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the primary structure of the hemoglobin from the aardwolf (proteles cristatus, hyaenidae).the hemoglobin of the aardwolf (proteles cristatus) contains only one component. in this paper, we are presenting its primary structure. the globin chains were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography and the sequences determined by automatic liquid and gas-phase edman degradation of the chains and their tryptic peptides. the alpha- as well as the beta-chains show 20 exchanges compared with the corresponding human chains. the difference to the masked palm civet (paguma larvata) and th ...19911910578
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. xxii. ixodid ticks on domestic dogs and on wild carnivores.ixodid ticks were collected from 4 dogs on smallholdings near grahamstown, eastern cape province, on 1 or more occasions each week for periods ranging from 9-36 months. fourteen tick species were recovered and the seasonal abundance of adult haemaphysalis leachi and adult rhipicephalus simus was determined. complete collections of ticks were made from 50 caracals (felis caracal) in the cradock, graaff-reinet and southwell regions in the eastern cape province. the animals from cradock and graaff- ...19873444612
fatal cardiomyopathy caused by trypanosoma cruzi in an aardwolf. 19853935617
ancylostoma genettae, a. protelesis, a. somaliense: three new species from wild carnivora in the somali republic.ancylostoma braziliense was found in somalia in acinonyx jubatus, canis familiaris, c. mesomelas, crocuta crocuta, felis catus, f. libyca, genetta genetta, otocyon megalotis, proteles cristatus; a. caninum in a. jubatus, c. familiaris, c. mesomelas, c. crocuta; a. duodenale in c. crocuta; a. iperodontatum in lynx caracal; a. paraduodenale in felis serval; a. tubaeforme in a. jubatus, f. catus, f. libyca; arthrocephalus gambiense in ichneumia albicauda; uncinaria parvibursata in mellivora capensi ...19958778662
molecular systematics of the hyaenidae: relationships of a relictual lineage resolved by a molecular supermatrix.the four extant species of hyenas (hyaenidae; carnivora) form a morphologically and ecologically heterogeneous group of feliform carnivorans that are remnants of a formerly diverse group of mammalian predators. they include the aardwolf (proteles cristatus), a termite-feeding specialist, and three species with a craniodental morphology adapted to cracking the bones of prey and/or carcasses, the spotted hyena (crocuta crocuta), brown hyena (parahyaena brunnea), and striped hyena (hyaena hyaena). ...200616503281
brain size and social complexity: a computed tomography study in hyaenidae.the social brain hypothesis posits that the demands of living in complex social groups require increased neural processing, and that this underlies the expansion of brain areas involved in mediation of complex social behavior. however, much of the support for the social brain hypothesis is derived from comparative studies in primates. if large brains evolved as a result of selection pressures imposed by life within complex societies, as the social brain hypothesis predicts, then gregarious nonpr ...201121335942
phylogenetic comparisons implicate sex hormone-binding globulin in "masculinization" of the female spotted hyena (crocuta crocuta).exposures to sex steroids during fetal development are thought to contribute to the unique urogenital anatomy and social dominance of the female spotted hyena: overt phenotypes not shared by other hyenids (i.e. striped hyena, brown hyena, and aardwolf). because both androgens and estrogens influence development of genitalia and behavior, and because plasma shbg regulates their access to tissues, we compared the shbg gene sequences, structures, and steroid-binding properties in the four extant hy ...201222253421
body proportions in hyaenidae.indexes of skeletal measurements are used to compare body proportions in hyaenidae, canidae and felidae. hyaena and crocuta are characterized by a long neck and long forelimbs. the humerus is relatively short and the radius and metacarpal bones are long. in the the os femoris is long and the tibia short. the proportions are adapted to carry large and heavy prey and provide maximum static stability. proteles cristatus which mainly feeds on termites and insects has the long neck and forelimb in co ...20144083516
pleistocene chinese cave hyenas and the recent eurasian history of the spotted hyena, crocuta crocuta.the living hyena species (spotted, brown, striped and aardwolf) are remnants of a formerly diverse group of more than 80 fossil species, which peaked in diversity in the late miocene (about 7-8 ma). the fossil history indicates an african origin, and morphological and ancient dna data have confirmed that living spotted hyenas (crocuta crocuta) of africa were closely related to extinct late pleistocene cave hyenas from europe and asia. the current model used to explain the origins of eurasian cav ...201424320717
patterns and implications of extensive heterochrony in carnivoran cranial suture closure.heterochronic changes in the rate or timing of development underpin many evolutionary transformations. in particular, the onset and rate of bone development have been the focus of many studies across large clades. in contrast, the termination of bone growth, as estimated by suture closure, has been studied far less frequently, although a few recent studies have shown this to represent a variable, although poorly understood, aspect of developmental evolution. here, we examine suture closure patte ...201323530892
