[the ferret (putorius putorius furo), an additional final host of sarcocystis muris (author's transl)].two ferrets were fed mice experimentally infected with sarcocystis muris. after 7 days they excreted with their faeces for 9 days sporocysts which were morphologically indistinguishable from s. muris sporocysts. five mice which each received 70 of these sporocysts orally developed macroscopically visible cysts of s. muris in their musculature after 4 months.1979107667
a comparison of the composition and apolipoprotein content of the lipoproteins isolated from human and ferret (mustela putorius furo l.) serum.1. the lipoproteins isolated at densities of less than 1.006, 1.006-1.063 and 1.063-1.21 g/ml from human and ferret (mustela putorius furo l.) serum were compared. 2. ferret very low density lipoprotein contained proportionately less triglyceride and more phospholipid than human. 3. ferret low density lipoprotein contained proportionately more triglyceride and less cholesterol than human. 4. high density lipoprotein was the major lipoprotein in ferret serum. 5. the gel electrophoretic patterns o ...1978318359
the ferret, mustela putorius furo, as a new species in toxicology.comprehensive studies on the haematology, urine chemistry, serum chemistry and gross pathology have been carried out and reported. seasonal weight changes were confirmed and were initiated, together with sexual activity, when ferrets were brought in to a constant temperature (18-19 degrees c) and 14-hour daylight cycle during the winter months. levels of haemoglobin, erythrocytes and haematocrit were higher than in most common laboratory species. similarly, serum electrolytes and glucose levels ...1979480899
anaesthesia of the ranch mink (mustela vison) and ferret (mustela putorius furo). 1979538879
some aspects of the physiology and anatomy of the cardiovascular system of the ferret, mustela putorius furo.the resting heart rate was monitored in 50 urethane-anaesthetized (387 +/- 54 beats/min) and 4 conscious (341 +/- 39 beats/min) ferrets. the arterial blood pressure in the anaesthetized animals was 140/110 +/- 35/31 mmhg. the circulatory responses to vagal stimulation, carotid artery occlusion and a variety of humoral agents were examined. the vagal innervation of the heart and of the distribution of the great vessels are described.1979553192
dirofilaria immitis: experimental infections in the ferret (mustela putorius furo).the ferret, mustela putorius furo, was found to be susceptible to dirofilaria immitis infection when exposed to low (14) or high (280-420) numbers of infective larvae harvested from aedes aegypti. eight ferrets (half of them cortisonized) were inoculated subcutaneously with 14 larvae each. all of them were subsequently found to harbor d. immitis in the heart, and all but one of them had worms of both sexes. six of these ferrets were examined for microfilaremia at 31 to 35 weeks after inoculation ...1978627949
relationship between vomiting and taste aversion learning in the ferret: studies with ionizing radiation, lithium chloride, and amphetamine.the relationship between emesis and taste aversion learning was studied in ferrets (mustela putorius furo) following exposure to ionizing radiation (50-200 cgy) or injection of lithium chloride (1.5-3.0 meq/kg, ip). when 10% sucrose or 0.1% saccharin was used as the conditioned stimulus, neither unconditioned stimulus produced a taste aversion, even when vomiting was produced by the stimulus (experiments 1 and 2). when a canned cat food was used as the conditioned stimulus, lithium chloride, but ...19921333765
hematological and plasma chemical characteristics in beech marten (martes foina).1. the normal values of hematological and clinical-chemical variables in plasma of 21 males and 27 females of beech marten (martes foina) have been illustrated and compared to corresponding normal values in mink (mustela vison) and ferret (mustela putorius). 2. the number of erythrocytes, the hematocrit value, and the hemoglobin concentration were higher in male than in female beech marten. 3. divergences according to age in the investigated variables have been found. 4. the erythrocytes in beec ...19921355036
[the fever reaction of the polecat mustela putorius x mustela putorius furo to a bacterial pyrogen: the hypo- and hyperthermic phases].it has been demonstrated that the ferret (mustela putorius x mustela putorius furo) responds to intramuscular injection of salmonella typhi lipopolysaccharide (30 ng/kg-100 micrograms/kg) by biphasic change in the body temperature (tb): the initial decrease in the latter is followed by hyperthermia. maximum rise in tb (1.6 +/- 0.1 degrees c) was observed after the injection of lipopolysaccharide in the highest dose. rabbit leucocytic pyrogen/interleukin-1 (1 ml from 3.5 x 10(7) peritoneal phagoc ...19921302417
photoperiod modulates pubertal shifts in behavioral responsiveness to testosterone.this study examined the effect of photoperiod on pubertal maturation of steroid-dependent reproductive behaviors in male european ferrets (mustela putorius furo). in the first experiment, levels of neck gripping, mounting, and pelvic thrusting in gonadally intact prepubertal (pre) ferrets were compared with those of adults that had undergone puberty either while housed in short days (8 hr light/16 hr darkness per day; sd), or after transfer from sd to long days (18 hr light/6 hr darkness per day ...19921286204
semen volume and sperm concentration in the ferret (mustela putorius).semen was obtained from 40 of 62 attempted electro-ejaculations of nine anesthetized male ferrets. the ejaculations were performed using a bi-polar rectal electrode and an electrical stimulus of about 4 v and 0.35 ma applied for approximately 4 seconds and repeated at 10-second intervals. the mean number of stimuli required to obtain an ejaculation was 12.3. the spermatozoa concentration per mm3 ranged from 0.07 x 10(6) to 1.98 x 10(6) with a mean of 0.62 x 10(6). the mean number of spermatozoa ...19761018477
effect of electro-ejaculation frequency on semen characteristics in the ferret (mustela putorius). 1977873035
