muscle metabolic profiles and fiber-type composition in some marine mammals.1. hexokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, 3-hydroxyacyl-coa dehydrogenase, and malate dehydrogenase activities as well as fiber type composition were determined in skeletal muscles of the california sea lion (zalophus californianus), the sea otter (enhydra lutris), and the pacific white-sided dolphin (lagenorhynchus obliquidens). 2. the subcutaneous muscle of the sea lion had intermediate glycolytic and oxidative enzyme activities. 3. the locomotory muscles examined in the otter and porpoise did not ...1978318281
identification by the blood incubation infectivity test of trypanosoma brucei subspecies isolated from game animals in the luangwa valley, zambia.a total of 7 stocks of trypanosoma brucei subspecies, isolated from naturally infected game animals in the luangwa valley, eastern province, zambia were examined using a modified version of the blood incubation infectivity test (biit). one stock giving consistent biit responses typical of t.b. rhodesiense, was obtained from warthog (phacochoerus aethiopicus). four other stocks, 2 from hyaena (crocuta crocuta), 1 from a waterbuck (kobus ellipsiprymnus) and 1 from a lion (panthera leo) responded l ...197944098
rna synthesized in calicivirus-infected cells is atypical of picornaviruses.rna labeled with [3h]uridine from vero cells infected with san miguel sea lion virus in the presence of actinomycin d was analyzed by glycerol density gradient sedimentation and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. the predominant single-stranded rna (36s, 2.6 x 10(6) molecular weight) was genome size. there was also a prominent 22s, 1.1 x 10(6)-molecular weight, single-stranded component and one or more double-stranded or partially double-stranded classes. replicative forms, sedimenting at 18s, ...1977559106
immunoelectron microscopic comparisons of caliciviruses.using immunoelectron microscopy, 9 serotypes of vesicular exanthema of swine virus (vesv) were compared with 5 serotypes of san miguel sea lion virus and 7 additional calicivirus isolates from marine animals. in addition, swine caliciviruses and marine caliciviruses were compared with the vaccinal strain of feline calicivirus (fcv) f-9. of 9 vesv types, 8 showed common antigenicity with san miguel sea lion virus. of 9 vesv types, 2 showed common antigenicity with fcv f-9. all 12 marine calicivir ...1978567950
parasites and associated pathology observed in pinnipeds stranded along the oregon coast.forty-two seals and sea lions found dead along the oregon coast were examined for parasites and associated pathology. nematode infections of the lung and/or gastrointestinal tract were the primary cause of death in 5 of 42 animals examined. new distribution records were established for pricetrema zalophi and zalophotrema hepaticum. new host records include z. hepaticum and diphyllobothrium cordatum in the steller's sea lion (eumetopias jubatus); nanophyetus salmincola in the california sea lion ...1978567698
salmonellae in feral pinnipeds off the southern california coast.rectal swabs were collected from 90 northern fur seal (callorhinus ursinus) and 50 california sea lion (zalophus californianus) pups on san miguel island for salmonella screening. three serotypes (newport, heidelberg, and oranienburg) were recovered from 33% of the fur seals and 40% of the sea lions.1979522219
acute viral hepatitis in california sea lions.acute viral hepatitis was diagnosed in five california sea lions (zalophus californianus) stranded along the los angeles coast. light microscopy revealed large nuclear inclusion bodies in hepatocytes. electron microscopy provided evidence that these inclusion bodies were composed of adenovirus-like virions. attempts to grow the virus in cell culture systems were unsuccessful.1979521373
sucrase and cellular development.the cellular changes that take place as the intestinal cell migrates from crypt to villus are morphologically and biochemically remarkable. it is fortunate that many of these phenomena can be delineated by following enzymic activities. sucrase-isomaltase is a particularly fascinating enzyme complex because it is a marker of the differentiated cell. sucrase is inducible with steroids and protected by the substrate sucrose. purified enzyme can be used to stimulate production of specific antibodies ...1979396132
comparative resistance of san miguel sea lion virus and vesicular exanthema of swine virus to chemical disinfectants.two similar calici agents, san miguel sea lion virus (smsv) and vesicular exanthema of swine virus (vesv) are susceptible to the virucidal activity of disinfectants of differing formulation. ten of 12 compounds were effective against six log10 plaque forming units (pfu) of smsv in a 2-min exposure at 4, 25 and 37 degrees c. however, only seven of these 10 smsv-positive compounds inactivated vesv under the same conditions of temperature and time. two compounds were not effective against smsv in a ...1978568301
viruses and virus diseases of marine mammals.poxvirus and several serotypes of calicivirus cause recognizable disease in marine mammals. pox lesions in pinnipeds are raised and proliferative and are seen most frequently after confinement in captivity. in cetaceans, a poxvirus is associated with a much more benign and chronic lesion called a "tattoo." numerous caliciviruses of differing antigenic types have been isolated from vesicular lesions and aborted fetuses of northern fur seals and california sea lions as well as from clinically norm ...1979230170
yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection in a lion. 1979391208
plasma biochemical values of clinically-normal australian sea lions (neophoca cinerea).seventeen biochemical constituents were assayed in the blood plasma of clinically-normal australian sea lions (neophoca cinerea). the sea lions formed part of a breeding colony which inhabits the southern coast of kangaroo island, south australia. little variation was found in any of the values obtained from animals of different age and sex. the results were compared with values published for california sea lions (zalophus californianus), northern fur seals (callorhinus ursinus), harbor seals (p ...1979459034
vesicular exanthema of swine and san miguel sea lion virus.san miguel sea lion virus (smsv), recently isolated from marine mammals, and vesicular exanthema of swine virus (vesv), which caused epizootics of vesicular exanthema of swine (ves) over a period of 24 years (1932 to 1956), may be the same virus. this finding is of particular interest because the source of the original ves epizootic was never identified, swine were the only known natural host of vesv, and vesv was thought to have been eradicated. the smsv has been shown to be enzootic in 2 speci ...1976786970
