hydatid disease in the turkana district of kenya. iii. the significance of wild animals in the transmission of echinococcus granulosus, with particular reference to turkana and masailand in kenya.the results are given of a study on the role of wildlife in the transmission of echinococcus granulosus in the turkana and narok districts of kenya. a total of 76 wild carnivores belonging to three separate species was examined from turkana district. echinococcus adults were found in 11 of 38 silver-backed jackals (canis mesomelas) and in six of 22 golden jackals (canis aureus). this is the first record of golden jackals being infected with this parasite in kenya. none of 16 spotted hyaenas (cro ...19836882057
vocal recognition in the spotted hyaena and its possible implications regarding the evolution of intelligence.spotted hyaenas, crocuta crocuta, are gregarious carnivores whose social lives share much in common with those of cercopithecine primates. we conducted playback experiments to determine whether free-living hyaenas are capable of identifying individual conspecifics on the basis of their long-distance vocalization, the 'whoop'. when prerecorded cub whoops were played to mothers and other breeding females (controls), mothers responded significantly more vigorously to whoops of their own cubs than d ...199910458890
androgens and masculinization of genitalia in the spotted hyaena (crocuta crocuta). 1. urogenital morphology and placental androgen production during fetal life.according to common understanding of sexual differentiation, the formation and development of a penile clitoris in female spotted hyaenas requires the presence of naturally circulating androgens during fetal life. the purpose of the present study was to determine potential source(s) of such fetal androgens by investigating the timing of urogenital development and placental production of androgen during early and mid-gestation. fetuses determined to be female by molecular techniques (lack of sry ...19989713383
antibodies to neospora caninum in wild animals from kenya, east africa.the prevalence of antibodies to neospora caninum was examined in six wild artiodactyla species, and in five wild carnivora species from kenya. blood sera (104 wild ungulates from marula estates (mes), and 31 wild carnivores from masai-mara reserve and from other wildlife areas in northern and southern kenya), were screened using a neospora agglutination test (nat), with a twofold dilution (1:40-1:320 titres). presence of nat antibodies to n. caninun is reported here for the first time in zebra ( ...200314651874
trichinella nelsoni in carnivores from the serengeti ecosystem, tanzania.a survey of trichinellosis among sylvatic carnivore mammals from the serengeti ecosystem (tanzania) demonstrated the presence of trichinella nelsoni in 5 of 9 species examined. muscle samples were collected from carcasses of 56 carnivores from 1993 to 1995 and frozen before transport and examination. following artificial digestion of the samples, collected larvae were analyzed by the random amplified polymorphic dna technique. trichinella nelsoni was identified in 1 bat-eared fox (otocyon megalo ...19979406805
genetic characterization of canine distemper virus in serengeti carnivores.the lion (panthera leo) population in the serengeti ecosystem was recently afflicted by a fatal epidemic involving neurological disease, encephalitis and pneumonia. the cause was identified as canine distemper virus (cdv). several other species in the serengeti were also affected. this report presents cdv h and p gene sequences isolated from serengeti lions (panthera leo), spotted hyenas (crocuta crocuta), bat-eared fox (otocyon megalotis) and domestic dog (canis familiaris). sequence analyses d ...19989839878
carnivore voiding: a taphonomic process with the potential for the deposition of forensic evidence.carnivore defecation and regurgitation are taphonomic processes that create discrete concentrations of bone pieces and soft tissue fragments of animals that have been consumed. experiments in which baboon carcasses were fed to leopards and spotted hyenas demonstrate that primate metapodials and phalanges are well represented as readily identifiable specimens in such scat concentrations. most often phalanges are recovered from scat as whole, articulated digit units (composed of the proximal throu ...200111305453
antibodies to canine and feline viruses in spotted hyenas (crocuta crocuta) in the masai mara national reserve.spotted hyenas (crocuta crocuta) are abundant predators in the serengeti ecosystem and interact with other species of wild carnivores and domestic animals in ways that could encourage disease transmission. hyenas also have a unique hierarchical social system that might affect the flow of pathogens. antibodies to canine distemper virus (cdv), feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv), feline panleukopenia virus/canine parvovirus (fplv/cpv), feline coronavirus/ feline infectious peritonitis virus (fecv/ ...200415137483
regular exposure to rabies virus and lack of symptomatic disease in serengeti spotted hyenas.we report a previously unrecognized complexity to the ecology of rabies in wildlife. rabies-specific virus-neutralizing antibodies in spotted hyenas, the most numerous large carnivore in the serengeti ecosystem (tanzania, east africa), revealed a high frequency of exposure of 37.0% to rabies virus, and reverse transcriptase (rt) pcr demonstrated rabies rna in 13.0% of hyenas. despite this high frequency, exposure neither caused symptomatic rabies nor decreased survival among members of hyena soc ...200111742089
canine distemper virus infection in serengeti spotted hyenas.clinical signs suggestive of canine distemper virus (cdv) infection were observed among a group of spotted hyenas (crocuta crocuta) in the serengeti, tanzania. virus antigen was detected immunohistologically in a brain sample from a diseased cub. the presence of virus rna could be demonstrated in this brain as well as in intestine and lymph node of the animal by rt-pcr. sequence comparison of brain-derived amplicons showed that the virus was related to recent cdv field isolates. the closest homo ...19968861651
separation as a natural cue to danger in the spotted hyena (crocuta crocuta).spotted hyena biology suggests mothers and infants will exhibit one of two alternative responses to separation: (a) due to prolonged dependency, infants will act similarly to old world monkeys, displaying distress and proximity seeking behaviors; or (b) because mother-infant separations are frequent in the wild, infants will exhibit little distress or change in reunion behavior. hence, reunion behavior following mother-infant separation was compared to control periods in captive hyena (crocuta c ...200415054888
demonstration of helicobacter pylori-like organisms in the gastric mucosa of captive exotic carnivores.samples of gastric tissue from the cardiac, fundic and pyloric region of 30 carnivores comprising 12 tigers (panthera tigris), 10 lions (panthera leo), three pumas (felis concolor), two leopards (panthera pardus), one serval (felis serval), one wolf (canis lupus) and one hyena (crocuta crocuta) kept at german zoological gardens were subjected to histopathological and immunohistochemical examination. selected tissue specimens of 12 animals were examined also by electron microscopy. the purpose of ...19979076597