[importance of the fox (vulpes vulpes) in the transmission of sarcosporidiosis from the steinbock (capra ibex) at the gran paradiso national park].sarcosporidiasis is a very common infection of steinbocks (capra ibex) and chamois (rupicapra rupicapra) of gran paradiso national park, italian western alps, frequently with serious cardiac involvement. no dogs or cats are allowed inside the park, to the contrary foxes (vulpes vulpes) are present every where, near steinbocks and chamois, and eat on the bodies of dead animals. feces of vulpes vulpes were collected in the same area, where the infected capra ibex used for the following experiment ...1975823518
experimental infection of domestic ferrets (mustela putorius furo) and siberian polecats (mustela eversmanni) with yersinia pestis.eight domestic ferrets (mustela putorius furo) and two siberian polecats (m. eversmanni) were inoculated subcutaneously with 12 to 1.2 x 10(7) yersinia pestis originally isolated during an epizootic of plague in white-tailed prairie dogs (cynomys leucurus) near meeteetse, park county, wyoming (usa) in 1985. none of the ferrets or polecats developed clinical signs of disease which suggested that black-footed ferrets (m. nigripes), a congener, also would be resistant to plague. all animals receivi ...19911920664
immunocytochemistry of pancreatic endocrine tumors in three domestic ferrets (mustela putorius furo). 19901972304
leptospiral antibodies in wild living animals from north tyrol.the authors examined serologically 623 wild living animals (22 species) from north tyrol for the incidence of leptospirosis. positive reactions (mal) in the titre 1: 100 and more were found in 4.5% of the animals examined; the serotypes concerned were these: icterohaemorrhagiae, sorex-jalna, castellonis or arboreae, grippotyphosa, bratislava, pomona, sejroe, saxkoebing. positive reactions were obtained with the sera of sorex araneus, erinaceus europaeus, putorius putorius, vulpes vulpes, cervus ...1976780229
trial of avermectin b1a, mebendazole and melarsoprol against pre-cardiac dirofilaria immitis in the ferret (mustela putorius furo).avermectin b1a was found active against the pre-cardiac stage of dirofilaria immitis in ferrets. the drug was given orally, at 0.2 mg/kg, on days 38--42 of infection. at necropsy, 5 1/2 months after inoculation, worms were almost totally absent from the hearts of these ferrets. the efficacy of melarsoprol against developing dirofilaria, which has been demonstrated in dogs by other workers, was demonstrated in ferrets given oral doses, at 100 mg/kg, on days 38--42 of infection. the reported effic ...1978739297
luteal control of nidation in the ferret (mustela putorius). 1978667254
growth and development of the european ferret (mustela putorius).body weight, body length, and other developmental parameters were studied in the european ferret, mustela putorius, from birth to 26 weeks of age. males and females did not differ in weight until the seventh week of live, and they did not differ in length until the ninth week of life, when the males began to grow faster. adult males (1400--1500 g) were heavier than adult females (800--900 g), but females reached adult size faster than males.1978633841
importance of free living mustelid carnivores in circulation of adiaspiromycosis.the study of adiaspiromycosis in 8 species of free living mustelid carnivores (266 specimens) revealed the average intensity of infection to be 41.4%. the highest incidence rate was found in the exoanthropic species putorius eversmanni (73.1%) and martes martes (72.2%) while the lowest was observed in the hemisynanthropic species putorius putorius (30.6%). the stone marten (martes foina)) is a new, still unknown reservoir host of c. parvum var. crescens, c. parvum for which putorius eversmanni a ...1977559252
brugia pahangi and dirofilaria immitis: experimental infections in the ferret, mustela putorius furo. 1979446585
immunohistochemical and morphologic features of chordomas in ferrets (mustela putorius furo). 19902402855
experimental infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus infections of english ferrets (mustela putorius furo l).intranasal and intraperitoneal exposure of english ferrets (mustela putorius furo l) to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus caused acute and chronic infections of the respiratory tract. the clinical syndrome was characterized by sneezing, coughing, and anorexia from postexposure days (ped) 3 to 7. mucopurulent exudate was observed in the posterior nares and pharyngeal area of ferrets euthanatized on ped 4 and 8. the virus was readily recovered from the turbinates, respiratory tract epitheliu ...1978211885
attempted experimental cross infections with mammalian guinea-worms, dracunculus spp. (nematoda: dracunculoidea).dracunculus medinensis and d. insignis are morphologically indistinguishable. experiments to test the susceptibility of various mammalian hosts to these two guinea worm species are described. infective 3rd-stage larvae of d. medinensis were administered to each of four raccons (procyon lotor): infective 3rd-stage larvae of d. insignis were administered to a rhesus monkey (macaca mulatta), two dogs, two ferrets (mustela putorius furo), and a marten (martes americana). d. medinensis was not found ...1976134642
instinctive predatory behavior of the ferret (putorius putorius furo l.) modified by chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride (librium).the predatory behavior of ferrets (putorius putorius furo l.) consists mainly of instinctive behavioral patterns that are elicited by simple external stimuli. for the ferret, the time needed to catch and kill rats depends on the size of the rats in relation to that of the ferret. killing success decreases with a relative increase in prey size. chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride injections (1 mg/kg, i.m.) modified this behavior. drugged ferrets needed less time and less bites to kill relatively large ...1978103120
a histomorphologic and immunohistochemical study of chordoma in twenty ferrets (mustela putorius furo).the histomorphologic and immunohistochemical features of chordoma in 20 ferrets were evaluated. the mean age was 3.4 years, and, in the cases for which sex was known, females (n = 10) outnumbered males (n = 5) two to one. all 20 tumors occurred on the tip of the tail. nineteen of 20 tumors (95%) were composed of three tissue components, often arranged concentrically with lobules of physaliferous cells at the periphery, trabecular bone in the center, and cartilage in between. the bone often conta ...19911722924
