in vitro measurement of the beta-adrenergic blocking properties of orf 12592, the 5-hydroxy analog of propranolol.orf 12592 caused concentration-dependent inhibition of isoproterenol stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in sarcolemma-enriched membrane preparations of guinea-pig myocardium. its potency was slightly less than that of d,l-propranolol. orf 12592 did not stimulate basal enzyme activity, suggesting it to be devoid of intrinsic sympathomimetic activity. it produced no marked inhibition of basal activity, nor did it inhibit sodium fluoride stimulated enzyme activity, indicating that the compound a ...197828704
segregation of rd-114 and fel-v-related sequences in crosses between domestic cat and leopard cat. 1975170535
isolation of an actinomycete from a sea leopard (hydrurga leptonyx). 1977275688
rate of listeria monocytogenes shedding from frogs.leopard frogs (rana pipiens) were orally inoculated with listeria monocytogenes. most listeriae were shed 3-6 days after inoculation. the evidence indicated that the listeriae did not multiply in frogs and were unable to become established in the gastrointestinal tract.1975806711
purification and properties of reptilian and amphibian growth hormones.highly purified growth hormone was isolated from the pituitaries of two reptilian species, the snapping turtle and the sea turtle, and two amphibian species, the bullfrog and the leopard frog. characterization studies were performed with these growth hormones in comparison with mammalian and avian growth hormones. great similarities among these species were found in chromatographic behavior, ve/vo ratios (2.0) on gel filtration, disc electrophoretic patterns, terminal amino acid residues and imm ...1976821743
mortality in red-sided garter snakes, thamnophis sirtalis parietalis, due to larval nematode, eustrongylides sp.garter snakes, thamnophis sirtalis parietalis, that had been fed wild-caught banded killifish, fundulus diaphanus, and laboratory-bred leopard frogs, rana pipiens, were infected by larval nematode, eustrongylides sp; 7 of the 25 snakes died. signs of infection in 20 snakes included subcutaneous "lumps," violent contortions, and bloody exudate, apparently from the nares. nemotodes were collected at necropsy from beneath the skin, in the lungs, in the body cavity, and along the spinal column. nema ...1976940307
some anatomical aspects of the cardiovascular system of antarctic seals and their possible functional significance in diving.the hearts and ascending aortae of 11 weddell seals, leptonychotes weddelli, three adult crabeater seals, lobodon carcinophagus, two adult ross seals, ommatophoca rossi, and one adult leopard seal, hydrurga leptonyx, were examined for comparison with terrestrial forms. the weddell seal specimens were from animals ranging in age from midterm in fetal development to mature adults. all specimens were collected in 1971, 1972, and 1973, from mcmurdo sound and the ross sea, antarctica. the phocid hear ...19751111424
[leopard spot chorioretinopathy. initial manifestation of recurrent acute lymphocytic leukemia].an 11-year-old girl with a history of acute lymphocytic leukemia of the central nervous system had attained complete remission for almost 3 1/2 years after combination chemotherapy and radiotherapy when she developed iritis and chorioretinopathy of the right eye. neither an anterior chamber tap nor a diagnostic vitrectomy revealed leukemic cells. both nonspecific anti-inflammatory therapy and antiviral treatment were unsuccessful. finally, lymphoblasts were detected in the cerebrospinal fluid an ...19921304225
human onchocerciasis in the lower jos plateau, central nigeria: the prevalence, geographical distribution and epidemiology in akwanga and lafia local government investigation of human infection with onchocerca volvulus and the resulting clinical disease was carried out for the nigerian national onchocerciasis control programme between july and august 1989 [corrected]. the survey covered 10.6% of the rural population in 41 savanna villages of central nigeria. of the 8451 self-selected individuals examined, 900 (10.6%) had skin microfilariae (mf). there were differences between villages in both endemicity and intensity of infection, but in general the ...19921304706
retrovirus infections in non-domestic felids: serological studies and attempts to isolate a african lioness from the zoo of zurich had to be euthanized because of an inoperable tumor. the serum tested negative for feline leukemia virus (felv) p27 antigen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) but was strongly positive for feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) antibodies by elisa and western blot. when her only offspring and mate were tested for fiv, high antibody titers to fiv were also found in their serum. lymphocytes were prepared from these two lions on different occasions a ...19921337398
mycoplasma simbae sp. nov., mycoplasma leopharyngis sp. nov., and mycoplasma leocaptivus sp. nov., isolated from lions.mycoplasmas isolated from the throats of lions were shown to belong to three serotypes, all of which were serologically distinct from the previously recognized mycoplasma and acholeplasma spp. eight mycoplasma colonies were cloned, including one from a leopard (strain lp), and were examined in detail for morphology, growth, and biochemical characteristics. the strains had the following properties: guanine-plus-cytosine contents of 37 mol% (strain lxt [t = type strain]), 28 mol% (strain ll2t), an ...19921390104
carnivora: the primary structure of the major hemoglobin component from adult european lynx (lynx lynx, felidae).the complete primary structure of the major hemoglobin component from the adult european lynx (lynx lynx) is presented. presence of two hemoglobin components and three chains, beta a, beta b, and alpha, identified by gel electrophoresis. the purification of the globin chains achieved by ion-exchange chromatography. the globin chains were digested with trypsin. the peptide generated were purified by reversed-phase hplc. sequencing of the native chains up to 42 cycles and of the tryptic peptides w ...19921515033
isolation of p multocida f-3, 4 from a stillborn snow leopard. 19921542981
