carnivora: the primary structure of the common otter (lutra lutra, mustelidae) hemoglobin.the hemoglobin of the common otter (lutra lutra, carnivora) contains only one component. the complete primary structures of the alpha- and beta-chains are presented. they were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography and the sequences determined by automatic liquid and gas-phase edman degradation of the chains and their tryptic peptides. the alpha-chains show 18 and the beta-chains 13 substitutions compared to human alpha- and beta-chains, respectively. in the alpha-chains one heme- a ...19883166739
[the parasite fauna of east germany. 9. the helminth fauna of lutra lutra].alimentary tract, liver, kidneys and lungs of 25 otters, died of several causes during 1982-1987 in gdr were included in helminthological investigations. parasites were detected in 8 animals. one cestode: taenia martis and 3 trematodes: isthmiophora melis, opisthorchis felineus and pseudamphistomum truncatum are regarded to be certain parasites of this host. other findings like ligula intestinalis, azygia luccii and piscicola geometra and the fragment of a pseudophyllidean enter the alimentary t ...19883177936
levels of cadmium, mercury and lead in otter and mink faeces from the united kingdom.over 500 faeces of otter (lutra lutra) from britain, with a small sample from northeast greece, were analyzed for cd, hg and pb. a small sample of mink (mustela vison) faeces was also analyzed. mean concentrations of metals (mg kg-1 dry weight) in otter faeces ranged from 1.53 to 3.97 cd, 0.25 to 0.74 hg and 12.4 to 20.9 pb. mink faeces generally contained less cd and hg, but more pb. metal concentrations in faeces may reflect both natural and anthropogenic sources. estimates of daily cd and pb ...19863749871
two-dimensional electrophoresis for the study of blood/serum proteins of the otter, an endangered species.studies on serum/blood samples from european otters (lutra lutra), a species under protection in most countries, were undertaken. building of a two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-de) protein identification map was started, identifying serum proteins by pattern comparison with cat or human serum protein maps and by immunoblotting using cross-reacting antibodies against the respective human serum proteins. the capture of endangered species is very restricted, thus making fresh samples almost unava ...19957498166
pcb congeners in tissues of european otter (lutra lutra). 19948000183
isolation of brucella species from cetaceans, seals and an otter.brucella organisms which differed from the recognised species of the genus, were isolated from nine seals, eight cetaceans and one otter. a method is described for the isolation of brucella species from sea mammals and the first isolations of brucella species are recorded from an atlantic white-sided dolphin (lagenorhynchus acutus), two striped dolphins (stenella coeuleoalba), a hooded seal (cystophora cristata), a grey seal (halichoerus grypus) and a european otter (lutra lutra). there were dif ...19968799984
adiaspiromycosis in large free living carnivores.adiaspiromycosis was identified in 6 animals in the examination of the lungs of 90 large carnivores. emmonsia crescens (chrysosporium parvum var. crescens) was demonstrated as the causative agent in 5 cases of disease-in the badger (meles meles), the otter (lutra lutra) and the fox (vulpes vulpes). e. parva was demonstrated in the remaining case of disease in a fox. the badger is a new, up to the present unknown host of e. crescens. the sporadic occurrence of adiaspiromycosis in the fox and the ...1976945461
[domestication as a possible mode of biodiversity conservation (as exemplified by the river otter lutra lutra l., 1758)].on an experimental basis in the institute of cytology and genetics siberian division, russian academy of sciences, a cage population of river otter (lutra lutra) was formed. during the introduction period of captivity, as the selection for stress resistance in an anthropogenic environment is shown to be a crucial factor. through the course of domesticating river otters, directional selection occurs due to the increase in the number of individual otters and to the absence of fear-induced response ...19979378310
[distemper in otters (lutra lutra)]. 1979573616
isospora lutrae n. sp. (apicomplexa: eimeriidae), a new coccidium from the european otter lutra lutra (l.) (carnivora: mustelidae) from spain.parasitological examination of european otter originating from extremadura, spain revealed the presence of a new isosporan species. oöcysts of isospora lutrae n. sp. are spherical to subspherical, 31.2 (27.5-32) x 29.6 (28-31) microm and have a smooth wall c. 1 microm thick. sporocysts are ellipsoidal, 18.2 (17-19) x 14.4 (14-16) microm and lack stieda and substieda bodies. a spherical sporocyst residuum is present, consisting of granules scattered among the sporozoites. sporozoites are spindle- ...200010937667
redescription of eucoleus schvalovoj (nematoda: capillariidae), an oesophageal parasite of the eurasian otter, lutra lutra, in spain.eucoleus schvalovoj kontrimavichus, 1963 (nematoda: capillariidae) is redescribed. the original description of this species was brief and inadequate in that it was based on just a few specimens removed from the eurasian otter, lutra lutra (linnaeus, 1758) in the khabarovsk region, ussr. detailed morphological study of several specimens of e. schvalovoj from the oesophagus of l. lutra from spain revealed new characters, above all in males, and allows for a better characterisation of this species. ...199910730200
aleutian mink disease parvovirus in wild riparian carnivores in spain.serious declines in populations of native european mink (mustela lutreola) have occurred in europe. one responsible factor may be infectious diseases introduced by exotic american mink (mustela vison). in order to investigate a possible role for aleutian mink disease parvovirus (adv), we surveyed native riparian carnivores and feral american mink. when serum samples from 12 free-ranging european and 16 feral american mink were tested, antibodies to adv were detected from three of nine european m ...200111272488
hematological and biochemical reference intervals for wild caught eurasian otter from spain.hematologic and serum chemistry reference intervals were determined from 33 wild caught eurasian otters (lutra lutra lutra) between november 1995 and may 1998 during a reintroduction project. blood was obtained by jugular venipuncture after administration of ketamine and medetomidine. the mean, standard deviation, and range for 19 hematology parameters and 28 serum chemistry values are presented. there were no significant differences between sexes in most analytes. the results are in agreement w ...200111272491
for whales and seals the ocean is not blue: a visual pigment loss in marine mammals.most terrestrial mammals have colour vision based on two spectrally different visual pigments located in two types of retinal cone photoreceptors, i.e. they are cone dichromats with long-to-middle-wave-sensitive (commonly green) l-cones and short-wave-sensitive (commonly blue) s-cones. with visual pigment-specific antibodies, we here demonstrate an absence of s-cones in the retinae of all whales and seals studied. the sample includes seven species of toothed whales (odontoceti) and five species ...200111328346
