changes in carbohydrate metabolism of pila globosa in response to crustacean hyperglycemic hormone.hyperglycemia was caused in the snail pila globosa by the injection of the hyperglycemic hormones obtained from fresh water crabs (oziotelphusa senex senex) and marine tiger prawns (penaeus monodon). tissue glycogen and total carbohydrates presented a significant decrease which indicated that the source of hyperglycemia was the tissue carbohydrates. the hyperglycemic principles also increased the tissue phosphorylase activity and provided evidence for a possible action of the crustacean hypergly ...19921382680
bi-directional transmission of molecular information by photon or electron beams passing in the close vicinity of specific molecules, and its clinical and basic research applications: 1) diagnosis of humans or animal patients without any direct contact; 2) light microscopic and electron microscopic localization of neuro-transmitters, heavy metals, oncogen c-fos (ab2), etc. of intracellular fine structures of normal and abnormal single cells using light or electro-microscopic indirect bi-digital o-ring 1985, omura, y. discovered that, when specific molecules were placed anywhere in the close vicinity of the path of a light beam (laser), their molecular information, as well as information on electrical & magnetic fields, is transmitted bi-directionally along the path of this light beam. namely, this information is transmitted in the direction the light beam is projected and towards the direction from which the light beam is coming. this finding was applied to the following clinical and basic ...19921351338
ability of thawed tiger (panthera tigris) spermatozoa to fertilize conspecific eggs and bind and penetrate domestic cat eggs in vitro.electroejaculates from tigers were collected and half was used fresh to inseminate tiger eggs in vitro and domestic cat eggs stored in a hypertonic salt solution. the remainder was pelleted, frozen in a solution of 20% egg yolk, 11% lactose and 4% glycerol, thawed and cultured with tiger and domestic cat eggs. the motility index ((sperm % motility)+(status rating x 20))/2 for thawed spermatozoa was about 86% of that in fresh aliquots. of the 49 tiger oocytes inseminated in vitro with fresh sperm ...19921339836
retrovirus infections in non-domestic felids: serological studies and attempts to isolate a african lioness from the zoo of zurich had to be euthanized because of an inoperable tumor. the serum tested negative for feline leukemia virus (felv) p27 antigen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) but was strongly positive for feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) antibodies by elisa and western blot. when her only offspring and mate were tested for fiv, high antibody titers to fiv were also found in their serum. lymphocytes were prepared from these two lions on different occasions a ...19921337398
antinutrients content of some locally available legumes and cereals in nigeria.plant protein is the cheapest source of protein available to mankind but unfortunately the protein is accompanied by antinutrients. the quantity of oxalate and tannin in acha, bambara groundnut, guinea corn, millet, sesame seed, soybean and tiger nut were chemically analyzed. the white variety of sesame seed and soybean have the highest oxalate and tannin contents of 8.25 mg/g and 0.15 mg/g respectively. among the cereals the black and brown varieties of millet have the highest oxalate and tanni ...19921455533
localization of gabaa receptor subtypes in the tiger salamander retina.dry autoradiography was used to determine the distribution of gabaa binding sites in tiger salamander retina. high-affinity binding of [3h]-flunitrazepam [( 3h]-fnz) was used to localize benzodiazepine receptors (bzr) and [3h]-muscimol was used to localize the gabaa recognition site. specific [3h]-fnz binding was present only in the inner retina, primarily in the inner plexiform layer (ipl). co-incubation with gaba enhanced [3h]-fnz binding by 20-50%. [3h]-muscimol binding was found throughout t ...19921310871
synapse-specific expression of acetylcholine receptor genes and their products at original synaptic sites in rat soleus muscle fibres regenerating in the absence of test the hypothesis that synaptic basal lamina can induce synapse-specific expression of acetylcholine receptor (achr) genes, we examined the levels mrna for the alpha- and epsilon-subunits of the achr in regenerating rat soleus muscles up to 17 days of regeneration. following destruction of all muscle fibres and their nuclei by exposure to venom of the australian tiger snake, new fibres regenerated within the original basal lamina sheaths. northern blots showed that original mrna was lost du ...19921282861
snakebite in the horse.four cases of snakebite in horses are presented. diagnosis was made on clinical signs in all, plus fang punctures in 2 cases. tiger snake antivenene was used in the treatment of 2 patients and these recovered rapidly. of the 2 in which antivenene was not used, 1 severely affected horse died. the clinical signs which were observed were those of progressive general paralysis and were entirely referable to the neurotoxic component of the venom.19751164270
cerebral paragonimiasis.the first case of cerebral paragonimiasis was reported by otani in japan in 1887. this was nine years after kerbert's discovery of the fluke in the lungs of bengal tigers and seven years after a human pulmonary infection by the fluke was demonstrated by baelz and manson. the first case was a 26-year-old man who had been suffering from cough and hemosputum for one year. the patient developed convulsive seizures with subsequent coma and died. the postmortem examination showed cystic lesions in the ...19751095292
postsynaptic and musculotropic effects of notexin, a presynaptic neurotoxin from the venom of notechis scutatus scutatus (australian tiger snake). 19761014037
an account of the longitudinal mucosal corrugations of the human tracheo-bronchial tree, with observations on those of some animals.a description is given of the distribution of the longitudinal mucosal corrugations in the human tracheo-bronchial tree. it has been shown that they are made up of elastic tissue in a collagen matrix, and that the elastic fibres continue into the smallest bronchioles beyond where the corrugations are no longer visible. an examination has also been made of the tracheo-bronchial trees of the hen, rat, raccoon, pig, sheep, llama and tiger. corrugations are present in all these animals, except the h ...19761010796