a mechanism for virilization of female spotted hyenas in utero.female spotted hyenas exhibit male-like genitalia and dominance over males. hyena ovarian tissues incubated in vitro produced large quantities of the steroid hormone precursor androstenedione. the activity of aromatase, which converts androstenedione to estrogen, was one-twentieth as great in hyena versus human placental homogenates. in comparison, the activity of 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, which converts androstenedione to testosterone, was equal in the two homogenates. the limited a ...19938391165
ancylostoma genettae, a. protelesis, a. somaliense: three new species from wild carnivora in the somali republic.ancylostoma braziliense was found in somalia in acinonyx jubatus, canis familiaris, c. mesomelas, crocuta crocuta, felis catus, f. libyca, genetta genetta, otocyon megalotis, proteles cristatus; a. caninum in a. jubatus, c. familiaris, c. mesomelas, c. crocuta; a. duodenale in c. crocuta; a. iperodontatum in lynx caracal; a. paraduodenale in felis serval; a. tubaeforme in a. jubatus, f. catus, f. libyca; arthrocephalus gambiense in ichneumia albicauda; uncinaria parvibursata in mellivora capensi ...19958778662
rank and reproduction in the female spotted hyaena.female reproductive success varies with social rank in many gregarious mammals, including primates, ungulates and carnivores. social groups of spotted hyaenas (crocuta crocuta) are structured by hierarchical dominance relationships that determine individuals' priority of access to food and other resources. the influence of female social rank on several measures of reproductive success was examined in a population of free-living crocuta in kenya. the study population was continuously observed for ...19969038781
masculinized otoacoustic emissions in female spotted hyenas (crocuta crocuta).in humans and rhesus monkeys, click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (ceoaes) are stronger in females than in males, and there is considerable circumstantial evidence that this sex difference is attributable to the greater exposure to androgens prenatally in males. because female spotted hyenas are highly androgenized beginning early in prenatal development, we expected an absence of sexual dimorphism in the ceoaes of this species. the ceoaes obtained from 9 male and 7 female spotted hyenas confirme ...200616682033
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. xxii. ixodid ticks on domestic dogs and on wild carnivores.ixodid ticks were collected from 4 dogs on smallholdings near grahamstown, eastern cape province, on 1 or more occasions each week for periods ranging from 9-36 months. fourteen tick species were recovered and the seasonal abundance of adult haemaphysalis leachi and adult rhipicephalus simus was determined. complete collections of ticks were made from 50 caracals (felis caracal) in the cradock, graaff-reinet and southwell regions in the eastern cape province. the animals from cradock and graaff- ...19873444612
seroprevalence and genomic divergence of circulating strains of feline immunodeficiency virus among felidae and hyaenidae species.feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) infects numerous wild and domestic feline species and is closely related to human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) and simian immunodeficiency virus (siv). species-specific strains of fiv have been described for domestic cat (felis catus), puma (puma concolor), lion (panthera leo), leopard (panthera pardus), and pallas' cat (otocolobus manul). here, we employ a three-antigen western blot screening (domestic cat, puma, and lion fiv antigens) and pcr analysis to sur ...200515956574
rabies in the masai mara, kenya: preliminary report.a serosurvey of rabies antibodies among domestic dogs (canis familiaris, n = 178), spotted hyaenas (crocuta crocuta, n = 72) and african wild dogs (lycaon pictus, n = 18) of the masai mara, kenya, was carried out. rabies antibodies were found in 9.6% of the domestic dog sera, but all wild dog and hyaena sera were negative. rabies has been confirmed in this region among the above species as well as in a domestic cat (felis catus) and a cow (bos indicus) by fluorescent antibody tests (fat) and/or ...19937777329
social systems and behaviour of the african wild dog lycaon pictus and the spotted hyaena crocuta crocuta with special reference to rabies.differences in the social systems and behaviour of two potentially important hosts of rabies, the african wild dog and the spotted hyaena, may lead to differences in the epizootiology of the disease in the two species. wild dogs are highly social animals in which pack members are in constant physical contact with each other, but in which inter-pack interactions are rare. spotted hyaenas are more flexible in their social systems and behaviour. clan members interact less frequently than do wild do ...19937777328
identification by the blood incubation infectivity test of trypanosoma brucei subspecies isolated from game animals in the luangwa valley, zambia.a total of 7 stocks of trypanosoma brucei subspecies, isolated from naturally infected game animals in the luangwa valley, eastern province, zambia were examined using a modified version of the blood incubation infectivity test (biit). one stock giving consistent biit responses typical of t.b. rhodesiense, was obtained from warthog (phacochoerus aethiopicus). four other stocks, 2 from hyaena (crocuta crocuta), 1 from a waterbuck (kobus ellipsiprymnus) and 1 from a lion (panthera leo) responded l ...197944098
carnivora: primary structure of the hemoglobin from the spotted hyena (crocuta crocuta, hyenidae).the primary structure of the alpha- and beta-chains of hemoglobin from spotted hyena (crocuta crocuta, hyenidae) is presented. the structure-function relationship is discussed. the separation of the chains directly from hemoglobin was performed by rp-hplc. after tryptic digestion of the chains, the peptides were isolated by rp-hplc. amino-acid sequences were determined by edman degradation in liquid- and gas-phase sequencers. the alignment of the tryptic peptides was made by homology with human ...19892742752
scent marking (pasting) in a colony of immature spotted hyenas (crocuta crocuta): a developmental study.pasting, a stereotypic form of anal gland scent marking, was studied in 2 cohorts (n = 20) of captive spotted hyenas (crocuta crocuta). a significant increment in the frequency of pasting occurred in both cohorts as the animals approached sexual maturity; however, gonadectomy during the early juvenile age period had no significant effects on subsequent pasting frequency. dominant hyenas in both cohorts tended to scent-mark more frequently than subordinates during the late subadult period. pastin ...19912032450
the primary structure of the hemoglobin from the aardwolf (proteles cristatus, hyaenidae).the hemoglobin of the aardwolf (proteles cristatus) contains only one component. in this paper, we are presenting its primary structure. the globin chains were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography and the sequences determined by automatic liquid and gas-phase edman degradation of the chains and their tryptic peptides. the alpha- as well as the beta-chains show 20 exchanges compared with the corresponding human chains. the difference to the masked palm civet (paguma larvata) and th ...19911910578
