey to determine the occurrence of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) in wild carnivores in portugal was conducted by testing samples from road-killed animals between 2009 and 2012. postmortem examinations were performed and tissues were collected from wild carnivores representing four families and six different species, with a total of 74 animals analyzed. cultures were performed by using löwenstein-jensen and middlebrook 7h11 solid media and acid-fast isolates were identifi ...201425632662
new insights into mycobacterium bovis prevalence in wild mammals in portugal.a survey to determine the prevalence of mycobacterium bovis in wild mammals in portugal was conducted by testing samples from hunted animals and those found dead between 2009 and 2013. in this study, we investigated 2116 wild mammals. post-mortem examinations were performed, and tissues were collected from wild mammals representing 8 families and 11 different species, with a total of 393 animals analysed. cultures were performed, and acid-fast isolates were identified by pcr. tissues were also s ...201625484245
mycobacterium bovis in an egyptian mongoose. 201324141165
gonderia herpestis n. sp. from the egyptian mongoose, herpestis ichneumon. 195813604756
estimating carnivore community structures.obtaining reliable estimates of the structure of carnivore communities is of paramount importance because of their ecological roles, ecosystem services and impact on biodiversity conservation, but they are still scarce. this information is key for carnivore management: to build support for and acceptance of management decisions and policies it is crucial that those decisions are based on robust and high quality information. here, we combined camera and live-trapping surveys, as well as telemetry ...201728120871
rostro-dorsal and rostro-lateral skull morphologic variability in three age-groups of the egyptian mongoose (herpestes ichneumon) (linnaeus, 1758): implications of certain orbital parameters - angular geometric approach.this study evaluated 30 skulls of the grey mongoose divided into three age-groups (6 pups, 10 juveniles and 14 adults) for skull shape variability determination. specific geometric shapes were drawn from defined points. angular geometric measurements of shapes derived from rostro-dorsal and rostro-lateral parts of the skull included; orbital angles (with and without the mandible), comprising of viscero-cranium, skull and orbital index that was calculated to evaluate the correlations, if any, wit ...201627830878
following the trail: factors underlying the sudden expansion of the egyptian mongoose (herpestes ichneumon) in portugal.species range-limits are influenced by a combination of several factors. in our study we aimed to unveil the drivers underlying the expansion of the egyptian mongoose in portugal, a carnivore that was confined to southern portugal and largely increased its range during the last three decades. we evaluated the expansion of the species in three periods (1980-1990, 1990-2000 and 2000-2010), by projecting the presence/absence data of the species in each temporal range and proposed four hypotheses to ...201526266939
fecal virome analysis of three carnivores reveals a novel nodavirus and multiple gemycircularviruses.more knowledge about viral populations in wild animals is needed in order to better understand and assess the risk of zoonotic diseases. in this study we performed viral metagenomic analysis of fecal samples from three healthy carnivores: a badger (meles meles), a mongoose (herpestes ichneumon) and an otter (lutra lutra) from portugal.201525986582
coexistence of sympatric carnivores in relatively homogeneous mediterranean landscapes: functional importance of habitat segregation at the fine-scale level.one of the main objectives of community ecology is to understand the conditions allowing species to coexist. however, few studies have investigated the role of fine-scale habitat use segregation in the functioning of guild communities in relatively homogeneous landscapes where opportunities for coexistence are likely to be the most restrictive. we investigate how the process of habitat use differentiation at the home range level according to the degree of specialism/generalism of species can lea ...201525933639
isolation and characterization of 11 tetranucleotide microsatellite loci in the egyptian mongoose (herpestes ichneumon).we report the isolation of 11 polymorphic tetranucleotide microsatellite loci in the egyptian mongoose (herpestes ichneumon). in a sample of 27 individuals, we observed between 4 and 7 alleles per locus and their observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.37 to 0.85 and from 0.44 to 0.79, respectively. all genotypic frequencies conformed to hardy-weinberg equilibrium expectations and there were no instances of linkage disequilibrium detected between pairs of loci.200921564877
