[immunodiffusion analysis of plasma proteins in the canine family].immunodiffusion studies have been made on the plasma of 9 species (vulpes vulpes, v. corsak, alopex lagopus, canis aureus, c. lupus, c. familiaris, c. dingo, nyctereutes procynoides, fennecus zerde) from the family of canidae using milk antisera. unlike rabbit antisera used earlier, milk antisera make it possible to detect more significant antigenic divergency with respect to 5 alpha- and beta-globulins. these globulins seem to have a higher evolution rate of antigenic mosaics as compared to oth ...197662473
wildlife and environmental health: raccoons as indicators of zoonoses and pollutants in southeastern united states.inasmuch as terrestrial fauna are an integral part of our natural environment and are directly exposed to disease and pollutants, it follows that certain wild populations could serve to detect subtle alterations within ecosystems. a collection of studies on raccoons is presented to stimulate other researchers to develop the potential of our wildlife resources as monitors of environmental health. raccoons have been used as serologic sentinels for st louis encephalitis and venezuelan equine enceph ...1975170239
viral inclusions in raccoon liver cells.three young raccoons (procyon lotor), two from michigan and one from arizona, died suddenly from acute infections. intranuclear inclusion bodies and viral particles typical of herpesvirus were seen in liver cells from all three. inclusions also were seen in the nuclei of endothelial cells in the lung, liver, glomeruli and reticuloendothelial cells of the spleen. the source of the infection was not determined, but possible transmission from other species could not be ruled out.1978206734
[epidemiology of rabies (author's transl)].rabies is widespread in all continents except australia. as an anthropozoonosis its main importance is in areas with uncontrolled dog rabies, nowadays principally topical and subtropical regions. the greatest economic losses however are encountered in the cattle herds of south and central america, where paralyssa prevails. in the northern hemisphere particularly rabies is enzootic among wildlife. under the given ecological conditions only one or two species act as primary vectors of the infectio ...1978306053
application of the soluble antigen fluorescent antibody (safa) test to the serodiagnosis of rabies.the adaptation and evaluation of the soluble antigen fluorescent antibody (safa) test for the serologic diagnosis of rabies is described. evaluation of the safa test was based on a comparison between serum titers obtained in the safa test, the mouse serum neutralization (sn) test and in the indirect fluorescent antibody (ifat) test. dog, fox, raccoon and skunk sera were used for the comparison with mouse sn titers. human serum was used for the comparison with the ifat titer. the purity and conce ...1977320266
trichinella spiralis in raccoons (procyon lotor) of tennessee. 1979448587
reproductive features in the female raccoon dog (nyctereutes procyonoides). 1977563458
hematotropic parasites of translocated raccoons in the southeast.ninety-four raccoons (procyon lotor) from 6 southeastern states were examined for hematotropic parasites, to evaluate the carrier potential of these animals as they relate to translocation and release for hunting purposes. four species of hematotropic parasites were identified, viz, babesia procyonis, haemobartonella procyoni, hepatozoon procyonis, and trypanosoma cruzi. lesions in infected raccoons were associated only with h procyonis. babesia procyonis was enzootic in populations of raccoons ...1978104938
dirofilaria cancrivori sp. n. (nematoda: filarioidea from the crabdog, procyon cancrivorus, in guyana.dirofilaria cancrivori sp. n. is described from subcutaneous tissues of the crabdog, procyon cancrivorus, in guyana, south america. the filarid is morphologically distinct from dirofilaria tenuis, parasite of a related host, the raccoon, in the southern united states, and all other species of dirofilaria. the parasite can be distinguished from other dirofilarias based on a combination of morphological features including its size, number, and arrangement of caudal papillae on the male tail, size ...1978627950
serologic survey for toxoplasma gondii in wild animals in florida.blood samples were collected for serum separation from 114 species of wild animals (25 species of mammals, 82 species of birds, and 7 species of reptiles) in florida. each of the 3,471 samples was tested for antibodies to toxoplasma gondii, using the indirect hemagglutination test. the highest prevalences of t gondii antibodies were 19% in armadillos (dasypus novemcinctus), 18% in raccoons (procyon lotor), 13% in black rats (rattus rattus), and 11% in opossums (didelphis marsupialis). antibody p ...1979521384