development of the lateral geniculate nucleus: interactions between retinal afferent, cytoarchitectonic, and glial cell process lamination in ferrets and tree shrews.we have studied the relationship of retinal afferents, glial cell processes, and neuronal cytoarchitectonics in the lateral geniculate nucleus (lgn) of two species: tree shrews (tupaia belangeri) and ferrets (mustela putoris). both species are relatively immature at birth, allowing the development of these features to be studied in the perinatal period. retinal afferents, visualized by intraocular injection of a wheat germ agglutinin/horseradish peroxidase conjugate (wga-hrp), are apparently the ...19901698826
intranasal infection of ferrets (mustela putorius furo) with canine parainfluenza virus.immunocompetent and cyclophosphamide-immunosuppressed ferrets were intranasally infected with canine parainfluenza virus (cpiv) and observed for clinical signs, histopathologic lesions, the immunocytochemical demonstration of cpiv antigen in the respiratory tract and scanning electron microscopic alterations of the tracheal epithelium until 36 days post infection (p.i.). in both groups, clinical signs were minimal, restricted to the upper respiratory tract and consisted of cough elicited by trac ...19911663681
carnivora: the primary structure of the alpha-chains of ferret (mustela putorius furo, mustelidae) hemoglobins.ferret erythrocytes contain two hemoglobins differing only by their alpha-chains. the primary structure of the common beta-chain has been previously described; the complete sequence of the two alpha-chains are reported in this paper. the globin chains were separated by ion-exchange chromatography; the alpha-chains (42 steps), their tryptic peptides as well as the prolyl-peptides were subjected to automatic liquid- and gas-phase edman degradation. the two alpha-chains are very similar, differing ...19892610931
eosinophilic gastroenteritis with splendore-hoeppli material in the ferret (mustela putorius furo).eosinophilic gastroenteritis, focal or diffuse with eosinophilic infiltrations of the stomach or intestine, has been described in human beings, cats, dogs, and horses. in this paper, we describe infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract with eosinophils accompanied by a circulating eosinophilia in six ferrets (mustela putorius furo). clinical signs included chronic weight loss, anorexia, and diarrhea. the small intestines from five ferrets had diffuse infiltrates of eosinophils. this resulted i ...19921557863
malignant lymphoma in ferrets: clinical and pathological findings in 19 cases.the clinical and pathological findings in 19 ferrets (mustela putorius furo) with malignant lymphoma are reviewed. peripubescent ferrets had rapidly progressive stage iv high grade immunoblastic or small non-cleaved cell lymphoma. adult ferrets had stage ii or iv low grade diffuse small lymphocytic (dsl) lymphoma, stage iv high grade small non-cleaved cell lymphoma, or stage iv high grade immunoblastic polymorphous (ibp) lymphoma. three ferrets had concurrent ibp and dsl lymphoma involving diffe ...19921556256
dietary beta-carotene absorption and metabolism in ferrets and rats.the ability of the ferret (mustela putorius furo) to absorb dietary beta-carotene was studied to determine its appropriateness as a laboratory animal model for studies on beta-carotene metabolism. at baseline, the mean serum beta-carotene level in ferrets was 0.6 micrograms/dl and no beta-carotene was present in liver or adipose tissue. after the ferrets were fed 4 or 20 mg of beta-carotene/kg body wt daily for 2 wk, serum levels were 15.3 and 41.5 micrograms/dl, liver values were 0.9 and 4.1 mi ...19892703921
activation of two types of fibres in ferret, mustela putorius furo, cremaster muscle.some contractile, histochemical, morphological and electrophysiological properties of ferret, mustela putorius furo, cremaster muscle have been estimated. histochemical fibre typing revealed the presence of two types of fibres (type i 66.2%, type ii 33.8%). morphometry performed on atpase-stained transverse sections showed that type i was composed of a large amount (40%) of small (less than 1400 microns2) cells. in mammalian ringer two groups of fibres could be recognized on the basis of the val ...19921534331
effect of ovariectomy on blastocyst expansion and survival in ferrets (mustela putorius furo).the initial objective was to investigate whether progesterone alone can support full blastocyst expansion in ferrets ovariectomized on day 5 post coitum (p.c.). by day 11 p.c. blastocysts from control animals had expanded to approximately 2000 microns in diameter, whereas by days 11 or 14 p.c. blastocysts from ovariectomized animals given progesterone had diameters of < 1000 microns. thus, ovarian factors in addition to progesterone are apparently required for normal blastocyst expansion in this ...19921438953
membrane and synaptic properties of developing lateral geniculate nucleus neurons during retinogeniculate axon segregation.during the first postnatal month in the ferret (mustela putorius furo), the projections from the retina to the lateral geniculate nucleus (lgn) become segregated into eye-specific layers and on and off sublayers, a process that is thought to depend in part on neuronal activity. remarkably, virtually nothing is known about the physiological features of lgn neurons during this period. we have recorded intracellularly from 46 a-layer neurons in slices of the ferret lgn between the ages of postnatal ...19921409711
position of growth cones within the retinal nerve fibre layer of fetal ferrets.optic axons are added to the retinal nerve fibre layer of fish along its vitreal border in a chronotopic manner. likewise, the optic tract of all vertebrate species acquires axons preferentially along the superficial surface of the pathway. we have examined the developing retina of fetal ferrets (mustela putorius furo) aged between embryonic day 27 (e27) and e34 to see whether a similar segregation of growth cones is apparent within the mammalian retinal nerve fibre layer. the distributions of g ...19921401254