intersexual dominance, masculinized genitals and prenatal steroids: comparative data from lemurid primates.masculinization of female genitalia and female intersexual dominance distinguish spotted hyenas (crocuta crocuta) and malagasy primates (lemuriformes) from most other mammals. an unusual prenatal endocrine environment has been proposed to proximately underlie the development of these traits in hyenas. to examine whether female dominance and genital masculinization are similarly enhanced by the prenatal environment in lemurid primates, we measured androgen and estrogen excretion in pregnant wild ...200312649757
a hepatozoon species genetically distinct from h. canis infecting spotted hyenas in the serengeti ecosystem, monitoring of spotted hyenas (crocuta crocuta) in the serengeti ecosystem, tanzania, revealed hepatozoon infection in all of 11 immature individuals examined following death from natural causes. hepatozoon infection was probably an important factor contributing to mortality in two cases that exhibited clinical signs of ataxia, lethargy, ocular discharge, retching, and labored breathing before death. whether hepatozoon infection contributed to six deaths from fire, probable lion predation ...200818263820
coprologic survey of parasites of spotted hyenas (crocuta crocuta) in the masai mara national reserve, kenya.seventy fecal samples from spotted hyenas (crocuta crocuta) in the masai mara national reserve, kenya were examined for parasite eggs and oocysts using sugar flotation. a total of nine parasite genera were identified, and all samples were positive for at least one parasite species. most individuals were infected with ancylostoma sp. and spirometra sp., and these species had the highest median intensity of infection. other parasites identified include isospora sp., taeniidae, spirurida, toxocara ...200312685088
effect of prenatal androgens on click-evoked otoacoustic emissions in male and female sheep (ovis aries).otoacoustic emissions (oaes) were measured in male and female suffolk sheep (ovis aries). some sheep had been administered androgens or estrogens during prenatal development, some were gonadectomized after birth, and some were allowed to develop normally. as previously reported for spotted hyenas, gonadectomy did not alter the oaes for either sex; accordingly, the untreated/intact and the untreated/gonadectomized animals were pooled to form the control groups. the click-evoked otoacoustic emissi ...200918834887
dermatophytosis in three colony-born spotted adult female hyena and her two 4-month-old cubs were found to have multifocal areas of alopecia and dermatitis. dermatophyte culture of hair and skin samples collected from the lesions yielded trichophyton mentagrophytes. none of 10 other animals in the colony that were tested were found to have dermatophytes. lesions were treated twice, at 3-week intervals, with thorough cleansing with chlorhexidine scrub followed by topical application of antifungal agents. lesions resolved, and dermatophyt ...200314690212
virilization of the female spotted hyena cannot be explained by alterations in the amino acid sequence of the androgen receptor (ar).the external genitalia of the female spotted hyena are male in character, consistent with virilization by androgens during embryogenesis that results in the fusion of the vaginal labia to form a pseudo scrotum and enlargement of the clitoris to form a phallus. explanations advanced to account for these anatomic differences have centered on the production or metabolism of androgens in utero or on abnormalities of the androgen receptor (such as a constitutively active ar). the structure of the spo ...200212242031
carnivores from the early pleistocene hominid-bearing trinchera dolina 6 (sierra de atapuerca, spain).the carnivores from trinchera dolina level 6 (td6) in sierra de atapuerca include ursus sp., crocuta crocuta, mustela palerminea, lynx sp., canis mosbachensis and vulpes praeglacialis. approximately 80 human remains belonging to homo antecessor were found in the aurora stratum (as): located in the upper part of the td6 level (td6, t36-43). the carnivores from as are taxonomically similar to the rest of the td6 level, differing only in the occurrence of lynx sp. the spotted hyaena (crocuta crocut ...199910496995
aspects of rabies epidemiology in tsumkwe district, namibia.aspects of rabies epidemiology were investigated in the tsumkwe district, namibia, during december 1993 and january 1994. a cross-sectional seroepidemiological survey for rabies antibodies was carried out in domestic (n = 70) and wild dogs [lycaon pictus (n = 6)]. an overall seroprevalence rate of 30% was found in domestic dogs, but it must be borne in mind that seroconversion can result from infections from either rabies or rabies-related viruses. older dogs were more likely to be seropositive ...19979204502
estrogen: consequences and implications of human mutations in synthesis and action.recent developments have advanced our knowledge of the role of estrogen in the male. studies of the mutations in cyp19, the gene encoding aromatase, in six females and two males and a mutant estrogen receptor alpha in a man are described. these observations provide illuminating new insights into the critical role of estrogen in the male (as well as female) in the pubertal growth spurt and skeletal maturation, and in the importance of estrogen sufficiency in the accrual and maintenance of bone ma ...199910599737
coronavirus infection of spotted hyenas in the serengeti ecosystem.sera from 38 free-ranging spotted hyenas (crocuta crocuta) in the serengeti ecosystem, tanzania, were screened for exposure to coronavirus of antigenic group 1. an immunofluorescence assay indicated high levels of exposure to coronavirus among serengeti hyenas: 95% when considering sera with titer levels of > or = 1:10 and 74% when considering sera with titer levels of > or = 1:40. cubs had generally lower mean titer levels than adults. exposure among serengeti hyenas to coronavirus was also con ...200415288921
retrospective analysis of suspected rabies cases reported at bugando referral hospital, mwanza, tanzania.the aim of this study was to determine the incidence of humans being bitten by rabies-suspected animals, and the victims' adherence to post-exposure prophylaxis (pep) regimen.201020927280
behavioural structuring of relatedness in the spotted hyena (crocuta crocuta) suggests direct fitness benefits of clan-level cooperation.spotted hyenas (crocuta crocuta) are gregarious carnivores that live in multigenerational social groups, called clans, containing one to several matrilines. members of multiple matrilines within a clan cooperate during dangerous interactions with inter- and intraspecific competitors. the evolution of cooperation may be influenced by relatedness between individuals, which in turn is influenced by reproductive skew and mate choice, dispersal and territorial behaviours. behavioural data exist for s ...200414717899
personality dimensions in spotted hyenas (crocuta crocuta).personality ratings of 34 spotted hyenas (crocuta crocuta) were made by 4 observers who knew the animals well. analyses suggest that (a) hyena personality traits were rated with generally high reliability; (b) 5 broad dimensions (assertiveness, excitability, human-directed agreeableness, sociability, and curiosity) captured about 75% of the total variance; (c) this dimensional structure could not be explained in terms of dominance status, sex, age, or appearance; and (d) as expected, female hyen ...19989642781