volume status influences atrial peptide-induced water conductivity changes in leopard frog mesenteric capillaries.1. three sets of north american leopard frogs (rana pipiens) were housed on damp sand (ds, n = 19), in fresh water (fw, n = 19), or with free access to both damp sand and fresh water (fa, n = 23) for a period of 5-6 days. at the end of this period pithed frogs were prepared for measurement of capillary hydraulic conductivity and samples of whole-blood, lymph and body cavity fluid were collected for measurement of haematocrit and protein content. 2. to measure hydraulic conductivity (lp), individ ...19921593450
present status of trichinellosis in japan.there have been three mass outbreaks of human trichinellosis in japan. the first was in 1974 in iwasaki, aomori prefecture, involving a group of hunters who ate raw meat of a black bear they had shot. of the 20 people who ate the bear meat raw, 15 showed clinical symptoms of trichinellosis. the second outbreak was experienced in sapporo, hokkaido, in 1980. the patients had eaten the raw meat of a brown bear served in a local restaurant. twelve people were diagnosed positive on the basis of clini ...19911822910
teratogenesis, toxicity, and bioconcentration in frogs exposed to dieldrin.teratogenesis, acute and chronic toxicity, growth and bioconcentration were investigated in various life stages (embryos, tadpoles, juveniles, adults) of the frogs xenopus laevis (african clawed frog), rana catesbeiana (bullfrog) and rana pipiens (leopard frog) exposed to aqueous dieldrin in static-renewal and flow-through systems in a study on the development of wildlife-based water quality criteria. r. catesbeiana was the most sensitive tadpole in acute tests; x. laevis was the most sensitive ...19911953024
ejaculate-hormonal traits in the leopard cat (felis bengalensis) and sperm function as measured by in vitro penetration of zona-free hamster ova and zona-intact domestic cat oocytes.electroejaculate traits and circulating follicle-stimulating hormone (fsh), luteinizing hormone (lh), and testosterone concentrations were analyzed in adult leopard cats (felis bengalensis), a rare felid species indigenous to east asia. the ability of leopard cat sperm to bind and penetrate zona-free hamster ova and zona-intact domestic cat oocytes in vitro was examined as a means of testing sperm function. the influence of culture media [biggers, whitten, whittingham (bww) vs. modified krebs ri ...19902115344
evidence for a fel d i-like molecule in the "big cats" (felidae species).in this study, we investigated the cross-reactivity pattern of ige and igg4 antibodies to the major feline allergen, fel d i. we studied the ige and igg4 response of 11 cat-allergic patients against fel d i-like structures in eight members of the felidae family: ocelot, puma, serval, siberian tiger, lion, jaguar, snow leopard, and caracal. hair from these "big cats" was collected, extracted, and used in a rast system and histamine-release test. by means of a rast-inhibition assay with affinity-p ...19901695231
flavobacterium indologenes infection in leopard investigation of an epidemic of infectious disease in a frog (rana pipiens) colony was conducted. six of 40 frogs in a continuous (once through) water flow housing system had weight loss, swollen abdomen, corneal edema, uveitis, subcutaneous edema, petechial hemorrhage, incoordination, and respiratory distress. the frogs had lesions consistent with bacterial septicemia. a gram-negative, nonfermenting bacillus, flavobacterium indologenes (flavobacterium sp biovar iib), was isolated in pure cul ...19921293124
an endoscopic approach to a snow leopard. 1978648831
the larynx of roaring and non-roaring cats.dissections were made of the larynges of 14 species of the cat family, with representative specimens from all genera. it was found that the vocal folds of the larynx of genus panthera (with the exception of the snow leopard) form the basic structure of a sound generator well-designed to produce a high acoustical energy. combined with an efficient sound radiator (vocal tract) that can be adjusted in length, a panthera can use its vocal instrument literally to blow its own horn with a 'roar'. also ...19892606766
tazonomy of toxoplasma.after reviewing reports of the hosts, structure and life cycle of toxoplasma, the genus is placed in the apicomplexan family eimeriidae and the folllowing 7 species are recognized: toxoplasma gondii (nicolle & manceaux) (type species) from about 200 species of mammals and birds, with oocysts in felids; toxoplasma alencari (da costa & pereira) from the frog leptodactylus ocellatus; toxoplasma brumpti coutelen from the iguana iguana tuberculata; toxoplasma colubri tibaldi from the snakes coluber m ...1977325203
seminoma and parathyroid adenoma in a snow leopard (panthera unica).a seminoma and parathyroid adenoma were diagnosed in an aged snow leopard. the ultrastructural appearance of the seminoma was similar to that described in the dog and in man. the lack of significant amounts of rough endoplasmic reticulum, golgi complexes and free ribosomes in the parathyroid adenoma suggested that it was non-functional. parathyroid adenoma has not been previously described in a large wild feline.19892760281
subclinical lumbar polyradiculopathy in aged domestic, laboratory, and exotic mammalian species--a light and selected electron microscopic study.lumbar polyradiculopathy, characterized by ballooning myelin sheaths and axonal distortion, was documented in multiple, aged, domestic, laboratory, and exotic mammalian species. animals studied that exhibited this nerve rootlet change included the goat, sheep, pig, white-tailed deer, gerbil, vole, ferret, beaver, hedgehog, chinchilla, north chinese leopard, lion, cheetah, mountain lion, llama, east african eland, uganda giraffe, polar bear, and drill. ultrastructurally, lumbar nerve rootlets fro ...19892766747
a survey of blood and other tissue parasites of leopard frogs rana pipiens in the united a survey of blood and other tissue parasites from 137 leopard frogs, rana pipiens complex, purchased from 13 commercial vendors in 8 states in the united states, trypanosoma pipientis was found in 2 r. p. berlandieri, toxoplasma ranae in 1 r. pipiens, isospora lieberkuehni in 1 leopard frog, haemogregarina magna in 44, lankesterella minima in 3, leptotheca ohlmacheri in 3 and microfilariae of foleyella sp. in 6. the report of i. lieberkuehni is presumably a new host record. haemogregarina tem ...1977300116