rationalisation of first-aid measures for elapid snakebite.the plasma of monkeys envenomated with tiger snake (notechis scutatus) venom was monitored by radioimmunoassay for both crude venom and a neurotoxin. when the injected limb was immobilised and a pressure of 55 mm hg applied to the injection site, only very low levels of circulating venom or neurotoxin were detectable. in practical terms, venom movement can be effectively delayed for long periods by the application of a firm crepe bandage to the length of the bitten limb combined with immobilisat ...197984206
correlation of sperm viability with gamete interaction and fertilization in vitro in the cheetah (acinonyx jubatus).sperm-oocyte interaction in vitro was studied in the cheetah, a species known to produce poor quality ejaculates and to experience low rates of fertility. twelve female cheetahs were injected (i.m.) with ecg followed by hcg 84 h later. twenty-four to 26 h post hcg, each was subjected to laparoscopic oocyte aspiration. a sperm motility index (smi) was calculated for each of 9 cheetah sperm donors that produced ejaculates averaging 41.3 +/- 22.9 x 10(6) motile sperm and 28.4 +/- 4.9% structurally ...19921391303
deaths from snake bite in australia, obtain and analyse data relating to snake bite fatalities in australia.19921453996
the fate of dystrophin during the degeneration and regeneration of the soleus muscle of the rat.immunocytochemistry and western blotting were used to monitor the fate of dystrophin in the soleus muscle of the rat during a cycle of degeneration and regeneration induced by inoculation of the muscle with the venom of notechis scutatus scutatus (the australian tiger snake). in control muscle dystrophin was localised close to the plasma membrane. dystrophin began to break down 3-6 h after venom inoculation, giving a characteristic discontinuous labelling pattern. at 12 h dystrophin was absent f ...19921557946
a slowly inactivating k+ current in retinal ganglion cells from postnatal rat.the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique was used to study voltage-gated k+ conductances in retinal ganglion cells from postnatal rat. retinal ganglion cells were fluorescently labeled in situ, dissociated from the retina, and maintained in culture. with physiological solutions in the bath and the pipette, depolarizing voltage steps from physiological holding potentials activated na(+)-(ina), ca2+ (ica), and k(+)-currents studied previously in retinal ganglion cells. here we rep ...19921558829
species differences in amphibian olfactory neuron reactivity to a monoclonal antibody.a monoclonal antibody immunostained a subpopulation of olfactory sensory neurons in cryostat sections of the olfactory mucosa of the grass frog, rana pipiens, and the bullfrog, rana catesbeiana. however, in the olfactory tissues of the african clawed frog, xenopus laevis, only mucus and mucus-secreting components were stained, and no cell-specific immunoreactivity was seen in the tiger salamander, ambystoma tigrinum. this antibody is a useful marker of olfactory neuronal subpopulations in some a ...19921617462
axial motor organization in postmetamorphic tiger salamanders (ambystoma tigrinum): a segregation of epaxial and hypaxial motor pools is not necessarily associated with terrestrial locomotion.the axial motor column has undergone a major reorganization during the evolution of vertebrates. in aquatic anamniotes including lampreys, goldfish, and mudpuppies, epaxial and hypaxial motoneurons are intermingled in the column. in contrast, epaxial and hypaxial motoneurons are spatially segregated in water snakes, rats, and monkeys, apparently as a consequence of an isomorphic mapping of motoneuron location onto the position of innervated muscle in the embryonic myotome. the presence of these ...19921633553
cardiovascular effects of bpth-(1-34) and isoproterenol in the frog, rana tigrina.1. the cardiovascular effects of bovine parathyroid hormone fragment [bpth-(1-34)] and isoproterenol (iso) on frog (rana tigrina) isolated atria and helical strips of blood vessels were examined since pth produces a beta-adrenergic-like effect in the mammal. 2. data showed that both bpth-(1-34) and iso were vasorelaxant in kcl and arginine vasoctocin (avt) preconstricted dorsal aorta, iliac and femoral arteries. 3. they both relaxed extracellular calcium-dependent contrations. 4. there was no ad ...19911687555
mast cells in mammalian brain.mast cells, which had until recently been believed to be not present in the mammalian brain, were studied in the brains of 29 mammalian species. although there was considerable intraspecific and interspecific variation, mast cells were most numerous within the leptomeninges (especially in those overlying the cerebrum and the dorsal thalamus - most rodents, most carnivores, chimpanzees, squirrel monkeys and elephant), the cerebral cortex (most rodents, tiger, fox, chimpanzee, tarsier, and elephan ...1976961335
[disorders of swimming ability in tiger dachsunds]. 1977319978
the effects of a toxin isolated from australian tiger snake (notechis scutatus scutatus) venom on autonomic neuromuscular transmission.1 the effects on mammalian autonomic neuromuscular transmission of a purified toxin from the crude venom of the australian tiger snake, notechis scutatus, have been investigated. 2 the toxin had no measurable effect on transmission in either the rat anococcygeus, the rat vas deferens, or the longitudinal muscle of the guinea-pig ileum. 3 the toxin induced a contraction of longitudinal smooth muscle of the ileum. the tissue relaxed in spite of the continued presence of the toxin, and remained ins ...1978205289
blood corticosteroids in australian marsupial and placental mammals and one monotreme.peripheral blood corticosteroid levels were determined in nine species of australian marsupial (eastern grey kangaroo, black-tailed, bennett's and pademelon wallabies, quokka, wombat, koala and western native and tiger cats), one species of monotreme (echidna) and one placental australian mammal (dingo). animals were obtained or bled with minimal disturbance and came from areas considered to have adequate sodium content of the vegetation. aldosterone, corticosterone, cortisol, 11-deoxycorticoste ...1976181514
a new host and locality record for mesocestoides sp. tetrathyridia (cestoidea: cyclophyllidea), with a summary of the genus from snakes of the world.a new host and distribution record is reported for tetrathyridia of mesocestoides sp. one of 5 (20%) namib tiger snakes, telescopus beetzi, from south africa was infected. numerous tetrathyridia were found encapsulated in mesentery attached to the small intestine. morphological examination of tetrathyridia revealed absence of buds, multiple scoleces, or any other evidence of asexual proliferation. a summary of the snakes of the world reported as hosts of tetrathyridia of mesocestoides sp. is pre ...19912010871
