experimental infection of putorius eversmanni polecats and martes foina martens with tahyna virus.three putorius eversmanni pole-cats and two martes foina martens aged about 9 months were subcutaneously infected with about 260 suckling mouse ld50 of the extraneurally passaged "236" strain of tahyna virus (california group, genus bunyavirus). viraemia with maximal titres of 1.32 (pole-cats) and 1.28 (martens) dex intraperitoneal (i.p.) mouse ld50/0.02 ml was demonstrated from 48 to 96 hr after inoculation (p.i.). by the plaque-reduction neutralization test, seroconversion was demonstrated 15 ...197835949
importance of free living mustelid carnivores in circulation of adiaspiromycosis.the study of adiaspiromycosis in 8 species of free living mustelid carnivores (266 specimens) revealed the average intensity of infection to be 41.4%. the highest incidence rate was found in the exoanthropic species putorius eversmanni (73.1%) and martes martes (72.2%) while the lowest was observed in the hemisynanthropic species putorius putorius (30.6%). the stone marten (martes foina)) is a new, still unknown reservoir host of c. parvum var. crescens, c. parvum for which putorius eversmanni a ...1977559252
hematological and plasma chemical characteristics in beech marten (martes foina).1. the normal values of hematological and clinical-chemical variables in plasma of 21 males and 27 females of beech marten (martes foina) have been illustrated and compared to corresponding normal values in mink (mustela vison) and ferret (mustela putorius). 2. the number of erythrocytes, the hematocrit value, and the hemoglobin concentration were higher in male than in female beech marten. 3. divergences according to age in the investigated variables have been found. 4. the erythrocytes in beec ...19921355036
feeding ecology of the stone and pine marten revealed by element analysis of their skeletons.feeding habits of free-ranging martens (martes martes and martes foina) are evaluated by means of trace element and stable carbon isotope analyses of their skeletons. this investigation was carried out as an inter-disciplinary project of both wildlife biology and physical anthropology. as a result, data are obtained on the feeding ecology of the two species; in addition, a baseline is provided for dietary reconstruction of past human populations. both species of martens are omnivorous feeders, m ...19902305240
carnivora: the primary structure of the beach marten (martes foina, mustelidae) hemoglobin.the primary structures of alpha- and beta-chains from the hemoglobin of the beach marten (martes foina, carnivora) are presented. the globin chains were separated on cm-cellulose in 8m urea buffer. the amino-acid sequences were established by automatic liquid- and gas-phase edman degradation of the intact chains and the tryptic peptides from oxidized chains. comparison of the sequences with human hemoglobin shows 21 exchanges in the alpha- and 12 in the beta-chains. the differences concerning he ...19902390216
secondary poisoning hazards in stone martens (martes foina) fed bromadiolone-poisoned mice.stone martens (martes foina) are particularly exposed to secondary poisoning by feeding on anti-coagulant-loaded rats and mice in premises. this study indicates that the risk can be considered relatively small as up to 31 bromadiolone-loaded mice were consumed during four days by a single stone marten without symptoms of poisoning.19863774526
[parasitism of mustelidae by skrjabingylus petrovi: first report in western europe].a study of the sinuses parasites was carried out on 206 skulls of small mustelidae: mustela putorius (52), m. nivalis (17), m. erminea (13), martes foina (102), and m. martes (11) from eastern france. besides troglotrema acutum two skrjabingylus species (s. nasicola and and s. petrovi) were observed and s. petrovi described for the first time in france.19863813436
[distemper in stone martens (martes foina, erxl.) in schleswig-holstein. a contribution to the epidemiology of distemper]. 19853891298
[distemper encephalitis in stone martens (martes foina erxleben 1777) in switzerland]. 19836685341
the intestinal helminths of the red fox and some other carnivores in southwest south-west germany between 1975 and 1980, 3,573 red foxes (vulpes vulpes), 84 badgers (meles meles), 47 stone martens (martes foina), and 387 cats (felis catus) were examined for intestinal helminths. in foxes the extent of infections was: taenia crassiceps 24%, t. polyacantha 8%, t. taeniaeformis 0.6%, t. serialis 0.5%, mesocestoides leptothylacus 20%, mesocestoides sp. 0.2%, toxocara canis 32%, toxascaris leonina 3%, uncinaria stenocephala 26%. one to three foxes harboured t. hydatigena, t. ...19827072323
electrophoretic variation in large mammals. ii. the red fox, vulpes vulpes, the stoat, mustela erminea, the weasel, mustela nivalis, the pole cat, mustela putorius, the pine marten, martes martes, the beech marten, martes foina, and the badger, meles meles. 19827107306
isolation of pathogenic yersiniae from wild animals in bulgaria.pathogenic yersinia strains were isolated between december 1998 and april 1999 from 37 wild animals: rabbit (lepus europeus), boar (sus scrofa scrofa), asiatic jackal (canis aureus), red fox (vulpes vulpes), mouflon (ovis musimon), european river otter (lutra lutra), beech marten (martes foina), polecat (musleta putorius) and wild cat (felis silvestris). it was established that among the wild animals y. enterocolitica strains of serotype 0:3 predominated, accompanied by y. pseudotuberculosis str ...200111393816
echinococcus multilocularis in carnivores from the klatovy district of the czech republic.a unique human case of alveolar echinococcosis was described in 1979 from the klatovy district of the czech republic. however, there were no previous epidemiological studies in this area focusing on detection of the source of infection--echinococcus multilocularis adults producing eggs. during the period june 1997 to april 1999, 29 out of a total of 46 (63.3%) red foxes (vulpes vulpes) in the klatovy district and one of four foxes (25.0%) in the pilsen south district were found to be infected wi ...200111345074
cryptosporidium infection in beech martens (martes foina).temporary episodes of diarrhea in captive beech martens (martes foina) were accompanied by shedding of cryptosporidium oocysts. oocysts were detected in fecal samples by flotation and in acid-fast-stained smear preparations. the oocysts were 3-5 microns, which is consistent with c. parvum. the source of the cryptosporidium infection remained unknown. this is the first demonstration of cryptosporidium in beech martens.199910572868
the genome phylogeny of domestic cat, red panda and five mustelid species revealed by comparative chromosome painting and g-banding.genome-wide homology maps among stone marten (martes foina, 2n = 38), domestic cat (felis catus, 2n = 38), american mink (mustela vison, 2n = 30), yellow-throated marten (martes flavigula, 2n = 40), old world badger (meles meles, 2n = 44), ferret badger (melogale moschata, 2n = 38) and red panda (ailurus fulgens, 2n = 36) have been established by cross-species chromosome painting with a complete set of stone marten probes. in total, 18 stone marten autosomal probes reveal 20, 19, 21, 18 and 21 p ...200212067210