[the leopard syndrome].a man aged 32 years was referred to a dermatological department for alopecia areata. in addition, the patient had multiple lentigines which, together with other abnormalities, suggested the leopard syndrome. alopecia areata does not appear to have been described previously in this syndrome.19892781643
[bone identification of viverra zibetha linnaeus and canis familiaris l. as counterfeits of leopard bone].by way of comparative anatomy an identification has been made of viverra zibetha and canis familiaris as the counterfeits of leopard bone. in the paper the head bones and teeth are illustrated with pictures because their characteristics are important factors to take into account in the identification.19902282153
polarized expression of integrin receptors (alpha 6 beta 4, alpha 2 beta 1, alpha 3 beta 1, and alpha v beta 5) and their relationship with the cytoskeleton and basement membrane matrix in cultured human human keratinocytes cultured in conditions which allow differentiation and stratification and are suitable to reconstitute a fully functional epidermis, alpha 6 beta 4 and two members of the beta 1 integrin family (alpha 2 beta 1 and alpha 3 beta 1) were respectively polarized to the basal and lateral domains of the plasmamembrane both in growing colonies and in the reconstituted epidermis. conversely, the alpha v integrin subunit, presumably in association with beta 5, was expressed at the b ...19911825212
rescue and maturation in vitro of follicular oocytes collected from nondomestic felid species.the potential for rescuing immature oocytes from the ovaries of females of rare felid species which die or undergo medical ovariohysterectomy was evaluated. ovaries were recovered from 13 species representing 35 individuals in good-to-poor health. although the majority of females were 10 yr of age or older and in fair-to-poor health, a total of 846 oocytes were recovered of which 608 (71.9%) were classified as fair-to-excellent quality. one hundred of these oocytes were used for initial maturati ...19911805993
the anatomical effects of surgically repositioning the disc in the temporomandibular joint of rats. an experimental study.a sample of 16 rats was used as experimental material to evaluate the effect of surgical repositioning of the disc of the temporomandibular joint according to the technique described by mccarty and farrar (1979) and its variation according to leopard (1984). the animals were killed 6 weeks postoperatively. macroscopic and microscopic examination revealed that in all rats treated according to the procedure of mccarty and farrar (1979) the disc had completely disappeared. the underlying condyle wa ...19902348270
high levels of pancreatic nonspecific lipase in rattlesnake and leopard shark.hydrolysis of synthetic triglycerides by rattlesnake and leopard shark pancreatic enzymes revealed striking differences in specificity, depending on the presence or absence of sodium taurocholate. without added sodium taurocholate the classical specificity of pancreatic lipase was expressed. rattlesnake enzymes, in the presence of sodium taurocholate, attacked the unsaturated oleic acid in the 2-position of racemic glycerol-1-palmitate-2-oleate-3-stearate nearly twice as fast as either outside s ...19751177670
onchodermatitis--correlation between skin disease and parasitic load in an endemic focus in ecuador.onchocerciasis is a chronic parasitic infection in which infiltration of the skin by microfilariae has been associated with a number of different pathological changes. this survey compared the prevalence of different forms of skin disease in two villages, one of which was located within the endemic zone for onchocerciasis (zapallo grande), in a lowland rain forest area of western ecuador. the commonest skin diseases in both villages were scabies, pyoderma and pityriasis versicolor. in addition c ...19892775644
[spot-like to reticular pigment displacement in a patient with pseudoxanthoma elasticum (grönblad-strandberg syndrome)].the authors report a rare observation of leopard spot-like and reticular pigmentary patterns in a patient with pseudoxanthoma elasticum (pxe). characteristic fundus changes associated with pxe have been described as angioid streaks, subretinal neovascularization membranes, peau d'orange, focal retinal pigment epithelium atrophy (salmon spots), drusen, and optic nerve head drusen. the new manifestation of pxe in the fundus of the patient described here is a random scattering of small, dark brown ...19902313990
the developmental success of amblyomma hebraeum and amblyomma marmoreum on the leopard tortoise, geochelone pardalis.the success of natural infestations of various life history stages of amblyomma hebraeum and amblyomma marmoreum on the leopard tortoise, geochelone pardalis, was compared. success was measured by the time taken for ticks to detach, as well as the percentage of ticks engorging and subsequently either moulting to the next life history stage or laying viable eggs. larvae of a. hebraeum were the only developmental stage not recovered. nymphae and female a. hebraeum were less successful in moulting ...19883353093
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. xxii. ixodid ticks on domestic dogs and on wild carnivores.ixodid ticks were collected from 4 dogs on smallholdings near grahamstown, eastern cape province, on 1 or more occasions each week for periods ranging from 9-36 months. fourteen tick species were recovered and the seasonal abundance of adult haemaphysalis leachi and adult rhipicephalus simus was determined. complete collections of ticks were made from 50 caracals (felis caracal) in the cradock, graaff-reinet and southwell regions in the eastern cape province. the animals from cradock and graaff- ...19873444612
comparative morphometric study of the vestibular system of the vertebrata: reptilia, aves, amphibia, and pisces.morphometric measurements were made from serial sections of the vestibular system in four classes of vertebrates: reptilia, aves, amphibia, and pisces. representative species of reptile studied were the lizard (gekko gecko), the common garter snake (thamnophis sp.), and the common turtle (chelonia sp.). the budgie (melopsittacus undulatas), the common pigeon (columba domestica), the yellow-bellied sapsucker (sphyrapicus varius), and the horned owl (bubo virginianus) were chosen as representative ...19863485883