a new calicivirus isolated from a marine mammal.a new serotype of calicivirus, designated as san miguel sea lion virus type 6 (smsv-6), was isolated from vesicular lesions on the flipper of a california sea lion pup. serologic studies show that smsv-6 neutralizing antibodies (sn) occur frequently among california sea lions and occasionally among northern fur seals. feral swine, 1- to 6-week elephant seal pups and grey whales tested negative for smsv-6 antibody.1979227346
caliciviruses infecting monkeys and possibly man.caliciviruses have, for the 1st time, been shown experimentally to infect a primate. twenty-four hours after being inoculated with san miguel sea lion virus (smsv), an african green monkey developed a febrile response and vesicular lesions at injection sites. virus was recovered from lesion material 96 hours later and from the stool at 48 hours. possible human infection with smsv was indicated by serologic evidence. three persons working with 4 distinct serotypes of smsv developed neutralizing a ...1978415648
characterization of two new serotypes of san miguel sea lion virus.two new virus isolates, one from a california sea lion (zalophus californianus californianus) and the other from a northern fur seal (callorhinus ursinus) were partially characterized. their physicochemical characteristics were similar to those of vesicular exanthema of swine virus (vesv) and san miguel sea lion virus (smsv). the virion morphology was in both instances typically calicivirus. on the basis of this and the serum cross-neutralization testing, these isolates were classed as two new t ...197767101
observations on the infectivity of parasitic third-stage larvae of uncinaria lucasi stiles 1901 (nematoda: ancylostomatidae) of northern fur seals, callorhinus ursinus linn., on st. paul island, alaska.twelve fur seal pups, which had not nursed their mothers, were used in an infectivity experiment. pups were exposed to parasitic 3rd-stage larvae of uncinaria lucasi from belly tissues of fur seal bulls, bachelors, and pregnant cows, to determine maturation capability of the larvae. hookworms were not recovered from the intestines of 3 pups receiving larvae from belly blubber of bulls, 6 pups receiving larvae from belly blubber of bachelors, and 1 nonexposed pup. maturation of hookworms did occu ...1978149188
vesicular exanthema of swine.vesicular exanthema of swine (ves) was first recognized in 1932. at the time, eradication measures and, later, quarantine procedures were instituted and extension of the disease to surrounding farms appeared to have been prevented. between 1932 and 1936, however, seemingly unrelated epizootics continued among swine herds being fed raw garbage. in 1936, ves disappeared only to reappear in 1939. the disease was contained within california until 1952, at which time it spread to all the major swine ...1976786969
urinary chorionic gonadotropin levels in pregnant golden lion tamarins. preliminary observations.we have established the interval over which urinary chorionic gonadotropin can be detected by a radioimmunoassay during pregnancy in the golden lion tamarin. preliminary findings indicate the potential value of this radioimmunoassay system for (1) diagnosis of pregnancy at about four weeks after fertilization; (2) estimation of the expected time of delivery; and (3) identification of individual monkeys having an apparent high risk of spontaneous abortion.1978110938
calicivirus intracellular rna: fractionation of 18-22 s rna and lack of typical 5'-methylated caps on 36 s and 22 s san miguel sea lion virus rnas. 1979571647
immunohistochemical study of a large molecular fragment of thyroglobulin in parafollicular cells.thyroglobulin-like immunoreactivity of the parafollicular cells was studied by an immunoperoxidase bridge technique using antisera against dog thyroglobulin fragments. 1. the dog parafollicular cells were specifically stained by anti-peak i (27s and larger components fraction) antiserum absorbed with peak ii (19s fraction). by this method, they were easily distinguishable from the non-reactive follicular cells and colloid droplets. more sensitive staining of the parafollicular cells was possible ...197876516
relationship of san miguel sea lion virus to other members of the calicivirus group.san miguel sea lion virus (smsv) is indistinguishable from vesicular exanthema virus (vev) and feline calicivirus (fcv) in its morphology and in possessing a single capsid polypeptide with a molecular weight of approximately 65 x 10(3). neutralization tests readily differentiate the three viruses, but immunodiffusion tests show that smsv is closely related serologically to vev but not to fcv. although the rnas of the three caliciviruses have similar base compositions, homology tests show that sm ...1978564894
host range comparisons of five serotypes of caliciviruses.two new serotypes of san miguel sea lion virus (smsv), designated smsv-4 and smsv-5, were studied in vivo and in vitro. the host cell spectrums were compared with smsv-1, smsv-2, and vesicular exanthema of swine virus type a-48. based on the result of these broad host spectrums, a numerical scoring system was devised for ranking each virus on the basis of its potential for infecting terrestrial mammals, including the important domestic species.1977556918
some important parasitic and other diseases of lion, panthera leo, in the kruger national park.lions in the kruger park have been found affected by a variety of parasitic and other disease conditions, including trichinosis, filariasis, sarcoptic mange, pentastomiasis, echinococcosis, taeniasis, hepatozoonosis, anthrax, babesiosis and rickets. six of these may be directly or indirectly transmissible to man or are, at least, closely related to human parasites or disease. nine of these diseases, or closely related conditions, are also known to infect domestic animal species. the opposite may ...1975811797
nodular suppurative cutaneous cellulitis in a galapagos sea lion.necropsy was performed on a sea lion (zalophus californianus wollebaeki), sacrificed in an advanced (pre-terminal) stage of disease, possibly represenatative of the galapagos epizootic of 1970-71. predominant features of the disease were nonumbilicated multiple suppurative cutaneous nodules, debilitation and loss of motor power. histopathological studies of the skin lesions disclosed suppurative cellulitis, with leucocytic invasion extending, in some instances, to all layers of the epidermis. ps ...1975807749
a peak in sexual activity during mid-pregnancy in the golden lion tamarin, leontopithecus rosalia (primates: callitrichidae). 1977411862
alaria (alaria) marcianae (larue 1917) walton 1950 (trematoda: diplostomatidae) from a mountain lion, felis concolor acrocodia goldman, from paraguay. 1977859076
premature parturition in the california sea lion.twenty percent of the california sea lion pups born on san miguel island die due to premature parturition. specimens collected from premature-partus animals resulted in recovery of a virus, san miguel sea lion virus, indistinguishable from vesicular exanthema of swine virus, and leptospira pomona from some of the premature cows and pups. the age range of 10 females delivering healthy pups in june was 10-14 years. with one exception, the ages in 10 aborting females was 6-8 years. the p,p'-dde le ...1976815567