isolation of pathogenic yersiniae from wild animals in bulgaria.pathogenic yersinia strains were isolated between december 1998 and april 1999 from 37 wild animals: rabbit (lepus europeus), boar (sus scrofa scrofa), asiatic jackal (canis aureus), red fox (vulpes vulpes), mouflon (ovis musimon), european river otter (lutra lutra), beech marten (martes foina), polecat (musleta putorius) and wild cat (felis silvestris). it was established that among the wild animals y. enterocolitica strains of serotype 0:3 predominated, accompanied by y. pseudotuberculosis str ...200111393816
clinical anatomy of the north american river otter (lontra canadensis).published anatomic studies of north american river otters (lontra canadensis) include only comparative reviews of single anatomic systems, but this paper includes multiple clinically relevant anatomic features. both captive and free-ranging north american river otters were studied by gross dissection of nine specimens, radiography of 18 live otters, and physical examination of 170 otters. body fat in north american river otters is stored primarily subcutaneously at the base of the tail and in th ...200011428393
reintroduction of the eurasian otter (lutra lutra) in northeastern spain: trapping, handling, and medical 1993 a reintroduction project for the eurasian otter (lutra lutra) was initiated in northeastern spain (girona, catalonia) to restore extirpated populations. between 1996 and 2000, 43 otters were captured from southwestern and northern spain and from portugal with modified foot-hold traps and transported to barcelona zoo. lesions produced by capture were classified into four categories of increasing severity. thirty four (79%) animals had category i, three (7%) had category ii, five (12%) had ...200212462488
concentrations and hazard assessment of pcbs, organochlorine pesticides and mercury in fish species from the upper thames: river pollution and its potential effects on top predators.aquatic environmental contamination levels of organochlorine pesticides (ocps), polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) and heavy metals in the upper thames catchment area, uk were assessed on the basis of fish muscle analysis in wet weight, and their effects on top predators were assessed. the contamination levels of lead, cadmium, dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (ddt) and its metabolites were found to be low (undetectable) in the area. average mercury contamination level varied between 55 and 342 m ...200312656245
forensics on wild animals: differentiation between otter and pheasant blood using electrophoretic methods.electrophoretic techniques were used to prove illegal hunting of a protected species as small amounts of dried blood stains could be clearly identified as of otter origin. species differentiation between the otter (lutra lutra) and pheasant (phasianus colchicus) was based mainly on small differences in electrophoretic mobilities of the respective albumins and hemoglobins in one-dimensional separations. additional differences in minor proteins of the two species were revealed by two-dimensional e ...19957588577
cranial variation in british mustelids.nineteen measurements were made on 136 skulls belonging to seven mustelid species: meles meles (eurasian badger), mustela nivalis, (weasel), mustela erminea (stoat), mustela putorius (polecat), lutra lutra (otter), mustela furo (ferret), and mustela vison (american mink), and polecat-ferret hybrids. to investigate shape, size-related effects were eliminated by dividing all measurements by their geometric means. canonical variate analysis was used to reveal major interspecies distinctions. exclud ...200415052596
[comparative analysis of the peroxidase activity of myoglobins in mammals].studies have been made on the peroxidase activity of metmyoglobins in animals from various ecological groups--the horse equus caballus, cattle bos taurus, beaver castor fiber, otter lutra lutra, mink mustela vison and dog canis familiaris. it was found that the level of this activity in diving animals depends on the duration of their diving, whereas in terrestrial species--on the strength of muscular contraction.19873564776
reintroduction of the otter (lutra lutra) into catalan rivers, spain: assessing organochlorine residue exposure through diet. 199910441643
evidence of secondary poisoning of free-ranging riparian mustelids by anticoagulant rodenticides in france: implications for conservation of european mink (mustela lutreola).because of the rapid decline of the endangered european mink (mustela lutreola) populations in france, a national conservation program has been put into action, including research to understand the causes of decline. as part of this research, concentrations of eight anticoagulant rodenticides were examined in livers from 122 carcasses of four species of free-ranging mustelids collected between 1990 and 2002 in southwestern france. bromadiolone residue was found in all species and 9% of the sampl ...200415650086
growth in otter (lutra lutra) populations in the uk as shown by long-term monitoring.european otters declined dramatically from the 1950s, disappearing from many rivers. we report here on longterm monitoring (from 1977) in 3 catchments in western britain that were recolonized naturally and in 2 catchments in eastern england that were reinforced by captive-bred otters. a minimum of 16-years data was collected on each river until 2002. at a series of sites in each study river, the percentages which were positive for otters and the number of spraints per sprainting site were record ...200415151385
identification and characterization of tandem repeats in exon iii of dopamine receptor d4 (drd4) genes from different mammalian this study we have identified and characterized dopamine receptor d4 (drd4) exon iii tandem repeats in 33 public available nucleotide sequences from different mammalian species. we found that the tandem repeat in canids could be described in a novel and simple way, namely, as a structure composed of 15- and 12- bp modules. tandem repeats composed of 18-bp modules were found in sequences from the horse, zebra, onager, and donkey, asiatic bear, polar bear, common raccoon, dolphin, harbor porpoi ...200516332176
patterns and significance of bite wounds in eurasian otters (lutra lutra) in southern and south-west england.postmortem examinations were carried out on 379 otters found dead in southern and south-west england between 1988 and 2003. most (81 per cent) were road casualties, but many had open bite wounds and in some cases these had proved fatal. mortality was strongly seasonal and was positively correlated with night length. although numbers decreased in the summer months, the prevalence of bite wounds in adults was highest in late summer. the number of otters examined annually and the prevalence of bite ...200616443836