karyotypic conservatism in the suborder feliformia (order carnivora).multidirectional comparative chromosome painting was used to investigate the karyotypic relationships among representative species from three feliformia families of the order carnivora (viverridae, hyaenidae and felidae). complete sets of painting probes derived from flow-sorted chromosomes of the domestic dog, american mink, and human were hybridized onto metaphases of the spotted hyena (crocuta crocuta, 2n = 40) and masked palm civet (paguma larvata, 2n = 44). extensive chromosomal conservatio ...200515627756
free-living jackals (canis mesomelas)-potential reservoir hosts for ehrlichia canis in kenya.using a modified cell culture test, ehrlichia canis was found in eight of 15 free-living jackals (canis mesomelas) and 14 of 31 dogs owned by pastoral communities in the same areas of kenya. two cross-bred puppies inoculated with blood from infected jackals developed mild, transient clinical disease, and e. canis was recovered from the puppies. tick species found on the jackals were similar to those found on the infected dogs. ehrlichia canis was not found in eight spotted hyaenas (crocuta crocu ...19807463598
a neuroanatomical comparison of humans and spotted hyena, a natural animal model for common urogenital sinus: clinical reflections on feminizing genitoplasty.surgical treatment of the common urogenital sinus phallus has been one of the most challenging areas in pediatric urology. to better understand the neuroanatomy of the common urogenital sinus phallus, we evaluated an animal model naturally having this condition, the spotted hyena, crocuta crocuta. we compared the neuroanatomy of male and female humans and spotted hyenas using anatomical, immunohistochemical and 3d reconstruction techniques. we also examined the implications of the pattern of cli ...200616406926
trichinosis in a spotted hyaena (crocuta crocuta) of the serengeti. 19665948801
severe streptococcus infection in spotted hyenas in the ngorongoro crater, a population of spotted hyenas (crocuta crocuta) monitored between 1996 and 2005 in the ngorongoro crater, tanzania, 16 individuals from five of eight social groups displayed clinical signs of an infection, including severe unilateral swelling of the head followed by abscess formation at the mandibular angle, respiratory distress, mild ataxia, and lethargy. two (12.5%) of these 16 individuals died within days of developing signs. clinical signs in hyenas were first noted in 2001, and most cas ...200616460891
echinococcosis (hydatodosis) in wild animals of the kruger national park.echinococcosis has been diagnosed in the following wild species in the kruger national park : lion, panthera leo, spotted hyena, crocuta crocuta, cape hunting dog, lycaon pictus, burchell's zebra, equus burchelli antiquorum, buffalo, syncerus caffer, hippopotamus, hippopotamus amphibius, and impala, aepyceros melampus. infestation rates in the herbivores vary from 60% in zebra to less than 1% in impala. species like elephant, loxodonta africana, and blue wildebeest, connochaetes taurinus, do not ...19751219111
[ancylostoma duodenale (dubini, 1843) creplin, 1843 (nematoda: ancylostomidae), parasite of the spotted hyena crocuta crocuta (erxleben) in ethiopia]. 1979554273
erythema multiforme in a spotted hyena (crocuta crocuta).a 10.5-yr-old male spotted hyena (crocuta crocuta) developed acute, severe erythematous and ulcerative dermatitis of the hindquarters, feet, face, and ears 19 days after receiving a recombinant canary pox vectored canine distemper vaccine. biopsies of the lesions supported a diagnosis of erythema multiforme (em), which is an immune-mediated disorder that can occur days to months after exposure to antigenic stimuli. during the lengthy recovery, esophageal regurgitation and ulceration developed ei ...200517312775
characterization of streptococcus equi subsp. ruminatorum isolated from spotted hyenas (crocuta crocuta) and plains zebras (equus burchelli), and identification of a m-like protein (srm) encoding gene.thirteen strains of streptococcus equi subsp. ruminatorum from free-ranging spotted hyenas (crocuta crocuta) and plains zebras (equus burchelli) in tanzania were characterized by biochemical and molecular-biological methods. although the colony appearance of the s.e. ruminatorum wildlife strains differed from that of the s.e. ruminatorum type strain cect 5772(t), all biochemical reactions of the wildlife strains were similar to those of the type strain. in addition, all wildlife strains produced ...200817997053
[early sibling aggression in mammals and its hormonal correlates].early sibling aggression is a widespread phenomenon in birds. ornithologists distinguish species with "obligate" and "facultative" siblicide. sibling aggression was described in some mammal species: the domestic pig (sus scrofa), the spotted hyena (crocuta crocuta), the eurasian lynx (lynx lynx), and the iberian lynx (l. par-dinus). in all of them, sibling aggression corresponds well with the "facultative" siblicide model in birds. sibling aggression was observed at the age of 36-64 days in both ...200717944114
pulmonary infection due to mycobacterium goodii in a spotted hyena (crocuta crocuta) from south africa.we report a case of pyogranulomatous pneumonia due to infection with mycobacterium goodii in an adult female spotted hyena (crocuta crocuta). the lungs of the animal showed consolidated, granulomatous lesions, and they were extensively and severely infiltrated. polymerase chain reaction sequencing of isolated crude lung tissue dna, and boiled lung culture samples, all confirmed that the causative organism was m. goodii, a recently described fast-growing organism closely related to the nonpathoge ...200818263830
molecular systematics of the hyaenidae: relationships of a relictual lineage resolved by a molecular supermatrix.the four extant species of hyenas (hyaenidae; carnivora) form a morphologically and ecologically heterogeneous group of feliform carnivorans that are remnants of a formerly diverse group of mammalian predators. they include the aardwolf (proteles cristatus), a termite-feeding specialist, and three species with a craniodental morphology adapted to cracking the bones of prey and/or carcasses, the spotted hyena (crocuta crocuta), brown hyena (parahyaena brunnea), and striped hyena (hyaena hyaena). ...200616503281
fecal glucocorticoids reflect socio-ecological and anthropogenic stressors in the lives of wild spotted hyenas.our aim was to identify natural and anthropogenic influences on the stress physiology of large african carnivores, using wild spotted hyenas (crocuta crocuta) as model animals. with both longitudinal data from a single social group, and cross-sectional data from multiple groups, we used fecal glucocorticoids (fgc) to examine potential stressors among spotted hyenas. longitudinal data from adult members of a group living on the edge of the masai mara national reserve, kenya, revealed that fgc con ...200919056392
a survey of echinococcus species in wild carnivores and livestock in east africa.we examined 71 faecal samples of carnivores from queen elizabeth national park (qenp), uganda, for eggs of echinococcus species. thirty-nine faecal samples contained taeniid eggs. for species diagnosis, dna was isolated from a total of 1984 individual taeniid eggs. to differentiate eggs of echinococcus felidis from other taeniid taxa (including the closely related echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto), a restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp)-pcr of the mitochondrial nad1 gene was deve ...200919275902