toxoplasmosis in a california sea lion (zalophus californianus).disseminated toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a female california sea lion that had been used in thermoregulation studies for about 4 years while housed in a small enclosure with a fresh-water pool at the university of hawaii, honolulu. toxoplasma gondii was demonstrated in and around necrotic lesions of the heart and the stomach. source of the infection was not established; however, studies on toxoplasmosis in cats were being conducted at the institution, and common caretakers attended both group ...1977835862
on the tryptic peptides from hemoglobin chains of six carnivores.the amino acid compositions of the tryptic peptides of the following carnivore hemoglobin chains have been determined: gray fox (urocyon cineroargenteus); raccoon (procyon lotor); polar bear (thalarctos maritimus); coati mundi (nasua nasua) beta chain; coati mundi (nasua narica) two beta chains; cat (felis catus) alpha chain; and lion (pantbera leo) beta chain. these provide a basis for future sequencing of these hemoglobins and construction of an evolutionary tree. the specific results are summ ...1977864727
electrostatic effects in myoglobin. application of the modified tanford-kirkwood theory to myoglobins from horse, california grey whale, harbor seal, and california sea lion.the modified tanford-kirkwood electrostatic theory (shire et al., 1974a) was applied to ferrimyoglobins from the following animal species: sperm whale (physeter catodon), horse, california grey whale (eschrichtius gibbosus), harbor seal (phoca vitulina), and california sea lion (zalophus californianus). computations were made of the overall hydrogen ion titration curves of the proteins, and of ph and ionic strength variations of ionization equilibria for individual groups in the protein, with pa ...1975235950
[electron microscopy of human nasal mucosa in disturbances of the autonomic nervous system. i. sympathetic denervation (author's transl)].the fine structure of the human nasal mucosa is described shortly after unilateral stellate gang-lion blockage as well as in a case of sympathetic denervation of four weeks duration. for the clinical picture, corresponding to vasomotor rhinitis, there is a characteristic fine structural correlation consisting of dilatation and increased permeability of the vessels as well as stimulation of the nasal glands. in the glands, both increased activity and degenerative changes suggesting "secretory exh ...1977139514
description and analysis of the arch display in the golden lion tamarin, leontopithecus rosalia rosalia.three different arch displays are described in captive lion tamarins (leontopithecus rosalia rosalia) at the national zoological park. analysis of social behaviours including huddling, sexual activity, territorial encounters and arch displays suggests that arch displaying is motivated by conflicting tendencies of a nonaggressive nature and may function as a regulator of social contact, thus maintaining homeostasis within and between a social group.1979118906
electron microscope observations on a virus transmissible from pinnipeds to swine.evidence from immunological tests and electron microscopy indicates that a virus isolated from an alaskan fur seal is transmissible to swine. the virus is one of the san miguel sea lion viruses and a member of the calicivirus groups.1977886302
isolation of edwardsiella tarda from three oregon sea mammals.edwardsiella tarda was isolated from the peritoneal exudate of a steller's sea lion (eumetopias jubata) with peritonitis resulting from a perforating colonic ulcer; from the liver of a harbor porpoise (phocena phocena) with metritis and peritonitis sequela to dystocia; and from the liver of a california sea lion (zalophus californianus) with peritonitis following fracture and necrosis of a lumbar vertebrae. these findings indicate e. tarda is a common opportunistic invader in sick or injured mar ...1978691128
san miguel sea lion virus fed to mink and pigs.mink became infected with san miguel sea lion virus when fed ground meat from seal carcasses showing vesicular-like lesions in the skin. the mink also contracted the infection when they were fed san miguel sea lion virus infected pig meat or cell culture propagated virus. san miguel sea lion virus infection in mink was inapparent but the virus was isolated from blood and rectal swabs. pigs treated similarly with the same virus preparations given to mink developed a severe vesicular disease syndr ...197896925
[cadaver destruction through dog- and lion bites]. 1978568460
amino acid composition of three immunological types of a calicivirus, san miguel sea lion virus. 1976986102
assay of antibodies to caliciviruses by radioimmune precipitation using staphylococcal protein a as igg adsorbent.a radioimmune assay method designated st-rip using a staphylococcal igg adsorbent, which potentially has broad applications to viral (and nonviral) antigen-antibody systems, was applied to detection of calicivirus antibodies. purified 125i-labeled virions of san miguel sea lion virus serotypes 4 (smsv-4) and 5 (smsv 5) were incubated with sera; the immune complexes were reacted with an immunoadsorbent, formaldehyde-fixed staphylococci (staphylococcus aureus protein a producer, strain cowan i), a ...1978678121
isolation of san miguel sea lion virus from samples of an animal food product produced from northern fur seal (callorhinus ursinus) carcasses.a virus was isolated from california sea lions (zalophus californianus californianus) and northern fur seals (callorhinus ursinus) in 1972. it was later named san miguel sea lion virus (smsv). state and federal livestock disease control agencies became concerned, because smsv was found to be indistinguishable from vesicular exanthema of swine virus and to cause (in laboratory trials) clinical signs in swine similar to those produced by vesicular exanthema of swine virus. ground carcasses of nort ...1978629435
toxoplasma gondii antibodies in free-living african mammals.twelve species of free-living african mammals from kenya, tanzania, uganda and zambia were tested for antibodies to toxoplasma gondii using the indirect hemagglutination test. of 157 animals sampled, 20 (13%) were seropositive. t. gondii antibodies were detected in burchell's zebra, (equus burchelli), hippopotamus (hippopotamus amphibius), african elephant (loxodonta africana), defassa waterbuck (kobus defassa), lion (panthera leo), and rock hyrax (procavia capensis), the highest titers were fou ...19751195497