cholecystitis in otters (lutra lutra) and mink (mustela vison) caused by the fluke pseudamphistomum truncatum.between 1988 and 2004, postmortem examinations were carried out on 445 otters found dead, mostly as a result of road traffic accidents, in southern and south-west england. thickened, shrunken gall bladders were observed in 10 cases, the first in 2000 and the others between february 2002 and august 2004. a digenean fluke, pseudamphistomum truncatum, was found in the gall bladders of three cases and also in three of seven american mink examined. nine of the 10 otters and all the mink came from a l ...200516006641
parasites of carnivorous mammals in białowieza primeval forest.although the parasitofauna of wild carnivorous mammals in poland is quite well recognized, there has been only one research carried on this issue so far in białowieza forest--the last lowland primeval forest of temperate zone in europe.200617007336
antibodies to mycobacterium bovis in wild carnivores from doñana national park (spain).we conducted a retrospective serologic survey for antibodies against the mpb70 protein of mycobacterium bovis in wild carnivores from doñana national park (southwestern spain). serum samples from 118 red foxes (vulpes vulpes), 39 iberian lynx (lynx pardinus), 31 eurasian badgers (meles meles), five egyptian mongoose (herpestes ichneumon), four european genet (genetta genetta), and one eurasian otter (lutra lutra) were analyzed using an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunoassay. antibodies a ...200617092907
canine adenovirus type 1 infection of a eurasian river otter (lutra lutra).a 10-year-old female eurasian river otter (lutra lutra) died after prolonged anorexia and weight loss in the seoul grand park zoo, seoul, republic of korea. on necropsy, the liver was found to be swollen and friable with 1 lobe enlarged and necrotic. the other organs showed no significant alterations except for mild atrophy of the right kidney. microscopically, there was multifocal hepatic necrosis. the hepatocytes around the necrotic areas were swollen and contained large basophilic intranuclea ...200717606519
pcr detection of neospora caninum, toxoplasma gondii and encephalitozoon cuniculi in brains of wild carnivores.neospora caninum, toxoplasma gondii and encephalitozoon cuniculi are important pathogens with affinity to the central nervous system of many animals. 240 brains of wild carnivores were examined by pcr-based diagnosis. the presence of n. caninum dna was confirmed in 4.61% (7/152) red foxes (vulpes vulpes). dna of t. gondii was found in 4.92% (3/61) martens (martes sp.) and in 1.32% (2/152) red foxes. dna of e. cuniculi was determined in 3.28% (2/61) martens and in one examined european otter (lut ...200616472923
fatal adiaspiromycosis in a wild eurasian otter (lutra lutra).postmortem examination of an immature otter which died in the wild showed that large areas of the lungs were swollen and firm, with emphysema and haemorrhage in the remaining areas. histopathological examination revealed large numbers of fungal adiaspores and an unusually severe inflammatory response. it was considered that respiratory impairment was the primary cause of the otter's death.200011014486
organochlorine residue levels and bioconcentration factors in otters (lutra lutra l.) from northeast spain. 19968694868
neospora caninum antibodies in wild carnivores from spain.serum samples from 251 wild carnivores from different regions of spain were tested for antibodies to neospora caninum by the commercial competitive screening enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (c-elisa) and confirmed by neospora agglutination test (nat) and/or by indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat). samples with antibodies detected by at least two serological tests were considered seropositive. antibodies to n. caninum were found in 3.2% of 95 red foxes (vulpes vulpes); in 21.4% of 28 wolve ...200818556128
tyzzer's disease in a eurasian otter (lutra lutra) in scotland.a eurasian otter (lutra lutra) cub found in weak condition on the isle of harris, scotland, developed bilateral corneal oedema 16 days after being admitted to a rehabilitation centre. it died unexpectedly on day 26. on postmortem examination, there was excess clear fluid in the body cavities and the liver was swollen with numerous pale focal lesions and petechial haemorrhages throughout. histopathological examination revealed bundles of bacilli morphologically typical of clostridium piliforme wi ...200818978367
eurasian otter (lutra lutra), a definitive host for dirofilaria immitis.a mature male and a mature female dirofilaria immitis were found in the right ventricle of the heart of a naturally infected 2-yr-old male eurasian otter (lutra lutra) that had died of severe lung congestion at a zoo in south korea. both developing embryos and microfilariae were present in the uterus of the female d. immitis. although circulating microfilariae were not detected in blood or tissue, the eurasian otter may serve as a definitive host for d. immitis.200312885140
distribution of eurasian otter biliary parasites, pseudamphistomum truncatum and metorchis albidus (family opisthorchiidae), in england and wales.gall bladders from 273 otter carcasses, collected throughout england and wales, were screened to assess the status of gall bladder parasites in the eurasian otter, lutra lutra. the digenean pseudamphistomum truncatum had previously been found in uk otters collected between 2000 and 2007. the parasite was established in somerset and dorset but its distribution elsewhere in the uk was largely unknown. in the current study, p. truncatum was also found to be abundant in south wales, with occasional ...200919523253
antimicrobial-resistant salmonella isolated from eurasian otters (lutra lutra linnaeus, 1758) in portugal.eurasian otters (lutra lutra linnaeus, 1758) are present in a wide range of aquatic environments. salmonella isolates have been obtained from otters at rehabilitation centers and in the wild and are sometimes associated with serious illnesses. antimicrobial-resistant salmonella were isolated from otter fecal samples collected in march 2006, september 2007, and march 2008 in two river basins in southern portugal. from 67 samples tested, five were positive for salmonella (7.58%). none of the isola ...201020966276
the eurasian otter (lutra lutra) as a potential host for rickettsial pathogens in southern italy.canine monocytic ehrlichiosis and rickettsiosis are zoonotic tick-borne diseases of canids caused by the intracellular obligate bacteria ehrlichia canis and rickettsia species respectively. in this study, we investigated using standard and real-time pcr and sequencing, the occurrence and molecular characterization of e. canis and rickettsia species in the eurasian otter (lutra lutra) from the southern italian population. samples were screened by using molecular assays also for neospora caninum, ...201728267780
virulence traits and antibiotic resistance among enterococci isolated from eurasian otter (lutra lutra).enterococci are ubiquitous microorganisms found as part of the normal intestinal microbiota of many animals such as the free-ranging eurasian otter (lutra lutra linnaeus, 1758). in this work, twenty-nine enterococci isolated from fecal samples of eurasian otters free-living in reservoirs and associated river stretches in south portugal were identified and typed by conventional/molecular methods and screened for virulence factors and antibiotic resistance. identification allocated the isolates to ...201323375652