minimizing predation risk in a landscape of multiple predators: effects on the spatial distribution of african ungulates.studies that focus on single predator-prey interactions can be inadequate for understanding antipredator responses in multi-predator systems. yet there is still a general lack of information about the strategies of prey to minimize predation risk from multiple predators at the landscape level. here we examined the distribution of seven african ungulate species in the fenced karongwe game reserve (kgr), south africa, as a function of predation risk from all large carnivore species (lion, leopard, ...201121618919
parallels between playbacks and pleistocene tar seeps suggest sociality in an extinct sabretooth cat, smilodon.inferences concerning the lives of extinct animals are difficult to obtain from the fossil record. here we present a novel approach to the study of extinct carnivores, using a comparison between fossil records (n=3324) found in late pleistocene tar seeps at rancho la brea in north america and counts (n=4491) from playback experiments used to estimate carnivore abundance in africa. playbacks and tar seep deposits represent competitive, potentially dangerous encounters where multiple predators are ...200918957359
predator-prey size relationships in an african large-mammal food web.1. size relationships are central in structuring trophic linkages within food webs, leading to suggestions that the dietary niche of smaller carnivores is nested within that of larger species. however, past analyses have not taken into account the differing selection shown by carnivores for specific size ranges of prey, nor the extent to which the greater carcass mass of larger prey outweighs the greater numerical representation of smaller prey species in the predator diet. furthermore, the top- ...200818177336
'emerging' mycobacteria in south africa.disease can be caused by various species of the genus mycobacterium. a number of reports, both published and unpublished, of rarely reported mycobacteria have surfaced in south africa in the last few years. some unusual hosts have also been involved, causing concern in some quarters.these include reports on mycobacterium goodii in a spotted hyaena (crocuta crocuta), m. xenopi in a ruffed lemur (varecia variegata), m. intracellulare in wild-caught chacma baboons (papio ursinus), the 'dassie bacil ...200920458859
rabies, canine distemper, and canine parvovirus exposure in large carnivore communities from two zambian ecosystems.disease transmission within and among wild and domestic carnivores can have significant impacts on populations, particularly for threatened and endangered species. we used serology to evaluate potential exposure to rabies virus, canine distemper virus (cdv), and canine parvovirus (cpv) for populations of african lions (panthera leo), african wild dogs (lycaon pictus), and spotted hyenas (crocuta crocuta) in zambia's south luangwa national park (slnp) and liuwa plain national park (lpnp) as well ...201323805791
brain size and social complexity: a computed tomography study in hyaenidae.the social brain hypothesis posits that the demands of living in complex social groups require increased neural processing, and that this underlies the expansion of brain areas involved in mediation of complex social behavior. however, much of the support for the social brain hypothesis is derived from comparative studies in primates. if large brains evolved as a result of selection pressures imposed by life within complex societies, as the social brain hypothesis predicts, then gregarious nonpr ...201121335942
peptoniphilus methioninivorax sp. nov., a novel gram-positive anaerobic coccus isolated from retail ground beef.strain nrrl b-23883 was isolated from retail ground beef as part of a study on the genetic diversity of clostridium perfringens. the strain was found to be a strictly anaerobic, gram- positive coccus that was able to utilize peptone as a sole carbon source. subsequent to sequencing the 16s ribosomal rna gene, it was found that the strain was closely related to species within the genera peptoniphilus and anaerosphaera, but it was substantially different from the closest recognized species by near ...201020817843
relaxin concentrations in serum and urine of endangered and crazy mixed-up species.the human population explosion has pushed many mammalian wildlife species to the brink of extinction. conservationists are increasingly turning to captive breeding as a means of preserving the gene pool. we previously reported that serum immunoactive relaxin provided a reliable means of distinguishing between true and pseudopregnancy in domestic dogs, and this method has since been found to be a reliable indicator of true pregnancy in endangered asian and african elephants and sumatran rhinocero ...200919416182
the fossil bovidae (artiodactyla, mammalia) from gesher benot ya'aqov, israel: out of africa during the early-middle pleistocene transition.we report the study of the collection of fossil bovid specimens from the early-middle pleistocene acheulian site of gesher benot ya'aqov. this locality, situated in the levantine corridor (the bottleneck that connects africa and eurasia) is a key site to explain the faunal and human dispersals out of africa during the matuyama/brunhes boundary around 0.8ma. two species of bovine (bos sp., and bovini gen. et sp. indet. cf. bison sp.), one antelope (gazella sp. cf. g. gazella), and another indeter ...201021392634
sex determination in spotted hyena (crocuta crocuta ) by restriction fragment length polymorphism of amplified zfx/zfy loci.we describe a quick and efficient method of determining the sex of dna samples in the hyena. by choosing primers from sequences that are conserved between the human and bovine zfy and zfx genes, we amplified a 448 bp fragment from 1 male and 2 female hyenas. using comparative sequencing, single base pair polymorphisms between the amplified zfy and zfx were established. restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analysis with psti and taqi confirmed the sequence data and yielded specific ban ...199416727412
dominance in vertebrate broods and litters.drawing on the concepts and theory of dominance in adult vertebrates, this article categorizes the relationships of dominance between infant siblings, identifies the behavioral mechanisms that give rise to those relationships, and proposes a model to explain their evolution. dominance relationships in avian broods can be classified according to the agonistic roles of dominants and subordinates as "aggression-submission," "aggression-resistance," "aggression-aggression," "aggression-avoidance," " ...200616602272
mammalian body size changes and plio-pleistocene environmental shifts: implications for understanding hominin evolution in eastern and southern africa.this study examines geographic and temporal variation in three mammalian taxa co-occurring in eastern and southern africa. the selected taxa-the spotted hyena (crocuta crocuta), the plains zebra (equus burchellii), and the impala (aepyceros melampus)--are geographically widespread in modern times and are abundant in eastern and southern african plio-pleistocene fossil sites. craniodental measurements of modern conspecifics from known geographic locations are compared using multivariate statistic ...200717915290
the "bear" essentials: actualistic research on ursus arctos arctos in the spanish pyrenees and its implications for paleontology and archaeology.neotaphonomic studies of large carnivores are used to create models in order to explain the formation of terrestrial vertebrate fossil faunas. the research reported here adds to the growing body of knowledge on the taphonomic consequences of large carnivore behavior in temperate habitats and has important implications for paleontology and archaeology. using photo- and videotrap data, we were able to describe the consumption of 17 ungulate carcasses by wild brown bears (ursus arctos arctos) rangi ...201425029167