red fox (vulpes vulpes) cannibalistic behaviour and the prevalence of trichinella britovi in nw italian habits of the red fox (vulpes vulpes) were studied in the aosta valley region (nw italian alps) and were related to the prevalence of trichinella infection in the red fox itself and in two mustelid species (the stone marten (martes foina) and the badger (meles meles)). the search of trichinella by the automatic digestion of muscles samples led us to determine a prevalence of 3.5+/-1.2% in red foxes, 7.9+/-4.3% in stone martens and 1.9+/-1.8% in badgers, with no significant differences among ...200516151732
spill-over of european bat lyssavirus type 1 into a stone marten (martes foina) in germany.european bat lyssavirus type 1 (eblv-1, genotype 5) is known to endemically circulate in insectivorous bat populations in germany. in august 2001, a rabies suspect stone marten (martes foina) was found in the city of burg (saxony-anhalt, germany) and was sent to the regional veterinary laboratory for routine rabies diagnosis. whereas brain samples repeatedly tested negative in the fluorescent antibody test for classical rabies virus (genotype 1), the mouse inoculation test and the rabies tissue ...200415030600
antibodies to aleutian mink disease parvovirus in free-ranging european mink (mustela lutreola) and other small carnivores from southwestern france.owing to the rapid decline of the european mink (mustela lutreola) in france, a national conservation action plan has been initiated, in which scientific research to improve understanding of the causes of the decline is one of the primary objectives. in order to investigate the possible role of aleutian disease parvovirus (adv) in decline of the species, a serologic survey was conducted from march 1996 to march 2002 in 420 free-ranging individuals of six species of small carnivores distributed i ...200415465705
epizootiologic investigations of parvovirus infections in free-ranging carnivores from assess if wild carnivores in germany play a role in the epizootiology of canine parvovirus (cpv) infection, seroprevalences against cpv in free-ranging carnivores (n=1,496) from selected urban and rural areas were compared. antibodies against cpv were found in sera from red foxes (vulpes vulpes; 136 of 1,442; 9%), raccoon dogs (nyctereutes procyonides; two of 33; 6%), stone martens (martes foina; four of 13; 31%), and pine martens (martes martes; one of two) using the hemagglutination-inhibit ...200515827228
organochlorine and heavy-metal contaminants in wild mammals and birds of urbino-pesaro province, italy: an analytic overview for potential bioindicators.tissue samples from 56 bird and 11 mammal species of different trophic levels, collected from 1994 to 1995 from the urbino-pesaro area in the marche region of central italy, were analyzed for the presence of organochlorine compounds (polychlorinated biphenyls and p,p'-dde) and heavy metals (pb, cd, cr, and hg). results revealed interspecies differences in pollutant residue concentrations. a clear relationship between contaminant and trophic levels emerged depending on several factors specific to ...200616418892
filaria martis gmelin 1790 (spirurida, filariidae) affecting beech marten (martes foina): morphological description and molecular characterisation of the cytochrome oxidase c subunit i.filaria martis causes a poorly known subcutaneous filariosis in mustelids. few information is available about lesions that f. martis causes in beech martens, on its morphology, biology and the occurrence of the infection. from 1997 to 2006, 29 beech martens from two sites of southern italy (sites a and b) have been necropsied. ectoparasites and nematodes were collected and morphologically identified. a variable region of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) of f. martis has been characteris ...200717484072
distribution of lesions and antigen of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus a/swan/germany/r65/06 (h5n1) in domestic cats after presumptive infection by wild early 2006, the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (hpaiv) h5n1 of the asian lineage caused the death of wild aquatic birds in northern germany. in the mainly affected areas, a trans-species transmission of hpaiv h5n1 to mammals occurred between birds and domestic cats and 1 stone marten (martes foina), respectively. here, we report lesions and distribution of influenza virus antigen in 3 cats infected naturally with hpaiv h5n1 a/swan/germany/r65/06. the hemagglutinin partial nucleotide ...200717491066
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild carnivores from spain.serum samples from 282 wild carnivores from different regions of spain were tested for antibodies to toxoplasma gondii by the modified agglutination test using a cut-off value of 1:25. antibodies to t. gondii were found in 22 of 27 (81.5%) of iberian lynx (lynx pardinus), 3 of 6 european wildcats (felis silvestris), 66 of 102 (64.7%) red foxes (vulpes vulpes), 15 of 32 (46.9%) wolves (canis lupus), 26 of 37 (70.3%) eurasian badgers (meles meles), 17 of 20 (85.0%) stone martens (martes foina), 4 ...200717689869
phylogenetic analyses of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus isolates from germany in 2006 and 2007 suggest at least three separate introductions of h5n1 spring 2006, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (hpaiv) of subtype h5n1 was detected in germany in 343 dead wild birds, as well as in a black swan (cygnus atratus) kept in a zoo, three stray cats, one stone marten (martes foina), and in a single turkey farm. in 2007 (june-july) the virus reoccurred in 96 wild birds at six geographically separate locations in the southeast of germany. in addition, a backyard mixed duck and goose holding was affected. real-time rt-pcr [hoffmann, b., harder ...200818031958
from aquatic to terrestrial food webs: decrease of the docosahexaenoic acid/linoleic acid ratio.fatty acid composition of the adipose tissue of six carnivorous mammalian species (european otter lutra lutra, american mink mustela vison, european mink mustela lutreola, european polecat mustela putorius, stone marten martes foina and european wild cat felis silvestris) was studied. these species forage to differing degrees in aquatic and terrestrial food webs. fatty acid analysis revealed significant differences in polyunsaturated fatty acid composition between species. more specifically, our ...200818335265
encephalitis in a stone marten (martes foina) after natural infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype h5n1.recent outbreaks of disease in different avian species, caused by the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (hpaiv), have involved infection by subtype h5n1 of the virus. this virus has also crossed species barriers and infected felines and humans. here, we report the natural infection of a stone marten (martes foina) from an area with numerous confirmed cases of h5n1 hpaiv infection in wild birds. histopathological examination of tissues from this animal revealed a diffuse nonsuppurative pane ...200717689552