helminth parasites of the eurasian otter lutra lutra in southwest europe.the helminth fauna in 109 eurasian otters (lutra lutra l.) from france, portugal and spain was analysed, together with 56 faecal samples collected in portugal and 23 fresh stools from otters included in a reintroduction programme. seven helminth species were found in l. lutra in southwest europe: phagicola sp. (trematoda), aonchotheca putorii, eucoleus schvalovoj, strongyloides lutrae, anisakis (third stage larvae) and dirofilaria immitis (nematoda), and gigantorhynchus sp. (acanthocephala). euc ...200415575995
spatial and seasonal factors are key determinants in the aggregation of helminths in their definitive hosts: pseudamphistomum truncatum in otters (lutra lutra).parasites are typically aggregated within their host populations. the most heavily infected hosts are frequently cited as targets for optimal disease control. yet a heavily infected individual is not necessarily highly infective and does not automatically contribute a higher proportion of infective parasitic stages than a host with fewer parasites. here, pseudamphistomum truncatum (opisthorchiida) parasitic infection within the definitive otter host (lutra lutra) is used as a model system. the h ...201525444862
climatic variables are associated with the prevalence of biliary trematodes in otters.parasites with complex life cycles are expected to be disproportionately affected by climate change. knowledge of current associations with weather and host-parasite interactions is therefore essential for the inference of future distributions. the eurasian otter, lutra lutra, is exposed to a range of parasites due to its large home range and use of terrestrial, freshwater and marine habitats. as such, it can act as a sentinel species for generalist parasites. here we consider two biliary parasi ...201323751866
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild carnivores from spain.serum samples from 282 wild carnivores from different regions of spain were tested for antibodies to toxoplasma gondii by the modified agglutination test using a cut-off value of 1:25. antibodies to t. gondii were found in 22 of 27 (81.5%) of iberian lynx (lynx pardinus), 3 of 6 european wildcats (felis silvestris), 66 of 102 (64.7%) red foxes (vulpes vulpes), 15 of 32 (46.9%) wolves (canis lupus), 26 of 37 (70.3%) eurasian badgers (meles meles), 17 of 20 (85.0%) stone martens (martes foina), 4 ...200717689869
abiotic and biotic factors associated with tick population dynamics on a mammalian host: ixodes hexagonus infesting otters, lutra lutra.the eurasian otter, lutra lutra, hosts several parasites with zoonotic potential. as this semiaquatic mammal has large ranges across terrestrial, freshwater and marine habitats, it has the capacity for wide dispersion of pathogens. despite this, parasites of otters have received relatively little attention. here, we examine their ectoparasite load and assess whether this is influenced by abiotic or biotic variables. climatic phenomena such as the north atlantic oscillation (nao) affect weather c ...201223071736
leptospirosis in wild and domestic carnivores in natural areas in andalusia, spain.leptospirosis is a zoonosis that affects humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. carnivores are at the top of the feeding chain, thus being exposed to pathogens through their preys. from june 2004 to april 2007, we analyzed for evidences of contact with 14 serovars of leptospira interrogans sensu lato serum (analyzed by indirect microscopic agglutination test) and urine or kidney samples (analyzed by microscopic observation, immunostaining and culture) collected from 201 wild and domestic carniv ...200918973450
organochlorine pesticide residues and pcbs in otters (lutra lutra) from ireland. 19921627913
phylogenetic position of the japanese river otter lutra nippon inferred from the nucleotide sequence of 224 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene.a 224 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene has been amplified from a 30-year-old mummy-like specimen of the japanese river otter lutra nippon by polymerase chain reaction (pcr). the amplified products were subcloned in the smal site of puc 18 and sequenced. the sequence was different from those of the congeneric eurasian otters lutra lutra (latvia) and lutra lutra (china) in 7-9 nucleotides, all of which were located at the third position of a codon and identified as transitional d ...19968940916
from aquatic to terrestrial food webs: decrease of the docosahexaenoic acid/linoleic acid ratio.fatty acid composition of the adipose tissue of six carnivorous mammalian species (european otter lutra lutra, american mink mustela vison, european mink mustela lutreola, european polecat mustela putorius, stone marten martes foina and european wild cat felis silvestris) was studied. these species forage to differing degrees in aquatic and terrestrial food webs. fatty acid analysis revealed significant differences in polyunsaturated fatty acid composition between species. more specifically, our ...200818335265
Levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in the critically endangered Iberian lynx and other sympatric carnivores in Spain.Accumulation of organochlorine compounds is well studied in aquatic food chains whereas little information is available from terrestrial food chains. This study presents data of organochlorine levels in tissue and plasma samples of 15 critically endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) and other 55 wild carnivores belonging to five species from three natural areas of Spain (Doñana National Park, Sierra Morena and Lozoya River) and explores their relationship with species diet. The Iberian lynx, w ...201122099537
[comparative study in structure of myoglobins in semiaquatic animals: castor fiber, ondatra zibethica, lutra lutra].a degree of similarity in the structure of myoglobins in the semiaquatic animals (beaver, muskrat, otter) is shown by the finger-print method with the determination of amino acids content in peptides. it is established that about 2/3 of the acid sequence in the investigated myoglobins are invariable. an assumption is advanced that these regions of the structure are of most importance in the functional respect.19751216340
phylogeography of the smooth-coated otter (lutrogale perspicillata): distinct evolutionary lineages and hybridization with the asian small-clawed otter (aonyx cinereus).we investigated the phylogeography of the smooth-coated otter (lutrogale perspicillata) to determine its spatial genetic structure for aiding an adaptive conservation management of the species. fifty-eight modern and 11 archival (dated 1882-1970) otters sampled from iraq to malaysian borneo were genotyped (mtdna cytochrome-b, 10 microsatellite dna loci). moreover, 16 aonyx cinereus (asian small-clawed otter) and seven lutra lutra (eurasian otter) were sequenced to increase information available ...201728128366