laboratory observations on the insusceptibility of raccoons to dirofilaria immitis.two raccoons, procyon lotor, were exposed to dirofilaria immitis by subcutaneous injection of infective third stage larvae obtained from experimentally-infected aedes trivittatus. nematodes were not recovered from either raccoon when examined at necropsy 223 and 254 days postexposure. large numbers of adult d. immitis were found in six dogs used as controls. these data indicate that raccoons cannot support the development of d. immitis.1978633513
amino acid sequence of the hemoglobin of raccoon (procyon lotor).the amino acid sequences of the hemoglobin alpha- and beta-chains of raccoon have been determined by a combination of manual and automatic sequencing procedures. the raccoon beta-chain shows 16 amino acid differences from that of dog. the alpha chain shows 10 differences. these values are identical with those predicted by analogy from their tryptic peptide compositions.1978701090
frequency of sarcocystis spp in detroit, metropolitan area, michigan.a survey of sarcocystis spp in feral animals and in domesticated animals slaughtered in detroit, mi, was undertaken during a 6-month period, april to september, 1973, using histologic and digestion diagnostic techniques. results indicated 75.3% of 789 sheep and 10.8% of 306 lambs were infected. infection in young and adult sheep was low in april (0% of 78 lambs and 6.7% of 62 adult sheep), but increased in july (24% of 90 lambs and 94.1% of 201 adult sheep). high frequency of sarcocystis in summ ...1975803806
further characterization of raccoonpox virus.a poxvirus isolated from the respiratory tract of raccoons in a forest and swamp area near aberdeen, maryland, was characterized by biological, serological, and biophysical methods. the virus was shown to be related to the vaccinia-variola subgroup by serological and biophysical methods, but measurably different from the other viruses of this group by biological methods. it causes flaccid paralysis in 1-day-old suckling mice and does not grow well on cam after two or three passages.1975813616
oral infection of mammals with sarcocystis fusiformis bradyzoites from cattle and sporocysts from dogs and coyotes.individual sporocysts containing 4 sporozoites were shed in the feces of dogs, foxes, and raccoons after ingestion of bovine tissue infected with sarcocystis fusiformis bradyzoites. no sporocysts were shed by cats, monkeys, swine, skunks, ferrets, rats, guinea pigs, or rabbits after ingestion of similar bovine tissue. the shedding of sporocysts by dogs that had ingested tissue from a bovine experimentally infected with sporocysts from coyotes indicated that both canids were definitive hosts for ...1976815528
experimental dirofilariasis in macaques. iii. susceptibility and host responses to dirofilaria tenuis of this third of a series of studies on experimental dirofilariasis in primate hosts, 3 macaca cynomolgus, 6 m. speciosa, and 2 m. mulatta were inoculated with infective larvae of dirofilaria tenuis, a parasite of the raccoon, and were killed at periods ranging from 2 weeks to 13 months of infection. one m. mulatta and one m. speciosa were treated daily with prednisolone beginning 2 months after inoculation; worms were recovered from these and 5 other monkeys (7 of 11). microfilaremia was detect ...1976816216
coding of mechanical stimulus velocity and indentation depth by squirrel monkey and raccoon glabrous skin mechanoreceptors.1. a sample of 113 large, myelinated first-order afferent fibers innervating the glabrous skin of the squirrel monkey's hand proved to consist primarily of two basic types. in a sample where the only known source of sampling bias is a greater likelihood to record from larger diameter fibers, 40% of the fibers were rapidly adapting (ra) and 60% were very slowly adapting (vsa). two units were moderately slowly adapting (msa), and one had the properties of a pacinian afferent (pc). 2. the ra and vs ...1976823305
a review of sarcocystis of domestic animals and of other coccidia of cats and dogs.the nomenclature, life cycles, and pathogenicity of sarcocystis of domestic animals are reviewed. sarcocystis had a 2-host life cycle, with carnivores as definitive hosts and herbivores as intermediate hosts. the following species are found in domestic animals (with the definitive hosts given in parentheses): 3 species in the ox: s cruzi (dog, wolf, coyote, raccoon, fox), s hirsuta (cat), s hominis (man, monkey); 2 species in the sheep: s ovicanis (dog), s tenella (cat); 3 species in the pig: s ...1976824260
experimental coonhound paralysis: animal model of guillain-barré syndrome.coonhound paralysis (chp), a polyradiculoneuritis of dogs that resembles the human guillain-barré syndrome, was experimentally reproduced by inoculating a dog with raccoon saliva. the test animal was a coonhound that had previously sustained two naturally occurring attacks of chp. success in inducing the disease strengthened the notion that raccoon saliva contains the etiologic factor for chp and that only specifically susceptible dogs are at risk of developing chp when exposed to this factor.1979572511