prevalence of vesicular exanthema of swine antibodies among feral mammals associated with the southern california coastal zones.serum-neutralizing antibodies to both vesicular exanthema of swine virus (vesv) and san miguel sea lion virus (smsv) were found in a number of animal species having an association with the southern california coastal zones. california sea lions (zalophus californianus) had antibodies to 9 vesv types (a48, c52, d53, e54, f54, g55, i55, j56, and k56). fur seals (callorhinus ursinus) and elephant seal pups (mirounga angustirostris) were tested for antibodies to 6 vesv types and all were negative. c ...1978629463
diethylcarbamazine citrate for prevention of heartworm (dirofilaria immitis) in the california sea lion (zalophus californianus). 1977585265
retrovirus infections in non-domestic felids: serological studies and attempts to isolate a african lioness from the zoo of zurich had to be euthanized because of an inoperable tumor. the serum tested negative for feline leukemia virus (felv) p27 antigen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) but was strongly positive for feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) antibodies by elisa and western blot. when her only offspring and mate were tested for fiv, high antibody titers to fiv were also found in their serum. lymphocytes were prepared from these two lions on different occasions a ...19921337398
haemorrhagic disease of lagomorphs: evidence for a calicivirus.studies on the aetiological agents of rabbit haemorrhagic disease (rhd) and european brown hare syndrome show that the viruses responsible for these infections can be placed in the family caliciviridae. established members of this group are vesicular exanthema virus (prototype), san miguel sea lion virus and feline calcivirus. the human hepatitis e virus and the norwalk agent may soon be included. the rhd virus genome consists of a positive stranded rna molecule composed of 7437 nucleotides. a m ...19921282757
the covalent structure of dog myoglobin.the primary structure of the myoglobin of the domestic dog (german shepherd) was studied. tryptic and thermolytic peptides were compared with the sequence of other known myoglobins; the stepwise automatic edman's degradation of the whole globin and also the chymotryptic digestion of the median fragment obtained by cnbr cleavage completed this sequence. comparison of the established dog myoglobin structure with those from other carnivora shows 16 differences versus badger, 20 versus harbour seal ...19761252463
lions club international joins american foundation for aids research in efforts against cytomegalovirus (cmv) retinitis. 19921329702
bi-directional transmission of molecular information by photon or electron beams passing in the close vicinity of specific molecules, and its clinical and basic research applications: 1) diagnosis of humans or animal patients without any direct contact; 2) light microscopic and electron microscopic localization of neuro-transmitters, heavy metals, oncogen c-fos (ab2), etc. of intracellular fine structures of normal and abnormal single cells using light or electro-microscopic indirect bi-digital o-ring 1985, omura, y. discovered that, when specific molecules were placed anywhere in the close vicinity of the path of a light beam (laser), their molecular information, as well as information on electrical & magnetic fields, is transmitted bi-directionally along the path of this light beam. namely, this information is transmitted in the direction the light beam is projected and towards the direction from which the light beam is coming. this finding was applied to the following clinical and basic ...19921351338
incidence of feline immunodeficiency virus reactive antibodies in free-ranging lions of the kruger national park and the etosha national park in southern africa detected by recombinant fiv p24 antigen.lion sera from the kruger national park (knp) dating back to 1977 and from the etosha national park (enp), obtained from 1989 to 1991, have been analysed by elisa and western blot analyses using a genetically engineered antigen representing the p24 structural protein of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv). it was concluded that some 83% of 98 knp lion sera reacted with the p24 antigen, while none of 28 enp lion sera reacted. a few other knp felids (cheetahs and genets) gave samples that did not ...19921338477
vector competence of glossina pallidipes and g. morsitans centralis for trypanosoma vivax, t. congolense and t. b. brucei.vector competence of glossina pallidipes for pathogenic trypanosoma species was compared to that of g. morsitans centralis. cattle or goats were the hosts used to infect teneral tsetse, rabbits were used to maintain tsetse which were dissected on day 30. mean infection rates of g. pallidipes and g. m. centralis by t. vivax isolated from a cow in kenya were respectively 39.5 +/- 8.9% and 32.1 +/- 10.3% whilst for t. vivax isolated from a cow in nigeria, they were 30.0 +/- 7.5% and 19.8 +/- 4.3%. ...19921359753
worldwide prevalence of lentivirus infection in wild feline species: epidemiologic and phylogenetic aspects.the natural occurrence of lentiviruses closely related to feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) in nondomestic felid species is shown here to be worldwide. cross-reactive antibodies to fiv were common in several free-ranging populations of large cats, including east african lions and cheetahs of the serengeti ecosystem and in puma (also called cougar or mountain lion) populations throughout north america. infectious puma lentivirus (plv) was isolated from several florida panthers, a severely endan ...19921382145
haematopoietic malignancies in zoo animals.myelogenous leukaemia was found in a russell's viper, a honduran milk snake, a marine toad, a byrne's marsupial mouse and an african hedgehog. lymphocytic leukaemia was present in a broad banded copperhead and an indian lion. visceral lymphomatosis was observed in a snowy owl.19921556254
mycoplasma simbae sp. nov., mycoplasma leopharyngis sp. nov., and mycoplasma leocaptivus sp. nov., isolated from lions.mycoplasmas isolated from the throats of lions were shown to belong to three serotypes, all of which were serologically distinct from the previously recognized mycoplasma and acholeplasma spp. eight mycoplasma colonies were cloned, including one from a leopard (strain lp), and were examined in detail for morphology, growth, and biochemical characteristics. the strains had the following properties: guanine-plus-cytosine contents of 37 mol% (strain lxt [t = type strain]), 28 mol% (strain ll2t), an ...19921390104
relation between food preference and food-elicited vocalizations in golden lion tamarins (leontopithecus rosalia).we report the results of 2 studies on food-elicited vocalizations in golden lion tamarins (leontopithecus rosalia). first, we investigated the preferences of 10 golden lion tamarins for 6 foods. tamarins prefer mealworms and raisins significantly more than apple, egg, carrot, or marmoset diet. food preference rank was significantly and positively correlated with the rank of latency to choose a particular food. second, we investigated the relation between food preference and 15 vocal parameters m ...19921600721