glycosylation at the fetomaternal interface in hemomonochorial placentae from five widely separated species of mammal: is there evidence for convergent evolution?hemomonochorial placentation occurs in diverse species. we have examined placental glycosylation in five widely separated mammals with this type of placentation--lesser hedgehog tenrec (echinops telfairi), spotted hyena (crocuta crocuta), nine-banded armadillo (dasypus novemcinctus), human (homo sapiens) and guinea pig (cavia porcellus)--in order to assess whether evolutionary convergence to the hemomonochorial state is accompanied by a similar convergence of glycan expression. placentae from 2 ...200717587801
measuring faecal epi-androsterone as an indicator of gonadal activity in spotted hyenas (crocuta crocuta).enzyme immunoassays (eia) that measure faecal testosterone metabolites (ftm) are useful tools to monitor gonadal activity. the aim of this study was to validate an "in-house" epiandrosterone eia to monitor ftm in spotted hyenas. ftm were characterised in a male and a female hyena that each received an injection of 3h-testosterone. high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc) analyses revealed a cluster of highly polar enzyme-hydrolysable hormone metabolite conjugates. we performed hydrolysis us ...201526107516
placental expression and molecular characterization of aromatase cytochrome p450 in the spotted hyena (crocuta crocuta).at birth, the external genitalia of female spotted hyenas (crocuta crocuta) are the most masculinized of any known mammal, but are still sexually differentiated. placental aromatase cytochrome p450 (p450arom) is an important route of androgen metabolism protecting human female fetuses from virilization in utero. therefore, placental p450arom expression was examined in spotted hyenas to determine levels during genital differentiation, and to compare molecular characteristics between the hyena and ...200717198727
transient genital abnormalities in striped hyenas (hyaena hyaena).the highly masculinized genitalia of female spotted hyenas crocuta crocuta is unique among mammals: crocuta have no external vagina so urination, penile intromission and parturition take place through the clitoris, which mimics a fully erectile male penis. among hyenids, virilization of external female genitalia has previously been observed only in crocuta, so functional explanations of masculinization have focused on aspects of social ecology unique to the species. here we first show that the s ...200717442316
divergent sapovirus strains and infection prevalence in wild carnivores in the serengeti ecosystem: a long-term study.the genus sapovirus, in the family caliciviridae, includes enteric viruses of humans and domestic animals. information on sapovirus infection of wildlife is limited and is currently lacking for any free-ranging wildlife species in africa. by screening a large number of predominantly fecal samples (n = 631) obtained from five carnivore species in the serengeti ecosystem, east africa, sapovirus rna was detected in the spotted hyena (crocuta crocuta, family hyaenidae), african lion (panthera leo, f ...201627661997
prevalence and diversity of babesia, hepatozoon, ehrlichia, and bartonella in wild and domestic carnivores from zambia, africa.a molecular survey was conducted for several hemoparasites of domestic dogs and three species of wild carnivores from two sites in zambia. three babesia spp. were detected including babesia felis and babesia leo in lions (panthera leo) and a babesia sp. (similar to babesia lengau) in spotted hyenas (crocuta crocuta) and a single lion. all wild dogs (lycaon pictus) and domestic dogs were negative for babesia. high prevalences for hepatozoon were noted in all three wild carnivores (38-61%) and in ...201424363181
piroplasms in brown hyaenas (parahyaena brunnea) and spotted hyaenas (crocuta crocuta) in namibia and south africa are closely related to babesia lengau.the objective of our study was identification and molecular characterization of piroplasms and rickettsias occurring in brown (parahyaena brunnea) and spotted hyaenas (crocuta crocuta) from various localities in namibia and south africa. whole blood (n = 59) and skin (n = 3) specimens from brown (n = 15) and spotted hyaenas (n = 47) were screened for the presence of babesia, theileria, ehrlichia and anaplasma species using the reverse line blot (rlb) hybridization technique. pcr products of 52/6 ...201727913878
characterization of toll-like receptors 1-10 in spotted hyenas.previous research has shown that spotted hyenas (crocuta crocuta) regularly survive exposure to deadly pathogens such as rabies, canine distemper virus, and anthrax, suggesting that they have robust immune defenses. toll-like receptors (tlrs) recognize conserved molecular patterns and initiate a wide range of innate and adaptive immune responses. tlr genes are evolutionarily conserved, and assessing tlr expression in various tissues can provide insight into overall immunological organization and ...201424488231
the middle pleistocene vertebrate fauna from khok sung (nakhon ratchasima, thailand): biochronological and paleobiogeographical implications.the fluviatile terrace deposits of khok sung, nakhon ratchasima province, have yielded more than one thousand fossils, making this the richest pleistocene vertebrate fauna of thailand. the excellent preservation of the specimens allows precise characterization of the faunal composition. the mammalian fauna consists of fifteen species in thirteen genera, including a primate, a canid, a hyaenid, proboscideans, rhinoceroses, a suid, cervids, and bovids. most species correspond to living taxa but gl ...201627667928
serosurvey for selected viral pathogens among sympatric species of the african large predator guild in northern botswana.the recent increase in the creation of transboundary protected areas and wildlife corridors between them lends importance to information on pathogen prevalence and transmission among wildlife species that will become connected. one such initiative is the kavango zambezi transfrontier conservation area of which botswana's okavango delta constitutes a major contribution for wildlife and ecosystems. between 2008 and 2011, we collected serum samples from 14 lions ( panthera leo ), four leopards ( pa ...201727763827
landscape suitability in botswana for the conservation of its six large african carnivores.wide-ranging large carnivores often range beyond the boundaries of protected areas into human-dominated areas. mapping out potentially suitable habitats on a country-wide scale and identifying areas with potentially high levels of threats to large carnivore survival is necessary to develop national conservation action plans. we used a novel approach to map and identify these areas in botswana for its large carnivore guild consisting of lion (panthera leo), leopard (panthera pardus), spotted hyae ...201424949735
evidence for chlamydia in wild mammals of the serengeti.only limited information is available on the presence of chlamydiaceae in wildlife, a deficit that is particularly acute concerning mammalian wildlife in africa. in a retrospective analysis of organ material from an earlier study on wild mammals from the seregenti national park, 521 samples from 54 animals of 14 mammalian species were investigated. the presence of chlamydiaceae was analyzed using molecular methods and immunohistochemistry. chlamydial dna was detected by real-time polymerase chai ...201223060512