in vitro fertilization of gonadotropin-stimulated leopard cat (felis bengalensis) follicular oocytes.based on techniques developed for the domestic cat, in vitro fertilization (ivf) studies were conducted in the taxonomically related leopard cat (felis bengalensis). adult females received pregnant mares' serum gonadotropin (pmsg) followed 80 or 84 h later by human chorionic gonadotropin (hcg) on two to four occasions over a 40-day to 27-month interval. oocytes were collected laparoscopically from ovarian follicles 25-27 h after hcg and co-cultured with processed, homologous spermatozoa (37 degr ...19892809537
fatal big cat attacks.two cases of fatal attacks by large cats are presented. in the first case, a 30-year-old female zoo worker was attacked by a jaguar that had escaped its cage. in the second case, a 2-year-old girl was fatally injured by her father's pet leopard. the pattern of injuries in these cases is nearly identical to those of these cats' prey in the wild.19902220706
the inheritance of the leopard complex of spotting patterns in horses.the leopard complex of white spotting patterns in horses consists of the leopard, few-spot leopard, blanket, blanket with spots, varnish roan (or marble), snowflake, frosted, speckled, and mottled patterns. horses with any of these patterns can produce the other patterns when mated to nonpatterned horses. twenty-two horses of the welsh pony, noriker, appaloosa, and pony of the americas breeds produced 270 foals in a distribution consistent with a single dominant allele being responsible for the ...19902177073
dietary regulation of intestinal brush-border sugar and amino acid transport in carnivores.the ability of omnivores and herbivores to regulate reversibly their intestinal brush-border nutrient transporters is functionally related to the unpredictably variable composition of their natural diets. to determine whether carnivores are able similarly to regulate the activities of their intestinal nutrient transporters, we fed to three species of vertebrates that are carnivorous as adults (cats, mink, and leopard frogs) diets with either at least 50% digestible carbohydrate or with negligibl ...19911928426
gonadotropin hormone-releasing hormone (gnrh) immunoreactivity in the mesencephalon of sharks and rays.other than association with the terminal nerve (tn), little is known concerning the distribution of gonadotropin hormone-releasing hormone (gnrh) in elasmobranchs. the purpose of this study was to identify gnrh immunoreactivity in the brains of three elasmobranch species with special regard to the mesencephalon. the round stingray (urolophus halleri), thornback guitarfish (platyrhinoidis triseriata), and leopard shark (triakis semifasciatus) were used and immunocytochemistry was performed with a ...19911856319
distribution and ultrastructure of primary afferent axons in lissauer's tract in the northern leopard frog (rana pipiens).dorsal roots were transected and filled with horseradish peroxidase to identify the primary afferent axons in lissauer's tract (lt) of the spinal cord in a ranid frog with light and electron microscopy. axons in lt could be traced at least 2-3 segments rostral and caudal to the level of the filled root. some axons in lt entered a nucleus in the dorsal lateral funiculus at brachial and lumbar levels, while other axons terminated in widespread regions of the dorsal horn. electron microscopy reveal ...19853879891
mycotic pneumonia and meningoencephalitis due to aspergillus terreus in a neonatal snow leopard (panthera uncia). 19854032629
intrinsic pigment cell stimulating activity in the skin of the leopard frog, rana pipiens.consistent with the concept that specific pigment patterns of amphibians might result from the highly localized distribution of stimulators and inhibitors of pigment cell expression in the skin, the spot pattern of the leopard frog, rana pipiens, was examined through the use of the xenopus neural tube explant assay system (fukuzawa and ide, 1988). media conditioned with pieces of skin from dorsal black spotted areas promoted melanization of neural crest cells at a significantly higher level than ...19921645118
pituitary gonadotropin release patterns in pre-spawning brook trout, salvelinus fontinalis, rainbow trout, salmo gairdneri and leopard frogs, rana pipiens. 19724405343
[diagnosis of feline infections peritonitis (fip) in domestic cats and leopards in germany]. 19744471791
sperm capacitation in the domestic cat (felis catus) and leopard cat (felis bengalensis) as studied with a salt-stored zona pellucida penetration assay.the ability of domestic cat or leopard cat spermatozoa to penetrate zonae pellucidae (zp) of salt-stored, domestic cat oocytes was examined as an assay for sperm capacitation. ovarian oocytes were recovered after ovariectomy and matured in vitro for 18-36 h. following removal of cumulus cells, the oocytes were used fresh, or stored (4 degrees c, 0.5-24 weeks) in a hepes-buffered hypertonic salt solution. electroejaculated, washed sperm (2-4 x 10(6) sperm/ml) were preincubated for 1.0 h (38 degre ...19921554505
a case report of pyometra in the leopard (panthera pardus). 19744600861
onchocerciasis prevalence in previously known foci in western uganda: results from a preliminary survey in kabarole district.a prevalence survey of onchoceriasis was done in kabarole district, uganda, in 1990. the objective was to determine the prevalence of onchocerciasis among communities living in previously known foci. a total number of 1186 persons was included in the study. the infection rate among the communities studied ranged from 0% to 67%. the most frequent clinical signs and symptoms of onchocerciasis were: pruritus (80%), rough skin (46%), skin rash (30%), leopard skin (6%) and sclerosing keratitis (7%). ...19921519030
