[examination of cats for the elimination of toxoplasma gondii oocysts].two hundred and two samples of excrements were investigated for the presence of toxoplasma gondii oocysts. fifty-two samples were taken from dead domestic cats and a hundred and fifty samples were obtained from wild cats living in various localities of the cssr. the investigation was orientative and a flotation method with the breza flotation solution of the specific weight of 1.300 was used. if the finding was positive, residues of the excrements were floated with a saccharose, solution of the ...1979105452
[distribution of sarcosporidia among wild animals in bulgaria].a total of 395 wild animals represented by 12 species have been studied over the 1972-1975 period for the presence of sarcosporidia--wild swine, does, hares, jackals, foxes, wild cats, polecats, rats, forest mice, and weasels killed in various regions of the district of bourgas. investigated were also several monkeys and wandering dogs. samples were taken from the muscles of the neck abdomen, hind legs, gut, pharynx, chewing muscles, and hearts to study them for microcysts by the compression met ...1978105459
[operation on a congenital cataract in a siberian tiger].a cataract operation in a young siberian tiger is reported. this 5-month-old tiger, presenting with blindness, showed bilateral residual pupillary membranes and anterior polar cataracts combined with nuclear cataracts. after unilateral intracapsular extraction of the lens, the tiger adapted well to the improvement in sight and behaved almost like an animal with normal vision. the animal died 3 months post-operatively from unknown cause. histological examination of the aphakic eye showed, at the ...1979440702
[replacement of the canine teeth in the european wild cat felis silvestris schreb (author's transl)]. 1978694403
[nutritional ecology of "wild" domestic cats (felis silvestris f. catus l.) in the canton of bern (switzerland)]. 19761019568
[variation in the size and location of the 2nd premolar in the domestic cat, felis silvestris f. catus]. 19761025703
[postnatal development of simple encapsulated corpuscles in the nasal planum of the domestic cat (felis silvestris, f. catus l.) electron microscopy study]. 19751229372
retrovirus infections in non-domestic felids: serological studies and attempts to isolate a african lioness from the zoo of zurich had to be euthanized because of an inoperable tumor. the serum tested negative for feline leukemia virus (felv) p27 antigen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) but was strongly positive for feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) antibodies by elisa and western blot. when her only offspring and mate were tested for fiv, high antibody titers to fiv were also found in their serum. lymphocytes were prepared from these two lions on different occasions a ...19921337398
diseases of the european wildcat (felis silvestris schreber, 1777) in great britain.the author describes an examination conducted in collaboration with the nature conservancy council of great britain into the status with regard to disease, conservation and genetics of the european wildcat (felis silvestris). feline leukaemia virus (felv) infection was detected by positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in blood from 2 of 23 wildcats and was tested and confirmed by felv isolation in one of the two cats. this is the first time the virus has been clearly demonstrated in a free- ...19921339067
[the health impact of stray and wild cats in the human environment].the population of stray cats in towns expands due to irresponsible behaviour of humans who allow them to enter cellars, hot water canals, store rooms etc. as a result of frequent feeding some specimens become tame, lose their shyness and on contact with humans and domestic animals they can become the source of some infectious agents. the most important of thus transmitted diseases is rabies. cats become infected from foxes on rubbish heaps on the periphery of communities. more than 60% of cases ...19921388104
helminth parasites of carnivores in northern iran.a total of 100 jackals, 35 stray dogs, 13 cats, two badgers, one fox and one wild cat were collected from two provinces in northern iran. on post mortem examination 41 species of helminths were recovered, at least 12 of which have been reported infecting humans in various countries. hookworms were the most commonly found parasites, and echinococcus granulosus showed the highest intensity of infection. seven helminth species from jackals, three species from dogs, four species from cats and four s ...19921463360
typhus and typhuslike rickettsiae associated with opossums and their fleas in los angeles county, california.the recent discovery of cat fleas (ctenocephalides felis) infected with a typhuslike rickettsia (designated the elb agent) raises the question of whether similar rickettsial infections exist in wild cat flea populations. we verified the presence of the elb agent and rickettsia typhi in urban and suburban areas of los angeles, calif. opossums trapped in close proximity to the residences of human murine typhus cases in los angeles county and other areas within the city of los angeles were tested f ...19921629332
[functional cytology of the apocrine glands of the anal sac in cats, felis silvestris f. catus].apocrine glands of the anal sacs in cats (felis silvestris f. catus) were examined by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. the secretory cells exhibit a typical equipment with organelles that varied according to the season as well as the animal's sex and state of reproduction. this can be mainly explained by seasonal differences in secretory activity. the cytological dynamics observed are, particularly, related to the smooth endoplasmic reticulum, which, for the first time, can be demo ...19921632184
some viral and protozool diseases in the european wildcat (felis silvestris).ten european wildcats (felis silvestris) were examined at necropsy and an additional 23 were examined clinically for evidence of viral diseases in scotland. two plasma samples taken from live free-living wildcats showed positive elisa reactions to feline leukemia antigen. a feline leukemia virus of subgroup a was isolated from one of these samples, taken from a wildcat in north-western scotland. no antibodies to feline coronavirus or feline immunodeficiency virus were detected in any sample. thr ...19911758037