beta-carotene uptake and tissue distribution in ferrets (mustela putorius furo).ferrets accumulate beta-carotene in liver and adipose tissue after chronic feeding. this study was designed to further evaluate the time course of uptake and depletion of beta-carotene in ferret serum and tissues. male ferrets (n = 15; 1000-1200 g) were given a single dose of beta-carotene (10 mg/kg body wt) with a meal. animals were killed at various time points over an 11-d period. blood and tissue samples were extracted and analyzed for beta-carotene by hplc. peak serum beta-carotene levels ( ...19921729459
quantitative light and scanning electron microscopy of ferret sperm.sperm were obtained via electroejaculation from domestic ferret, (mustela putorius furo), siberian ferret (m. eversmanni), black-footed ferret (m. nigripes), and a hybrid between siberian and domestic, called the fitch ferret (m. sp.). comparisons of sperm were made by four different microscopy techniques to determine whether differences exist among species. first, nomarski differential interference microscopy could be used to distinguish domestic ferret sperm from the others on the basis of the ...19911793602
lung and hearth nematodes in some spanish mammals.thirteen host species belonging to the orders rodentia, insectivora and carnivora from various localities in galicia (nw spain) were examined for heart and lung parasites. the following species were found: parastrongylus dujardini (5.5%) in apodemus sylvaticus, crenosoma striatum in erinaceus europaeus (83%), angiostrongylus vasorum, crenosoma vulpis and eucoleus aerophilus in vulpes vulpes (3, 3.46 and 0.50%, respectively), crenosoma taiga in putorius putorius (100%) and crenosoma sp. in meles ...19911844789
pancreatic adenocarcinoma with osseous metaplasia in a ferret.a poorly differentiated pancreatic adenocarcinoma with regional lymphatic, hepatic, enteric and pulmonary metastases was diagnosed in an adult european ferret (mustela putoris furo). the ferret showed clinical signs including a progressive, marked abdominal enlargement owing to ascites. microscopic findings included intralesional osseous metaplasia. exocrine pancreatic neoplasms in ferrets are rarely reported compared with neoplasms with endocrine differentiation.19911918450
helicobacter mustelae-induced gastritis and elevated gastric ph in the ferret (mustela putorius furo).helicobacter mustelae has been cultured from the stomachs of ferrets with chronic gastritis; the lesions in the stomach have many of the same histological features seen in h. pylori gastritis in humans. to determine whether h. mustelae-negative ferrets with normal gastric mucosa were susceptible to colonization and whether gastritis developed after infection, four h. mustelae-negative ferrets treated with cimetidine were inoculated orally on two successive days with 3 ml (1.5 x 10(8) cfu) of h. ...19912037349
comparative semen cryopreservation in ferrets (mustela putorius furo) and pregnancies after laparoscopic intrauterine insemination with frozen-thawed spermatozoa.a study was conducted to determine an optimum technique for semen cryopreservation and the biological competence of frozen-thawed ferret spermatozoa. fifty-two fresh electroejaculates from 4 males were evaluated for sperm percentage motility, forward progressive motility, motility index (smi) and acrosomal integrity. to determine the optimum temperature for maintaining sperm motility in vitro and the influence of glycerol on sperm motility, seminal aliquants were diluted in test diluent (contain ...19912056481
effects of yohimbine on bradycardia and duration of recumbency in ketamine/xylazine anesthetized ferrets.eleven adult ferrets (mustela putorius furo) were anesthetized with ketamine hydrochloride (25 mg/kg, im) and xylazine hydrochloride (2 mg/kg, im). fifteen minutes post-ketamine/xylazine injection, ferrets were treated with yohimbine hydrochloride at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg, or an equal volume of physiologic saline, intramuscularly. each ferret served as its own control by randomly receiving both treatments with a minimum interval of 2 weeks between treatments on any one ferret. at 15 minutes post-k ...19902157099
detection of canine distemper viral antigen in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue of a fitch (mustela putorius), using an immunoperoxidase technique.the present study describes how a naturally infected fitch (mustela putorius) caused an outbreak of canine distemper in a colony of insufficiently vaccinated dogs. the detection of canine distemper virus (cdv) on paraffin sections of different organs of the fitch and one of the dead dogs was achieved using a monoclonal antibody against the nucleocapsid protein (np) of cdv and the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (abc) technique.19902178907
helicobacter mustelae-associated gastritis in ferrets. an animal model of helicobacter pylori gastritis in humans.gastric helicobacter mustelae was present in 100% of 11 adult female ferrets (mustela putorius furo). the high immunoglobulin g antibody levels to h. mustelae in all ferrets showed a significant immune response to the organism. urease mapping of the ferret stomach indicated that the bacteria heavily colonized the proximal duodenum and antrum and, to a lesser extent, the corpus. the histological gastritis observed coincided with presence of h. mustelae. superficial gastritis was noted in the oxyn ...19902365188
the brain stem localization of vagal preganglionic neurones in the ferret, mustela putorius furo.horseradish peroxidase-wheatgerm agglutinin was injected into the cervical vagus nerve of adult ferrets. efferent fibres coursing in the vagus nerve were shown to originate in the dorsal vagal motor nucleus (dmnx), the nucleus ambiguus (na), a region ventral to the nucleus ambiguus (vna) and the reticular formation between dmnx and na. the distribution of vagal preganglionic neurones in the ferret is compared with data already obtained in similar studies conducted in other mammals.19882456586