[operation on a congenital cataract in a siberian tiger].a cataract operation in a young siberian tiger is reported. this 5-month-old tiger, presenting with blindness, showed bilateral residual pupillary membranes and anterior polar cataracts combined with nuclear cataracts. after unilateral intracapsular extraction of the lens, the tiger adapted well to the improvement in sight and behaved almost like an animal with normal vision. the animal died 3 months post-operatively from unknown cause. histological examination of the aphakic eye showed, at the ...1979440702
light-dependent delay in the falling phase of the retinal rod photoresponse.using suction electrodes, photocurrent responses to 100-ms saturating flashes were recorded from isolated retinal rods of the larval-stage tiger salamander (ambystoma tigrinum). the delay period (tc) that preceded recovery of the dark current by a criterion amount (3 pa) was analyzed in relation to the flash intensity (if), and to the corresponding fractional bleach (r*0/rtot) of the visual pigment; r*0/rtot was compared with r*s/rtot, the fractional bleach at which the peak level of activated t ...19921739680
[immunological identification of tiger-bone].anti-tiger sera were prepared by using tiger serum proteins to immunize the rabbits. tiger-bone can be identified by the specific serological reaction between the anti-tiger sera and the tiger-bone proteins.19921418546
isolation of a bacterium resembling pirellula species from primary tissue culture of the giant tiger prawn (penaeus monodon).during attempts to establish tissue cultures from hepatopancreas, heart, and hemolymph of the giant tiger prawn (penaeus monodon), using a medium including penicillin, streptomycin, and amphotericin b, bacterial contamination in the form of a sheet of growth attached to the tissue culture vessel was a persistent problem. contaminant bacteria were teardrop-shaped cells arranged in rosettes, and electron microscopy revealed buds, crateriform structures, and the absence of a peptidoglycan layer in ...19911781677
[the relief of the luminal surface of the sinuses in the mammalian cranial dura mater].in mammalia with different types in organization of blood outflow in the dura mater venous sinuses: vertebral (tiger), jugular (fur-seal, cat, rabbit) and mixed (rat, dog, man) the internal surface relief of these sinuses has been studied. the total plan of the relief in all the species studied is principally the same. it is characterized with presence of visually determined macro-relief structures: pacchionian bodies, trabeculae, bars, eminences and excavations in places, where the sinuses fuse ...19911845512
the assessment of muscle fibre loss after the injection of the venom of notechis scutatus (australian tiger snake).we have used the w.h.o. international reference venom from the australian tiger snake, notechis scutatus, to study possible methods for the assessment of local myonecrosis caused by this venom. we made subcutaneous injections of various doses (0.25-20.0 micrograms) of venom into the antero-lateral aspect of the rat hind limb. the soleus muscle was removed after 24 hr and muscle fibre loss calculated from photo-montages of histological sections. muscle tissue which had been either frozen or wax-e ...19901692644
evidence for a fel d i-like molecule in the "big cats" (felidae species).in this study, we investigated the cross-reactivity pattern of ige and igg4 antibodies to the major feline allergen, fel d i. we studied the ige and igg4 response of 11 cat-allergic patients against fel d i-like structures in eight members of the felidae family: ocelot, puma, serval, siberian tiger, lion, jaguar, snow leopard, and caracal. hair from these "big cats" was collected, extracted, and used in a rast system and histamine-release test. by means of a rast-inhibition assay with affinity-p ...19901695231
effect of tissue inhomogeneity on dose distribution of continuous activity of low-energy electrons in bone marrow cavities with different topologies.monte carlo calculations have previously been performed by eckerman to evaluate the absorbed fractions of continuous sources of monoenergetic electrons in marrow cavities of human bone. the difference in scattering power of electrons in cortical bone (cb) and the red marrow (rm) was neglected. in the present work the integrated tiger series and electron-gamma-shower monte carlo codes were used to investigate the effect of topology of the bone and bone marrow interface on backscatter dose increas ...19911870497
[capillary length in the human heart during physiological growth and under pathological conditions].knowledge about the capillary length in mammalian and human heart is still scanty. because it is very difficult to examine this parameter directly we used an indirect method. the distance between the arterioles can be used as an approximately measurement for the double capillary length. we tried to measure the distances between arterioles in about 30 postmortem injected hearts using india ink to produce a kind of reflected imitated tabby (tiger) heart pattern. in addition we measured the distanc ...19901708599
molecular genetic divergence of orang utan (pongo pygmaeus) subspecies based on isozyme and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.the orang utan (pongo pygmaeus), as currently recognized, includes two geographically separated subspecies: pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus, which resides on borneo, and p. p. abelii, which inhabits sumatra. at present, there is no known route of gene flow between the two populations except through captive individuals which have been released back into the wild over the last several decades. the two subspecies are differentiated by morphological and behavioral characters, and they can be distinguished b ...19902230076
the carotenoids of wild and blue disease affected farmed tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon, fabricus).1. the main carotenoids in wild penaeus monodon exoskeleton were astaxanthin di- and mono-esters, astaxanthin, and beta-carotene. 2. wild p. monodon exoskeleton contained on average 26.3 ppm total carotenoid; normally pigmented farmed shrimp had a similar concentration (25.3 ppm). 3. exoskeletons of farmed "blue" p. monodon (i.e. blue-coloured, as opposed to the normally red-blue/black banded shrimp) contained significantly less total carotenoid (4.3-7 ppm). the only major carotenoid being astax ...19911873990