bells, bomas and beefsteak: complex patterns of human-predator conflict at the wildlife-agropastoral interface in zimbabwe.reports of livestock depredation by large predators were systematically collected at three study sites in northwestern zimbabwe from 2008-2013. we recorded 1,527 incidents (2,039 animals killed and 306 injured). lions (panthera leo) and spotted hyaenas (crocuta crocuta) were mostly responsible, and cattle and donkeys most frequently attacked. patterns of predation were variable among study sites. nevertheless, some overall patterns were apparent. predators selected livestock close to the size of ...201728149682
markedly elevated antibody responses in wild versus captive spotted hyenas show that environmental and ecological factors are important modulators of immunity.evolutionary processes have shaped the vertebrate immune system over time, but proximal mechanisms control the onset, duration, and intensity of immune responses. based on testing of the hygiene hypothesis, it is now well known that microbial exposure is important for proper development and regulation of the immune system. however, few studies have examined the differences between wild animals in their natural environments, in which they are typically exposed to a wide array of potential pathoge ...201526444876
chemical characterization of milk oligosaccharides of an african lion (panthera leo) and a clouded leopard (neofelis nebulosa).the carnivora include the superfamilies canoidea and feloidea. in species of canoidea other than the domestic dog, canis lupus, the milk contains only traces of lactose and much larger concentrations of oligosaccharides. in this study, lactose was found to be the dominant saccharide in the milk or colostrum of two species of feloidea, namely the african lion (panthera leo) and the clouded leopard (neofelis nebulosa). in addition to lactose, the following oligosaccharides were characterized in th ...201021108689
a survey for echinococcus spp. of carnivores in six wildlife conservation areas in investigate the presence of echinococcus spp. in wild mammals of kenya, 832 faecal samples from wild carnivores (lions, leopards, spotted hyenas, wild dogs and silver-backed jackals) were collected in six different conservation areas of kenya (meru, nairobi, tsavo west and tsavo east national parks, samburu and maasai mara national reserves). taeniid eggs were found in 120 samples (14.4%). in total, 1160 eggs were isolated and further analysed using rflp-pcr of the nad1 gene and sequencing. 3 ...201424732034
the impact of a pathogenic bacterium on a social carnivore population.1. the long-term ecological impact of pathogens on group-living, large mammal populations is largely unknown. we evaluated the impact of a pathogenic bacterium, streptococcus equi ruminatorum, and other key ecological factors on the dynamics of the spotted hyena crocuta crocuta population in the ngorongoro crater, tanzania. 2. we compared key demographic parameters during two years when external signs of bacterial infection were prevalent ('outbreak') and periods of five years before and after t ...201121631499
tracking the feeding patterns of tsetse flies (glossina genus) by analysis of bloodmeals using mitochondrial cytochromes genes.tsetse flies are notoriously difficult to observe in nature, particularly when populations densities are low. it is therefore difficult to observe them on their hosts in nature; hence their vertebrate species can very often only be determined indirectly by analysis of their gut contents. this knowledge is a critical component of the information on which control tactics can be developed. the objective of this study was to determine the sources of tsetse bloodmeals, hence investigate their feeding ...201121386971
factors influencing dipylidium sp. infection in a free-ranging social carnivore, the spotted hyaena (crocuta crocuta).we provide the first genetic sequence data for a dipylidium species from a wild carnivore plus an analysis of the effects of ecological, demographic, physiological and behavioural factors on dipylidium sp. infection prevalence in a social carnivore, the spotted hyaena (crocuta crocuta), in the serengeti national park, tanzania. our sequence data from a mitochondrial gene fragment (1176 base pair long) had a similarity of between 99% and 89% to dipylidium caninum. we determined infection prevalen ...201324533344
a sylvatic lifecycle of echinococcus equinus in the etosha national park, namibia.various species of echinococcus have been described in the past from wild mammals of sub-saharan africa. however, it is only recently, that a few isolates have become available for molecular identification; therefore, the involvement of wildlife in the lifecycles of the various cryptic species within echinococcus granulosus sensu lato is still only partially known. a preliminary survey was undertaken in etosha national park, namibia, from august to october 2012. faecal samples were obtained from ...201525830103
phylogenetic comparisons implicate sex hormone-binding globulin in "masculinization" of the female spotted hyena (crocuta crocuta).exposures to sex steroids during fetal development are thought to contribute to the unique urogenital anatomy and social dominance of the female spotted hyena: overt phenotypes not shared by other hyenids (i.e. striped hyena, brown hyena, and aardwolf). because both androgens and estrogens influence development of genitalia and behavior, and because plasma shbg regulates their access to tissues, we compared the shbg gene sequences, structures, and steroid-binding properties in the four extant hy ...201222253421
rabies virus and canine distemper virus in wild and domestic carnivores in northern kenya: are domestic dogs the reservoir?rabies virus (rv) and canine distemper virus (cdv) can cause significant mortality in wild carnivore populations, and rv threatens human lives. we investigated serological patterns of exposure to cdv and rv in domestic dogs (canis familiaris), african wild dogs (lycaon pictus), black-backed jackals (canis mesomelas), spotted hyenas (crocuta crocuta), striped hyenas (hyaena hyaena) and african lions (panthera leo), over a 10-year period, in a kenyan rangeland to assess the role domestic dogs may ...201223459924
papillomavirus-associated cutaneous papillomas in a population of wild spotted hyenas (crocuta crocuta).beginning in 1997 michigan state university mara hyena project investigators observed waxing and waning progression of oral and genital masses during long-term behavioral observations of a population of wild spotted hyenas (crocuta crocuta) from the masai mara game reserve, kenya. from 1999-2000, we darted adult spotted hyenas to obtain routine physiologic and hematologic data and collected small, raised, lobulated, pigmented masses from the oral or genital areas of eight animals. microscopicall ...201323778611
morphology of the external genitalia of the adult male and female mice as an endpoint of sex external genitalia (exg) are the endpoints of normal sex differentiation. detailed morphometric analysis and comparison of adult mouse exg has revealed 10 homologous features distinguishing the penis and clitoris that define masculine vs. feminine sex differentiation. these features have enabled the construction of a simple metric to evaluate various intersex conditions in mutant or hormonally manipulated mice. this review focuses on the morphology of the adult mouse penis and clitoris thr ...201121893161