a comparison of sperm morphology and silver nitrate staining characteristics in the domestic ferret and the black-footed ferret.ejaculated sperm from the domestic ferret (mustela putorius furo) and the black-footed ferret (mustela nigripes) were compared for differences in morphological abnormalities and argentophilic protein distribution. thawed domestic ferret sperm was also compared to fresh sperm to determine whether there were any effects on cell morphology due to cryopreservation. there were statistically significant differences between the two species of ferret in two of the categories scored. the domestic ferret ...19892465262
sarcocystis sp. in mountain goats (oreamnos americanus) in washington: prevalence and search for the definitive host.during october and november 1986, sarcocystis sp. was detected in 24 of 56 (43%) tongues from hunter-killed mountain goats (oreamnos americanus) in washington (usa). sarcocysts had an unusual sessile polyp-shaped branched wall. mean size of 154 sarcocysts was 71.3 x 37.8 microns (range, 20 to 248 x 10 to 120 microns), and the mean intensity was 2.3 (range, 1 to 28). in an attempt to identify the definitive host, infected tongues were fed to four coyotes (canis latrans), eight domestic dogs, four ...19892509738
serologic response of domestic ferrets (mustela putorius furo) to canine distemper and rabies virus vaccines.nine unrelated 12-week-old naive domestic ferrets (mustela putorius furo) were used to evaluate the serologic responses to commercial canine distemper virus (cdv) and rabies virus (rv) vaccines. five of the ferrets (group 1) were inoculated 3 times at 2-week intervals with a multivalent modified-live virus vaccine of canine cell-line origin, containing cdv and an inactivated rv vaccine. four of the ferrets (group 2) were inoculated once with the multivalent modified-live virus vaccine containing ...19892537273
altered clearance of inhaled 99mtc-pentetate aerosols following exposure to cadmium chloride aerosols in ferrets.the rate of clearance of inhaled 99mtc-pentetate aerosols has been used as an indicator of pulmonary epithelial "permeability" in human and animal studies. in order to evaluate this technique further, groups of eight male ferrets (mustela putorius furo) were given acute exposures to aerosols of cdcl2 or nacl via endotracheal tube. serial evaluations of the thoracic clearance rate of inhaled 99mtc-pentetate aerosols (mmad = 0.6 microns, sigma g = 1.6) were made before exposure and at fixed time p ...19892645118
midline and lateral field sound localization in the ferret (mustela putorius): contribution of the superior olivary complex.1. the ability of ferrets to localize sound in space was determined before and after unilateral or bilateral lesions of the superior olivary complex (soc). lesions were made by pressure injection of kainic acid into the soc through a stereotaxically positioned glass micropipette. the lesions destroyed the cell bodies in the superior olive without disrupting fibers of passage in the trapezoid body or other pathways in the auditory brain stem. the integrity of fibers was demonstrated by protargol ...19921629768
neoplasia in ferrets: eleven cases with a review.records from a veterinary diagnostic laboratory in south florida, u.s.a. were reviewed for cases of neoplasia in pet ferrets. twelve ferret tumours were received over a four-year period; one case, a ferret with lymphocytic leukaemia and multi-organ involvement, had been reported previously. the other eleven tumours were: two chordomas of the tail, two sebaceous adenomas of the skin, a sebaceous epithelioma of the skin, a cutaneous mastocytoma, a malignant fibrous histiocytoma from the eyelid, a ...19892654203
nitrite-cured meats as a source of endogenously and exogenously formed n-nitrosoproline in the ferret.nitrite-cured meat containing 120 mg na15no2/kg was fed to male ferrets (mustela putorius furo). during consumption of the meat, the animals were dosed orally with 0.87 mmol [2-2h]proline. all urine was collected throughout the study and analysed for total n-nitrosoproline (npro) and isotopic enrichment of npro by mass spectrometry. the cured-meat diet increased the urinary excretion of npro 14-fold. isotope analyses indicated that approximately 70% of the npro came from the cured meat, the majo ...19892714715
brainstem auditory evoked response in the ferret (mustela putorius).the effect of click intensity, repetition rate and binaural interaction on the brainstem auditory evoked response (baer) was examined in sixteen pigmented adult male ferrets. potentials were recorded from platinum needle electrodes inserted over the vertex and left and right mastoids. square waves, 100 microseconds in duration, were transduced by earphones enclosed in an assembly designed to fit securely over the ferret's external ear. the baer in the ferret consists of four prominent vertex-pos ...19892753828
the ferret as an animal model in cerebrovascular research.clinical and pathologic observations have suggested analogies between the developing nervous system of ferrets (mustela putorius furo) and those of more traditional animal models employed in stroke research. experimental work has demonstrated advantages of the ferret as a model of visual development. we performed in vivo cerebral angiography and postmortem neurovascular dissection of latex-injected specimens of adult ferrets. the great vessels include a cervical arterial trunk that gives rise to ...19892756540
lymphatic filariasis. brugia malayi infection in the ferret (mustela putorius furo). 19892757121
serum cortisol radioimmunoassay values in the normal ferret and response to acth stimulation and dexamethasone suppression tests.cortisol values were obtained from 39 ferrets, mustela putorius furo, by using a commercial radioimmunoassay. sera from 25 males (18 intact, 7 neutered) and 14 females (7 intact, 7 spayed) were assayed. resting serum cortisol values ranged from 0.13 to 2.70 micrograms/dl for males (mean = 0.93 +/- 0.63 micrograms/dl), and 0.55 to 1.84 micrograms/dl for females (mean = 0.86 +/- 0.29 microgram/dl). the resting cortisol values of both males and females were comparable to those of the cat (1.0 to 3. ...19882846957
variability in milk composition of the domestic ferret (mustela putorius).ferret milk composition was analyzed among individuals, over time, and across teat pairs. females differed in fat, protein, and lactose concentrations. protein and fat concentrations varied over the course of lactation. lactose was the only measured component which differed across teat pairs.19852863046