snake bite in 6 years snake bite was diagnosed in 41 cats, with an average age of 20 months. the commonest presenting signs were dilated pupils, absence of the pupillary light reflex, depression and generalised muscle weakness. other frequent findings were vomiting, dyspnoea, hindlimb ataxia and complete flaccid paralysis. thirty-seven cases (90%) occurred in the 6 warmer months of the year. tiger snakes were positively identified in 7 cases. a recovery rate of 89% was obtained in cases receiving 3000 unit ...1978743057
immunologic conservation of the fiber cell beaded filament.lenses were obtained from the eyes of four different classes of chordates, including mammalia (rat, mouse, cow, human), aves (chicken), amphibia (tiger salamander), and osteichthyes (steelhead), as well as from one mollusca (squid). buffer soluble, urea soluble and urea insoluble fractions were prepared from each, and probed by western blot analysis for the presence of the lens fiber cell 115 and 49 kd beaded filament proteins. application of both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies revealed th ...19911889232
diagnosis and prevalence of leptospira infection in aborted and stillborn horses.a study was conducted to evaluate a recently available fluorescent antibody test (fat) conjugate for the detection of leptospires in tissues of aborted and stillborn horses, to determine the leptospira antibody titers and compare serologic test results with fat results, and to determine the prevalence of leptospira-induced abortions and stillbirths in the equine population of central kentucky. from july 1, 1988 through june 30, 1989, 15 (2.5%) of 594 submissions (fetuses, stillborn foals, and/or ...19911892931
fatal and near-fatal animal bite injuries.fatal and near-fatal maulings of humans by pit bulls have recently become a topic of major public concern, resulting in the passage of laws in some jurisdictions that make the owner of a pit bull criminally liable for manslaughter if his or her pet causes a human death. the authors recently investigated two cases in which children were fatally injured by pet dogs. in the first case, a 17-day-old girl suffered fatal abdominal injuries when attacked by a pregnant siberian husky. a 2-year-old girl ...19911919485
crustacean hyperglycemic hormone induced alterations in millepede (spirostreptus asthenes) carbohydrate metabolism.following intersegmental injection of the hyperglycemic hormone (hgh) obtained from fresh water crab (oziotelphusa senex senex) and marine tiger prawn (penaeus monodon), hemolymph sugar concentration was significantly increased in millepede (spirostreptus asthenes). glycogen and total carbohydrates of fat body decreased in injected animals indicating that the source of hyperglycemia was carbohydrates from the fat body. correlating with the decreased glycogen content, phosphorylase activity of th ...19911725740
new toxins from the venom of the common tiger snake (notechis scutatus scutatus).scutoxin a and b represent two isoforms of a new toxic protein from the venom of the australian tiger snake, notechis scutatus scutatus. both isoforms, of apparent mol. wt 13,000, are less basic than either notexin or notechis ii-5. they both have similar i.v. ld50-values in mice of ca 0.006 micrograms/g, and phospholipase activities of about 136 mumoles of fatty acid released/min/mg at 37 degrees c when acting on phosphatidylcholine in the presence of triton x-100. toxicities of the scutoxins a ...19912028475
immunological relationships between the subunits of textilotoxin and rabbit antisera raised against textilotoxin and some snake venoms.the binding of textilotoxin and its subunits a, b, c and d to polyclonal rabbit antisera directed against textilotoxin, australian common brown snake (pseudonaja textilis) and tiger snake (notechis scutatus scutatus) venoms was studied by elisa. subunit d showed greatest reactivity with antisera to textilotoxin and brown snake venom. the phospholipase a2 active subunit a reacted more strongly with antisera to tiger snake venom in keeping with the high degree of homology between the amino acid se ...19912048151
partial amino acid sequence of erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase from tiger shark.1. a partial primary structure (197 residues) of carbonic anhydrase from tiger shark (galeocerdo cuvieri) erythrocytes has been determined. 2. the amino acid sequence of the enzyme is identical to those of human cytoplasmic carbonic anhydrases (ca i-iii) by as much as 52-60%. 3. it is shown that tiger shark ca most closely resembles the ca ii isoenzyme of amniotes. 4. isoelectric focusing and inhibition studies on carbonic anhydrase from dogfish (squalus acanthias) blood and muscle indicate the ...19902110050
some biochemical responses of rat skeletal muscle to a single subcutaneous injection of a toxin (notexin) isolated from the venom of the australian tiger snake notechis scutatus scutatus.1. some biochemical responses of mammalian skeletal muscle to a single subcutaneous injection of a purified toxin from the venom of the australian tiger snake, notechis scutatus scutatus, have been investigated to determine the role of changes in peptide hydrolase enzymes in the muscle wasting caused by notexin administration. 2. within 6 h of injection, serum creatine kinase activity was increased by five- to ten-fold, and remained elevated for at least 24 h. 3. there was an initial inflammator ...1978648033
paragonimus westermanni in tigers (panthera tigris) in india.paragonimus westermanni was found in the lungs of two young tigers (panthera tigris). cysts were focally distributed in the lungs, initiating an emphysematous response together with extensive fibrosis in the vicinity of the cysts.1978691124
the presence of a thyrotropin-releasing hormone-like factor in the grass shrimp (black tiger prawn, penaeus monodon)immunoreactive (trh) has been detected in acid and methanol extracts of hepatopancreas, in grass shrimp (black tiger prawn, penaeus monodon). the evidence provided by the stimulation of thyrotropin (tsh) release from perfused rat anterior pituitary glands in vitro following the application of hepatopancreas extracts (she) reflected the presence of trh-like substance in the shrimp. however, the molecular weight of the trh-like substance estimated by gel filtration in she was greater than that of ...19902124182
on the purification of notexin. isolation of a single amino acid variant from the venom of notechis scutatus scutatus.venom of the australian tiger snake, notechis scutatus scutatus was fractionated by conventional ion-exchange chromatography. the fraction containing notexin, a well-known single-chain toxic phospholipase a2, was further purified by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. two main components were isolated and the major one corresponded to notexin. the other component, designated as notechis ns, was an isoform of notexin. notechis ns and notexin possessed similar in vitro esterase a ...19902155818