isolation and characterization of viruses from the kidneys of rana pipiens with renal adenocarcinoma before and after passage in the red eft (triturus viridescens).viruses were isolated from kidneys of normal and renal tumor-bearing vermont rana pipiens after subinoculation into red eft newts (triturus viridescens). organs of efts inoculated with viable cell suspensions from four of seven tumor-bearing kidneys yielded virus (lt-1, -2, -3, -4) when inoculated into th-1 (terrapene heart) cell culture. one tumor-bearing kidney also yielded virus (l-4) by direct inoculation into th-1 cells. an additional isolate (l-5) was obtained from 1 of 52 normal vermont f ...19684972302
tuberculosis in the leopard frog (rana pipiens). 19704988473
cyclohexanone as an anesthetic for the leopard and the bengal tiger. 19695388174
multiple lipomas in a spotted leopard (panthera pardus). 19695388175
[relief of coprostasis in a leopard using decentan-thiogenal anesthesia]. 19695393353
androgens of the leopard frog, rana pipiens schreber. 19705463989
silhouettes elicit alarm calls from captive vervet monkeys (cercopithecus aethiops).in part 1, we analyzed alarm calls produced by captive vervets (cercopithecus aethiops) in response to naturally occurring stimuli. females and juveniles regularly alarm called to airplanes, birds, and barking dogs. juvenile females accounted for 60% of these alarm calls. in part 2, we isolated several monkeys from the colony and presented them with life-sized silhouettes of a leopard, snake, eagle, baboon, vervet, and goose. adult monkeys alarm called more than did juveniles. alarm calls were e ...19921451417
digital image analysis of shark gills: modeling of oxygen transfer in the domain of radiographic imaging of blood circulation through leopard shark gills establishes a secondary lamellar transit time of 6.5 s. this duration, combined with estimates of cardiac output and hemoglobin-oxygen affinity, permits novel modeling of gill oxygen transfer in the time domain. the temporal model allows assessment of factors contributing to previously noted discrepancies between physiological and morphometric branchial oxygen conductance estimates. lamellar transit time for shark bloo ...19921415783
experimental tuberculosis in the leopard frog. 19676061680
isolation of feline leukemia virus from a leopard cat cell line and search for retrovirus in wild felidae.a strain of feline leukemia virus (felv), subgroup a, was isolated in early subpassage of a testicular fibroblast culture obtained from a captive asian leopard cat. neither felv nor rd-114 virus was recovered from cultured tissues of 15 other animals, representing eight species of wild felidae.19816268887
the uveal effusion syndrome and trans-scleral flow.recent studies of the uveal effusion syndrome, a rare condition characterised by idiopathic spontaneous serous detachment of the retina and peripheral choroid, have suggested a primary scleral abnormality as the underlying cause. in particular, abnormal deposition of glycosaminoglycans within the sclera may impair normal trans-scleral flow of fluid and contribute to increased scleral thickness. in four cases of uveal effusion syndrome, we have confirmed the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans in ...19902379646
herpesviruses in metastatic lucké renal adenocarcinoma.the etiologic agent of the renal adenocarcinoma of leopard frogs, rana pipiens, is the lucké tumor herpesvirus (lthv). the virus is easily detected with thin section electron microscopy in primary tumors of frogs which have been exposed to a cold environment. several spontaneous metastatic nodules and a large primary tumor were detected at autopsy of a frog which had been maintained at 4 degrees c for 73 days. lthv was found not only in the primary tumor, as previously reported, but also was pre ...19826286398
use of modified live feline panleukopenia virus vaccine to immunize dogs against canine parvovirus.modified live feline panleukopenia virus (fplv) vaccine protected dogs against canine parvovirus (cpv) infection. however, unlike the long-lived (greater than or equal to 20-month) immunity engendered by cpv infection, the response of dogs to living fplv was variable. doses of fplv (snow leopard strain) in excess of 10(5.7) tcid50 were necessary for uniform immunization; smaller inocula resulted in decreased success rates. the duration of immunity, as measured by the persistence of hemagglutinat ...19836299142
observations on naturally acquired hepatozoonosis of wild carnivores and dogs in the republic of south africa.hepatozoonosis was studied in hyaenas, lions, jackals, cheetahs and one leopard in the kruger national park and compared with the condition seen in dogs in the republic of south africa. hepatozoon schizonts were found in the wild carnivores. the genesis of microschizonts was followed and is illustrated. the schizonts were sometimes very plentiful in the lung, myocardium and skeletal muscle, and were also encountered in the spleen, liver and lymph nodes. gametocytes were present in leucocytes. th ...19751221330
cytophysiological basis of disruptive pigmentary patterns in the leopard frog rana pipiens. ii. wild type and mutant cell-specific patterns.a new pattern index, ip, is introduced and used to compare patterns of wild type, burnsi, and kandiyohi chromatophores in the leopard frog, rana pipiens. wild type chromatophores are hyperdispersed over distances within cellular contact, and it is concluded that this hyperdispersion results from contact-mediated negative interactions. the hyperdispersion is less strong in spot cells than interspot, and extends over larger areas in burnsi than in wild type epidermis. over areas greater than chrom ...19751080207
vitellogenic cycles in laboratory-maintained females of the leopard frog, rana a part of studies on the reproduction of laboratory maintained frogs, wild-caught rana pipiens were ovulated and maintained at 22-27 degrees c for up to 18 months. vitellogenic oocytes were periodically staged and counted, and a "maturity index" was calculated to assess the progress of the vitellogenic cycle. the initial cycle was similar to that of wild frogs except that the first oocytes to reach stage 5 (mature eggs) usually began to degenerate before later starting oocytes became mature. ...19836602862