isolation of felv from a wild felid (felis silvestris). 19911852080
felis silvestris. 19911888417
[the wild cat syndrome--an occupational injury among physicians]. 19912008138
leptospirosis in the melut district--upper nile province (south sudan)--an overview.the authors examined 195 domestic animals for leptospirosis serologically in sudan (170 cattle, 7 sheep and 18 goats) and 771 wild animals (36 species) with 13 serovars from 13 serogroups. 54% of domestic animals namely, 108 cattle and 1 sheep were positive in titer levels of 1:400 and higher. cattle sera with the serovars of the serogroup icterohaemorrhagiae were 2.4% positive with cynopteri 2.4%, autumnalis 3.5%, australis 1.2%, pomona 2.9%, grippotyphosa 2.9%, hebdonadis 17.1%, bataviae 9.4% ...19892599388
[the early development of the jacobson's organ in the cat (felis silvestris)].the histological study of the nose of an embryo of the cat (felis silvestris 10 mm) presents a simple cavity which caudally communicates with the oral cavity by a narrow cleft, the primitive choana. this aperture results from the former rupture of the membrana bucconasalis of which the present material still contains remnants. compared to the simple nasal cavity, the organ of jacobson, situated at the base of the broad fetal nasal septum, shows a progressive development. from this one might conc ...19892606321
[late embryonic development of the vomeronasal complex of the cat (felis silvestris)].an examination of 2 feline embryos in different stages of development (overall length 60 and 115 mm respectively) reveals a well developed vomeronasal complex in each case. jacobson's organs embedded within the paraseptal cartilage form long blind tubes at the base of the septum nasi. the cartilage is caudally tub-shaped and embraces rostrally completely the organ over a considerable length. in this manner a long, nearly tunnel-like tube is formed which represents a modified form of the original ...19892628144
[different applications of various wire alloys in fixed appliance technic].steel, beta-titanium and niti archwires (0.016 inch) as well as twisted steel wires (0.0175 inch) were subjected to a bending test. the results were presented graphically. steel (tru-chrome), beta-titanium (tma), the twisted steel wires and only one niti wire (nitinol) showed linear force-deflection-diagrams. the other niti alloys showed a curved line with a constant force in the middle part. the superelastic wires delivered the same initial force, whether 2 or 4 mm activated. the larger the def ...19892639865
results of serological examination for leptospirosis of domestic and wild animals in the upper nile province (sudan).195 domestic and 766 wild animals were serologically examined for leptospirosis. cattle was found to be positive at titres 1 greater than or equal to 400 in 63.5%, namely 50.6% for tarassovi, 17.1% for sejroe-hebdomadis, 9.4% for bataviae, 1.2-3.5% for icterohaemorrhagiae, cynopteri, autumnalis, australis, pomona and grippotyphosa. sera from 35 animals reacted with the serovars from two or more serogroups. of 7 sheep 1 was positive for pomona and 18 goats proved to be negative. 10.2% of wild mam ...19892809189
[morphology and development of the cranium of felis silvestris f. catus linné 1758--iv: visceral skeleton, membrane bones: summary, conclusions and bibliography].the present last part of the study on morphology and development of the cranium of felis silvestris f. catus provides a detailed description and discussion of the development of the visceral skeleton and the membrane bones. finally, there is given a summary with conclusions of the whole investigation. in felis 2, the cartilago meckeli is still in homocontinuous connection with the malleus. probably, only the rostral part of the cartilago will ossify enchondrally, while the caudal part shows some ...19873449413
[morphology and development of the cranium of felis silvestris f. catus linné 1758--a contribution to comparative anatomy of carnivora. i. introduction, material and methods, complete cranium and regio ethmoidalis].in the present study, the morphology and development of the cartilaginous and osseous cranium of felis silvestris f. catus is analysed by investigating 2 advanced embryonic stages of 51.1 mm (felis 1) and 95.5 mm (felis 2) crown-rump-length, respectively. the heads of felis 1 and 2 were serially sectioned transversely to produce some models of the cranium and the nasal capsule (wax-plate reconstruction after born). the investigation of the advanced embryonic cat stages pursues terry's studies on ...19873623038
[morphology and development of the cranium of felis silvestris f. catus linné 1758--a contribution to the comparative anatomy of the carnivora. ii. orbitotemporal region].in felis 1, the orbitotemporal region is very compressed in rostrocaudal direction. as a result, most structures are tightly pressed together. continuing development towards the stage of felis 2, the cranium becomes remarkably elongated in this region. in early embryonic stage, felis builds up a primary side wall, being remarkable complete. the following development towards felis 1 and 2 gives an interesting example for the elements changing their configuration and position during ontogenesis an ...19873678780
[morphology and development of the cranium of felis silvestris f. catus linné 1758--a contribution to the comparative anatomy of the carnivora. iii: ear region and occipital region].in felis, the otic region of younger embryonic stages up to felis 1 is characterized by extremely medial extended cochleae, compressing the basal plate to a slender trabeculum. as a result of a quite strong rostrad convergence of the long axis of the ear capsules, the commissura praefacialis fuses with the commissura orbitoparietalis laterally. until now, this has been found in whales only. continuing embryogenesis towards felis 2, the cochlea moves laterally and slightly ventrally, so the angle ...19873692105
[research on the cat stomach worm, ollulanus tricuspis (leuckart, 1865)--state of the art].the stomach worm of the cat with an unusual cycle has a special place among the nematodes. o. tricuspis can develop and breed endogen as well as exogen, the infection of other hosts with freedom of movement, takes place through the ingestion of vomitus material containing parasites. as the conventional coproscopic methods of routine diagnosis have failed, the examination of gastric mucus or gastric mucosal scrapings post mortem offers itself. intra vitam a provocated vomitus or a gastric irrigat ...19853895570