the centers for disease control's perspective of the introduction of aedes albopictus into the united states.the asian "tiger mosquito" aedes albopictus has become established in the southern united states. the centers for disease control has taken a number of steps to respond to the problem. appropriate state and international agencies have been informed, and data on biology, public health importance and identification have been prepared and distributed to state and local agencies. studies on insecticide susceptibility and vector competence are in progress, as is surveillance throughout the southeast, ...19862853204
numerical analysis of electrophoretic protein patterns of group ef-4 bacteria, predominantly from dog-bite wounds of humans.thirty-seven strains of group ef-4 bacteria (from various countries) were characterized by one-dimensional sds-page of cellular proteins. they comprised 21 from dog-bite wounds of humans, three from cat-bite wounds of humans and five from human limb wounds which may have been inflicted by dogs or cats; there was also one each from a pet monkey, a tiger lung (fatal), a dog tonsil, a mouse, a cat liver, a wallaby mandible, a human vagina and one from a human limb wound which was apparently not inf ...19902179200
an immunohistochemical study of endocrine cells in the proximal duodenum of eight marsupial species.the proximal duodenum of eight marsupial species, (koala, common brushtail possum, ring-tailed possum, common wombat, great grey kangaroo, parma wallaby, short-nosed bandicoot and tiger cat) were investigated immunohistochemically using 12 specific antisera for gut hormones. several types of immunoreactive cells were seen on the intestinal villi and in crypts of these species: 9 types in the koala; 8 types in the common brushtail possum; 7 types in the common wombat; 6 types in the short-nosed b ...19902182587
diagnosis of pulmonary mycobacterium bovis infection in a tiger. 19873296419
existence of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone-like factor in the grass shrimp (black tiger prawn, penaeus monodon)the immunological and biological gonadotropin-releasing hormone (gnrh)-like activities in the acid extract of shrimp hepatopancreas (she) were studied. the immunological activity determined by a gnrh radioimmunoassay was 22.3 +/- 2.7 ng per ml of she. she increased luteinizing hormone (lh) release from rat anterior pituitary glands (aps) in vitro, and its biological activity was 42.9 +/- 28.5 ng per ml. no immunological activity was found in the acid extracts of eye ball, eye stalk, nerve and he ...19902257769
renal papillary necrosis in the tiger.two examples of renal papillary necrosis in the tiger are described. the necrosis was characterised by large zones of liquefaction with minimal inflammation and was associated with pronouced scarring in the cortex. both animals had been vomiting terminally and were severely dehydrated. it is suggested that papillary necrosis was precipitated by the reduced renal perfusion associated with dehydration in kidneys in which the medullary blood supply was already compromised by chronic cortical scarri ...1978655037
[effect of presynaptic neurotoxin notechis ii-5 from tiger snake venom on the motor nerve endings of mice].the neurotoxin notechis ii-5 (n-ii-5) from tiger snake venom (notechis scutatus) induces three-phasic changes in miniature end-plate potential (mepp) frequency recorded in the mouse diaphragm muscle: an initial fall of frequency followed by increase and decrease in mepp frequency up to complete blockade. the effect of n-ii-5 was enhanced with rising of the solution temperature from 20 to 30 and 35 degrees c. removal of ca2+ from the solution prevented the presynaptic effect of n-ii-5. after wash ...1979387107
carnivora: the primary structure of the major hemoglobin component from adult european lynx (lynx lynx, felidae).the complete primary structure of the major hemoglobin component from the adult european lynx (lynx lynx) is presented. presence of two hemoglobin components and three chains, beta a, beta b, and alpha, identified by gel electrophoresis. the purification of the globin chains achieved by ion-exchange chromatography. the globin chains were digested with trypsin. the peptide generated were purified by reversed-phase hplc. sequencing of the native chains up to 42 cycles and of the tryptic peptides w ...19921515033
comparison of serum and plasma taurine values in bengal tigers with values in taurine-sufficient and -deficient domestic cats.a white bengal tiger was determined to have a central retinal lesion and a central visual defect. because of the known association between feline central retinal degeneration (crd) and taurine deficiency in domestic cats, plasma concentrations of taurine were measured in this tiger. serum concentrations of taurine, methionine, and cystine also were measured in white bengal tigers, orange bengal tigers, taurine-sufficient domestic cats, and taurine-deprived and tissue-taurine-depleted visually im ...19902298663
the lateral spread of signal between bipolar cells of the tiger salamander retina.when mapped with a small spot of light, the central receptive fields of bipolar cells in the salamander retina are much larger than the extent of bipolar cell dendrites. furthermore responses of bipolar cells to distant spots of light are considerably delayed relative to proximal spots. using quantitative modelling, electrical coupling between bipolar cells is examined and rejected as a sufficient explanation of the data. an active process appears to shape signal waveform as signals spread later ...19902357478
in vitro fertilization and embryo development in vitro and in vivo in the tiger (panthera tigris).a study was conducted to evaluate the adaptability to the tiger of an in vitro fertilization/embryo culture system previously developed in the domestic cat. in trial i (july 1989), 10 female tigers were treated with either 2,500 (n = 5) or 5,000 (n = 5) iu ecg i.m. and with 2,000 iu hcg i.m. 84 h later. in trial ii (january 1990), 6 females (5 of which were treated in trial i) were given 2,500 iu ecg i.m. and 2,000 iu hcg i.m. 84 h later. twenty-four to twenty-six hours after hcg treatment, all ...19902291909