bone marrow reconstitution of immune responses following irradiation in the leopard frog, rana pipiens.the bone marrow of rana is an important source of cells capable of maintaining individual viability, responding to concanavalin a (con a) and producing pfc against sheep erythrocyte (srbc) antigens. frog marrow is more effective than the spleen in maintaining life. radiation destroys the ability of frogs to respond to srbc immunization (lack of bone marrow and spleen pfc, serum antibody) and bone marrow/spleen cells to respond to con a, i.e., bone marrow and spleen contain radiation-sensitive ce ...19836603375
babana parasitic diseases project. i. the study area and a preliminary assessment of onchocercal endemicity based on the prevalence of "leopard skin".a prevalence survey of "leopard skin" (ls) was carried out in 24 villages to assess the distribution of onchocerciasis in the babana district of nigeria. the findings suggested that onchocerciasis is highly endemic in this community. of 1,310 adults examined for the presence of the characteristic onchocercal depigmentation, 26.4% were found affected. ls occurred more frequently among the cattle fulani people than among other local ethnic groups (p less than 0.001) and was significantly more comm ...19836623586
clouded leopard, neofelis neburosa, new host for dirofilaria immitis. 19836672414
lead insult to the dentition in the leopard. 19751073183
studies on the comparative pharmacology and selective toxicity of tricaine methanesulfonate: metabolism as a basis of the selective toxicity in poikilotherms.tricaine methanesulfonate, administered at a dose of 150 mg/kg i.p., produced a flaccid paralysis and loss of the righting reflex in a number of poikilothermic species including the frog. leopard frogs (rana pipiens) given 150 mg/kg i.p. regained the righting reflex at 113 +/- 28 (s.d.) minutes after injection. a similar dose administered i.p. to mice produced no apparent pharmacological response. the biological half-life (t1/2) of tricaine in frogs (r. pipiens) was about 70 minutes at temperatu ...1976185356
periodontal status in snow leopards.periodontal examinations were performed on ten 1- to 22-year-old snow leopards (6 males and 4 females), using dentistry methods for determining the plaque and gingival indices. all tooth surfaces were probed, and alveolar bone attachment loss was determined. after subgingival plaque removal, plaque specimens were examined for differential bacterial morphotypes. the small number of leopards evaluated precluded definitive statistical analysis. however, the progression from gingival health to gingi ...19863505932
a case of double infection with brugia pahangi buckley and edeson 1956, and dirofilaria immitis leidy 1856, in a malaysian clouded leopard, neofelis nebulosa.a case of double infection with brugia pahangi and dirofilaria immitis in a clouded leopard, neofelis nebulosa, is presented. a brief review of filarial infections in both man and wild animals, and their medical importance is discussed.19863739206
'leopard spot' retinopathy in warburg syndrome.a female infant with brain and muscle abnormalities characteristic of warburg syndrome had an atypical retinal dysplasia which appeared clinically as a 'leopard spot' retinopathy. the retinal histology is described in detail and is remarkable for periodic thinning of the inner nuclear layers and for isolated rosettes in the periphery. we believe 'leopard spot' retinopathy is yet another ocular manifestation of the warburg syndrome.19863785883
pasteurella multocida in an infected tiger bite.we report an unusual case of pasteurella multocida wound infection caused by a tiger bite. we investigated the normal fang flora of large zoo cats and found p multocida in cultures from seven tigers, three of four leopards, and one lynx. sucrose fermentation was found to be highly media dependent and unpredictable. the literature relative to p multocida in bite-wound infections is reviewed with special reference to bites by animals other than cats and dogs. with the addition of the present case, ...19853839375
temperature-dependent malignant invasion in vitro by frog renal carcinoma-derived pnkt-4b cells.the northern leopard frog, rana pipiens, may be afflicted with a herpesvirus-transmitted renal carcinoma which has the interesting property that its metastatic behavior is temperature-related. pnkt-4b is a cell line derived from a pronephric carcinoma arising in a tadpole. we sought to ascertain if invasion of normal tissue by pnkt-4b cells in three-dimensional confrontation culture in vitro is similarly temperature-dependent. normal fragments of tadpole and frog organs are invaded by pnkt-4b ce ...19883257181
classification and distribution of large intestinal bacteria in nonhibernating and hibernating leopard frogs (rana pipiens).the large intestinal flora of the leopard frog, rana pipiens, was examined to determine whether differences existed between the nonhibernating and hibernating states of the animal and to determine the relative concentrations and proportions of potential frog pathogens. hibernators had a logarithmic decrease of bacteria per milligram of intestine averaging one, and significantly greater proportions of facultative bacteria and psychrophiles relative to nonhibernators. the predominant anaerobic bac ...19883263838
western equine encephalitis virus in saskatchewan garter snakes and leopard frogs.western equine encephalitis virus was isolated from two naturally infected snakes on first bleeding and from seven others at subsequent bleedings, both with and without preliminary chilling. one snake, with neither detectable virus nor serum neutralizing antibodies when first bled, developed viremia later. viremia in garter snakes has a cyclic rhythm independent of the temperature of the environment. virus was isolated from 6 frogs, and 50 out of 179 had detectable serum neutralizing antibodies. ...19665919753
effect of thyroxine on induction of lucké renal adenocarcinomas in lucké tumor herpesvirus-infected leopard frog tadpoles.the incidence of lucké renal adenocarcinomas and premalignant kidney lesions in leopard frog tadpoles (rana pipiens) was determined at specified ages and metamorphic stages following embryonic infection with the lucké tumor herpesvirus. tumor incidence increased with time elapsed after virus infection but was not strictly correlated with advanced metamorphic stages. when the rate of tadpole development was altered by thiourea or thyroxine treatment, the onset of tumor development was unchanged. ...19846332231