convergence of gut microbiomes in myrmecophagous mammals.mammals have diversified into many dietary niches. specialized myrmecophagous (ant- and termite-eating) placental mammals represent a textbook example of evolutionary convergence driven by extreme diet specialization. armadillos, anteaters, aardvarks, pangolins and aardwolves thus provide a model system for understanding the potential role of gut microbiota in the convergent adaptation to myrmecophagy. here, we expand upon previous mammalian gut microbiome studies by using high-throughput barcod ...201424118574
validation of noninvasive monitoring of adrenocortical endocrine activity in ground-feeding aardwolves (proteles cristata): exemplifying the influence of consumption of inorganic material for fecal steroid analysis.biologically inert material in feces may confound interpretations of noninvasive fecal endocrine data, because it may induce variance related to differences in foraging behavior rather than to differences in endocrine activity. we evaluated two different enzyme immunoassays (eias) for the noninvasive evaluation of adrenocortical activity in ground-feeding aardwolves (proteles cristata) and tested the influence of soil content in aardwolf feces on the interpretation of fecal glucocorticoid metabo ...201522418711
numbats and aardwolves--how low is low? a re-affirmation of the need for statistical rigour in evaluating regression predictions.many comparative physiological studies aim to determine if a particular species differs from a prediction based on a linear allometric regression for other species. however, the judgment as to whether the species in question conforms to this allometric relationship is often not based on any formal statistical analysis. an appropriate statistical method is to compare the new species' value with the 95% confidence limits for predicting an additional datum from the relationship for the other specie ...200616639599
piroplasmosis in the aardwolf (proteles cristatus). 200111720212
a peritoneal mesothelioma in a captive aardwolf (proteles cristatus).a 10-year-old male aardwolf (proteles cristatus) was presented abdominal distention and emaciation for 3 months. physical examination revealed firm abdominal masses with effusions. cytologic assessment of the effusion showed uniform round tumor cells with a surface brush border. necropsy showed white velvety masses covering the peritoneal surface of the liver, gall bladder, stomach, omentum, mesentery, spleen, intestine, abdominal wall and diaphragm. histologic examination demonstrated papillary ...200111480776
histo-physiology of the scent-marking glands of the penile pad, anal pouch, and the forefoot in the aardwolf (proteles cristatus).the scentmarking glands of the anal pouch, penile pad, and the forefoot of the aardwolf (proteles cristatus) were studied by histological, histochemical, immunohistochemical methods, and by electron microscopy. the morphological observations are correlated with eco-ethological aspects of this nocturnal animal. in all studied regions there was a superficial layer of holocrine sebaceous glands and a deeper layer of apocrine scent glands; these two types of glands apparently function in concert. on ...200010861364
responses of aardwolves, proteles cristatus, sparrman 1783, to translocated scent marks.we tested the discrimination abilities of aardwolves by monitoring their response to scent marks of male or female donors varying in familiarity translocated into their territories. we followed aardwolves in a vehicle and collected grass stalks with single fresh scent marks. the next evening we placed these grass stalks at dens and middens in the territory of another aardwolf, which we subsequently followed for the whole night. during 43 experiments 617 stalks were translocated. of these, 164 we ...19989710471
laboratory metabolism and evaporative water loss of the aardwolf, proteles cristatus.we examined oxygen consumption and total evaporative water loss of aardwolves (proteles cristatus) at temperatures within and below their thermal neutral zone during both summer and winter. during summer (december), body masses of aardwolves averaged 8.1 +/- 0.7 kg (+/-1 standard deviation). within their thermal neutral zone, oxygen consumption was 2,194 +/- 443 ml o2 h-1, or 1,058 kj d-1. the relationship between oxygen consumption (vo2, ml o2 h-1) and ambient temperature (ta, degree c) below t ...20069237307
volatile components of anal gland secretion of aardwolf (proteles cristatus).volatile constituents of the anal gland secretion and of scent marks of the aardwolf were identified using dynamic solvent effect sampling, capillary gas-liquid chromatography, and mass spectrometry. both scent marks and gland contents consisted mainly of short- to medium-chain fatty acids, a complex series of medium- and long-chain esters, indole, and hexanol. there were marked individual differences in the relative concentrations of the various components.198924272108
description of four new species of haemaphysalis koch, 1844 (acari: ixodidae) from the h. (rhipistoma) spinulosa subgroup, parasites of carnivores and rodents in africa.haemaphysalis (rhipistoma) bochkovi n. sp., h. (r.) burkinae n. sp., h. (r.) horaki n. sp. and h. (r.) walkerae n. sp. (acari: ixodidae), are described based on males and females. adults of h. bochkovi n. sp. were collected from the marsh mongoose, atilax paludinosus (cuvier) (carnivora: herpestidae) and the spotted-necked otter, hydrictis maculicollis (lichtenstein) (carnivora: mustelidae) in côte d'ivoire and liberia; adults of h. burkinae n. sp. were collected from the rusty-spotted genet, ge ...201931441012
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