ammonia levels in the whelping nests of farmed raccoon dogs and polecats.ammonia concentrations were measured in the nests of farmed raccoon dogs (nyctereutes-procyonoides gray, 1834) and polecats (mustela putorius) at weaning time. ammonia levels in the nests of raccoon dogs and polecats varied from 1 to 43 ppm and from 0 to 5 ppm, respectively. in the raccoon dog, with increasing litter size, the ammonia concentrations tended to increase exponentially. in the polecat, no marked relationship between litter size and ammonia levels were found. the results show that no ...19862871979
delayed neurotoxic effects of tri-o-tolyl phosphate in the european ferret.the development of organophosphorus-induced delayed neurotoxicity (opidn) was studied in the european ferret (mustela putorius furo). a single oral or dermal dose of 250, 500, or 1000 mg tri-o-tolyl phosphate (totp)/kg body weight was administered to adult male ferrets. corn oil served as the vehicle in the oral test and 95% ethanol was the vehicle in the dermal test. at 48 h posttreatment, half the animals in each group were killed by cervical dislocation for assessment of whole-brain neuropath ...19892913334
failure of fertilization following abbreviated copulation in the ferret (mustela putorius furo).in the first experiment, copulations in 10 domestic ferrets were interrupted 5 minutes after penetration. ten control females were bred without interruption to the same males. both control and experimental animals were rebred in the same manner to the same males 24 hours later. sperm were present in all postcoital washes. we allowed all females from the first experiment to proceed to their expected date of parturition. all females who had been interrupted during copulation failed to conceive, wh ...19892926363
dracunculus insignis: experimental infection in the ferret, mustela putorius furo.the laboratory study of dracunculiasis has suffered from the lack of a suitable, readily available animal model. we have been able to experimentally infect ferrets. mustela putorius furo, with the north american dracunculid, dracunculus insignis. ferrets were inoculated with 75 to 100 infective larvae and were necropsied 90 to 240 days later. guinea worms were recovered from 10 (56%) of 18 ferrets. a total of 44 worms were recovered, for an average of 4.4 worms per infected ferret. gravid female ...19882973492
hypoglycaemia due to a functional pancreatic islet cell tumour (insulinoma) in a ferret (mustela putorius furo). 19873037763
intracellular free calcium concentration measured with 19f nmr spectroscopy in intact ferret hearts.changes in the intracellular free ca2+ concentration, [ca2+]i, mediate excitation-contraction coupling in the heart and contribute to cellular injury during ischemia and reperfusion. to study these processes directly, we measured [ca2+]i in perfused ferret (mustela putorius furo) hearts using 19f nmr spectroscopy to detect the 5,5'-difluoro derivative of the ca2+ chelator 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-n,n,n',n'-tetraacetic acid (bapta). to load cells, hearts were perfused with the acetoxymethyl ...19873112778
the electrocardiogram of normal ferrets and ferrets with right ventricular hypertrophy.sixty-eight electrocardiograms were recorded on ferrets (mustela putorius furo). these represent 29 normal weanling males, 19 normal adult males and 20 adult males with right ventricular hypertrophy (rvh). analyses of rate, rhythm, axis and total voltage were used to define the normal electrocardiogram (ecg) and to identify changes seen in rvh. the normal ferret has a heart rate of about 300 beats per minute and a mean electrical axis of + 86 degrees +/- 6.6 (sd). a 56% increase in right ventric ...19853160888
hearing in the ferret (mustela putorius): effects of primary auditory cortical lesions on thresholds for pure tone detection.1. pure tone thresholds were determined for five adult male ferrets before and after bilateral ablation of primary auditory cortex. complete audiograms ranging from 0.016 to 48 khz were obtained for two animals. the remaining three animals were tested at five frequencies selected to assess hearing throughout the audible range (0.125, 0.5, 2.0, 8.0, and 32.0 khz). 2. shortly after surgery one animal had elevated thresholds across the entire frequency range with the most pronounced hearing loss ab ...19883171665
controlled cortical impact: a new experimental brain injury model.a new experimental model of mechanical brain injury was produced in the laboratory ferret (mustela putorius furo) using a stroke-constrained pneumatic impactor. cortical impacts were made on vertex to the intact dura mater overlying the cerebral cortex with contact velocities ranging from 2.0 to 4.0 m/sec and with deformations of 2.0 to 5.0 mm. the dwell time of the impact and the stability of the skull during impact were verified with high speed (1000 to 3000 frames/sec) cineradiography. system ...19883193461
electrocardiographic values from clinically normal, anesthetized ferrets (mustela putorius furo).electrocardiograms were recorded from 25 clinically normal male ferrets anesthetized with ketamine and xylazine and from 7 ferrets anesthetized with ketamine alone. ferrets anesthetized with ketamine alone had excessive salivation, open eyes, muscle tremors, muscle twitching, paddling motions, attempts to stand, and an unstable ecg baseline. because ketamine/xylazine combination resulted in induction and good muscle relaxation, the ecg had little interference resulting from muscular movement.19883247910
variation of the ferret skull (mustela putorius furo l.) in relation to stereotaxic landmarks.the ferret skull was investigated to identify reliable extracranial landmarks for stereotaxy. the skulls of 56 ferrets of both sexes were measured in a stereotaxic apparatus. neither body weight nor an index of skull length proved to be reliable predictors of intracranial location. sutures fused too early in life for lambda and bregma to be useful as landmarks in adult ferrets. the position of extracranial features was used to predict the position of intracranial features. for rostral intracrani ...19873328744