investigating the role of wild carnivores in the epidemiology of bovine neosporosis.neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite, primarily associated with bovine abortion. the only definitive hosts discovered to date are carnivores. this study aimed to identify the role of mammalian carnivores in the epidemiology of bovine neosporosis. a sample bank of serum, fecal and brain samples was established: american mink (mustela vison), red foxes (vulpes vulpes), pine martens (martes martes), badgers (meles meles), stoats (mustela erminea), otters (lutra lutra) and feral ferrets (mustela ...201323068142
evaluating the phylogenetic status of the extinct japanese otter on the basis of mitochondrial genome analysis.the japanese otter lived throughout four main japanese islands, but it has not been observed in the wild since 1979 and was declared extinct in 2012. although recent taxonomic and molecular phylogenetic studies suggest that it should be treated as an independent species, international union for conservation of nature red list considers it as subspecies of lutra lutra. therefore, the taxonomic status of this species needs to be resolved. here we determined the complete mitochondrial genome of two ...201626938434
gene sequences for cytochromes p450 1a1 and 1a2: the need for biomarker development in sea otters (enhydra lutris).there has been recent public concern regarding the impacts of environmental pollution on populations of otters. population level impacts have been seen with otter (lutra lutra) populations in europe due to polychlorinated biphenyls, and with some segments of the prince william sound, ak, sea otter (enhydra lutris) population following the exxon valdez oil spill. despite public interest in these animals and their ecological significance, there are few tools that allow for the study of otter's res ...200818761099
novel adenoviruses detected in british mustelids, including a unique aviadenovirus in the tissues of pine martens (martes martes).several adenoviruses are known to cause severe disease in veterinary species. recent evidence suggests that canine adenovirus type 1 (cav-1) persists in the tissues of healthy red foxes (vulpes vulpes), which may be a source of infection for susceptible species. it was hypothesized that mustelids native to the uk, including pine martens (martes martes) and eurasian otters (lutra lutra), may also be persistently infected with adenoviruses. based on high-throughput sequencing and additional sanger ...201728749327
east-west divide: temperature and land cover drive spatial variation of toxoplasma gondii infection in eurasian otters (lutra lutra) from england and wales.toxoplasma gondii, a zoonotic parasite of global importance, infects all endothermic vertebrates, with extensive health implications. the prevalence of this parasite is seldom monitored in wildlife. here, a semi-aquatic species, the eurasian otter (lutra lutra) was used as a model to assess the potential effect of climate, land cover and biotic factors on t. gondii seroprevalence in british wildlife. the sabin-feldman cytoplasm-modifying dye test identified t. gondii antibodies in 25·5% of blood ...201728653587
improved reproductive success in otters (lutra lutra), grey seals (halichoerus grypus) and sea eagles (haliaeetus albicilla) from sweden in relation to concentrations of organochlorine contaminants.we studied indices of reproductive outcome in three aquatic species in relation to organochlorine concentrations during four decades. in female otters, the frequency of signs of reproduction increased after 1990. in grey seals, pregnancy rate increased 1990-2010 and uterine obstructions ceased after 1993. the frequency of uterine tumours was highest 1980-2000. the number of sea eagle nestlings per checked nest increased 1985-2000, while the frequency of desiccated eggs decreased. organochlorine ...201222842056
toxoplasma gondii in stranded marine mammals from the north sea and eastern atlantic ocean: findings and diagnostic difficulties.the occurrence of the zoonotic protozoan parasite toxoplasma gondii in marine mammals remains a poorly understood phenomenon. in this study, samples from 589 marine mammal species and 34 european otters (lutra lutra), stranded on the coasts of scotland, belgium, france, the netherlands and germany, were tested for the presence of t. gondii. brain samples were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for detection of parasite dna. blood and muscle fluid samples were tested for specific antibod ...201627884438
molecular prey identification in central european analysis is an important aspect when investigating the ecology of fish-eating animals and essential for assessing their functional role in food webs across aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. the identification of fish remains in dietary samples, however, can be time-consuming and unsatisfying using conventional morphological analysis of prey remains. here, we present a two-step multiplex pcr system, comprised of six assays, allowing for rapid, sensitive and specific detection of fish dna i ...201626053612
fecal genotyping and contaminant analyses reveal variation in individual river otter exposure to localized persistent contaminants.the present study investigated polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbon (phah) concentrations in feces of known river otters (lontra canadensis) along the coast of southern vancouver island, british columbia, canada. specifically, we combined microsatellite genotyping of dna from feces for individual identification with fecal contaminant analyses to evaluate exposure of 23 wild otters to organochlorine pesticides (ocps), polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs), and polybrominated diphenylethers (pbdes). ov ...201020821445
cross-species characterisation of polymorphic microsatellite loci in the giant otter (pteronura brasiliensis).nineteen microsatellite loci developed for the eurasian otter (lutra lutra) and 15 loci developed for the north american river otter (lontra canadensis) were tested for ease of amplification and degree of polymorphism on a set of 20 giant otter (pteronura brasiliensis) faecal samples from the bolivian amazon basin. nineteen loci amplified consistently well, with polymorphisms ranging from two to nine alleles and observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.15 to 0.85.200921564666
energy metabolism of underwater swimming in river-otters (lutra lutra l.).we used a still-water swim channel in conjunction with open-flow oxygen and carbon dioxide respirometry to examine the energy requirements of river-otters (lutra lutra l.) swimming voluntarily underwater in neumünster zoo (germany). while at rest on land (5 degrees c), river-otters had a respiratory quotient of 0.77 and a resting metabolic rate of 4.1 w kg-1. this increased to an estimated 6.4 w kg-1 during rest in water (11-15 degrees c) and to 12.3 w kg-1 when the animals were feeding in the c ...19989542149
prevalence, distribution and pathological significance of the bile fluke pseudamphistomum truncatum in eurasian otters (lutra lutra) in great britain.postmortem examinations on 160 otters found dead in great britain from 2005 to 2007 showed a high prevalence of infection with the bile fluke pseudamphistomum truncatum in otters from somerset and dorset but no infection in otters from other areas, including cornwall, the western half of devon, north-east england and scotland. cases were also recorded for the first time in gloucestershire and east anglia. eighteen of the 28 infected otters were male and no cubs were infected, but there was no si ...200919329809