[development of simple sensory corpuscles in the domestic cat (felis silvestris f. catus l.)]. 19704099486
[disseminated intravascular coagulation in spontaneous panleukopenia of domestic and wild cats]. 19734693059
[weight of the european wildcat (felis silvestris schreber 1777)]. 19714940961
[changes in the skeleton resembling osteogenesis imperfecta in wild cats]. 19674967308
[variations in brain size in the species felis silvestris]. 19725026428
[postnatal development of the pacinican corpuscles in the paw pads of the domestic cat (felis silvestris f. catus l.)]. 19725028035
the isolation of mycoplasma arginini from captive wild cats. 19725080201
dithiazanine iodide as an anthelmintic in wild cats. 19655174593
giardia infection in animals in poznań hundred and eighty-four faecal samples from 170 animals of 82 different species in poznań zoo were examined with direct wet mounts in physiological saline and permanent smears stained with iron-haematoxylin. giardia spp. cysts were found in one chimpanzee, four marmosets, two north american porcupines, a european wild cat and a serval. the infection in the porcupines was very intense and resistant to metronidazole treatment.19836415896
[topography and blood supply of the thymus in newborn housecats (felis silvestris f. catus)]. 19836880422
behavioral and electrophysiological analyses of the effects of 2-o-chlorobenzoyl-4-chloro-n-methyl-n alpha-glycylglycinanilide hydrate (45-0088-s) in the cns in cats and monkeys.behavioral and electrophysiological comparative analyses of the effects of 2-o-chlorobenzoyl-4-chloro-n-methyl-n alpha-glycylglycinanilide hydrate (45-0088-s) and diazepam on the cns were performed with cats and monkeys. no essential difference between 45-0088-s and diazepam on the effects in the cns was observed, although the "taming" effect in wild cats and the hypnotic effect in monkeys caused by 45-0088-s were stronger than those of diazepam. the sleep-wakefulness cycles in both cats and mon ...19827110530
helminth parasites of wild cats in north-east scotland.three cestode species, namely taenia taeniaeformis batsch, 1786, taenia pisiformis (bloch, 1780) and mesocestoides litteratus (batsch, 1786) and one nematode species, toxocara cati schrank, 1788, were found in wild cats collected in grampian region, scotland. of the 41 cats examined, 25 were felis silvestris, 12 were feral felis catus and four were hybrids of f. silvestris and f. catus.19807229325
a study on the reservoir status of q-fever in avifauna, wild mammals and poikilotherms in uttar pradesh (india).fifteen species of free-living birds (pigeon, mynah, house-sparrow, crow, vulture, owl, swallow, parrot, heron, duck, guinea fowl, hawk, kite, dove and peacock), 11 species of small/large wild mammals (rat, bandicoot, house mouse, shrew, bat, mongoose, ant eater, jackal wild cat, chinkara and tiger) and 5 species of poikilotherms (snakes, python, tortoise, monitor and eel) were screened for evidence of q-fever infection by the capillary agglutination test on sera to detect antibodies and/or by a ...19807251266
the occurrence of salmonellae in zoo animals in uttar pradesh and delhi (india).the occurrence of salmonellae in a variety of zoo animals including carnivores, primates, ruminants, avifauna, rodents etc. was investigated. of 783 samples collected from lucknow, delhi and kanpur (india) zoological parks, only 5 yielded salmonella serotypes. these included s. typhimurium, from a leopard and a wild cat, s. enteritidis from two black and white rats and a strain of salmonella group e1 from a leopard.19807461914
delayed hypersensitivity test with paracoccidioidin in captive latin american wild mammals.the aim of this investigation was to study epidemiological aspects of paracoccidioidomycosis, the main endemic systemic mycosis in brazil. this study was carried out using the paracoccidioidin delayed hypersensitivity test in 96 latin american wild mammals, including 49 arboreal animals (primates): 33 cebus apella (weeping-capuchin), 16 callithrix jacchus (marmoset); and 47 terrestrial animals (carnivora): 37 nasua nasua (coatimundi), and 10 felidae [panthera onca (jaguar), felis paradalis (ocel ...19957650577
viral diseases as a threat to free-living wild cats (felis silvestris) in continental europe. 19947975059
[the temporomandibular joint of the domestic cat (felis silvestris catus)].the mandibular joint of the cat is an incongruent cylindrical joint, which works as a hinge or screw joint. the course of motion is unilateral in the plane of the cutting edge of the molar/premolar border [symbol: see text]. the articular disc is a connective tissue membrane; its new function is decreasing the friction.19947978349
epidemiological study of sporotrichosis and histoplasmosis in captive latin american wild mammals, são paulo, brazil.sporotrichosis and histoplasmosis are deep mycosis with a high incidence in human beings in brazil. in domestic animals histoplasmosis has been described only in dogs, but the occurrence of sporotrichosis among domestic animals in brazil has been described in dogs, cats, mules and asses. there is also a case of this disease reported in a chimpanzee (pan troglodites). the purpose of this research was to perform an epidomiological study of these mycoses using delayed hypersensitivity tests (histop ...19948028639
[contributions to the parasite fauna of local hosts. 10. on the endoparasitic fauna of felis silvestris].the investigations based on examination of the internal organs of 25 wild cats of the harz population died from different causes in the period from 1982 to 1989. 22 animals (= 88%) were positive for parasites. the following species were found: hydatigera taeniaeformis, taenia crassiceps, t. martis larv. (spurious parasite), mesocestoides litteratus, capillaria plica, capillaria sp. (aerophila?), toxocara mystax, cystoisopora felis. toxocara mystax and hydatigera taeniaeformis were the most often ...19938334454