[serological evidence of the existence of a wild reservoir of trypanosoma brucei gambiense in the pendjari biosphere reservation in the republic of benin].in the national park of pendjari, situated in the north-west of benin, 91 wild animals, belonging to seven species, were darted. thick and thin blood smears were examined for trypanosomes and plasma for trypanolytic antibodies against 6 antigenic variants of trypanosoma brucei gambiense. parasites were found in 13.92% and trypanolytic antibodies in 20.88% of the samples. a total of 28.57% of animals were positive by at least one of the two test systems used. morphologically trypanosoma congolens ...19921417158
patterns of corneal graft rejection in the rabbit and reversal of rejection with monoclonal antibodies.the purpose of this study was to determine whether the local administration of monoclonal antibodies could reverse rabbit corneal graft rejection. to provide a rational basis for the choice of monoclonal antibodies as potential immunosuppressive agents, the phenotypes of cells infiltrating rejecting rabbit corneal allografts were examined by immunohistochemistry. about half the leukocytes accumulating in these grafts bore an immunodominant t cell marker, over two-thirds carried mhc class ii anti ...19921631942
mast cells in mammalian brain.mast cells, which had until recently been believed to be not present in the mammalian brain, were studied in the brains of 29 mammalian species. although there was considerable intraspecific and interspecific variation, mast cells were most numerous within the leptomeninges (especially in those overlying the cerebrum and the dorsal thalamus - most rodents, most carnivores, chimpanzees, squirrel monkeys and elephant), the cerebral cortex (most rodents, tiger, fox, chimpanzee, tarsier, and elephan ...1976961335
in vitro drug sensitivity of trypanosoma congolense isolates.the sensitivity of trypanosoma congolense isolates to diminazene and isometamidium was determined using an incorporation assay based on the uptake of [3h]-hypoxanthine in the presence of serial drug dilutions. the bloodstream forms of the different isolates exhibited variation in their sensitivity to the drugs that correlated well with the in vivo drug response. for diminazene, the sensitivity of the most sensitive population was 40 times that of the least sensitive population. for isometamidium ...19911866422
evidence for a fel d i-like molecule in the "big cats" (felidae species).in this study, we investigated the cross-reactivity pattern of ige and igg4 antibodies to the major feline allergen, fel d i. we studied the ige and igg4 response of 11 cat-allergic patients against fel d i-like structures in eight members of the felidae family: ocelot, puma, serval, siberian tiger, lion, jaguar, snow leopard, and caracal. hair from these "big cats" was collected, extracted, and used in a rast system and histamine-release test. by means of a rast-inhibition assay with affinity-p ...19901695231
observations on naturally acquired hepatozoonosis of wild carnivores and dogs in the republic of south africa.hepatozoonosis was studied in hyaenas, lions, jackals, cheetahs and one leopard in the kruger national park and compared with the condition seen in dogs in the republic of south africa. hepatozoon schizonts were found in the wild carnivores. the genesis of microschizonts was followed and is illustrated. the schizonts were sometimes very plentiful in the lung, myocardium and skeletal muscle, and were also encountered in the spleen, liver and lymph nodes. gametocytes were present in leucocytes. th ...19751221330
echinococcosis (hydatodosis) in wild animals of the kruger national park.echinococcosis has been diagnosed in the following wild species in the kruger national park : lion, panthera leo, spotted hyena, crocuta crocuta, cape hunting dog, lycaon pictus, burchell's zebra, equus burchelli antiquorum, buffalo, syncerus caffer, hippopotamus, hippopotamus amphibius, and impala, aepyceros melampus. infestation rates in the herbivores vary from 60% in zebra to less than 1% in impala. species like elephant, loxodonta africana, and blue wildebeest, connochaetes taurinus, do not ...19751219111
hand preference in the use and manufacture of tools by tufted capuchin (cebus apella) and lion-tailed macaque (macaca silenus) monkeys.the purpose of this study was to examine hand preference in the use and manufacture of probing tools by tufted capuchin and lion-tailed macaque monkeys (cebus apella and macaca silenus). hand preference for the tool-using sequence was noted in 4 of 5 capuchins (a left-hand preference was noted in 3 ss) and 3 of 4 macaques (a left-hand preference was noted in 2 ss). the monkeys frequently used bimanual action in the initial and final segments of the 3-component task and typically modified tools t ...19911688332
rescue and maturation in vitro of follicular oocytes collected from nondomestic felid species.the potential for rescuing immature oocytes from the ovaries of females of rare felid species which die or undergo medical ovariohysterectomy was evaluated. ovaries were recovered from 13 species representing 35 individuals in good-to-poor health. although the majority of females were 10 yr of age or older and in fair-to-poor health, a total of 846 oocytes were recovered of which 608 (71.9%) were classified as fair-to-excellent quality. one hundred of these oocytes were used for initial maturati ...19911805993
aquatic ape theory and fossil hominids.while most older palaeo-anthropological studies emphasise the similarities of the fossil hominids with modern man, recent studies often stress the unique and the apelike features of the australopithecine dentitions, skulls and postcranial bones. it is worth reconsidering the features of australopithecus, homo erectus and homo neanderthalensis in the light of the so-called aquatic ape theory (aat) of hardy and morgan, and to compare the skeletal parts of our fossil relatives with those of (semi)a ...19911909768
analytical dna fingerprinting in lions: parentage, genetic diversity, and kinship.the application of hypervariable minisatellite genomic families to the reconstruction of population genetic structure holds great promise in describing the demographic history and future prospects of free-ranging populations. this potential has not yet been realized due to unforeseen empirical constraints associated with the use of heterologous species probes, to theoretical limitations on the power of the procedure to track genic heterozygosity and kinship, and to the absence of extensive field ...19911940281
pentastomiasis (armillifer and linguatula sp.) infestations of wild animals in the kruger national park.armillifer armillatus, linguatula serrata and l. nuttalli have each been isolated from nine different mammalian species in the kruger national park: lion, panthera leo; leopard, p. pardus; buffalo, syncerus caffer: blue wildebeest, connechaetes taurinus; giraffe, girraffa camelopardalis; kudu, tragelophus strepsiceros; waterbuck, kobus ellipsyprymnus; tsessebe, damaliscus iunatus and impala, aepyceros melampus. successful transmission of l. serrata from the lion to a domestic ox and impala is re ...19751223283