effect of potassium ions and membrane potential on the na-ca-k exchanger in isolated intact bovine rod outer segments.two recent studies reported that na-ca exchange in the outer segments of tiger salamander rod photoreceptors (cervetto, l., lagnado, l., perry, r. j., robinson, d. w., and mcnaughton, p. a. (1989) nature 337, 740-743) and of bovine rod photoreceptors (schnetkamp, p. p. m., basu, d. k., and szerencsei, r. t. (1989) am. j. physiol. 257, c153-157) requires and transports k+ in a 4na/(1ca+1k) stoichiometry. in this study, we have examined the effects of k+ ions and membrane potential on the kinetics ...19911985892
a test of a disease-avoidance model of animal phobias.this study examined the relationship between disgust/contamination sensitivity and fear of animals. the results suggested that sensitivity to disgust and contamination was directly related to scores on the animal phobia and fear of illness and death sub-scales of the fear survey schedule (fss). further analysis suggested that disgust/contamination sensitivity was related only to fear of certain groups of animals: namely those animals that are not considered to attack and harm human beings but ar ...19912012593
renal papillary necrosis in two domestic cats and a tiger. 19912017832
observations on blood coagulation after snakebite in dogs and cats.blood samples from 13 cases of snakebite, 6 in dogs and 7 in cats, were tested for activated partial thromboplastin time (aptt), prothrombin time (pt) and fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products (fdp). four cases were tested for fibrinogen concentration. based on the results of a commercially available elisa test, 9 cases were caused by tiger snakes (notechis scutatus) and 1 case by a brown snake (pseudonaja textilis). three other cases had clinical signs and increased creatine phosphokinase valu ...19892619650
induction of cloacal and dermal skin glands of tiger salamander larvae, (ambystoma tigrinum): effects of testosterone and prolactin.treatment of male and female tiger salamander larvae with testosterone (0.3 micrograms/g body weight/day) induced precocious formation of ventral cloacal glands and stimulated proliferation and differentiation of mucous and granular (serous) glands in the ventral dermis of the skin. lower doses of testosterone produced no visible glandular effects but did cause hyperemia and edema in the cloacal region. prolactin (0.5 micrograms/g body weight/day) enhanced the action of testosterone on the cloac ...19892707581
carnivora: the amino-acid sequence of the adult sumatran tiger (panthera tigris sumatrae) hemoglobins.the complete amino-acid sequences of the hemoglobins from the adult sumatran tiger (panthera tigris sumatrae) have been determined on automatic liquid- and gas-phase sequenators. the globin chains were isolated by reverse phase hplc on a column of nucleosil-c4. n-acetylserine was detected by fab-mass spectroscopy as n-terminal aminoacid residue of the beta i chain. comparing the sequences of the globin chains of the tiger with that of human hb-a, 23 substitutions were recognized in the alpha, 29 ...19892713095
detection of a baculovirus in the tiger prawn penaeus postlarval penaeus monodon from a hatchery in asia a baculovirus was detected in the epithelial cells of the hepatopancreas by electron microscopy. the baculovirus was identified as the monodon baculovirus (mbv).19892763758
rescue and maturation in vitro of follicular oocytes collected from nondomestic felid species.the potential for rescuing immature oocytes from the ovaries of females of rare felid species which die or undergo medical ovariohysterectomy was evaluated. ovaries were recovered from 13 species representing 35 individuals in good-to-poor health. although the majority of females were 10 yr of age or older and in fair-to-poor health, a total of 846 oocytes were recovered of which 608 (71.9%) were classified as fair-to-excellent quality. one hundred of these oocytes were used for initial maturati ...19911805993
myosin isoform transitions and physiological properties of regenerated and re-innervated soleus muscles of the rat.soleus muscles in young female rats were destroyed by the local injection of the crude venom of the australian tiger snake, notechis scutatus and allowed to regenerate. the regenerated muscles consisted almost exclusively of type i muscle fibres, and histograms of fibre cross-sectional area were unimodal. in contrast the normal contralateral muscles consisted of a mixture of type i and iia fibres, and histograms of fibre cross-sectional area were bimodal. there was no change in the ability of th ...19911822353
present status of trichinellosis in japan.there have been three mass outbreaks of human trichinellosis in japan. the first was in 1974 in iwasaki, aomori prefecture, involving a group of hunters who ate raw meat of a black bear they had shot. of the 20 people who ate the bear meat raw, 15 showed clinical symptoms of trichinellosis. the second outbreak was experienced in sapporo, hokkaido, in 1980. the patients had eaten the raw meat of a brown bear served in a local restaurant. twelve people were diagnosed positive on the basis of clini ...19911822910
[species specific motility patterns of hyperactivated mammalian spermatozoa and quantitative analysis of the hyperactivation of bull spermatozoa].movement tracks of spermatozoa of human, lion, tiger, cow, pig and sheep are recorded by dark field photography (fluid layer thickness 16.7 microns, exposure time 1 s). comparison before and after capacitation by an incubation of 2 h in modified tissue culture medium tcm 199 with 10% fetal calf serum resulted in two quite different patterns of hyperactivated spermatozoa: 1) tracks are broadened due to enlarged lateral head displacement or radius of rotating head movements respectively (tiger, li ...19892774216
[scabies among the zoo mammals].scabies was observed in 9 species of mammals at the zoological garden of lódź in years 1957-1989. sarcoptes scabiei spp. was found in capybaras, tapirs and camelids. notoedres cati was recorded from the siberian tiger, but notoedres sp. from the erinaceus europaeus. scabies was also found in a wild dead tapla europaea at the zoo area.19911823472
use of a subunit feline leukemia virus vaccine in exotic cats.three adult bengal tigers, 2 immature white tigers, and 3 adult servals were vaccinated im with three 1-ml doses of a subunit felv vaccine with dosage interval guidelines of the manufacturer. all cats had increased antibody titers to felv gp 70 capsular antigen and feline oncornavirus cell membrane-associated antigen during the vaccination trial. three weeks after the third vaccination, 7 of the 8 cats had gp70 antibody titers greater than 0.2 (optical density), and all 8 cats had feline oncorna ...19882835347