on the tryptic peptides from hemoglobin chains of six carnivores.the amino acid compositions of the tryptic peptides of the following carnivore hemoglobin chains have been determined: gray fox (urocyon cineroargenteus); raccoon (procyon lotor); polar bear (thalarctos maritimus); coati mundi (nasua nasua) beta chain; coati mundi (nasua narica) two beta chains; cat (felis catus) alpha chain; and lion (pantbera leo) beta chain. these provide a basis for future sequencing of these hemoglobins and construction of an evolutionary tree. the specific results are summ ...1977864727
[morpho-physiologic criteria for the taxonomic independence of the species trichinella pseudospiralis garkavi, 1972].a taxonomic status of a new species of trichinella from procyon lotor l. described by v. l. garkavi in 1972 as t. pseudospiralis is discussed. two-month invasional larvae resemble in their size and structure 19-20-day larvae of typical t. spiralis. however, the ratio between their organs points not only to the delay in development but also to significant structural morphological differences. luminiscent microscopic analysis of muscular and intestinal forms of both species confirms this. impossib ...1977865876
agglutinins to coxiella burnetii and brucella spp, with particular reference to brucella canis, in wild animals of southern texas.the prevalence of agglutinins to coxiella burnetii and brucella spp, particularly brucella canis, was determined in 269 wild animals (14 species) in southern texas. serologic evidence of coxiellosis and brucellosis, including b canis infection, was shown for coyotes, raccoons, opossums, badgers, jackrabbits, and feral hogs. using the microagglutination test, the seroprevalence of c burnetii, phases i and ii (titer greater than or equal to 4) was 4.1 and 27.9%, respectively. for brucella agglutin ...1977924870
behavior and mortality of free-ranging raccoons, snowshoe hares, and striped skunks after exposure to 300 r gamma radiation. 1977847099
human infestation by cat fleas, ctenocephalides felis (siphonaptera: pulicidae), from suburban raccoons. 1979575164
levels of oestrogen and progesterone in the plasma of the raccoon dog (nyctereutes procyonoides) during oestrus and pregnancy. 1978632726
preliminary studies on the characterization and distribution of staphylococcus and micrococcus species on animal skin.a total of 221 strains of staphylococci and 98 strains of micrococci isolated from the skins of eastern gray squirrels, southern flying squirrels, raccoons, opossums, squirrel monkeys, swine, sheep, horses, cattle, and dogs were characterized in a preliminary attempt to resolve their natural relationships and distribution in nature. staphylococci demonstrating the widest host range included staphylococcus xylosus and unnamed staphylococcus sp. 3. unnamed staphylococcus sp. 2 was isolated only fr ...1976942208
crab-eating raccoon, procyon cancrivorus nigripes (mivart 1885) (carnivora: procyonidae) naturally infected with schistosoma mansoni in minas gerais state, brazil. 1976978364
arthrostoma miyazakiense (nagayosi 1955) comb. n., a parasite of the raccoon-like dog, nyctereutes procyonoides, with a key to the genus arthrostoma (nematoda: ancylostomatidae).necator miyazakiensis nagayosi 1955, a hookworm from the raccoon-like dog, nyctereutes procyonoides, in miyazaki prefecture, kyushu, japan, is redescribed and placed in the genus arthrostoma cameron 1927, and compared with the 6 other species of the genus. arthrostoma miyazakiense comb. n. is found in raccoon-like dogs not only in miyazaki prefecture, but also in kyoto and hokkaido prefectures. this is the first record of a species of arthrostoma in japan.1976988154
prevalence of toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild and domestic animals in northern california.wild and domestic animals from 3 geographic-climatologic areas in northern california were tested for antibodies against toxoplasma gondii. a total of 2,796 serum samples representing 37 species of wild mammals, 35 species of wild birds, and 5 species of domestic animals were tested by the indirect hemagglutination test. of 1,174 wild mammal serums tested, 10.8% were positive, which compared with 14.7% of the 1,221 domestic mammal serums. of 229 wild carnivores tested, 45% were seropositive, inc ...1976977457
an account of the longitudinal mucosal corrugations of the human tracheo-bronchial tree, with observations on those of some animals.a description is given of the distribution of the longitudinal mucosal corrugations in the human tracheo-bronchial tree. it has been shown that they are made up of elastic tissue in a collagen matrix, and that the elastic fibres continue into the smallest bronchioles beyond where the corrugations are no longer visible. an examination has also been made of the tracheo-bronchial trees of the hen, rat, raccoon, pig, sheep, llama and tiger. corrugations are present in all these animals, except the h ...19761010796