lipoproteins in pinnipeds: analysis of a high molecular weight form of apolipoprotein e.we have examined the apolipoprotein content of the lipoproteins of several marine mammals by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. their apolipoprotein (apo) b-100, apob-48, and apoa-i migrated to virtually the same position as the comparable human apolipoproteins. in cetaceans (bottlenose dolphins and killer whales), the molecular mass of the apoe was identical to that of human apoe (35 kda). in contrast, in the lipoproteins of pinnipeds (harbor seals, sea lions, and walrus ...19911940617
dna variation of the mammalian major histocompatibility complex reflects genomic diversity and population history.the major histocompatibility complex (mhc) is a multigene complex of tightly linked homologous genes that encode cell surface antigens that play a key role in immune regulation and response to foreign antigens. in most species, mhc gene products display extreme antigenic polymorphism, and their variability has been interpreted to reflect an adaptive strategy for accommodating rapidly evolving infectious agents that periodically afflict natural populations. determination of the extent of mhc vari ...19901967831
carnivora: the primary structure of the major hemoglobin component from adult european lynx (lynx lynx, felidae).the complete primary structure of the major hemoglobin component from the adult european lynx (lynx lynx) is presented. presence of two hemoglobin components and three chains, beta a, beta b, and alpha, identified by gel electrophoresis. the purification of the globin chains achieved by ion-exchange chromatography. the globin chains were digested with trypsin. the peptide generated were purified by reversed-phase hplc. sequencing of the native chains up to 42 cycles and of the tryptic peptides w ...19921515033
single major polypeptide of a calicivirus: characterization by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and stabilization of virions by cross-linking with dimethyl suberimidate.a calicivirus, san miguel sea lion virus serotype 4, isolate 15ft, externally labelled with 125i, was shown by gel electrophoresis to possess a single major polypeptide. the polypeptide migrated anomalously upon electrophoresis in two sodium dodecyl sulfate (sds) systems: more slowly than bovine serum albumin in a continuous phosphate-buffered system and more rapidly than bovine serum albumin in a discontinuous system. estimated molecular weights in the two systems were approximately 71,000 and ...1976972435
travel at low energetic cost by swimming and wave-riding bottlenose dolphins.over the past 50 years there has been much speculation about the energetic cost of swimming and wave-riding by dolphins. when aligned properly in front of the bow of moving ships in the stern wake of small boats, on wind waves, and even in the wake of larger cetaceans, the animals appear to move effortlessly through the water without the benefit of propulsive strokes by the flukes. theoretically, body streamlining as well as other anatomical and behavioural adaptations contribute to low transpor ...19921538760
on the laminar formation of the masseter muscle in the lion (panthera leo).an investigation was made of the laminar structure of the masseter muscle in 3 lions (panthera leo s. felis leo), and the findings obtained were evaluated in comparison with those in some other carnivora. although the general aspect of the masseter of the lion resembled that of the cat, there was no close similarity or analogy between them. the construction of the masseter in the lion was as follows. the superficial layer consisted of primary and secondary sublayers, the intermediate layer was c ...19911758687
on the facial artery of the raccoon dog (nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus temminck).detailed observations were made of the facial artery in 20 raccoon dogs (nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus temminck) utilizing the plastic injection method. the findings obtained were discussed in comparison with the facial artery of carnivorae. the facial artery diverged anterolaterally from the external carotid artery independently at a position between the origins of the lingual and the posterior auricular arteries when the external carotid bent laterally in front of the tympanic bulla. thi ...19911758686
arterial supply of the masseter muscle in the lion (panthera leo).there are few reports on the vascular system of the lion or panthera leo except for that on the facial artery investigated by lin and takemura (1990). morphological analysis of the masseter muscle of the lion according to the muscle-tendon theory has been performed only by takemura et al. (1991). the present authors attempted to elucidate the blood supply of the masseter, using 3 lion heads injected with acryl plastic into the carotid system by the plastic vascular injection method. this descrip ...19921436957
nucleotide sequence of the capsid protein gene of two serotypes of san miguel sea lion virus: identification of conserved and non-conserved amino acid sequences among calicivirus capsid proteins.the san miguel sea lion viruses, members of the calicivirus family, are closely related to the vesicular disease of swine viruses which can cause severe disease in swine. in order to begin the molecular characterization of these viruses, the nucleotide sequence of the capsid protein gene of two san miguel sea lion viruses (smsv), serotypes 1 and 4, was determined. the coding sequences for the capsid precursor protein were located within the 3' terminal 2620 bases of the genomic rnas of both viru ...19921529644
human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection in patients with lymphoid neoplasia.fourty-four patients with lymphoid neoplasia 37 males and 7 females aged 15 to 75 years, were seen in the department of internal medicine, tikur anbessa (black lion) hospital, addis ababa, ethiopia, between january and december 1988. twenty-seven (61.4%) had non-hodgkin's lymphoma, eleven (25%) hodgkin's disease and six (13.6%) chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. six (22.2%) of the non-hodgkin's lymphoma one, (9.1%) of the hodgkin's disease and none of the chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cases had posi ...19902209577
identification of t. brucei-subgroup strains isolated from game.several t. brucei-subgroup strains isolated from game were investigated with the blood incubation infectivity test (biit) and in human volunteers. original isolates and their clones derivatives were tested. in order to check the validity of the biit, volunteer tested clones were used under modified biit conditions. inoculation of different trypanosome strains into volunteers yielded positive parasitaemia for original isolates from lion, hyaena, and coke's hartebeest. changing antibody titers dur ...19751983