co-existence between iberian lynx and egyptian mongooses: estimating interaction strength by structural equation modelling and testing by an observational study.we used path analysis to investigate the causal relationships between iberian lynx and egyptian mongoose track numbers, and to estimate the direct effect of the former on the latter in the doñana area (2750 km(2) ), south-western spain. relative abundance of rabbits, shrub cover and protection level were also considered in the path analysis. an observational study consisting of a repeated track survey with a split-plot design was also carried out between 1990 and 1996 to independently test the r ...199826412375
resistance of the egyptian mongoose to sarafotoxins.the egyptian mongoose (herpestes ichneumon) is known for its resistance to viperid and elapid venoms. the current work demonstrates that it is also resistant to the venom of atractaspis and its most toxic component, sarafotoxin-b. intravenous administration of this toxin, at a dose of about 13 times ld100 for mice, resulted in disturbance in electrocardiograms in the mongoose, which returned to normal after several hours. sarafotoxin-b failed to induce contraction of mongoose aortal preparations ...19979278974
molecular detection and characterization of leishmania infantum in free-ranging egyptian mongoose (herpestes ichneumon).wild mammals are susceptible to infection by leishmania parasites. although canine leishmaniasis is widely distributed in mainland portugal, the sylvatic cycle of the parasite remains poorly understood. in this study, the occurrence of l. infantum in wild carnivores from portugal was assessed by molecular screening of 132 hunted or accidentally road-killed animals. spleen samples from egyptian mongoose, red fox, stone marten, common genet and european badger were tested by amplification of leish ...202032071863
ecological drivers of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis detection in mongoose (herpestes ichneumon) using is900 as proxy.mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) is the etiological agent of johne's disease or paratuberculosis, a chronic infection affecting domestic ruminants worldwide. despite sporadic reports of map occurrence in non-ruminants, information on the risk factors predisposing for infection is still scarce and evidence of transmission paths linking the livestock-wildlife-environment interfaces also remains lacking. in this study, we predicted that environmental, host-related, land use and hum ...202031964932
mesocarnivore community structure under predator control: unintended patterns in a conservation context.across the mediterranean, conservation programmes often operate concomitantly with hunting interests within game-lands. carnivore guilds lie at the interface between contrasting management goals, being simultaneously fundamental components of ecosystems and targets of predator control to reduce predation on game species. here, we evaluate the composition and spatial structure of a mesocarnivore community in a protected area of southeast portugal, with high economic investment in conservation and ...201930653547
lynx eats cat: disease risk assessment during an iberian lynx intraguild predation.lethal interactions between members of the carnivore guild are well represented in literature. in the iberian lynx, interspecific killing (without prey consumption) of some mesocarnivores, such as the egyptian mongoose, genet, and red fox, has been reported. although vaguely documented, evidence suggests feral cats fall victim to interactions with this apex predator. here, we describe the first documented case of interspecific killing and partial consumption of a feral cat by an adult male iberi ...201932214947
serological survey of toxoplasma gondii and besnoitia besnoiti in a wildlife conservation area in southern portugal.toxoplasma gondii and besnoitia besnoiti are closely related apicomplexan protozoa. t. gondii is a zoonotic pathogen which may cause serious disease in man and warm-blooded animals, including wild species. b. besnoiti causes bovine besnoitiosis, an emergent disease in europe, which is linked to important production losses. unlike t. gondii, the life cycle of b. besnoiti remains a mystery, since the definitive host has not yet been identified. the aim of this work was to determine the seroprevale ...201631014504
hair cortisol analyses in different mammal species: choosing the wrong assay may lead to erroneous results.wild animals are faced with a broad range of environmental stressors and research is needed to better understand their effect on populations. hormone analysis based on enzyme immunoassays (eias) can provide valuable information on adrenocortical activity (stress), and assessment of cortisol in hair may allow the quantification of cortisol production. to validate hair hormone analysis, we compared two eias based on antibodies against cortisol-3-cmo-bsa and cortisol-21-hs-bsa for hair glucocortico ...202032153782