neospora caninum antibodies in wild carnivores from spain.serum samples from 251 wild carnivores from different regions of spain were tested for antibodies to neospora caninum by the commercial competitive screening enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (c-elisa) and confirmed by neospora agglutination test (nat) and/or by indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat). samples with antibodies detected by at least two serological tests were considered seropositive. antibodies to n. caninum were found in 3.2% of 95 red foxes (vulpes vulpes); in 21.4% of 28 wolve ...200818556128
serologic survey for selected viral pathogens in free-ranging endangered european mink (mustela lutreola) and other mustelids from south-western investigate the possible role of selected pathogens in the decline of endangered european mink (mustela lutreola) populations and the potential for these pathogens to affect mink survival, a serologic survey was conducted using serum samples collected from march 1996 to march 2003 in eight departments of south-western france. in total, 481 free-ranging individuals of five mustelid species (including the european mink) were tested. sympatric mustelids can serve as sentinels to determine the pr ...200818957635
chromosome painting shows that skunks (mephitidae, carnivora) have highly rearranged karyotypes.the karyotypic relationships of skunks (mephitidae) with other major clades of carnivores are not yet established. here, multi-directional chromosome painting was used to reveal the karyological relationships among skunks and between mephitidae (skunks) and procyonidae (raccoons). representative species from three genera of mephitidae (mephitis mephitis, 2n = 50; mephitis macroura, 2n = 50; conepatus leuconotus, 2n = 46; spilogale gracilis, 2n = 60) and one species of procyonidae (procyon lotor, ...200819051045
serologic survey for canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus in free-ranging wild carnivores from portugal.a serologic survey for canine distemper virus (cdv) and canine parvovirus (cpv) was performed on serum and lung extract from an opportunistic sample of 120 free-ranging wild carnivores (13 species) from portugal, collected from 1995 to 2006. antibodies to cdv were detected in wolf (canis lupus; 3/27) and red fox (vulpes vulpes; 2/22). antibodies to cpv were detected in wolf (9/28), red fox (2/14), wildcat (felis silvestris;1/8), genet (genetta genetta; 17/18), and stone marten (martes foina; 3/1 ...200919204354
thelazia callipaeda (spirurida, thelaziidae) in wild animals: report of new host species and ecological implications.thelazia callipaeda infects the eyes of carnivores and humans in far eastern asiatic and european countries. studies have demonstrated the occurrence of t. callipaeda in foxes from areas where canine thelaziosis is endemic. however, there is little information on the role of wild carnivores as hosts of this nematode. from may 2003 to may 2009, a total of 130 carcasses of red foxes (vulpes vulpes; n=75), wolves (canis lupus; n=2), beech martens (martes foina; n=22), brown hares (lepus europaeus; ...200919782474
importance of canine distemper virus (cdv) infection in free-ranging iberian lynxes (lynx pardinus).canine distemper virus (cdv) is a morbillivirus that is the etiological agent of one of the most important viral diseases affecting canids and an expanding range of other carnivores. using real-time rt-pcr, cdv rna was detected in organs of an iberian lynx (lynx pardinus) found dead in the doñana national park, southwestern andalusia, spain. this finding may be of great importance for the conservation of the species; at present the iberian lynx is the most critically endangered wild felid. the a ...201020570061
leptospirosis in free-ranging endangered european mink (mustela lutreola) and other small carnivores (mustelidae, viverridae) from southwestern study the possible role of disease in the decline of endangered european mink (mustela lutreola), we conducted a survey of antibody prevalence and renal carriage of pathogenic leptospira (leptospira interrogans sensu lato) using serum and kidney samples collected from 1990 to 2007 from several free-ranging small carnivores and farmed american mink (mustela vison) in southwestern france. an indirect microscopic agglutination test using a panel of 16 serovars belonging to 6 serogroups (australi ...201020966265
molecular detection of hemoprotozoa and rickettsia species in arthropods collected from wild animals in the burgos province, information on the presence of bacterial and hematozoan infections in parasitic arthropods from spain is available. in an attempt to address this issue, the prevalence of theileria, babesia, hepatozoon, and rickettsia species was investigated by polymerase chain reaction plus sequencing. in a survey for zoonotic pathogens in ectoparasites, 42 wild animals (which included rodents, carnivores, sciuridae, and cervidae) were captured in burgos (spain). a total of 256 arthropods (including 10 ...201020055580
angiostrongylus species in wild carnivores in the iberian peninsula.a survey of angiostrongylus parasites was carried out between 2003 and 2006 in wild carnivore species in the basque country (northern spain). parasitological examination consisted in the dissection of heart and lungs for the extraction of adult worms. nematodes were identified using morphometrical features and also pcr amplification and sequencing analysis. the animal species included in this study were eurasian badger (meles meles), weasel (mustela nivalis), beech marten (martes foina), pine ma ...201020728995
phylogenetic analysis of austrian canine distemper virus strains from clinical samples from dogs and wild carnivores.austrian field cases of canine distemper (14 dogs, one badger [meles meles] and one stone marten [martes foina]) from 2002 to 2007 were investigated and the case histories were summarised briefly. phylogenetic analysis of fusion (f) and haemagglutinin (h) gene sequences revealed different canine distemper virus (cdv) lineages circulating in austria. the majority of cdv strains detected from 2002 to 2004 were well embedded in the european lineage. one austrian canine sample detected in 2003, with ...201121498265
a real-time multiplex-nested pcr system for coprological diagnosis of echinococcus multilocularis and host species.a hybridization probe-based real-time multiplex-nested pcr system was developed for the simultaneous detection of echinococcus multilocularis and host species directly from faecal samples. species identification was determined by melting curve analysis. specificity was assessed by using dna extracted from various cestodes (e. multilocularis, echinococcus granulosus (g1), echinococcus ortleppi, echinococcus canadensis (g6, g7), taenia crassiceps, taenia hydatigena, taenia mustelae, taenia pisifor ...201121327991