partial characterization of immunoglobulin light chains of carcharhine sharks: evidence for phylogenetic conservation of variable region and divergence of constant region structure.isolated light chains of igm-type immunoglobulins of carcharhine sharks were analyzed by serological and biochemical means. when analyzed by isoelectric focusing analysis, light chains of the tiger shark (galecerdo cuvieri), the galapagos shark (carcharhinus galapagensis) and the sandbar shark (carcharhinus plumbeus) showed a broad, but patterned, spectrum of bands ranging from pi 5.0 to 7.7 in which discrete families were observed. serologically, light chains of the galapagos shark cross-reacte ...19883127255
scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalyses of the crystalline components of human and animal dental calculi.a review of the use of scanning electron microscopy (sem) and electron probe microanalyses in the study of dental calculus showed that such studies provided confirmatory and supplementary data on the morphological features of human dental calculi but gave only limited information on the identity of the crystalline or inorganic components. this study aimed to explore the potential of combined sem and microanalyses in the identification of the crystalline components of the human and animal dental ...19883368765
[the role of magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of hallervorden-spatz disease].a mentally-retarded 21-year-old female with narrowing of the visual field was admitted to our hospital because of dystonia in the body and extremities which appeared 6 months before and was gradually exacerbating. on admission, torsion dystonia, pyramidal tract sign, and retinitis pigmentosa with optic atrophy, urinary incontinence, hyperhidrosis and insomnia were noted. on the wechsler adult intelligence scale, she achieved less than 60 for verbal-iq. laboratory tests including serum copper and ...19902265508
adenohypophysial-thyroid activity of the tiger salamander, ambystoma tigrinum, as a function of metamorphosis and captivity.the aim of this study was to determine the timing of adenohypophysial activation during metamorphosis of the tiger salamander, ambystoma tigrinum. it consisted of two parts: 1) determination of plasma thyroid hormone concentrations and analysis of thyroid gland histology as a function of metamorphic stage and 2) analysis of the time-course of uptake of 125i by the thyroids during metamorphosis as an indicator of endogenous thyrotropin (tsh) levels. significant increases in both triiodothyronine ...19873598513
the cardiac effects of parathyroid hormone in the tiger frog, rana tigrina.1. the cardiac effects of the n-terminal (1-34) peptide fragment of bovine parathyroid hormone [bpth-(1-34)] on isolated atria were examined in the frog, rana tigrina. 2. bpth-(1-34) produced dose-related inotropic response but no chronotropic response. this inotropic response varied at different times of the year. 3. the inotropic effect of bpth-(1-34) was attenuated in the presence of verapamil and imidazole. 4. the mechanism of action of bpth-(1-34) is probably a stimulation of calcium influx ...19901977549
transfer of typhimurium from tigers to a toddler. 19863532049
tissue lesions of tiger salamanders (ambystoma tigrinum): relationship to sewage effluents.a population of facultative neotenous tiger salamanders (a. tigrinum) inhabiting a sewage lagoon at reese afb, hurlwood, texas, was found to have an exceptionally high rate of spontaneous tissue lesions. the population is composed of an estimated 28,000 large, reproductively mature larvae that are restricted to the lagoon. only about 17% of the population metamorphoses normally. in contrast, tiger salamanders from uncontaminated lagoons in the same general vicinity metamorphose normally; however ...1978280184
distribution of potassium conductance in mammalian müller (glial) cells: a comparative study.the distribution of k+ conductance across the surface of retinal müller cells was determined in 5 mammalian species--rabbit, guinea pig, mouse, owl monkey, and cat--and in tiger salamander. potassium conductance was measured by monitoring cell depolarizations evoked by focal ejections of a high-k+ solution onto the surface of freshly dissociated cells. this technique measured the total k+ conductance of a given cell region (regional conductance), i.e., the specific k+ conductance times the total ...19872441009
further observations on the pathological responses of rat skeletal muscle to toxins isolated from the venom of the australian tiger snake, notechis scutatus scutatus.1. some aspects of the response of mammalian skeletal muscle following the injection of purified toxins from the venom of the australian tiger snake, notechis scutatus scutatus, are described. 2. the toxins used were notexin, notechis ii-5, notechis ii-1 and a modified form of notexin (pbp-notexin). they were injected into the dorso-lateral aspect of one himd limb so that the soleus muscle would be exposed to the toxins. 3. within 1 h after the injection of notexin, the soleus muscles were oedem ...1978152684
effects of metamorphosis and captivity on the in vitro sensitivity of thyroid glands from the tiger salamander, ambystoma tigrinum, to bovine thyrotropin.the sensitivity of thyroid glands from the tiger salamander, ambystoma tigrinum, to bovine thyrotropin (btsh) was tested in vitro. thyroids were taken from subjects representing metamorphic stages i (premetamorphic larvae), ii (onset of climax), and vii (completion of gill resorption), as well as from captivity control larvae. exogenous tsh reduced the cumulative uptake of 125i in vitro by thyroids from stage i larvae after 24 and 48 hr. the capacity of thyroids to release thyroxine (t4) in vitr ...19873623072
regulation of potassium levels by müller cells in the vertebrate retina.the membrane properties of müller cells, the principal glial cells of the vertebrate retina, have been characterized in a series of physiological experiments on freshly dissociated cells. in species lacking a retinal circulation (tiger salamander, rabbit, guinea pig), the end-foot of the müller cell has a much higher k+ conductance than do other cell regions. in species with retinal circulation (mouse, cat, owl monkey) the k+ conductance of the end-foot is greater than the conductance of the pro ...19872441827
morphology of physiologically identified bipolar cells in the retina of the tiger salamander, ambystoma tigrinum.intracellular recordings of the light responses of bipolar cells were made in the isolated perfused retina of the larval tiger salamander by microelectrodes filled with a 1% solution of the enzyme horseradish peroxidase (hrp). two classes of bipolar cell were identified in terms of their responses to luminous spots and annuli centered upon their receptive fields: on-center cells, which depolarized in response to a centered spot and hyperpolarized in response to a concentric annulus, and off-cent ...19863793974