an effective culturomics approach to study the gut microbiota of mammals.the microbial characterization of the mammal's gut is an emerging research area, wherein culturomics methodologies applied to human samples are transposed to the animal context without improvement. in this work, using egyptian mongoose as a model, we explore wet bench conditions to define an effective experimental design based on culturomics and dna barcoding with potential application to different mammal species. after testing a battery of solid media and enrichments, we show that ycfa-based me ...202032898701
crosstalk between culturomics and microbial profiling of egyptian mongoose (herpestes ichneumon) gut microbiome.recently, we unveiled taxonomical and functional differences in egyptian mongoose (herpestes ichneumon) gut microbiota across sex and age classes by microbial profiling. in this study, we generate, through culturomics, extended baseline information on the culturable bacterial and fungal microbiome of the species using the same specimens as models. firstly, this strategy enabled us to explore cultivable microbial community differences across sexes and to ascertain the influence exerted by biologi ...202032471180
the gut microbiota of the egyptian mongoose as an early warning indicator of ecosystem health in portugal.the egyptian mongoose is a carnivore mammal species that in the last decades experienced a tremendous expansion in iberia, particularly in portugal, mainly due to its remarkable ecological plasticity in response to land-use changes. however, this species may have a disruptive role on native communities in areas where it has recently arrived due to predation and the potential introduction of novel pathogens. we report reference information on the cultivable gut microbial landscape of widely distr ...202032365625
egyptian mongoose (herpestes ichneumon) gut microbiota: taxonomical and functional differences across sex and age classes.the egyptian mongoose (herpestes ichneumon) is a medium-size carnivore that, in europe, is restricted to iberia. the bio-ecology of this species remains to be elucidated in several dimensions, including gut microbiota that is nowadays recognized as a fundamental component of mammals. in this work, we investigated the gut microbiota of this herpestid by single-molecule real-time sequencing of twenty paired male (n = 10) and female (n = 10) intestinal samples. this culture-independent approach ena ...202032168965
age, sex and storage time influence hair cortisol levels in a wild mammal population.the measurement of hair cortisol is increasingly used to understand the effect of natural and anthropogenic stressors on wild animals, but it is potentially confounded by individual, seasonal and sex-dependant variations in baseline cortisol secretion. this study validated an enzyme-linked immunoassay for hair cortisol measurement and characterized its baseline variation in a wild population of egyptian mongoose. the analysis encompassed individuals of both sexes and all ages, across a range of ...201931398221
factors influencing predator roadkills: the availability of prey in road verges.road mortality is the most noticeable effect of roads on wildlife. road verges may provide important refuges for small mammals and rabbits, particularly when roads cross intensive agricultural or grazed areas. in these circumstances, the increasing use of verges by prey species may attract predators to road surroundings increasing the risk of roadkill. the aim of this study was to quantify the role of prey availability (small mammals and rabbits) on predator road casualties, taking into account ...201931279141
sex and season explain spleen weight variation in the egyptian mongoose.the egyptian mongoose (herpestes ichneumon linnaeus, 1758) is a medium-sized carnivore that experienced remarkable geographic expansion over the last 3 decades in the iberian peninsula. in this study, we investigated the association of species-related and abiotic factors with spleen weight (as a proxy for immunocompetence) in the species. we assessed the relationship of body condition, sex, age, season, and environmental conditions with spleen weight established for 508 hunted specimens. our res ...201930697234
did the romans introduce the egyptian mongoose (herpestes ichneumon) into the iberian peninsula?new finds of bones of the egyptian mongoose (herpestes ichneumon), one from portugal and one from spain, were directly 14c dated to the first century ad. while the portuguese specimen was found without connection to the chalcolithic occupation of the pedra furada cave where it was recovered, the spanish find, collected in the city of mérida, comes from a ritual pit that also contained three human and 40 dog burials. the finds reported here show that the egyptian mongoose, contrary to the traditi ...201830311012
isolation of talaromyces marneffei from the skin of an egyptian mongoose ( herpestes ichneumon) in portugal.we report a case of talaromyces marneffei skin infection in an egyptian mongoose ( herpestes ichneumon) in portugal. the isolated fungus was identified through its mycologic characteristics, morphology, and pcr amplification.201929953315
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