new marine calicivirus serotype infective for swine.a new serotype of calicivirus was isolated from california sea lions (zalophus californianus) with severe vesicular disease. neutralizing antibodies were found in 27 of 82 (32.9%) serum samples from california sea lions and in 15 of 146 (10.3%) serum samples from steller sea lions (eumetopias jubatus) tested. the seropositive animals were widely dispersed along the margins of the eastern pacific basin, from the bering sea to the santa barbara channel. seropositive samples were found from as earl ...19902167030
patterns of social preference across different social contexts in golden lion tamarins (leontopithecus rosalia).we investigated the role of mutual and circumstantial factors in maintaining exclusive social relationships in a new world primate. four breeding pairs of golden lion tamarins (leontopithecus rosalia rosalia) were allowed to interact with their mate or an unfamiliar, opposite-sex adult in each of 4 different social contexts: in view of the mate, out of the mate's view, with only the mate present, and with only the unfamiliar animal present. males and females were in proximity to, approached, and ...19902114250
fatalities caused by nonvenomous animals: a ten-year summary from sweden.all 58 deaths caused by nonvenomous animals in sweden 1975-1984 were scrutinized. in 38 cases horses were involved, in 16 cattle and in one case each a moose, a lion, a dog and a ram. in the horse-related fatalities, the most common cause of accident was that the horse bolted or reared, causing the rider to fall off the horse or the cart or sulky. falls were thus associated with 22 horse-related deaths. in cattle-related accidents, all fatalities where the cause of accident was known occurred du ...19892765081
prevalence of hematozoans in lions (panthera leo) and cheetah (acinonyx jubatus) in serengeti national park and ngorongoro crater, tanzania.lions (panthera leo) and cheetah (acinonyx jubatus) from the serengeti national park and ngorongoro crater conservation area, tanzania were examined for the presence of blood protozoans. twenty-eight percent of the lions were infected with trypanosoma sp. and the prevalence of trypanosome infection varied significantly between adjacent habitats. all of the animals were infected with hepatozoon sp. and a theileria sp.-like piroplasm that was morphologically indistinguishable from theileria felis.19902117677
the facial artery of the lion (panthera leo).an investigation was made of the facial artery in 3 heads of the lion (panthera s. felis leo) in the possession of the authors' department. the heads were injected with acryl plastic via the common carotid artery and were examined from the standpoint of the comparative anatomy. five sides of these 3 heads were prepared to vascular corrosion casts and the remaining side to a dessection specimen preserved in formalin solution. the facial artery of the lion arose independently from the anteroinferi ...19902186329
[species specific motility patterns of hyperactivated mammalian spermatozoa and quantitative analysis of the hyperactivation of bull spermatozoa].movement tracks of spermatozoa of human, lion, tiger, cow, pig and sheep are recorded by dark field photography (fluid layer thickness 16.7 microns, exposure time 1 s). comparison before and after capacitation by an incubation of 2 h in modified tissue culture medium tcm 199 with 10% fetal calf serum resulted in two quite different patterns of hyperactivated spermatozoa: 1) tracks are broadened due to enlarged lateral head displacement or radius of rotating head movements respectively (tiger, li ...19892774216
donor cornea procurement: six-year review of the role of the eye bank in south australia.the lions eye bank of south australia was established six years ago and has collected corneas from 790 donors. the consent rate is currently 82% of requests made. two-thirds of donors have been male, with mean donor age/year varying from 54 to 64 years (range two to 93 years). cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, trauma and haemorrhage account for 80% of all donor deaths. mean death to enucleation time is five hours. corneas assessed as being of excellent or very good quality are released pr ...19902357362
ectoparasitic acari found on golden lion tamarins (leontopithecus rosalia rosalia) from brazil.anesthetized golden lion tamarins (leontopithecus rosalia rosalia), a highly endangered species, were examined for ectoparasites by brushing the fur and swabbing the ears. ectoparasites recovered from the fur included four species of immature ticks (amblyomma spp.), three species of chiggers (euschoengastia sp., microtrombicula brennani and speleocola tamarina), and one species of follicular mite (rhyncoptes anastosi). ectoparasites do not seem to be of particular significance to the health of t ...19892503627
occurrence of erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae on pork and in pig slurry, and the distribution of specific antibodies in abattoir workers.strains of erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae isolated at 19 pig farms serving a certain abattoir, and on pork and in workers of this abattoir were studied. mouse-pathogenic e. rhusiopathiae was found in pig slurry from two farms (11%). the strains belonged to serotypes 7 and 16 (both from the same farm) or were untypable. in pig slurry from the abattoir lairage only serotype 2 strains were found and all were pathogenic to mice. mouse-pathogenic e. rhusiopathiae strains of serotype 2 were also recover ...19892584166
isolation of a retrovirus and a herpesvirus from a captive california sea lion.a non-oncogenic retrovirus was isolated from an explanted skin biopsy from a captive california sea lion (zalophus californianus) with a history of recurring skin lesions. the morphology of the viral particles in electron photomicrographs was characteristic of a foamy virus, a retrovirus in the subfamily spumavirinae. viral cytopathic effects consistent with foamy virus infection were observed in subsequent explants of skin and lymph nodes and co-cultivated peripheral blood leukocytes. the sea l ...19863012127
selenium toxicosis in three california sea lions (zalophus californianus).selenium poisoning occurs worldwide in nearly all domestic animals. acute selenium poisoning is associated with feeding high levels or injecting excessive amounts of selenium and is usually fatal. the acute poisoning may cause gastrointestinal disturbance, muscle weakness, depression of the central nervous system, prostration and death (1-2). chronic selenium poisoning in cattle, sheep and horses may result from the consumption of seleniferous plants over an extended period of time. chronic sele ...19892617840