strongyloides stercoralis infection in the ferret.the ferret (mustela putorius furo) was evaluated as an animal model for infection with human strains of strongyloides stercoralis. results indicate that such infections can be easily and reproducibly accomplished.19883357099
primary auditory cortex in the ferret (mustela putorius): neural response properties and topographic organization.microelectrode recording studies were made of the crown of the ectosylvian auditory cortex of barbiturate-anesthetized ferrets, using calibrated, sealed acoustic stimulus delivery systems. we confirmed our previous finding using free-field stimuli that this region of the ferret's cerebral cortex contains a tonotopically organized field in which neurons are briskly excited by the onset of tonal stimuli. the vast majority of neurons in this field were narrowly tuned to tone pulse frequency, with q ...19883359271
characterization of radiation-induced emesis in the ferret.forty-eight ferrets (mustela putorius furo) were individually head-shielded and radiated with bilateral 60co gamma radiation at 100 cgy min-1 at doses ranging between 49 and 601 cgy. the emetic threshold was observed at 69 cgy, the ed50 was calculated at 77 cgy, and 100% incidence of emesis occurred at 201 cgy. with increasing doses of radiation, the latency to first emesis after radiation decreased dramatically, whereas the duration of the prodromal period increased. two other sets of experimen ...19883375446
pedal sarcoptes scabiei infestation in ferrets (mustela putorius furo). 19873426474
spontaneous plasma cell myeloma in a ferret (mustela putorius furo). 19854049681
contribution of auditory cortex to sound localization by the ferret (mustela putorius).ferrets were tested in a semicircular apparatus to determine the effects of auditory cortical lesions on their ability to localize sounds in space. they were trained to initiate trials while facing forward in the apparatus, and sounds were presented from one of two loudspeakers located in the horizontal plane. minimum audible angles were obtained for three different positions, viz., the left hemifield, with loudspeakers centered around -60 degrees azimuth; the right hemifield, with loudspeakers ...19873598629
isolation of an atypical rotavirus causing diarrhea in neonatal ferrets.a rotavirus was isolated from neonatal ferrets (mustela putorius furo) with diarrhea at a large commercial farm. this virus is classified as an atypical rotavirus, probably belonging to the group c rotaviruses. this classification is based on the lack of the rotavirus group a common antigen and on its distinct dsrna electropherotype pattern in polyacrylamide gels. the diarrheal disease was reproduced experimentally in neonatal ferrets.19873599884
observations on the aetiology of supernumerary upper incisors in the albino ferret (mustela putorius). 19734516059
tooth development in the albino ferret (mustela putorius) with special reference to the permanent carnassial. 19734516060
deaths in ferrets (mustela putorius) due to clostridium botulinum type c. 19734594379
olfactory sign stimulus for prey selection in polecats (putorius putorius l.). 19734785202
chondrosarcoma of the tail of ferrets (mustela putorius furo). 19873603966
reproductive state and motor activity in female ferrets.the pattern of motor activity in female ferrets (mustela putorius furo) housed in cages mounted upon rocker platforms was followed under conditions of short-(8 hr) and long-(16 hr) day illumination. a distinct diurnal rhythm was evident that remained unchanged after lesioning of the anterior hypothalamus. the level of activity did not differ between animals kept under short days and long days, between anoestrous and oestrous females, or during the development or waning of oestrus. ovariectomy di ...19873671541
thermoregulation of polecat and raccoon dog: a comparative study with stoat, mink and blue fox.1. oxygen consumption (ml x kg0.75 per min) in relation to ambient temperature (ta) in the raccoon dog (nyctereutes procyonoides), polecat (mustela putorius), mink (mustela vison) and stoat (mustela erminea) is described by equations y = 14.2 - 0.23x, y = 26.3 - 0.47x, y = 26.9 - 0.33x and y = 39.0 - 1.06x, respectively. resting metabolic rate (rmr) of blue fox (alopex lagopus) could be measured only at thermoneutrality. 2. in polecats, calorigenic response to noradrenaline was about 40% above t ...19836131765
representation of the cochlea in primary auditory cortex of the ferret (mustela putorius).in seven barbiturate-anesthetized ferrets, we explored the acoustically sensitive cortex with conventional microelectrode mapping techniques. a tonotopically organized field was found whose orientation was such that high tonal frequencies were represented dorsally, and low frequencies ventrally. within this field, neurons typically had short (12-20 ms) latent periods to first spikes. in conjunction with extant anatomical evidence on the connectivity of this region, these data suggest that this f ...19863771373
basal n-nitrosoproline formation and excretion in the ferret.quantitative balance studies indicated that ferrets (mustela putorius furo) on purified diets excreted approximately four times more n-nitrosoproline than they ingested. this basal n-nitrosoproline excretion was not dependent on dietary nitrate intake, as high levels of dietary [15n]nitrate did not result in the incorporation of 15n into the excreted n-nitrosoproline. this indicates that there are at least two sources of endogenous n-nitrosoproline formation, one linked to dietary nitrate and on ...19863781434
hearing in the ferret (mustela putorius): thresholds for pure tone detection.thresholds for pure tone detection were determined for two male ferrets (mustela putorius) using standard behavioral testing procedures. both animals had a broad range of hearing comparable to that seen in other carnivores. the lower limit of hearing at 60 db spl was estimated from the average audiogram to be 36 hz, and the upper limit of hearing was 44 khz. the lowest thresholds were found in the region of 8-12 khz with both animals exhibiting sharp tuning at best frequency.19863793642