an extended outbreak of infectious peritonitis in a closed colony of european wildcats (felis silvestris).feline infectious peritonitis is a multisystemic disease of domestic and exotic cats caused by a coronavirus. an outbreak of feline infectious peritonitis was investigated in a closed colony of european wildcats (felis silvestris) at a zoological garden. over a six-year period, a putative fading kitten syndrome occurred in six of 11 litters born and severe lesions of infectious peritonitis occurred in five of the eight wildcats retained in the colony during this period. lesions were more acute i ...19938386199
rapid evolution of the visual system: a cellular assay of the retina and dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the spanish wildcat and the domestic cat.the large spanish wildcat, felis silvestris tartessia, has retained features of the pleistocene ancestor of the modern domestic cat, f. catus. to gauge the direction and magnitude of short-term evolutionary change in this lineage, we have compared the retina, the optic nerve, and the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (lgn) of spanish wildcats and their domestic relatives. retinas of the two species have the same area. however, densities of cone photoreceptors are higher in wildcat--over 100% hig ...19938423469
parasite prevalence in free-ranging farm cats, felis silvestris animals tested were positive for feline leukemia virus antigen and chlamydia psittaci antibodies, but all were positive for antibodies to feline calicivirus (fcv), feline herpesvirus 1 (fhv1) and rotavirus. they had antibodies to feline parvovirus (96%), feline coronavirus (84% and cowpox virus (2%). antibody to feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) was found in 53% of animals, which were less likely to be infected with haemobartonella felis, and had higher fhv antibody titres than cats without ...19968620914
cutaneous leishmaniasis in egypt (review and comment).leishmania is primarily characterized by existing in two stages in its life cycle, each occurs in a distinct host. the amastigote stage found in the cytoplasm of the reticulo- endothelial cells, monocytes and other phagocytic cells of the vertebrate host. the promastigote stage found in the gut of its insect vector. the leishmaniasis comprise several diseases of wide diversity of manifestations caused by different species of the genus leishmania. because of the virtual morphological identity of ...19968721233
coadaptation and immunodeficiency virus: lessons from the felidae.the emergence of pathogenic viruses in new species offers an unusual opportunity to monitor the coadaptation of viruses and their hosts in a dynamic ongoing process of intense biological selection. tracking lentivirus epidemics in man, monkeys and cats reveals genomic struggles at three levels: quasispecies divergence within an individual; coadaptation of virus and host genomes subsequent to disease outbreaks; and transmission, spread and pathogenesis in related host species. aspects of each lev ...19958745072
food selection by the domestic cat, an obligate carnivore.the domestic cat felis silvestris catus is the most accessible member of the family felidae for the study of the relationship between food selection and nutrition. in contrast to pack-living animals such as the dog, and opportunistic omnivores such as the rat, the cat is generally able to maintain its normal body weight even when allowed ad libitum access to palatable food by taking small meals and adjusting intake according to the energy density of the food(s) available. the most extreme adapta ...19968759144
[development of the gastric glands of cats (felis silvestris catus)].there are five stages in the development of the cat's gastric glands: 1. during the stage of the indifferent epithelium from day 19 to day 24, the anlage of the stomach develops with all layers; 2. the stage of gland formation from day 24 to day 41 is the beginning of the gland buds. they develop in connection with endocrine cells on day 34 into primitive oxyntic and primitive mucous cells. the latter form the basis for all other cells, including the surface mucous cells; 3. during the stage of ...19968766400
discrimination learning of grating orientation in visually deprived cats and the role of the superior colliculi.four cats deprived binocularly of pattern vision (bd cats), 4 control cats reared also in the laboratory (c cats), and 4 normal wild cats (n cats) were trained to discriminate gratings of progressively smaller difference in orientation. differences in learning were found only in fine orientation discriminations. the stage of 15 degrees orientation difference was learned by 4 n cats, 2 c cats, and 1 bd cat. after the discrimination training, the superior colliculi were ablated in 2 c cats and 2 b ...19968889008
object discrimination learning and object-pattern discrimination transfer in visually deprived cats.we used binocularly deprived cats (bd cats), control cats reared in the laboratory with open eyes (c cats) and normal wild cats (n cats). in stage 1, the cats were trained to discriminate a black ping-pong ball and a 3-dimensional cross of the same size and color for food reward. the bd cats learned slower than n cats. the difference between bd cats and c cats was statistically insignificant. a comparison of these data and previous data on discrimination of corresponding 2-dimensional black patt ...19969021072
[differential diagnosis of resorptive tooth diseases and caries].feline odontoclastic resorptive lesions (forl, previously known as "neck lesions") on cat teeth are compared to caries and differentiated with the use of new methods. radiological examination reveals typical odontoclastic resorptive processes, which take place at the dental root and at the periodontium. these lesions demonstrate the destruction on the desmodontium and the following ankylosing reaction. the rhodamine b stain which is selective for caries, stains regions which are softened by cari ...19969026912
[liberation into the wild of wild felines--danger of the release of virus infections].there are several felidae amongst the numerous endangered species. means of aiding survival are the reintroduction to the wild of animals bred under the auspices of man and their relocation from densely populated to thinly populated areas. it is unlikely that the dangers of such reintroduction or relocation projects have been examined sufficiently in respect to the risks of virus infections confronting individuals kept in zoos or similar situations. this report presents three examples to illustr ...19969045289