estrus-related odors in cows: time of catahoula leopard cowdog and three german shepherd dogs, previously trained to detect odors characteristic of estrus in cows, were used in three experiments to determine when estrus-related odor first appears, how long it persists, and when it disappears in relation to time of estrus. samples were swabs of reproductive tract fluids taken from vaginas of cycling cows on the day of estrus, at diestrus (8 to 10 days after estrus), and at daily intervals before and after estrus. estrous odor eme ...19817276312
pentastomiasis (armillifer and linguatula sp.) infestations of wild animals in the kruger national park.armillifer armillatus, linguatula serrata and l. nuttalli have each been isolated from nine different mammalian species in the kruger national park: lion, panthera leo; leopard, p. pardus; buffalo, syncerus caffer: blue wildebeest, connechaetes taurinus; giraffe, girraffa camelopardalis; kudu, tragelophus strepsiceros; waterbuck, kobus ellipsyprymnus; tsessebe, damaliscus iunatus and impala, aepyceros melampus. successful transmission of l. serrata from the lion to a domestic ox and impala is re ...19751223283
the occurrence of salmonellae in zoo animals in uttar pradesh and delhi (india).the occurrence of salmonellae in a variety of zoo animals including carnivores, primates, ruminants, avifauna, rodents etc. was investigated. of 783 samples collected from lucknow, delhi and kanpur (india) zoological parks, only 5 yielded salmonella serotypes. these included s. typhimurium, from a leopard and a wild cat, s. enteritidis from two black and white rats and a strain of salmonella group e1 from a leopard.19807461914
evaluation of alternate methods of rapid assessment of endemicity of onchocerca volvulus in communities in southern cameroon.potential diagnostic indicators of onchocerciasis (subcutaneous nodules, depigmentation or leopard skin, microfilaruria, diethylcarbamazine patch test positivity, excoriations, and pruritus) were evaluated in a rain forest region of southern cameroon for usefulness in rapid assessment of onchocerciasis endemicity in communities. thirty-two study villages were selected, representing high, intermediate, and low prevalence levels, and 846 adult male residents of these communities 20 or more years o ...19957573705
possible mechanisms responsible for the reduced intestinal flora in hibernating leopard frogs (rana pipiens).mechanisms and factors that normally control the large intestinal flora were investigated to determine whether changes in these parameters could account for the decreased bacterial concentration and facultative nature of the flora found in hibernating frogs. it appeared that low temperatures and limited nutrients were the main factors responsible for the decrease in the bacterial concentration and may also have been responsible for the increase in the proportions of facultative organisms, since ...19883263839
hiomt-like immunoreactivity in the vertebrate retina: a species comparison.localization of the melatonin-synthesizing enzyme, hydroxyindole-o-methyltransferase (hiomt)-like immunoreactivity was examined by light and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry, in the retinas of several species that have been used as animal models to study the retinal melatonin system. hiomt-like immunoreactivity was observed in the retinal photoreceptors of rabbit, pigmented rat, guinea-pig, chick, goldfish. african clawed toad, and leopard frog. additionally, most species displayed hiomt ...19892612586
seasonal abundance of the tortoise tick amblyomma marmoreum (acari: ixodidae) on the leopard tortoise, geochelone paradalis.a survey of amblyomma marmoreum koch ticks recorded from the leopard tortoise, geochelone paradalis bell, in the national zoological gardens, pretoria, south africa, was carried out over a 19-mo period. no significant differences were found between the tick burdens on male and female tortoises. a. marmoreum showed a clear seasonal pattern of abundance. larvae were present on the tortoise host during late summer, with a peak in february and march; nymphs were abundant during winter, with a peak i ...19957608922
comparative anatomy of the cardiac foramen ovale in cats (felidae), dogs (canidae), bears (ursidae) and hyaenas (hyaenidae).the structure of the foramen ovale from 16 species representing 4 carnivore families, the felidae, canidae, ursidae and hyaenidae, was studied using the scanning electron microscope. the felidae were represented by 9 domestic cat fetuses (felis catus), 2 snow leopard neonates (uncia uncia), an ocelot neonate (leopardus pardalis), 2 lion neonates (panthera leo), a panther neonate (panthera pardus) and 3 tigers (neofelis tigris), comprising 2 fetuses and a neonate. the canidae were represented by ...19957649822
grass-eating leopards: wolves turned into sheep? 19883352749
the life history, ultrastructure, and experimental transmission of hepatozoon catesbianae n. comb., an apicomplexan parasite of the bullfrog, rana catesbeiana and the mosquito, culex territans in algonquin park, ontario.gametogenesis and sporogonic development of a haemogregarine parasite of bullfrogs (rana catesbeiana) was observed in cells of the malpighian tubules of laboratory-reared culex territans that had fed on naturally infected bullfrogs. mature oocysts, which varied considerably in size, were multisporocystic with ellipsoidal sporocysts that contained 4 sporozoites. sporogonic development was completed in about 20 days. mature meronts were observed in the liver and merozoites in erythrocytes of labor ...19957707196
frog lysozyme. v. isolation and some physical and immunochemical properties of lysozyme isozymes of the leopard frog, rana pipiens.frog lysozyme has been purified by sequential application of acid extraction, salt fractionation, cm-cellulose chromatography, heat treatment, and gel filtration. eight isozymes of purified lysozyme were found to be stable during prolonged storage. isozymes were separated by preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, ninety percent of the lytic activity of frog ovarian egg was represented by forms 7 and 8, the most highly charged isozymes. seventy-eight percent of frog liver lysozyme activi ...1977303690