[parasitism of mustelidae by skrjabingylus petrovi: first report in western europe].a study of the sinuses parasites was carried out on 206 skulls of small mustelidae: mustela putorius (52), m. nivalis (17), m. erminea (13), martes foina (102), and m. martes (11) from eastern france. besides troglotrema acutum two skrjabingylus species (s. nasicola and and s. petrovi) were observed and s. petrovi described for the first time in france.19863813436
suppression of maturation of dirofilaria immitis in mustela putorius furo by single dose of ivermectin. 19806893467
transductal fluxes of water and monovalent ions in ferret salivary glands.the net transductal fluxes of water and monovalent ions were measured in the parotid and submandibular salivary glands of the ferret, mustela putorius furo, during stimulation of secretion with pilocarpine. the duct systems of these glands were found to be impermeable to water using the split-oil droplet method for stationary microperfusion of lobular and main ducts. the net transductal fluxes of na+, k+, cl-, and hco3- were characterized by analysis of ductal fluid samples obtained simultaneous ...19816934197
gastric nitrite processing in the surgically altered maximal and minimal bile reflux ferret model.ingested nitrate and nitrite have been shown to contribute to endogenous, n-nitroso compound formation in man and experimental animals. n-nitroso compounds have long been suspected of contributing to higher levels of gastric cancer in various populations. reconstructive gastric surgery to treat ulcers is accompanied by a change in bile reflux, gastritis and an increased incidence of gastric cancer in humans. to evaluate possible connections between gastric nitrite processing, reconstructive surg ...19902311183
microradiography, light and electron microscopy of the effects of calcium phosphate solutions on dentine and pulp of the ferret (mustela putorius furo). 19816950707
experimental trichinella spiralis infection in the ferret, mustela putorius furo.laboratory ferrets (mustela putorius furo) were each inoculated with 500 larvae of a strain of trichinella spiralis that had been passaged in mice for many generations. the recovery of adult worms from ferrets on days 4 and 7 of infection represented a mean of 32% of the inoculum, with most of the worms being in the anterior three quarters of the small intestine. larvae subsequently became encysted in the ferret musculature, with the diaphragm alone yielding as many as 5,750 larvae upon digestio ...19827069183
antibody titers in domestic ferret jills and their kits to canine distemper virus vaccine.antibody titers were measured in domestic or european ferret (mustela putorius furo) jills vaccinated with modified-live canine distemper virus (cdv) vaccine and in their kits. the half-life of maternal antibody to cdv in ferrets was 9.43 days. ferret kits should be vaccinated against cdv at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age.19883182383
serum thyroxine and triiodothyronine radioimmunoassay values in the normal ferret.the european ferret, mustela putorius furo, has become increasingly popular as an animal model in biomedical research. however, certain important normal clinical data have not been established for the ferret. in this study, serum thyroxine (t4) and 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (t3) values were obtained from ferrets by the use of commercial radioimmunoassays. sera from 44 animals, 31 males (27 intact and 4 castrated) and 13 females (10 intact and 3 spayed) were assayed. serum t4 values ranged from 1.0 ...19883184856
hormonal induction of oestrus and pregnancy in anoestrous ferrets (mustela putorius furo).three doses of fsh were tested for their ability to induce oestrus in ferrets. a dose of 0.25 mg, administered twice daily, induced oestrus and breeding in most females within 6-13 days. addition of 5 i.u. hcg during the final stages of follicular development enhanced the percentage of females with implantation sites (85%), and 23% of the ferrets so treated gave birth to kits, none of which survived for more than 3 days. this may have been due to insufficient prolactin secretion and thus inadequ ...19892502620
use of ferrets in studies of the visual system.the ferret (mustela putorius furo) is proving to be an excellent experimental animal for many anatomical and physiological studies of the adult and developing visual system. as a result, the amount of data available on the ferret's visual system is increasing at a rapid rate. the purposes of this paper are to briefly review some of those data and to present some of the reasons why the ferret is an appropriate choice as an experimental animal for visual system studies.19853894786
electrophoretic variation in large mammals. ii. the red fox, vulpes vulpes, the stoat, mustela erminea, the weasel, mustela nivalis, the pole cat, mustela putorius, the pine marten, martes martes, the beech marten, martes foina, and the badger, meles meles. 19827107306
size distribution of ferret luteal cells during pregnancy.steroidogenic cells in the corpus luteum of the ferret (mustela putorius) during early (days 6 and 13) to midpregnancy (day 24) were characterized using electron microscopy, immunocytochemical localization of neurophysin, and smears of dispersed cells obtained by dissociating luteal cells with collagenase. the latter were stained for 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3 beta-hsd) activity, and the diameters of the cells were determined with an ocular micrometer. very small cells (less than 12 ...19883219387
lethal occlusion of the gastrointestinal tract in two ferrets (mustela putorius furo l.) due to aberrant voracity. 19827148178
heterologous anti-progesterone monoclonal antibody arrests early embryonic development and implantation in the ferret (mustela putorius).early embryo development and implantation were arrested in ferrets passively immunized with a mouse monoclonal anti-progesterone antibody injected intraperitoneally at 72 and 96 h post coitum (p.c.) or at 72 h p.c. only. in control ferrets injected with mouse serum or 0.9% nacl, implantation sites were found in all mated females; autopsies were carried out at day 14 p.c. a total of 34 unimplanted embryos were recovered from the reproductive tract of antibody-treated ferrets and none of these had ...19863944809
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