isolation and characterisation of an aujeszky's disease virus naturally infecting a wild boar (sus scrofa).isolation of aujeszky's disease virus (adv) from an injured, female wild boar (sus scrofa), shot dead by hunters, in an area adjacent to the abruzzo national park is reported. the brain was submitted for attempted virus isolation following episodes of mortality in several dogs and cats fed with meat from the wild boar. virus was isolated on first passage from the brain of the wild boar. the restriction fragment length polymorphism profile of the isolate was assessed as a type i. the role of stre ...19979220606
the genus hexidionis (acari:trombiculidae) with the description of a new species from texas.hexidionis garfieldi is described as new from specimens collected off a domestic cat. felis silvestris f. catus schreber, in corpus christi, tx. the genus hexidionis vercammen-grandjean & loomis, 1967, is rediagnosed and a key to the 11 included species given.19979220678
the carnivore remains from the sima de los huesos middle pleistocene site (sierra de atapuerca, spain).remains of carnivores from the sima de los huesos site representing at least 158 adult individuals of a primitive (i.e., not very speleoid) form of ursus deningeri von reichenau 1906, have been recovered through the 1995 field season. these new finds extend our knowledge of this group in the sierra de atapuerca middle pleistocene. material previously classified as cuoninae indet, is now assigned to canis lupus and a third metatarsal assigned in 1987 to panthera of gombaszoegensis, is in our opin ...19979300340
[climatic condition and airborne microorganisms in wild cat housing].the aim of the present study was to obtain information to improve the environmental conditions in enclosures for cats of prey. there was a large variation in indoor temperature, relative humidity, concentration of airborne ammonia and microorganisms during the year. the ascertained concentrations of airborne microorganisms distinguished between the different housing systems and ranged between 7177 and 15,835 kbe/m3. the concentration correlated negatively with the temperature outside of the buil ...19979376063
bartonella henselae antibody prevalence in free-ranging and captive wild felids from order to determine the importance of wild felids in the epidemiology of bartonella spp. infection, 136 nobuto strips or serum samples from free-ranging mountain lions (felis concolor) and bobcats (felis rufus) captured in california (usa) between 1985 and 1996 were tested for b. henselae antibodies (titer > or = 1:64) using an immunofluorescence test. similarly, 124 serum samples from 114 captive wild cats representing 26 species or subspecies collected between 1991 and 1995 were retrieved fr ...19989476226
shedding of toxoplasma gondii oocysts by felidae in zoos in the czech 1995 and 1996, the shedding of toxoplasma gondii oocysts was monitored in the faeces of felidae in six zoos in the czech republic. in all, 2287 samples of faeces from 19 species of felidae were examined. in ostrava zoo, four episodes of shedding of toxoplasma-like oocysts were identified, using a flotation examination, in a pair of wild cats (felis silvestris), six episodes in a wild cat held separately, and three episodes in a pair of amur leopard cats (f. euptilurus). after the passage of s ...19989493305
helminths of foxes and other wild carnivores from rural areas in greece.twenty species of helminth parasites were identified from fox, wolf, jackal and wild cat material collected in greece. of the 314 foxes (vulpes vulpes) examined, 18 helminth species were recovered comprising one trematode, eight cestodes, seven nematodes and two acanthocephalans, with the cestode species mesocestoides sp. (73.2%), joyeuxiella echinorhynchoides (24.5%) and the nematode species uncinaria stenocephala (43.9%), and toxara canis (28.6%) being the most prevalent. five cestode and thre ...19979705680
restriction fragment length polymorphism and virulence of czech toxoplasma gondii strains.restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of chromosomal dna from 22 strains of toxoplasma gondii were characterised using sali and psti restriction endonucleases and the tgr1e specific repetitive sequence as a probe. two virulent strains, rh and p-cz, had previously been isolated from humans, the remaining 20 strains were isolated from animals in the czech republic in 1994 and 1995. among the 20 recently isolated strains, 19 belonged to an avirulent lineage and only one strain from the ...19989770622
neotropical echinococcosis in suriname: echinococcus oligarthrus in the orbit and echinococcus vogeli in the abdomen.this paper reports two cases of neotropical echinococcosis caused by echinococcus oligarthrus and e. vogeli, neither of which has been reported from suriname. case 1, a six-year-old boy, presented a 15 x 25 mm retro-ocular cystic tumor (observed by ultrasound, computed tomography scan, and magnetic resonance imaging) causing exophthalmia, chemosis, palpebral ptosis, and blindness of the left eye. of two tentative diagnoses, echinococcus cyst or dermoid tumor, the former was shown to be correct a ...19989840599
feline viruses in wildcats from scotland.few data are available on the prevalence of feline viruses in european wildcats (felis silvestris). previous surveys have indicated that wildcats may be infected with the common viruses of domestic cats, apart from feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv). in the present study, 50 wildcats trapped throughout scotland (uk) between august 1992 and january 1997 were tested for evidence of viral infection. all were negative for fiv by several serological or virological methods. by contrast, 10% of the ca ...199910073361
the ab blood group system in wild felids.the blood type of 131 non-domesticated felids belonging to 26 felid species was surveyed in this study. based upon a tube hemagglutination assay established for domestic cats, 80% of felids had type-a, 18% type-b, and 2% type-ab blood. felids in the puma group and african and asian golden cats had blood type b, whereas all other species were found to have blood type a. two cheetahs and one bobcat had type-ab blood. red cell glycolipids analysed by high performance thin layer chromatography revea ...199910376305