disseminated mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in two wild eurasian otters (lutra lutra l.) from portugal.disseminated mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) infections were found in two eurasian otters (lutra lutra, l. 1758) killed by vehicular trauma in february and march 2010 in castelo branco, portugal. at postmortem examination, the organs showed no significant gross alterations; however, microscopically, both animals had diffuse lymphadenitis with macrophage infiltration and deposition of hyaline material in the center of the lymphoid follicles. acid-fast organisms were isolated fro ...201323505727
survey of mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in road-killed wild carnivores in portugal.a survey to determine the occurrence of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) in wild carnivores in portugal was conducted by testing samples from road-killed animals between 2009 and 2012. postmortem examinations were performed and tissues were collected from wild carnivores representing four families and six different species, with a total of 74 animals analyzed. cultures were performed by using löwenstein-jensen and middlebrook 7h11 solid media and acid-fast isolates were identifi ...201425632662
biliary parasite pseudamphistomum truncatum (opistorchiidae) in american mink (mustela vison) and eurasian otter (lutra lutra) in ireland.native eurasian otter (lutra lutra) and introduced american mink (mustela vison) carcasses collected throughout ireland were screened for biliary parasites. secondary intermediate hosts, cyprinid fish, were also examined for opistorchiid metacercariae. twenty-nine mink and 24 otter gall bladders were screened for biliary parasites. a single mink and three otters were found to be infected with the digenetic trematode pseudamphistomum truncatum. eighty-nine percent of roach (rutilus rutilus) from ...201020582437
geographic variation of craniodental morphology of the eurasian otter (lutra lutra) in east asia.craniodental morphology of the eurasian otter (lutra lutra) in the korean peninsula, japanese islands and kinmen island (taiwan) was studied using geometric morphometrics to identify the skull variations between the populations. forty adult skulls were examined (29 specimens from the korean peninsula, six from shikoku, honshu and hokkaido of japan, and five from kinmen island). images of the dorsal and ventral views of the skull and the right lateral view of the mandible were analyzed. specimens ...201727644315
geographic distribution of the tooth morphotypes of the river otter (carnivora, mustelidae, lutra lutra l., 1758) in northern eurasia. 201622562675
characterization of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus spp. carrying the mecc gene, isolated from wildlife.a recently identified meca homologue, mecc, in methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa) has been isolated from humans and different animal hosts. the aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial resistance and provide molecular characterization of mrsa and methicillin-resistant non-staphylococcus aureus staphylococci (mrnsa) isolated from wildlife that carried the gene mecc.201323674764
wisepair: a computer program for individual matching in genetic tracking studies.individual-based data sets tracking organisms over space and time are fundamental to answering broad questions in ecology and evolution. a 'permanent' genetic tag circumvents a need to invasively mark or tag animals, especially if there are little phenotypic differences among individuals. however, genetic tracking of individuals does not come without its limits; correctly matching genotypes and error rates associated with laboratory work can make it difficult to parse out matched individuals. in ...201727488501
sexual dimorphism of the eurasian otter (lutra lutra) in south korea: craniodental geometric morphometry.sexual dimorphism of the craniodental morphology of the eurasian otter in south korea was studied with geometric morphometrics. 29 adult skulls (15 males and 14 females) were used. images of the dorsal and ventral view of the cranium and right lateral view of the mandible were taken and then digitized, and measurements were taken on the right side. results showed that size difference between males and females was significant. correlations between the size and shape variations have not been obser ...201626983684
anthropogenic areas as incidental substitutes for original speaks of ecological substitutes when an introduced species performs, to some extent, the ecosystem function of an extirpated native species. we suggest that a similar case exists for habitats. species evolve within ecosystems, but habitats can be destroyed or modified by natural and human-made causes. sometimes habitat alteration forces animals to move to or remain in a suboptimal habitat type. in that case, the habitat is considered a refuge, and the species is called a refugee. typically ...201626483140
diet of otters (lutra lutra) in various habitat types in the pannonian biogeographical region compared to other regions of europe.knowledge of the effect of habitat type and region on diet and feeding behaviours of a species facilitates a better understanding of factors impacting populations, which contributes to effective conservation management. using spraint analysis and relative frequency of occurrence data from the literature, we described the dietary patterns of eurasian otters (lutra lutra) in 23 study sites within the pannonian biogeographical region in hungary. our results indicated that diet composition varied by ...201627602262
brains of native and alien mesocarnivores in biomonitoring of toxic metals in europe.mercury (hg), lead (pb) and cadmium (cd) are involved in mammalian brain damage. however, little is known about pb and cd brain levels in wildlife that reflect the geochemical background. the aims of the study include the estimation of hg, pb and cd concentrations, and the determination of relationships between these elements in the brains of 94 mesocarnivores. road-killed or hunted animals were obtained from north-western poland near the polish-german border. the investigation covered the nativ ...201627513467
first findings and prevalence of adult heartworms (dirofilaria immitis) in wild carnivores from serbia.heartworm (dirofilaria immitis) is a parasitic roundworm that causes a zoonotic disease known as dirofilariosis. little is known about the role of wild carnivores serving as reservoirs in nature. therefore, we examined 738 hearts and lungs of free ranging wild carnivores from serbia to determine the presence of adult heartworms. during the period 2009-2013, the prevalence in golden jackals (canis aureus) was 7.32%, in red foxes (vulpes vulpes) 1.55%, in wolves (canis lupus) 1.43%, and in wild ca ...201424951168