massive infestation with fur mites (lynxacarus mustelae) of a stone marten (martes foina) from tyrol.a massive infestation with lynxacarus mustelae (megnin, 1885) (acari, astigmata, listrophoridae) was diagnosed in a stone marten (martes foina) from tyrol, austria. in addition, ixodes rugicollis and trichodectes retusus are reported for the first time in austria, and the five species of helminths found (capillaria aerophila, c. mustelorum, c. paranalis, c. plica, molineus patens) are first records in the stone marten in the country.201121739201
diet composition and feeding strategies of the stone marten (martes foina) in a typical mediterranean ecosystem.stone martens (martes foina) are documented as generalist throughout their distributional range whose diet composition is affected by food availability. we tested if this occurs and what feeding strategies it follows in a typical mediterranean ecosystem in central greece by analysing contents from 106 stomachs, seasonally collected from three different habitats during 2003-2006. seasonal variation in diet and feeding strategies was evident and linked to seasonal nutritional requirements, but pos ...201222619607
assessing genetic structure in common but ecologically distinct carnivores: the stone marten and red fox.the identification of populations and spatial genetic patterns is important for ecological and conservation research, and spatially explicit individual-based methods have been recognised as powerful tools in this context. mammalian carnivores are intrinsically vulnerable to habitat fragmentation but not much is known about the genetic consequences of fragmentation in common species. stone martens (martes foina) and red foxes (vulpes vulpes) share a widespread palearctic distribution and are cons ...201626727497
chromosomal rearrangements and karyotype evolution in carnivores revealed by chromosome painting.chromosomal evolution in carnivores has been revisited extensively using cross-species chromosome painting. painting probes derived from flow-sorted chromosomes of the domestic dog, which has one of the most rearranged karyotypes in mammals and the highest dipoid number (2n=78) in carnivores, are a powerful tool in detecting both evolutionary intra- and inter-chromosomal rearrangements. however, only a few comparative maps have been established between dog and other non-canidae species. here, we ...201222086079
molecular detection of vector-borne pathogens in wild and domestic carnivores and their ticks at the human-wildlife interface.urbanization of natural areas is considered one of the causes of the current apparent emergence of infectious diseases. carnivores are among the species that adapt well to urban and periurban environments, facilitating cross-species disease transmission with domestic dogs and cats, and potentially with their owners. the prevalence of vector-borne pathogens (vbp) of zoonotic and veterinary interest was studied in sympatric wild and domestic carnivores into barcelona metropolitan area (ne spain). ...201626643497
genetic variability of eucoleus aerophilus from domestic and wild hosts.eucoleus aerophilus (syn. capillaria aerophila) is a trichuroid nematode affecting domestic and wild carnivores and, sometimes, humans. this parasite has a worldwide distribution and may cause significant clinical disease in pet animals. the present paper investigates the sequence variation in partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of e. aerophilus isolates from pets and wild animals from different countries. forty-four egg pools of e. aerophilus were collected from dog ...201424746287
emergence of canine distemper virus strains with modified molecular signature and enhanced neuronal tropism leading to high mortality in wild ongoing canine distemper epidemic was first detected in switzerland in the spring of 2009. compared to previous local canine distemper outbreaks, it was characterized by unusually high morbidity and mortality, rapid spread over the country, and susceptibility of several wild carnivore species. here, the authors describe the associated pathologic changes and phylogenetic and biological features of a multiple highly virulent canine distemper virus (cdv) strain detected in and/or isolated from r ...201222362965
molecular survey of ehrlichia canis and coxiella burnetii infections in wild mammals of southern italy.ehrlichiosis and q fever caused by the intracellular bacteria ehrlichia canis and coxiella burnetii, respectively, are tick-borne diseases with zoonotic potential and widespread geographical distribution. this study investigated the prevalence of both infections in wild mammals in southern italy. tissue samples obtained from the red fox (vulpes vulpes), european badger (meles meles), gray wolf (canis lupus), beech marten (martes foina), and crested porcupine (hystrix cristata) were processed for ...201627535678
first findings and prevalence of adult heartworms (dirofilaria immitis) in wild carnivores from serbia.heartworm (dirofilaria immitis) is a parasitic roundworm that causes a zoonotic disease known as dirofilariosis. little is known about the role of wild carnivores serving as reservoirs in nature. therefore, we examined 738 hearts and lungs of free ranging wild carnivores from serbia to determine the presence of adult heartworms. during the period 2009-2013, the prevalence in golden jackals (canis aureus) was 7.32%, in red foxes (vulpes vulpes) 1.55%, in wolves (canis lupus) 1.43%, and in wild ca ...201424951168
molecular evidence for the presence of dirofilaria repens in beech marten (martes foina) from slovakia.herein we present the first finding of dirofilaria repens, agent of the subcutaneous form of dirofilariosis, in martes foina. molecular analyses from the spleen of 3 individuals originated from tatra national park, northern slovakia, confirmed the presence of d. repens in one of them. finding of d. repens in beech marten instigates to more intense research on free living carnivores as the potential source of dirofilaria parasites.201323528246
development of a real-time pcr for a sensitive one-step coprodiagnosis allowing both the identification of carnivore feces and the detection of toxocara spp. and echinococcus multilocularis.studying the environmental occurrence of parasites of concern for humans and animals based on coprosamples is an expanding field of work in epidemiology and the ecology of health. detecting and quantifying toxocara spp. and echinococcus multilocularis, two predominant zoonotic helminths circulating in european carnivores, in feces may help to better target measures for prevention. a rapid, sensitive, and one-step quantitative pcr (qpcr) allowing detection of e. multilocularis and toxocara spp. w ...201626969697
snapshot of viral infections in wild carnivores reveals ubiquity of parvovirus and susceptibility of egyptian mongoose to feline panleukopenia virus.the exposure of wild carnivores to viral pathogens, with emphasis on parvovirus (cpv/fplv), was assessed based on the molecular screening of tissue samples from 128 hunted or accidentally road-killed animals collected in portugal from 2008 to 2011, including egyptian mongoose (herpestes ichneumon, n = 99), red fox (vulpes vulpes, n = 19), stone marten (martes foina, n = 3), common genet (genetta genetta, n = 3) and eurasian badger (meles meles, n = 4). a high prevalence of parvovirus dna (63%) w ...201323527182