epidemiology of feline foamy virus and feline immunodeficiency virus infections in domestic and feral cats: a seroepidemiological study.although foamy viruses (spumaviruses) have repeatedly been isolated from both healthy and diseased cats, cattle, and primates, the primary mode of transmission of those common viruses remains undefined. a database of the feline foamy virus (fefv) and feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) antibody status, age, and sex of 389 domestic cats presented to veterinarians was assembled. a similar database for 66 feral (wild) cats was also assembled. that fefv antibody status reflects infection was validat ...199910449463
viral infections in free-living populations of the european wildcat.while the importance of viral infections is well studied in domestic cats, only limited information is available on their occurence and prevalence in the european wildcat (felis silvestris silvestris). the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies to feline coronavirus (fcov), calicivirus (fcv), herpesvirus (fhv), parvovirus (fpv), immunodeficiency virus (fiv), leukemia virus (felv), and felv antigenemia in 51 european wildcat sera. samples were collected between 1996 and 1 ...199910574526
genetic characterization of feline parvovirus sequences from various carnivores.infections with viruses of the feline parvovirus subgroup such as feline panleukopenia virus (fpv), mink enteritis virus (mev) and canine parvovirus (cpv-2) [together with its new antigenic types (cpv-2a, cpv-2b)] have been reported from several wild carnivore species. to examine the susceptibility of different species to the various parvoviruses and their antigenic types, samples from wild carnivores with acute parvovirus infections were collected. viral dna was amplified, and subsequently anal ...200010644832
measuring fear and anxiety in the marmoset (callithrix penicillata) with a novel predator confrontation model: effects of diazepam.this report describes a new experimental method for measuring fear and anxiety in cerrado marmosets (callithrix penicillata). in order to test the sensitivity of the behavioral parameters to an anxiolytic substance, the effects of the benzodiazepine diazepam on the anxiety measures were examined. the strategy was to use a naturally occurring stimulus known to elicit anxiety and fear in this species. a taxidermized predator (the wild cat felis tigrina) was chosen as the stimulus to induce anxiety ...200010701664
embryo technology in conservation efforts for endangered felids.most of the 36 species of wild cats are classified as threatened, vulnerable or endangered due to poaching and habitat loss. the important role of assisted reproduction techniques (art) as part of a multifaceted captive breeding program for selected wild cat species is gradually gaining acceptance. this recognition is a result of the progress made during the last decade in which the feasibility of oocyte recovery from gonadotropin-treated females, in vitro fertilization, embryo cryopreservation ...200010735071
differences in food preferences between individuals and populations of domestic cats felis silvestris catus.the food preferences of 64 cats, of which 28 were domestic pets and 36 were free-ranging animals on three farms, were tested using five food types; a sixth type was also tested on the farm cats. information was also gathered on the background diet of the house cats (individually) and of each farm cat colony. consistent differences were found between the predefined groups of cats in their preferences for three foods, hard dry (hd), canned meat (cm) and raw beef (rb), the greatest differences bein ...200010804270
taste reactivity patterns in domestic cats (felis silvestris catus).the present study is aimed at finding taste reactivity patterns in domestic cats (felis silvestris catus) which reflect 'liking' or perceived palatability. three groups of nonstressed cats living in households were formed which a priori were expected to differ in motivational state for eating food items (more or less hungry), and which were offered two different food items differing in general taste properties (more or less flavourful food, mff and lff, respectively) around the time that they we ...200010906399
hematologic and serum chemistry values of the captive european wildcat.hematologic and serum chemistry values were determined for 20 adult captive european wildcats (felis silvestris) in lleida (catalonia, spain). seven wildcats (4 females and 3 males) were captured in the wild and 13 (4 females and 9 males) were born and raised in captivity. samples were collected between september and december from 1993 to 1998. blood was obtained by jugular venipuncture after administration of either ketamine and xylazine or ketamine and medetomidine. females had significantly h ...200010941728
ontogeny of individuality in the domestic cat in the home environment.the behaviour of house cats felis silvestris catus from nine litters was recorded at 4 months, 1 year and 2 years of age, in their home environment immediately after meals fed by their owners. we extracted by principal components analysis four elements of 'behavioural style' that were consistent from one age to another: based upon behaviour patterns that were most heavily loaded on each component, these were labelled as staying indoors, rubbing, investigative and boldness elements. the staying i ...200111170712
urea kinetics of a carnivore, felis silvestris catus.the effect of two levels of dietary protein energy, moderate (20%; mp) and high (70%; hp), on urea kinetics in eleven domestic cats was studied. after a 3-week prefeed, a single dose of [(15)n(15)n]urea was administered, and urine and faeces collected over the subsequent 5 d. for each 24 h period, total urea and enrichment of [(15)n(15)n]- and [(15)n(14)n]urea in urine were determined, and a model applied to calculate urea production, entry into the gastrointestinal tract, recycling to urine or ...200011177172