macroparasites of allis shad (alosa alosa) and twaite shad (alosa fallax) of the western iberian peninsula rivers: ecological, phylogenetic and zoonotic insights.samples of anadromous alosa alosa (clupeidae) (n = 163) and alosa fallax (clupeidae) (n = 223), caught in western iberian peninsula rivers from 2008 to 2013, were examined for buccal, branchial and internal macroparasites, which were identified using morphological and molecular methods. alosa alosa were infected with anisakis simplex s.s., anisakis pegreffii, hysterothylacium aduncum, rhadinorhynchus pristis, mazocraes alosae, hemiurus appendiculatus, ceratothoa italica and an unidentified ergas ...201526141433
integrative taxonomy of european parasitic flatworms of the genus metorchis looss, 1899 (trematoda: opisthorchiidae).metorchis spp. are flukes (platyhelminthes: digenea) that infect vertebrates, including humans, dogs, cats, poultry and wild game, with cyprinid freshwater fish serving as typical second intermediate hosts. in their definitive hosts, the metorchis spp. are difficult to identify to species. we provide and analyze sequences of two nuclear (18s rdna and its2) and two mitochondrial (co1 and nd1) dna loci of four morphologically identified european species of the metorchis, namely metorchis albidus, ...201626794684
distribution and molecular phylogeny of biliary trematodes (opisthorchiidae) infecting native lutra lutra and alien neovison vison across europe.the recent identification of pseudamphistomum truncatum, (rudolphi, 1819) (trematoda: opisthorchiidae) and metorchis bilis (braun, 1790) odening, 1962 (synonymous with metorchis albidus (braun, 1893) loos, 1899 and metorchis crassiusculus (rudolphi, 1809) looss, 1899 (trematoda: opisthorchiidae)) in otters from britain caused concern because of associated biliary damage, coupled with speculation over their alien status. here, we investigate the presence, intensity and phylogeny of these trematod ...201626620805
physiological responses of over-wintering common carp (cyprinus carpio) to disturbance by eurasian otter (lutra lutra).using a tame animal, the impact of otter (lutra lutra) disturbance on over-wintering carp (cyprinus carpio) was monitored in two experiments, 133 and 140 days, respectively, over two consecutive winters (november-april). the level of stress in over-wintering carp exposed to various intensities of disturbance by otters was quantified using biological indicators of stress (cortisol, cortisone, indices of nitrogen, carbohydrate, lipid and mineral metabolism and activity of basic blood plasma enzyme ...200818665460
A record of Pseudamphistomum truncatum (Rudolphi, 1819) (Digenea, Opisthorchiidae) in the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra L.) from Poland.Opisthorchid digenean Pseudamphistomum truncatum (Rudolphi, 1819) was isolated from liver bile ducts of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) found dead in the fishing pond complex near Wroclaw (Lower Silesia, SW. Poland) in March 2009. Since this is the first record of the parasite in the otter from Poland, the description, biometrical data and figure are presented.201122165735
development of novel real-time taqman(®) pcr assays for the species and sex identification of otter (lutra lutra) and their application to noninvasive genetic monitoring.developing strategies to maintain biodiversity requires baseline information on the current status of each individual species. the development of genetic techniques and their application to noninvasively collected samples have the potential to yield information on the structure of elusive animal populations and so are important tools in conservation management. using dna isolated from faecal samples can be challenging owing to low quantity and quality. this study, however, presents the developme ...201323870402
coproscopical investigations of the european otter (lutra lutra) from białowieza primeval forest.the parasitofauna of the european otter (lutra lutra) remains poorly known in poland. in the presented study 106 fecal samples from otters living in the białowieza primeval forest were examined, using standard flotation and sedimentation methods. we found that the overall prevalence of parasitic infections was 30.1%. eggs of alaria alata (0.9%), opistorchis or metorchis sp. (5.7%), diphyllobothrium latum (1.9%) and aonchotheca putori (1.9%) were identified, but in other cases the species of para ...201020707304
vagococcus lutrae sp. nov., isolated from the common otter (lutra lutra).phenotypic and phylogenetic studies were performed on an unknown gram-positive catalase-negative coccus isolated from a common otter (lutra lutra). comparative 16s rrna gene sequencing demonstrated that the unknown bacterium represents a new subline within the genus vagococcus, close to, but distinct from, vagococcus fluvialis and vagococcus salmoninarum. the unknown bacterium was readily distinguished from the two currently recognized vagococcus species by biochemical tests and electrophoretic ...199910425788
comparative functional anatomy of hindlimb muscles and bones with reference to aquatic adaptation of the sea otter.although the sea otter (enhydra lutris) is a complete aquatic species, spending its entire life in the ocean, it has been considered morphologically to be a semi-aquatic animal. this study aimed to clarify the unique hindlimb morphology and functional adaptations of e. lutris in comparison to other mustelidae species. we compared muscle mass and bone measurements of five mustelidae species: the sea otter, eurasian river otter (lutra lutra), american mink (neovison vison), japanese weasel (mustel ...201525715875
a comparative analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of the eurasian otter lutra lutra (carnivora; mustelidae).otter populations are declining throughout the world and most otter species are considered endangered. molecular methods are suitable tools for population genetic research on endangered species. in the present study, we analyzed the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of the eurasian otter lutra lutra. the mitochondrial dna sequence of the eurasian otter is 16,505 bp in length and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 trnas, 2 rrnas, and a control region (cr). the cr sequence o ...201019757186
renal calculi in wild eurasian otters (lutra lutra) in england.macroscopic renal calculi were seen in 50 of 492 (10.2 per cent) wild eurasian otters found dead in england from 1988 to 2007. forty-eight adults and two subadults were affected. calculi were present in 15.7 per cent (31 of 197) of adult males and 12.7 per cent (17 of 134) of adult females. there was an increase in prevalence in the study population over time; no calculi were found in 73 otters examined between 1988 and 1996, but in most subsequent years they were observed with increased frequen ...201121676988
accuracy in molecular sexing of martens (martes americana and martes caurina) varies among sample types.we evaluated the accuracy of sex identification using the sry marker for american marten (martes americana) and pacific marten (martes caurina) using samples collected from commercial trappers and those obtained via noninvasive sampling. we determined that sex identification from lut-sry primers is accurate at >90% for muscle and hair samples collected noninvasively. we found much lower accuracy when using hair samples plucked from trapper-killed carcasses, errors presumably incurred from contam ...201021565111