francisella tularensis infection in a stone marten (martes foina) without classic pathological lesions consistent with tularemia.the current report describes the isolation and typing of a strain of francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, from the spleen of a stone marten (martes foina) showing no classic lesions consistent with the disease. the identification of this bacterium, belonging to the world health organization risk 3 category and considered to have a low infectious dose, could be performed only because of an ongoing project screening f. tularensis in the environment sensu lato. the findings des ...201323674461
occurrence and molecular genotyping of giardia duodenalis and cryptosporidium spp. in wild mesocarnivores in spain.there is a surprisingly scarce amount of epidemiological and molecular data on the prevalence, frequency, and diversity of the intestinal protozoan parasites giardia duodenalis and cryptosporidium spp. in wildlife in general and mesocarnivore species in particular. consequently, the extent of the cyst/oocyst environmental contamination attributable to these wild host species and their potential implications for public veterinary health remain largely unknown. in this molecular epidemiological su ...201728215875
new insights into mycobacterium bovis prevalence in wild mammals in portugal.a survey to determine the prevalence of mycobacterium bovis in wild mammals in portugal was conducted by testing samples from hunted animals and those found dead between 2009 and 2013. in this study, we investigated 2116 wild mammals. post-mortem examinations were performed, and tissues were collected from wild mammals representing 8 families and 11 different species, with a total of 393 animals analysed. cultures were performed, and acid-fast isolates were identified by pcr. tissues were also s ...201625484245
first detection of leishmania infantum kinetoplast dna in hair of wild mammals: application of qpcr method to determine potential parasite reservoirs.the data presented in this paper describe the application of a method for a reliable and non-invasive diagnosis of leishmaniosis in wild reservoirs, based on the detection of leishmania infantum kinetoplast dna (kdna) in hair samples by real time pcr (qpcr). the study has been performed on 68 ear/leg hair samples from 5 different wild species (vulpes vulpes, canis lupus, martes foina, rattus norvegicus and erinaceus europaeus) from several geographic areas of west and north spain. the presence o ...201323973736
free-living species of carnivorous mammals in poland: red fox, beech marten, and raccoon as a potential reservoir of salmonella, yersinia, listeria spp. and coagulase-positive staphylococcus.the objective of the study was to examine a population of free-living carnivorous mammals most commonly found in poland (red fox, beech marten, and raccoon) for the occurrence of bacteria that are potentially pathogenic for humans and other animal species and to determine their virulence potential (the presence of selected virulence genes). from the total pool of isolates obtained (n = 328), we selected 90 belonging to species that pose the greatest potential threat to human health: salmonella s ...201627171434
survey of mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in road-killed wild carnivores in portugal.a survey to determine the occurrence of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) in wild carnivores in portugal was conducted by testing samples from road-killed animals between 2009 and 2012. postmortem examinations were performed and tissues were collected from wild carnivores representing four families and six different species, with a total of 74 animals analyzed. cultures were performed by using löwenstein-jensen and middlebrook 7h11 solid media and acid-fast isolates were identifi ...201425632662
occurrence of internal parasites in stone martens (martes foina) from cracow and suburbs.the pine marten martes martes and the stone marten martes foina are the only representatives of the genus martes in poland. during the last few decades, an intensive synurbisation of stone martens has been recorded. the aim of the study was to assess the level of infection by internal parasites of martes foina in the cracow urban area. eleven necropsies were performed of stone martens killed during animal-vehicle collisions. additionally, coprological examination of 129 stone marten scats was in ...201324791348
the role of the wolf in endemic sylvatic trichinella britovi infection in the abruzzi region of central italy.during the period 2004-2014 in the abruzzi region (central italy), muscle samples gathered from hunted wild boars (n=16,323) and retrieved from carcasses of other susceptible wild mammals (n=838) and birds (n=438) were tested for trichinella larvae according to european union regulations. although no positive samples were found from wild birds, 91 wild mammals tested positive. six species were found to harbor trichinella spp. infections, namely wolf (canis lupus, 59 positive samples out of 218), ...201627522469
european mustelids occupying pristine wetlands in the danube delta are infected with trichinella likely derived from domesticated swine.abstract we analyzed 32 specimens from nine species of mustelidae for trichinella; six infections from two trichinella species were observed from three host species. this provides documentation of trichinella in mustela erminea and martes foina in romania and trichinella spiralis in a mustelid host from europe. trichinella spiralis continues to be a public challenge characterized by a wide host range and geographical distribution ( pozio 2007 ). during the past 20 yr, romania has had the most re ...201425121406
antibodies to west nile virus and related flaviviruses in wild boar, red foxes and other mesomammals from foxes (vulpes vulpes), wild boar (sus scrofa) and iberian pigs (sus scrofa domestica) that are raised extensively outdoors, as well as other wild mesomammals from south central spain and wild boar from doñana national park (dnp), were tested for antibodies against related flaviviruses by elisa and for antibodies against wnv by vnt. mean flavivirus seroprevalence according to elisa was 20.4 ± 7.8% (21 out of 103) in red foxes, 12.6 ± 2.8% (69 out of 545) in wild boars, and 3.3±2.7% (6 out of ...201222595138
pathological findings in the red fox (vulpes vulpes), stone marten (martes foina) and raccoon dog (nyctereutes procyonoides), with special emphasis on infectious and zoonotic agents in northern germany.anthropogenic landscape changes contributed to the reduction of availability of habitats to wild animals. hence, the presence of wild terrestrial carnivores in urban and peri-urban sites has increased considerably over the years implying an increased risk of interspecies spillover of infectious diseases and the transmission of zoonoses. the present study provides a detailed characterisation of the health status of the red fox (vulpes vulpes), stone marten (martes foina) and raccoon dog (nyctereu ...201728399176