feline leukemia virus in a captive 11-mo-old captive-bred male neutered bobcat (felis rufus) presented with lethargy, anorexia, leukopenia, neutropenia, lymphopenia, and nonregenerative anemia. the animal was diagnosed as feline leukemia virus (felv) positive by immunofluorescent antibody and enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (elisa) testing. it died despite supportive care. pathologic examination revealed multifocal non-suppurative encephalitis, diffuse interstitial pneumonia, multifocal hepatocellular necrosis, non-suppurati ...200111272497
genetic diversity and introgression in the scottish wildcat.this paper describes a genetic analysis of wild-living cats in scotland. samples from 230 wild-living scottish cats (including 13 museum skins) and 74 house cats from england and scotland were surveyed for nine microsatellite loci. pelage characteristics of the wild-living cats were recorded, and the cats were then grouped into five separate categories depending on the degree to which they conformed to the characteristics attributed to felis silvestris schreber, 1775. allele frequency difference ...200111298948
isolation of pathogenic yersiniae from wild animals in bulgaria.pathogenic yersinia strains were isolated between december 1998 and april 1999 from 37 wild animals: rabbit (lepus europeus), boar (sus scrofa scrofa), asiatic jackal (canis aureus), red fox (vulpes vulpes), mouflon (ovis musimon), european river otter (lutra lutra), beech marten (martes foina), polecat (musleta putorius) and wild cat (felis silvestris). it was established that among the wild animals y. enterocolitica strains of serotype 0:3 predominated, accompanied by y. pseudotuberculosis str ...200111393816
the effect of lactic acid on odour-related host preference of yellow fever a behavioural study we have investigated the role of lactic acid for the host preferences of yellow fever mosquitoes (aedes aegypti) by comparing the attractiveness of rubbings from the hands of different human individuals and extracts obtained from skin rubbings from different mammals (bos primigenius f. taurus, capra aegagrus f. hircus, felis silvestris f. catus and homo sapiens). certain human individuals were consistently more attractive to mosquitoes than others. addition of lactic acid ...200111418498
corynebacterium testudinoris sp. nov., from a tortoise, and corynebacterium felinum sp. nov., from a scottish wild cat.two unknown gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from a tortoise and a scottish wild cat were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic analysis. chemical analysis revealed the presence of straight-chain and monounsaturated fatty acids and short-chain mycolic acids in the two isolates consistent with the genus corynebacterium. comparative 16s rrna gene sequencing confirmed that the unknown isolates were members of the genus corynebacterium, with the two organisms displaying greater than 3% sequ ...200111491332
genetic identification of wild and domestic cats (felis silvestris) and their hybrids using bayesian clustering methods.crossbreeding with free-ranging domestic cats is supposed to threaten the genetic integrity of wildcat populations in europe, although the diagnostic markers to identify "pure" or "admixed" wildcats have never been clearly defined. here we use mitochondrial (mt) dna sequences and allelic variation at 12 microsatellite loci to genotype 128 wild and domestic cats sampled in italy which were preclassified into three separate groups: european wildcats (felis silvestris silvestris), sardinian wildcat ...200111504848
the use of p-aminobenzoic acid and chromic oxide to confirm complete excreta collection in a carnivore, felis silvestris catus.complete excreta collection is a pre-requisite for several protocols in protein metabolism, and lack of confidence in achieving this may be increased when working with carnivores. recovery of p-aminobenzoic acid (paba) as a check for complete urine collection and chromic oxide for complete faeces collection were assessed in the cat. a single oral dose of paba (4 mg/kg bw) was excreted more slowly than has been reported in the human (82% recovery at 6 h). a daily dose of paba proved a useful meth ...200111701390
genomic microsatellites as evolutionary chronometers: a test in wild cats.nuclear microsatellite loci (2- to 5-bp tandem repeats) would seem to be ideal markers for population genetic monitoring because of their abundant polymorphism, wide dispersal in vertebrate genomes, near selective neutrality, and ease of assessment; however, questions about their mode of generation, mutation rates and ascertainment bias have limited interpretation considerably. we have assessed the patterns of genomic diversity for ninety feline microsatellite loci among previously characterized ...200211875029
net protein oxidation is adapted to dietary protein intake in domestic cats (felis silvestris catus).cats have a requirement for dietary protein two to three times that of omnivores and herbivores. this was reported to be due to the hepatic catabolic enzymes of this species being set to a permanently high level and, therefore, showing little adaptation to low dietary protein. a major mechanism for adapting to dietary protein in other species is amino acid oxidation (hereafter referred to as protein oxidation), and the objective of this study was to determine whether protein oxidation in cats wa ...200211880571
sarcoptic manage in wildlife.sarcoptic manage caused by sarcoptes scabiei is responsible for epizootic disease in populations of wild canids in north america, europe and australia, wild cats in europe and africa, wild ungulates and wild boars in europe, wombats and koalas in australia, and great apes and various wild bovids in africa. although short-term mortality may appear devastating, in a self-sustaining population, mortality is non-compensatory and a mange epizootic generally does not affect long-term population dynami ...200211974622
ultrastructure of oocyte maturation, fertilization, and early embryo development in vitro in the siberian tiger (panthera tigris altaica).the application of assisted reproduction techniques to wild cats has been stalled by a lack of basic knowledge of the reproductive biology in these species. in this study, the ultrastructure of siberian tiger (panthera tigris altaica) cumulus-oocyte-complexes (cocs), as well as in vitro produced (ivp) zygotes and embryos were investigated, to estimate the normality of the manipulated reproduction processes. adult female tigers were subjected to a purified porcine pfsh/plh stimulation treatment f ...200212211064