snake bite in 7 years snake bite was diagnosed in 80 dogs. sporting breeds figured prominently. the average was 3.6 years. the commonest presenting signs were salivation, vomiting, dilated pupils, absence of the pupillary light reflex, depression and generalised muscle weakness, hindlimb ataxia and respiratory distress. sixty-seven cases (84%) occurred in 6 warmer months on the year. fifty-one dogs (64%) were seen either to be bitten or in contact with a snake. tiger and brown snakes were implicated on 32 ...1979444166
animal bites causing central nervous system injury in children. a report of three cases.three cases of animal bites causing central nervous system injury in children are reported. two infants suffered compound depressed skull fractures as a result of dog bites to the head. an older child suffered direct injury to the spinal cord from a tiger bite. in 2 cases, pasteurella meningitis occurred. pitfalls in the management of this type of problem are discussed.19853837882
yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection in a siberian tiger and a spider monkey. 19734200446
seasonal variations in spermatogenesis, testicular weights, vasa deferentia, and androgen levels in neotenic male tiger salamanders, ambystoma tigrinum.significant seasonal changes were observed in spermatogenesis, testicular weights, vasa deferentia, and cloacal development as well as in plasma androgen levels (testosterone and dihydrotestosterone). androgen levels were highest in the fall and lowest during the period of spermatogenesis. low levels of androgens were also observed during the breeding season. diameter of the vasa deferentia corresponded to presence of stored spermatozoa and not to plasma androgen levels. testicular weights were ...19854054587
human snake bite victims: the successful detection of circulating snake venom by radiommunoassay,.a new solid-phase radioimmunoassay has been developed which allows positive identification of the type of snake venom in human tissue and fluids and its accurate quantitation. tiger snake venom at a level of 210 ng/ml was detected post mortem in the serum of a child, and brown snake venom was detected in two adults bitten by unidentified snakes. apart from forensic applications, the assay will be useful in studying clinical aspects of envenomation and the use of antivenenes.19751128354
an investigation, in vitro, of the actions of three western australian snakes on the blood coagulation of the dog, cat, horse and wallaby.venoms of the tiger snake and brown snake were procoagulant, in vitro, when tested with cat, dog, horse and wallaby plasma. in the absence of calcium and phospholipid the coagulant activity of tiger snake venom was minimal. in contrast, brown snake venom alone had marked procoagulant activity. this activity, however, was enhanced by the presence of calcium and phospholipid. death adder venom exerted an anticoagulant effect. apparent species' differences in susceptibility to the coagulant venoms ...19854062725
the relationship of acetylcholinesterase activity to optic fiber projections in the tiger salamander ambystoma tigrinum. 19734748957
observations on the blood of the marsupial tiger cat, dasyurops maculatus (kerr) (dasyuridae). 19724405351
purification and properties of a prothrombin activator from the venom of notechis scutatus scutatus.the prothrombin activator present in the venom of the mainland tiger snake (notechis scutatus scutatus) was purified to homogeneity by gel chromatography on sephadex g-200 followed by ion-exchange chromatography on sp-sephadex. the venom activator has an apparent molecular weight of 54,000. it consists of a heavy chain (mr = 32,000) and a light chain (mr = 23,000) held together by one or more disulfide bridges. the active site is located at the heavy chain region of the molecule. the venom activ ...19853894355
serious pasteurella multocida infections from lion and tiger bites. 19853999316
thymic hypoplasia and lymphopenia in a siberian tiger. 19744609964
pasteurella multocida in an infected tiger bite.we report an unusual case of pasteurella multocida wound infection caused by a tiger bite. we investigated the normal fang flora of large zoo cats and found p multocida in cultures from seven tigers, three of four leopards, and one lynx. sucrose fermentation was found to be highly media dependent and unpredictable. the literature relative to p multocida in bite-wound infections is reviewed with special reference to bites by animals other than cats and dogs. with the addition of the present case, ...19853839375
[imitation of tiger bones--a piece of hind leg bone (pigs and oxen)]. 19826216972
[cancer of the mammary gland in a tigress].mammary gland carcinoma in a 14-year-old female tiger kept in the moscow zoo for a long time is described. at autopsy, the outgrowth of the tumor into the surrounding tissue and metastases into the internal organs were found. the tumor was defined as a ductal papillary solid carcinoma with intraductal central necrosis that resembled the comedo type of human mammary gland carcinoma. rapid growth of the tumor, the prevalence of necrosis, and numerous metastases to the lungs, liver, and lymph nodes ...19826297433
cyclohexanone as an anesthetic for the leopard and the bengal tiger. 19695388174
evidence for orthogonal arrays of particles in the plasma membranes of olfactory and vomeronasal sensory neurons of vertebrates.plasma membranes of sensory neurons from the olfactory and vomeronasal neuroepithelia of the male rat and olfactory neuroepithelium of the tiger salamander (ambystoma tigrinum) have been examined, using the freeze-fracture technique, for the presence and morphology of orthogonal arrays of particles (oap). numerous oap were scattered on the p-face of plasma membranes of the dendrites and cell bodies from rat vomeronasal sensory neurons. the oap were 720 +/- 200 nm2 in area and they consisted of 4 ...19836311991
a tiger mouse and relatives. variants caused by an activated transposable element?in a laboratory-bred population of wild peruvian house mice, one male had an excessive rate of non-pairing of the x and y chromosomes. after crossing him with laboratory stock mice, a mouse of very unusual phenotype appeared from a yellow (aya) mother. he was yellow with black dorsal stripes; hence tiger. he was mated to many females, and inbred f2 and f3 generations were raised. there were no more tiger phenotypes, but his f1 contained an excess of black-and-tans over yellows, showing him to be ...19846323571
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