viral metagenomic analysis of feces of wild small carnivores.recent studies have clearly demonstrated the enormous virus diversity that exists among wild animals. this exemplifies the required expansion of our knowledge of the virus diversity present in wildlife, as well as the potential transmission of these viruses to domestic animals or humans.201424886057
[capillaria paranalis sp.n. (nematoda:trichuridae), a new trichurid species from the anal sacs of the stone marten (martes foina erxleben, 1777)]. 19807470005
prevalence and molecular identification of the sinus worm skrjabingylus petrowi (nematoda: metastrongyloidea) from martes spp. in germany.the nematodes of the genus skrjabingylus (family metastrongylidae) can parasitise the nasal and frontal sinus cavities of different carnivore species. until recently, skrjabingylus petrowi bageanov & petrov, 1941, has mainly been described in pine martens (martes martes linnaeus, 1758) and sables (martes zibellina linnaeus, 1758) sampled in the european part of the former soviet union. newer finds in the stone marten (martes foina erxleben, 1777) and from different parts of europe suggest, howev ...201525681145
nested species-rich networks of scavenging vertebrates support high levels of interspecific competition.disentangling the processes that shape the organization of ecological assemblages and its implications for species coexistence is one of the foremost challenges of ecology. although insightful advances have recently related community composition and structure with species coexistence in mutualistic and antagonistic networks, little is known regarding other species assemblages, such as those of scavengers exploiting carrion. here we studied seven assemblages of scavengers feeding on ungulate carc ...201627008779
volatile compounds from anal glands of the wolverine, gulo gulo.dichloromethane extracts of wolverine (gulo gulo, mustelinae, mustelidae) anal gland secretion were examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. the secretion composition was complex and variable for the six samples examined: 123 compounds were detected in total, with the number per animal ranging from 45 to 71 compounds. only six compounds were common to all extracts: 3-methylbutanoic acid, 2-methylbutanoic acid, phenylacetic acid, alpha-tocopherol, cholesterol, and a compound tentatively ...200516132215
individual spatial responses towards roads: implications for mortality risk.understanding the ecological consequences of roads and developing ways to mitigate their negative effects has become an important goal for many conservation biologists. most mitigation measures are based on road mortality and barrier effects data. however, studying fine-scale individual spatial responses in roaded landscapes may help develop more cohesive road planning strategies for wildlife conservation.201222970143
genetic characterization of canine parvovirus in sympatric free-ranging wild carnivores in portugal.since its emergence in the 1970s, canine parvovirus (cpv) has been reported in domestic and nondomestic carnivores worldwide with severe implications on their health and survival. here, we aim to better understand cpv circulation in multihost-pathogens systems by characterizing cpv dna or viruses in 227 free-ranging wild carnivores of 12 species from portugal. collected samples during 1995-2011 were analyzed by pcr and sequence analysis. the canine parvovirus dna was detected in 4 (2%) animals o ...201728657857
independent nonframeshift deletions in the mc1r gene are not associated with melanistic coat coloration in three mustelid lineages.sequence variation within the 5' flanking (about 240 bp) and exon regions (426 bp) of the melanocortin-1 receptor (mc1r) gene was examined to determine the potential role of this protein in the melanistic coat coloration of 17 mustelid species in four genera: gulo (wolverines), martes (martens), mustela (weasels), and meles (badgers). members of the genera mustela and meles, together with martes flavigula and martes pennanti, were shown to have intact gene sequences. however, several "in frame" ...200616135707
brains of native and alien mesocarnivores in biomonitoring of toxic metals in europe.mercury (hg), lead (pb) and cadmium (cd) are involved in mammalian brain damage. however, little is known about pb and cd brain levels in wildlife that reflect the geochemical background. the aims of the study include the estimation of hg, pb and cd concentrations, and the determination of relationships between these elements in the brains of 94 mesocarnivores. road-killed or hunted animals were obtained from north-western poland near the polish-german border. the investigation covered the nativ ...201627513467
inferring population genetic structure in widely and continuously distributed carnivores: the stone marten (martes foina) as a case study.the stone marten is a widely distributed mustelid in the palaearctic region that exhibits variable habitat preferences in different parts of its range. the species is a holocene immigrant from southwest asia which, according to fossil remains, followed the expansion of the neolithic farming cultures into europe and possibly colonized the iberian peninsula during the early neolithic (ca. 7,000 years bp). however, the population genetic structure and historical biogeography of this generalist carn ...201526222680
inter-individual variability of stone marten behavioral responses to a highway.efforts to reduce the negative impacts of roads on wildlife may be hindered if individuals within the population vary widely in their responses to roads and mitigation strategies ignore this variability. this knowledge is particularly important for medium-sized carnivores as they are vulnerable to road mortality, while also known to use available road passages (e.g., drainage culverts) for safely crossing highways. our goal in this study was to assess whether this apparently contradictory patter ...201425072639
spanish juniper gain expansion opportunities by counting on a functionally diverse dispersal assemblage community.seed dispersal is typically performed by a diverse array of species assemblages with different behavioral and morphological traits which determine dispersal quality (dq, defined as the probability of recruitment of a dispersed seed). fate of ecosystems to ongoing environmental changes is critically dependent on dispersal and mainly on dq in novel scenarios. we assess here the dq, thus the multiplicative effect of germination and survival probability to the first 3 years of life, for seeds disper ...201324198937
systemic al amyloidosis in a beech marten (martes foina).a wild beech marten (martes foina), was referred for necropsy to the department of animal pathology of the university of turin (italy). at gross examination, whitish and firm masses, 10-mm in diameter, were found on the heart and in the kidney. spleen showed lighter color and greater consistency, and the cut surface of the liver appeared scattered with whitish-yellow coalescing foci homogeneously distributed. amyloid deposits were present in the perivascular and intercellular spaces of the visce ...201323623757