habitat correlates of the eurasian otter lutra lutra recolonizing central poland.the increase in eurasian otter lutra lutra populations in their natural range and recolonization processes are recently observed in several european countries. we address the process of otter recolonization and habitat utilization in central poland over 14 years. field surveys in 1998 and 2007 documented increase in occurrence of the species. the frequency of positive sites denoted 15 % in 1993, 38 % in 1998, and 89 % in 2007. otter occurrence at study sites was positively affected by river widt ...201223538688
lead levels in eurasian otters decline with time and reveal interactions between sources, prevailing weather, and stream chemistry.the uptake of contaminants by biota varies spatially and temporally due to a complex range of interacting environmental variables, but such complexities are typically disregarded in studies of temporal change. here, we use linear modeling to explore spatial and temporal variation in bone pb levels measured in samples taken from 329 eurasian otters (lutra lutra) found dead in southwest england. between 1992 and 2004 pb levels in otters fell by 73%, following uk legislative control of pb emissions ...201121294545
recent changes in body size of the eurasian otter lutra lutra in sweden.we studied geographical and temporal body size trends among 169 adult museum specimens of the eurasian otter (lutra lutra) collected in sweden between 1962 and 2008, whose sex, year of collection, and locality were known. skull size and body mass increased significantly in relation to the year of collection, and skull size (but not body mass) was significantly and negatively related to latitude, contrasting bergmann's rule and the trend found for norwegian otters. latitudinal differences in body ...201021090004
occurrence and molecular genotyping of giardia duodenalis and cryptosporidium spp. in wild mesocarnivores in spain.there is a surprisingly scarce amount of epidemiological and molecular data on the prevalence, frequency, and diversity of the intestinal protozoan parasites giardia duodenalis and cryptosporidium spp. in wildlife in general and mesocarnivore species in particular. consequently, the extent of the cyst/oocyst environmental contamination attributable to these wild host species and their potential implications for public veterinary health remain largely unknown. in this molecular epidemiological su ...201728215875
intestinal lymphoma of granular lymphocytes in a fisher (martes pennanti) and a eurasian otter (lutra lutra).intestinal lymphoma of granular lymphocytes was diagnosed in a 6-year-old fisher (martes pennanti) and a geriatric eurasian otter (lutra lutra). clinical signs included lethargy and inappetance in both animals and vomiting and occasional diarrhea in the fisher. the diagnosis in both cases was made using cytology of fresh tissue, histology of fixed tissues, and immunohistochemistry. granules were seen most clearly on cytologic examination of direct impressions from fresh tissue. because granules ...201020597223
viral metagenomic analysis of feces of wild small carnivores.recent studies have clearly demonstrated the enormous virus diversity that exists among wild animals. this exemplifies the required expansion of our knowledge of the virus diversity present in wildlife, as well as the potential transmission of these viruses to domestic animals or humans.201424886057
use of coarse-resolution models of species' distributions to guide local conservation inferences.distribution models are used increasingly for species conservation assessments over extensive areas, but the spatial resolution of the modeled data and, consequently, of the predictions generated directly from these models are usually too coarse for local conservation applications. comprehensive distribution data at finer spatial resolution, however, require a level of sampling that is impractical for most species and regions. models can be downscaled to predict distribution at finer resolutions ...201020455912
structure of the mitochondrial control region of the eurasian otter (lutra lutra; carnivora, mustelidae): patterns of genetic heterogeneity and implications for conservation of the species in this study we determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial dna (mtdna) control region of the eurasian otter (lutra lutra). we then compared these new sequences with orthologues of nine carnivores belonging to six families (mustelidae, mephitidae, canidae, hyaenidae, ursidae, and felidae). the comparative analyses identified all the conserved regions previously found in mammals. the eurasian otter and seven other species have a single location with tandem repeats in the right domain, ...200615731216
bone mineral density in swedish otters (lutra lutra) in relation to pcb and dde concentrations.the aim of this study is to elucidate if dde (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) or pcb (polybrominated diphenyls), are responsible for the pathological alterations observed in swedish otter bone tissues. femurs from 86 male otters collected between 1832 and 2004 were measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pqct). some otters had very high and others fairly low concentrations of ocs (ranging between 1.4-970 mg sigmapcb/kg l.w. and 0.0-24 mg dde/kg l.w. in muscle tissue). posit ...201020188416
metal levels in tissues of eurasian otters (lutra lutra) from hungary: variation with sex, age, condition and location.liver samples of eurasian otters from various parts of hungary were analysed for mercury, copper, zinc, lead and cadmium. only zinc concentration was significantly higher in females. higher mercury and cadmium concentrations in adults and higher zinc values in immature otters were measured. accumulation of mercury, copper and zinc in tissues increased with the declining condition of animals. mercury and copper were detected with higher values in samples from large rivers.200919036400
heavy metals in the habitat and throughout the food chain of the neotropical otter, lontra longicaudis, in protected mexican predators like the neotropical otter, lontra longicaudis annectens, are usually considered good bioindicators of habitat quality. in this study, we evaluated heavy metal contamination (hg(tot), pb, cd) in the riverine habitat, prey (crustaceans and fish), and otter feces in two ramsar wetlands with contrasting upstream contamination discharges: río blanco and río caño grande in veracruz, mexico, during the dry, the wet, and the nortes seasons. most comparisons revealed no differences between ...201322527458
molecular detection of sarcocystis lutrae in the european badger (meles meles) in scotland.neck samples from 54 badgers and 32 tongue samples of the same badgers (meles meles), collected in the lothians and borders regions of scotland, were tested using polymerase chain reactions (pcrs) directed against the 18s ribosomal dna and the internal transcribed spacer (its1) region of protozoan parasites of the family sarcocystidae. positive results were obtained from 36/54 (67%) neck and 24/32 (75%) tongue samples using an 18s rdna pcr. a 468 base pair consensus sequence that was generated f ...201728641603
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