the causes of false-positives encountered during the screening of old-world primates for antibodies to human and simian retroviruses by elisa.sera from 526 old-world primates representing 50 different species were screened by elisa for antibodies to human t-lymphotropic viruses i and iii, and simian retrovirus type 1 (srv-1). about one-fourth of the sera were positive by elisa. there was a tendency, however, for the same sera to be positive for all three human and simian retroviruses. only about one in five of the elisa antibody-positive sera were confirmed to be positive by western blotting. false-positive elisa antibody tests were p ...19863025237
the amino-acid sequence of the double-headed proteinase inhibitor from badger (meles meles) submandibular glands.badger submandibular glands contain a double-headed secretory proteinase inhibitor. its amino acid sequence was determined. extensive homologies were found between this inhibitor and the corresponding inhibitors of fox, dog, lion and cat in both domains. as in fox and dog inhibitor, the trypsin-inhibiting domain of badger inhibitor contains an arg residue in the reactive site in contrast to a lys residue in the inhibitors of lion and cat. domains i and ii of badger inhibitor are structurally rel ...19892626426
[breast feeding as "alternative" nutrition? an orientation aid in the field spanning ideology and current status].recommending breast feeding supports a trend "back to nature". however, there are believers in the unbiased goodness of nature, who claim effects of mothers milk, e.g. protection from the evils of civilization, that are not confirmed by current scientific knowledge. as nature is not uniquely good (it feeds the donkey and the lion), and as biology is not perfect, breast feeding does not guarantee an uneventful infancy and childhood. there is even a pathology of breast feeding that the pediatricia ...19883043205
genetic variation within and among lion tamarins.the golden lion tamarin leontopithecus rosalia rosalia, one of the rarest and most endangered of new world primates, has been the focus of an intensive research and conservation effort for two decades. during that period, managed breeding from 44 founders has brought the captive population to over 400 individuals, a number that equals or exceeds the estimated number of free-ranging golden lion tamarins. the extent of genetic variation among golden lion tamarins was estimated with an electrophore ...19863096142
a human-derived probe, p82h, hybridizes to the centromeres of gorilla, chimpanzee, and orangutan.a human-derived centromeric sequence, p82h, hybridizes to dna from gorilla, chimpanzee, pygmy chimpanzee, and orangutan. on dna blots, multimeric ladders based on 170 or 340 bp repeat units are seen. in metaphase chromosome preparations from these species, p82h hybridizes to the centromeric region of every chromosome. p82h forms less stable hybrids with dna from the lion-tailed macaque and does not hybridize to dna or chromosomes of the owl monkey or the mouse.19883133178
[mycobacteriosis in sea mammals and birds].different diagnostic techniques for mycobacteria were studied in sea lions, sea elephants, fur seals, dolphins, killer whales and penguins from a sea aquarium. three strains were isolated from fur seals. two were classified as mycobacterium chelonae and one as mycobacterium fortuitum complex. there was good correlation between the results given by the intradermal tuberculin test and elisa, but the former is recommended as a screening test on the basis of its practicality. results and methodology ...19902132708
universal immunization programme in assam and west 1990, the universal immunization programme (uip) was able to do fairly well in assam and west bengal in india. immunization coverage rates varied as low as 59.5% for measles in assam and 69.63% in west bengal to as high as 80.13% for bcg and 104.73% respectively. all primary health centers provided immunizations on mondays in assam and on wednesdays in west bengal. eventually district and block health officials extended these fixed days to subcenter and village levels. further major hospi ...19902133576
the amino-acid sequences of the double-headed proteinase inhibitors from cat, lion and dog submandibular and lion submandibular glands each contain a double-headed secretory proteinase inhibitor. their amino-acid sequences were determined, and the amino-acid sequence of the inhibitor of dog submandibular glands was revised. extensive homologies were found between these inhibitors in both domains. the trypsin-inhibiting domains of cat and lion inhibitors, however, contain a lys residue in the reactive site in contrast to an arg residue in the dog inhibitor. domains i and ii of cat, lion, and dog ...19873304339
mating patterns in the golden lion tamarin (leontopithecus rosalia): continuous receptivity and concealed estrus.sociosexual behavior was monitored on a daily basis for 3 months in 5 pairs of golden lion tamarins (leontopithecus rosalia). urine samples were collected daily from each female and urinary estrogen cycles were determined by radioimmunoassay. mounts and copulations were observed during all phases of the estrogen cycle. peaks or regular cycles in sexual behavior were not documented. there were no significant changes in affiliative behavior by females or males that were associated with changes in ...19873143650
subclinical lumbar polyradiculopathy in aged domestic, laboratory, and exotic mammalian species--a light and selected electron microscopic study.lumbar polyradiculopathy, characterized by ballooning myelin sheaths and axonal distortion, was documented in multiple, aged, domestic, laboratory, and exotic mammalian species. animals studied that exhibited this nerve rootlet change included the goat, sheep, pig, white-tailed deer, gerbil, vole, ferret, beaver, hedgehog, chinchilla, north chinese leopard, lion, cheetah, mountain lion, llama, east african eland, uganda giraffe, polar bear, and drill. ultrastructurally, lumbar nerve rootlets fro ...19892766747
the amino-acid sequence of the double-headed proteinase inhibitor from fox (vulpes vulpes) submandibular submandibular glands contain a double-headed secretory proteinase inhibitor. its amino acid sequence was determined. extensive homologies were found between this inhibitor and the corresponding inhibitors of cat, lion and dog in both domains. as in dog inhibitor the trypsin-inhibiting domain of fox inhibitor contains an arg residue in the reactive site in contrast to a lys residue in the inhibitors of cat and lion. domains i and ii of fox inhibitor are structurally related both to the sequen ...19883393515
review of animal mycoses in australia.this review covers the available literature on the mycoses of animals in australia since the last review published in 1967. of the cutaneous infections, dermatophytoses have been recorded in a wide range of animals: cattle, horses, goats, pigs, sheep, cats, dogs, mice, guinea-pigs, rabbits, a lion, kangaroos, a camel, koalas and wallabies. these infections were caused by several species and varieties of the genera, microsporum and trichophyton. eight agents of ringworms have been recorded in the ...19902233984
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