historical changes in the northeastern border of the stone marten (carnivora, mustelidae, martes foina erxleben, 1777) area. 201621374008
concentrations of trace elements in tissues of red fox (vulpes vulpes) and stone marten (martes foina) from suburban and rural areas in croatia.trace elements concentrations (as, cd, cu, pb and hg) were determined in the liver, kidney and muscle of 28 red fox (vulpes vulpes) and 16 stone marten (martes foina) from suburban and rural habitats from croatia. rural and suburban habitats affected cd and hg levels in the muscle, liver and kidney of red fox. significant differences in metal concentrations in the muscle, liver and kidney were detected among species. suburban stone marten accumulated the highest levels of trace elements (mg/kg w ...201021069280
[parasites of stone martens (martes foina) in the canton of vaud 1980-1981]. 19827134957
[parasitological and histopathological studies of toxoplasma infections in stone martens (martes foina)]. 19817271736
idiopathic amyloidosis in the stone marten (martes foina): identification of amyloid fibril proteins in tissue sections using the immunoperoxidase technique.amyloid fibril proteins isolated from a spleen of a wild stone marten (martes foina, exleben) with idiopathic amyloidosis show resemblance to protein aa by amino acid analysis. an antiserum directed against these proteins can be used to identify the marten's amyloid in formalin-fixed tissue paraffin-embedded sections using the immunoperoxidase method.19807004540
[ultrastructural study of leydig and sertoli cells during the seasonal sexual cycle in the marten (martes foina erx.)]. 1978571379
[seasonal variations in plasma progesterone in the pine marten (martes foina), a species with delayed implantation].luteal function in pine marten (martes foina), species which exhibit delayed implantation, shows low progesterone plasma levels during the major part of diapause. a significant increase occurs before implantation. these results confirm histological appearance observed in lutea corpora.1977417820
[photoperiod effect testicular physiology in the stone-marten (martes foina erx.)].the male stone-marten (martes foina) has a well-defined sexual cycle with two very different phases: a breeding season (may-june) and a quiescent period (november-december). we can cause the onset of the testicular activity, during the quiescent phase, by an experimental increase of daylight (18 l-6 d).1976827384
[toxoplasmosis in the muscrat ondatra zibethica (linné) 1766 and in the stone marten martes foina (erxleben) 1777]. 19715006064
exposure of stone marten (martes foina) and polecat (mustela putorius) to anticoagulant rodenticides: effects of regulatory restrictions of rodenticide use.when anticoagulant rodenticides (ars) are used to control rodent populations there is also a widespread secondary exposure of non-target predators to ars. to reduce secondary exposure, regulatory restrictions in ar usage were tightened in denmark in 2011. the restrictions included the cessation of ar use for plant protection and any use away from buildings, as well as limitations in private consumers' access to ars. to quantify and evaluate the efficiency of the regulatory measures to reduce sec ...201728898942
spatial niche segregation of sympatric stone marten and pine marten--avoidance of competition or selection of optimal habitat?coexistence of ecologically similar species relies on differences in one or more dimensions of their ecological niches, such as space, time and resources in diel and/or seasonal scales. however, niche differentiation may result from other mechanisms such as avoidance of high predation pressure, different adaptations or requirements of ecologically similar species. stone marten (martes foina) and pine marten (martes martes) occur sympatrically over a large area in central europe and utilize simil ...201526444280
isolation by distance, resistance and/or clusters? lessons learned from a forest-dwelling carnivore inhabiting a heterogeneous landscape.landscape genetics provides a valuable framework to understand how landscape features influence gene flow and to disentangle the factors that lead to discrete and/or clinal population structure. here, we attempt to differentiate between these processes in a forest-dwelling small carnivore [european pine marten (martes martes)]. specifically, we used complementary analytical approaches to quantify the spatially explicit genetic structure and diversity and analyse patterns of gene flow for 140 ind ...201526394893
genetic diversity and structure related to expansion history and habitat isolation: stone marten populating rural-urban habitats.population genetic diversity and structure are determined by past and current evolutionary processes, among which spatially limited dispersal, genetic drift, and shifts in species distribution boundaries have major effects. in most wildlife species, environmental modifications by humans often lead to contraction of species' ranges and/or limit their dispersal by acting as environmental barriers. however, in species well adapted to anthropogenic habitat or open landscapes, human induced environme ...201729273026
helminth parasites of stone marten (martes foina) in central portugalthe stone marten (martes foina) is one of the most common species of marten in europe. due to increased urbanization and forest degradation, it is now often found in urban habitats, which increased the possibility of parasites transmission between wildlife-domestic animals and humans. our preliminary study of this mustelid in portugal, aimed to assess prevalence of helminths. six helminth parasites were found (crenosoma vulpis,angiostrongylus sp., toxocara sp., toxascaris leonina, ancylostomatid ...201829717576
molecular characterization of enterocytozoon bieneusi in wild carnivores in spain.microsporidia comprises a diverse group of obligate intracellular parasites that infect a broad range of invertebrates and vertebrates. among microsporidia, enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most frequently detected species in humans and animals worldwide bringing into question the possible role of animal reservoirs in the epidemiology of this pathogen. although e. bieneusi is an emerging zoonotic pathogen able to infect many domestic and wild mammals that could act as reservoir of infection for hu ...201729230898
wild mammals as potential silent reservoirs of leishmania infantum in a mediterranean area.a molecular survey of wild mammals was performed to assess their potential as reservoirs of l. infantum. a total of 156 specimens of wild mammalian fauna were obtained for analysis from areas in catalonia with a reported incidence of canine leishmaniasis. they consisted of 124 small mammals: 35 mus spretus (muridae); 64 erinaceus europaeus (erinaceidae), 25 sciurus vulgaris (sciuridae) and 32 carnivores: 11 vulpes vulpes (canidae), 1 felis catus (felidae), 15 meles meles, 4 martes foina and 1 mu ...202031901603