hyoid apparatus and pharynx in the lion (panthera leo), jaguar (panthera onca), tiger (panthera tigris), cheetah (acinonyxjubatus) and domestic cat (felis silvestris f. catus).structures of the hyoid apparatus, the pharynx and their topographical positions in the lion, tiger, jaguar, cheetah and domestic cat were described in order to determine morphological differences between species or subfamilies of the felidae. in the lion, tiger and jaguar (species of the subfamily pantherinae) the epihyoideum is an elastic ligament lying between the lateral pharyngeal muscles and the musculus (m.) thyroglossus rather than a bony element like in the cheetah or the domestic cat. ...200212363272
the relationship between maximum jumping performance and hind limb morphology/physiology in domestic cats (felis silvestris catus).a critical role of functional morphology is to demonstrate form-function relationships that can then be used by evolutionary biologists to infer the evolutionary history of the structure in question. tests of theoretical expectations about the effects of many aspects of morphology/physiology on locomotor performance have had very mixed results. if systems such as jumping can be shown to reliably predict performance from morphology, this would provide a foundation upon which hypotheses for the ev ...200212432010
whole-body protein turnover of a carnivore, felis silvestris catus.the cat (felis silvestris catus) has a higher dietary protein requirement than omnivores and herbivores, thought to be due to metabolic inflexibility. an aspect of metabolic flexibility was examined with studies of whole-body protein turnover at two levels of dietary protein energy, moderate protein (mp; 20 %) and high protein (hp; 70 %), in five adult cats in a crossover design. following a 14 d pre-feed period, a single intravenous dose of [15n]glycine was administered and cumulative excretion ...200312568662
serologic survey of toxoplasma gondii in noncarnivorous free-ranging neotropical mammals in french guiana.the aim of this study was to determine the frequency of toxoplasma infection in wild mammals, particularly noncarnivorous species, and to identify possible sources of infection for humans. a serological study was conducted that included 310 animals representing 10 species of terrestrial mammals from the same region (primary tropical rain forest inhabited by humans). toxoplasmosis was diagnosed using a direct agglutination test using formalin-treated toxoplasma gondii. the prevalence of antibodie ...200212656126
anticipation is differently expressed in rats (rattus norvegicus) and domestic cats (felis silvestris catus) in the same pavlovian conditioning rats (rattus norvegicus) anticipation to an oncoming food reward in an appetitive pavlovian conditioning procedure is expressed as an increase of behavioural transitions, i.e. hyperactivity. this behaviour might be related to the spontaneous appetitive behaviour of animals in relation to oncoming food rewards. to deepen our insight into anticipatory behaviour we decided to study anticipation in rats and cats (felis silvestris catus) using the same paradigm, as they show different types of spo ...200312672562
nuclear transfer of synchronized african wild cat somatic cells into enucleated domestic cat oocytes.the african wild cat is one of the smallest wild cats and its future is threatened by hybridization with domestic cats. nuclear transfer, a valuable tool for retaining genetic variability, offers the possibility of species continuation rather than extinction. the aim of this study was to investigate the ability of somatic cell nuclei of the african wild cat (awc) to dedifferentiate within domestic cat (dsh) cytoplasts and to support early development after nuclear transplantation. in experiment ...200312773426
genetic distinction of wildcat (felis silvestris) populations in europe, and hybridization with domestic cats in hungary.the genetic integrity and evolutionary persistence of declining wildcat populations are threatened by crossbreeding with widespread free-living domestic cats. here we use allelic variation at 12 microsatellite loci to describe genetic variation in 336 cats sampled from nine european countries. cats were identified as european wildcats (felis silvestris silvestris), sardinian wildcats (f. s. libyca) and domestic cats (f. s. catus), according to phenotypic traits, geographical locations and indepe ...200312969463
escherichia coli infections in captive wild cats. 196214456674
a serologic survey of wild felids from central west saudi arabia.forty-five wildcats (felis silvestris), 17 sand cats (felis margarita), and 17 feral domestic cats were captured in central west saudi arabia, between may 1998 and april 2000, with the aim to assess their exposure to feline immunodeficiency virus/puma lentivirus (fiv/plv), feline leukaemia virus (felv), feline herpesvirus (fhv-1), feline calicivirus (fcv), feline coronavirus (fcov), and feline panleukopenia virus (fplv). serologic prevalence in wildcats, sand cats, and feral domestic cats were r ...200314567233
influence of experimental chronic hypertension on the cerebral and renal arteries of wild cats.the influence of chronic hypertension (ht) on the cerebral and renal arteries was examined pathologically and morphometrically in wild cats without a specific genetic background. chronic ht for 8-15 months was induced by uninephrectomy and salt-loading, and the blood pressure was monitored for a maximum of 5 months. the grade of systolic blood pressure elevation in each cat during the monitoring period was 21-51 mmhg. histologically, the cerebral arachnoid and medullary arteries of all hypertens ...200314570285
anxiolytic-like effects of the selective 5-ht1a receptor antagonist way 100635 in non-human primates.non-human primates provide important insights into the potential use of 5-ht(1a) receptor antagonists in treating human anxiety disorders and as research tools, given the existent inconsistencies in rodent tests. this study investigated the effects of the selective silent 5-ht(1a) receptor antagonist n-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-n-(2-pyridinyl)cyclohexane-carboxamide trihydrochloride (way 100635), administered systemically, in an ethologically based fear/anxiety test in marmose ...200314660023
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