spatial and temporal avoidance of risk within a large carnivore guild.within a large carnivore guild, subordinate competitors (african wild dog, lycaon pictus, and cheetah, acinonyx jubatus) might reduce the limiting effects of dominant competitors (lion, panthera leo, and spotted hyena, crocuta crocuta) by avoiding them in space, in time, or through patterns of prey selection. understanding how these competitors cope with one other can inform strategies for their conservation. we tested how mechanisms of niche partitioning promote coexistence by quantifying patte ...201728070283
in the absence of a "landscape of fear": how lions, hyenas, and cheetahs coexist.aggression by top predators can create a "landscape of fear" in which subordinate predators restrict their activity to low-risk areas or times of day. at large spatial or temporal scales, this can result in the costly loss of access to resources. however, fine-scale reactive avoidance may minimize the risk of aggressive encounters for subordinate predators while maintaining access to resources, thereby providing a mechanism for coexistence. we investigated fine-scale spatiotemporal avoidance in ...201628031805
Development of a hyena immunology toolbox.Animals that hunt and scavenge are often exposed to a broad array of pathogens. Theory predicts the immune systems of animals specialized for scavenging should have been molded by selective pressures associated with surviving microbial assaults from their food. Spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) are capable hunters that have recently descended from carrion feeding ancestors. Hyenas have been documented to survive anthrax and rabies infections, and outbreaks of several other viral diseases that dec ...201122173276
an objective approach to determining the weight ranges of prey preferred by and accessible to the five large african carnivores.broad-scale models describing predator prey preferences serve as useful departure points for understanding predator-prey interactions at finer scales. previous analyses used a subjective approach to identify prey weight preferences of the five large african carnivores, hence their accuracy is questionable. this study uses a segmented model of prey weight versus prey preference to objectively quantify the prey weight preferences of the five large african carnivores. based on simulations of known ...201424988433
risk avoidance in sympatric large carnivores: reactive or predictive?1. risks of predation or interference competition are major factors shaping the distribution of species. an animal's response to risk can either be reactive, to an immediate risk, or predictive, based on preceding risk or past experiences. the manner in which animals respond to risk is key in understanding avoidance, and hence coexistence, between interacting species. 2. we investigated whether cheetahs (acinonyx jubatus), known to be affected by predation and competition by lions (panthera leo) ...201323692142
comparison of the effects of artificial and natural barriers on large african carnivores: implications for interspecific relationships and connectivity.1. physical barriers contribute to habitat fragmentation, influence species distribution and ranging behaviour, and impact long-term population viability. barrier permeability varies among species and can potentially impact the competitive balance within animal communities by differentially affecting co-occurring species. the influence of barriers on the spatial distribution of species within whole communities has nonetheless received little attention. 2. during a 4-year period, we studied the i ...201323402594
determinants of persistence and tolerance of carnivores on namibian ranches: implications for conservation on southern african private lands.changing land use patterns in southern africa have potential to dramatically alter the prospects for carnivore conservation. understanding these influences is essential for conservation planning. we interviewed 250 ranchers in namibia to assess human tolerance towards and the distribution of large carnivores. cheetahs (acinonyx jubatus), leopards (panthera pardus) and brown hyaenas (hyaena brunnea) were widely distributed on namibian farmlands, spotted hyaenas (crocuta crocuta) had a narrower di ...201323326333
predator avoidance, breeding experience and reproductive success in endangered cheetahs, acinonyx jubatus.i examine three hypotheses about predator avoidance behaviour: (1) avoidance increases an individual's reproductive success; (2) avoidance changes with breeding experience according to one of three described models; and (3) any reproductive or experience benefits accrued to individuals by avoidance are reflected in their spatial distribution. these hypotheses were tested on cheetahs which incur substantial juvenile mortality from predation by two larger competitors: spotted hyaenas, crocuta croc ...200010924211
squamous cell carcinoma of the anal sac in a spotted hyena (crocuta crocuta).a 25-yr-old spayed female spotted hyena (crocuta crocuta) developed intermittent right pelvic limb lameness that persisted following conservative medical therapy. no obvious musculoskeletal lesions were noted on initial physical exam; however, spinal radiography was suspicious for possible intervertebral degenerative joint disease or discospondylitis. despite prolonged medical therapy, the lameness progressed to minimal weight bearing and marked muscle atrophy of the right pelvic limb. electromy ...201324450071
ontogenetic relationships between cranium and mandible in coyotes and hyenas.developing animals must resolve the conflicting demands of survival and growth, ensuring that they can function as infants or juveniles while developing toward their adult form. in the case of the mammalian skull, the cranium and mandible must maintain functional integrity to meet the feeding needs of a juvenile even as the relationship between parts must change to meet the demands imposed on adults. we examine growth and development of the cranium and mandible, using a unique ontogenetic series ...201121484852
ecology and demography of free-roaming domestic dogs in rural villages near serengeti national park in dogs (canis lupus familiaris) are of public health and conservation concern because of their potential to transmit diseases, such as rabies, to both people and wildlife. understanding domestic dog population dynamics and how they could potentially be impacted by interventions, such as rabies vaccination, is vital for such disease control efforts. for four years, we measured demographic data on 2,649 free-roaming domestic dogs in four rural villages in tanzania: two villages with and ...201627893866
accuracy of mandibular force profiles for bite force estimation and feeding behavior reconstruction in extant and extinct carnivorans.mandibular force profiles apply the principles of beam theory to identify mandibular biomechanical properties that reflect the bite force and feeding strategies of extant and extinct predators. while this method uses the external dimensions of the mandibular corpus to determine its biomechanical properties, more accurate results could potentially be obtained by quantifying its internal cortical bone distribution. to test this possibility, mandibular force profiles were calculated using both exte ...201627634400
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