thelaziosis due to thelazia callipaeda in europe in the 21st century-a review.thelazia callipaeda was first described at the beginning of the 20th century in asia, but this eyeworm is now frequently reported in europe in the 21st century. to date, thelaziosis has been described in the following european countries (in order of appearance): italy, france, germany, switzerland, spain, portugal, belgium, bosnia and herzegovina, croatia, serbia, romania, greece, bulgaria, hungary, slovakia, the united kingdom, turkey and austria. the infected vertebrate host species include do ...201931630050
the eyeworm thelazia callipaeda in portugal: current status of infection in pets and wild mammals and case report in a beech marten (martes foina).ocular thelaziosis is caused by nematodes of the genus thelazia (spirurida, thelaziidae), which inhabit the surface of the eyes and associated tissues. thelazia callipaeda affects a range of mammal species, including humans, and in the last two decades has been reported in multiple european countries, being classified as an emergent vector-borne pathogen. in portugal t. callipaeda is endemic in north-eastern areas, where it has been reported in domestic dogs, cats, red foxes (vulpes vulpes) and ...201829559141
unveiling patterns of viral pathogen infection in free-ranging carnivores of northern portugal using a complementary methodological approach.pathogen surveillance in free-ranging carnivores presents challenges due to their low densitie and secretive nature. we combined molecular and serological assays to investigate infections by viral pathogens (canine parvovirus (cpv), canine distemper virus (cdv) and canine coronavirus (ccov)) in portuguese carnivores (canis lupus, vulpes vulpes, lutra lutra, martes foina, m. martes, meles meles, and genetta genetta) over a period of 16 years. additionally we explored spatio-temporal patterns of v ...202032062189
genetic characterization of carnivore parvoviruses in spanish wildlife reveals domestic dog and cat-related sequences.the impact of carnivore parvovirus infection on wild populations is not yet understood; disease signs are mainly developed in pups and assessing the health of litters in wild carnivores has big limitations. this study aims to shed light on the virus dynamics among wild carnivores thanks to the analysis of 213 samples collected between 1994 and 2013 in wild ecosystems from spain. we determined the presence of carnivore parvovirus dna by real-time pcr and sequenced the vp2 gen from 22 positive sam ...202031581349
molecular detection of babesia spp. (apicomplexa: piroplasma) in free-ranging canids and mustelids from southern italy.babesiosis is an emerging tick-borne disease caused by apicomplexan parasites with widespread geographical distribution and various wildlife species as reservoir hosts. the aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and assess the role of free-ranging canids and mustelids in the maintenance of babesia spp. in southern italy. pcr analysis of splenic samples targeting the 18s rrna gene revealed the presence of babesia spp. in 36 of 82 (43.9%) red foxes (vulpes vulpes) including 29 (58%) ...201931555669
high diversity of hemotropic mycoplasmas in iberian wild carnivores.two-hundred and thirty-one wild carnivores belonging to 10 species of in spain were analyzed for the presence of dna of hemotropic mycoplasmas (hemoplasmas) by means of a universal real-time pcr targeting a 16s rrna gene fragment. positive reactions were found for wolf (canis lupus: 6/37), fox (vulpes vulpes: 1/41), eurasian badger (meles meles: 49/85), pine marten (martes martes: 11/23), stone marten (martes foina: 6/9), least weasel (mustela nivalis: 4/4), european wildcat (felis s. silvestris ...201830396424
spatio-temporal partitioning facilitates mesocarnivore sympatry in the stara planina mountains, bulgaria.the top trophic level in many terrestrial food webs is typically occupied by mammalian carnivores (order carnivora) that broadly affect and shape ecosystems through trophic cascades. their inter-specific interactions can further complicate effects on community dynamics as a consequence of intra-guild competition. the capacity for competitive mammalian carnivores to segregate their hunting and activity regimes is in major part a function of their similarity, in terms of body-size and dietary nich ...202032563175
ecological drivers of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis detection in mongoose (herpestes ichneumon) using is900 as proxy.mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) is the etiological agent of johne's disease or paratuberculosis, a chronic infection affecting domestic ruminants worldwide. despite sporadic reports of map occurrence in non-ruminants, information on the risk factors predisposing for infection is still scarce and evidence of transmission paths linking the livestock-wildlife-environment interfaces also remains lacking. in this study, we predicted that environmental, host-related, land use and hum ...202031964932
circulation of diverse protoparvoviruses in wild carnivores, italy.protoparvovirus is a monophyletic viral genus that includes the species carnivore protoparvovirus-1 infecting domestic and wild carnivores. in this paper, the results of an epidemiological survey for carnivore protoparvovirus-1 in wild carnivores in italy are reported. overall, 34 (11.4%) out of 297 tested animals were positive for carnivore protoparvovirus-1, but the frequency of detection was much higher in intestine (54%) than in spleen samples (2.8%), thus suggesting that the intestine is th ...202033176056
coexistence of predators in time: effects of season and prey availability on species activity within a mediterranean carnivore guild.the degree of coexistence among predators can determine the structure of ecological communities. niche partitioning is a common strategy applied by species to enhance their coexistence. diet, habitat, or time use can be responsible for segregation among carnivore species, the latter factor being the least studied in mediterranean ecosystems. terrestrial medium-sized carnivores (i.e., mesocarnivores) carry out important functions in ecosystems, and identifying their interactions is essential for ...202033144974
cardiopulmonary nematodes of wild carnivores from denmark: do they serve as reservoir hosts for infections in domestic animals?the cardiopulmonary nematodes angiostrongylus vasorum, crenosoma vulpis, capillaria aerophila and aelurostrongylus abstrusus, are a cause of concern in the scientific and veterinary community, potentially causing significant disease in domestic animals. to investigate the potential of wild carnivores as reservoir hosts to these parasites, a total of 1041 animals from seven regions of denmark were sampled: 476 raccoon dogs (nyctereutes procyonoides), 367 red foxes (vulpes vulpes), 123 american mi ...202032884901
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