acoustic modulation of neural activity in the hypothalamus of the leopard frog.horseradish applications in the ventral hypothalamus of the northern leopard frog, rana pipiens, demonstrated inputs from three auditory nuclei, the anterior and central thalamic nuclei and the secondary isthmal nucleus, in a pattern identical to that seen in rana catesbeiana. single-unit recordings from the area receiving these inputs revealed neurons with high spontaneous firing rates. in approximately half of the isolated neurons, the firing rate could be increased or, less often, decreased, ...19892788475
gonadotropin regimen for inducing ovarian activity in captive wild felids.five species of felids (cheetah, north chinese leopard, tiger, lion, and puma) were serially injected with a source of follicle-stimulating hormone (fsh) to evaluate its effect on ovarian activity. animals were subjected to laparoscopy before and after gonadotropin treatment, and the number and appearance of mature ovarian follicles (mf), corpora hemorrhagica (ch), and corpora lutea (cl) were recorded and photographed. ovarian morphologic features, including mf, ch, and cl anatomy, were similar ...19826816775
aggression toward large carnivores by wild chimpanzees of mahale mountains national park, the mahale mountains national park of tanzania, a group of about 33 chimpanzees were observed to surround a leopard den containing a mother and at least one cub and to drag out and kill the cub. this is the first report of chimpanzees or any other primate species killing their potential predator's offspring. the incident suggests that chimpanzees, without any weapons, can manage to defend themselves against a carnivore of at least up to leopard size, and implicates how the early hominids may ...19863557232
hepatic cytochrome p-450-dependent monooxygenase systems of the trout, frog and snake--ii. monooxygenase activities.1. activities of hepatic monooxygenase systems (aminopyrine n-demethylase, benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase and p-nitrophenetole o-deethylase) of the brown trout (salmo trutta), leopard frog (rana pipiens) and garter snake (thamnophis) were observed to be considerably lower than those of the rat. the specific activities of their p-450 cytochromes relative to rates of product formation were also much lower than those of the rat, except benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylation by frog microsomes, in which case, the ...19826978229
a fate map for the 32-cell stage of rana pipiens.a fate map of the progeny derived from all blastomeres of the 32-cell stage embryo of the leopard frog rana pipiens has been generated. embryos presenting regular cleavages were injected into two pairs of blastomeres with fluorescein- and texas red-lysine dextran. by stage 21, embryos were sectioned and the tissue distribution of labeled clones was determined. the results of 93 clones were pooled to give a fate map which represents the derivation of each tissue from the different blastomeres of ...19947813792
hepatic cytochrome p-450-dependent monooxygenase systems of the trout, frog and snake--iii. induction.1. 3-methylcholanthrene administration increased levels of cytochrome p-450, benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase activity and p-nitrophenetole o-deethylase activity in hepatic microsomes from the brown trout (salmo trutta), leopard frog (rana pipiens) and the garter snake (thamnophis). the level of aminopyrine n-demethylase activity was increased in trout microsomes, but not in those from the frog, snake or rat. 2. the shift in the soret maximum of the reduced carbon monoxide difference spectrum of cytoc ...19826978230
immunoglobulins of the leopard shark. i. isolation and characterization of 17 s and 7 s immunoglobulins with precipitating activity. 19674167601
characterization of hepatic growth hormone binding sites in two fish species, gillichthys mirabilis (teleostei) and acipenser transmontanus (chondrostei).to obtain information on the presence of growth hormone (gh) receptors in liver of nonmammalian vertebrates the specific binding of 125i-bovine growth hormone (bgh) to liver membranes of seven species representing the major groups was studied by radioreceptor assay. a substantial degree of specific binding was detected with sturgeon (acipenser transmontanus) liver membranes and a much lower amount was detected on hepatic membranes of gillichthys mirabilis. no significant specific binding was det ...19852996975
parasites of wild felidae in thailand: a coprological survey.ninety-two fecal samples were collected from leopards (panthera pardus, n = 54), tigers (p. tigris, n = 19), and leopard cats (felis bengalensis, n = 3) in huai kha wildlife sanctuary, thailand; four samples that may have come from clouded leopards (neofelis nebulosa) or asian golden cats (felis temminicki) were identified as from small to medium cats. twelve samples were identified as from large cats. samples preserved in 10% formalin were examined for parasite eggs, larvae, cysts, and oocysts ...19947933301
large intestine bacterial flora of nonhibernating and hibernating leopard frogs (rana pipiens).the bacteria in the large intestines of 10 northern leopard frogs (rana pipiens) were enumerated and partially characterized. four nonhibernating frogs were collected in the summer, four hibernating frogs were collected in the winter, and two frogs just emerged from hibernation were collected in the spring. all frogs had about 10(10) bacteria per g (wet weight) of intestinal contents and about 10(9) bacteria per g (wet weight) of mucosal scraping, although the counts from the winter frogs were s ...19826982025
response of intestinal flora of laboratory-reared leopard frogs (rana pipiens) to cold and fasting.the bacterial flora of the large intestine was examined in 35 laboratory-reared leopard frogs (rana pipiens) subjected to one of the following four treatments: (i) normal feeding at 21 degrees c (10 frogs); (ii) fasting for 2 weeks at 21 degrees c (8 frogs); (iii) chilling for 1 week at 4 degrees c (9 frogs); and (iv) simulated hibernation for 3 weeks at 4 degrees c (8 frogs). bacteria from the intestinal contents and mucosa were counted microscopically and by colony counting after strictly anae ...19826982026
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