dermatophilosis among wild raccoons in new york state.dermatophilus congolensis was established as the cause of dermatitis in 8 raccoons, as determined from examination of carcasses and untreated hides. encrusted lesions were restricted to or more pronounced in the areas around the eyes, along the snout, and on the skin in the tarsal and carpal regions. the causative agent was demonstrated through direct examination of stained paraffin sections, isolation in pure culture, or examination of stained smears from lesions induced experimentally in rabbi ...1976977468
experimental infection of north american mammals with epidemic venezuelan encephalitis virus.eighty-three wild mammals of ten species were inoculated with a first mouse passage level venezuelan encephalitis (ve) virus isolated from south texas in 1971 during the ve outbreak. rodents were highly susceptible to ve infection and circulated ve virus at levels ranging from 10(7.7) to 10(11.5) suckling mouse intracranial lethal doses per ml for 2 to 4 days. these levels of virus could easily infect vector mosquitoes. mortality was high in all species of rodents except sigmodon hispidus, adult ...19761008132
visceral lesions in racoons naturally infected with heterobilharzia americana.three free-ranging raccoons caught in southeastern florida were found to be infected by heterobilharzia americana. the livers were firm with rough surfaces and stellate patterns of periportal fibrosis. the portal tracts had excessive mature fibrous connective tissue and occasional ovum and necrotic fluke granulomas. there were also ovum granulomas with concomitant lesions in small and large intestine, pancreas, and lung. numerous other parasites were seen.1976969165
paragonimus kellicotti infection in wild carnivores in southwestern ontario: ii. histopathologic features.pulmonary lesions associated with naturally acquired paragonimus kellicotti infection were studied in mink (mustela vison), striped skunks (mephitis mephitis), red foxes (vulpes vulpes) and a coyote (canis latrans). in ,ink a fibrous capsule was formed around mature flukes in dilated bronchioles or bronchi, and there was mild focal interstitial pneumonitis adjacent to fluke eggs in alveoli and migrating parasites. a thick wall, infiltrated heavily with mononuclear cells and eosinophils, surroun ...19751152176
species differences in mechanosensory projections from the mouth to the ventrobasal determine whether the largely ipsilateral, inverted representation of mouth parts in the ventrobasal thalamus of sheep was unique to that species or an expansion of a general mammalian pattern, the corresponding thalamic projections were mapped electrophysiologically in a selected series of mammals (oppossums, agoutis, squirrel monkeys, cats, raccoons, and sheep) representing major branches of evolution among therian mammals. in mapping, tungsten microelectrodes were used to record multi-unit ...19751159110
attempted experimental cross infections with mammalian guinea-worms, dracunculus spp. (nematoda: dracunculoidea).dracunculus medinensis and d. insignis are morphologically indistinguishable. experiments to test the susceptibility of various mammalian hosts to these two guinea worm species are described. infective 3rd-stage larvae of d. medinensis were administered to each of four raccons (procyon lotor): infective 3rd-stage larvae of d. insignis were administered to a rhesus monkey (macaca mulatta), two dogs, two ferrets (mustela putorius furo), and a marten (martes americana). d. medinensis was not found ...1976134642
observations on the seasonal prevalence, pathology and transmission of dracunculus insignis (nematoda: dracunculoidea) in the raccoon (procyon lotor (l.) in ontario.lesions due to dracunculus insignis in the legs of raccoons (procyon lotor) in southern ontario occur seasonally as most larvigerous females emerge in the spring and early summer (april-june). the pathology of dracunculiasis in the raccoon is described and the transmission of the parasite in the wild is discussed with respect to seasonality and local agricultural practices. crayfish, fishes and frogs (including tadpoles) were given infective third-stage larvae of d. insignis to test their suitab ...1977144196
trivittatus virus infections in wild mammals and sentinel rabbits in central iowa.a serological survey was conducted in iowa to determine the prevalence rate of california group virus antibodies in sera of several vertebrate species. serum specimens were assayed for infectivity-neutralizing antibody in a microneutralization system with baby hamster kidney cell culture. of 77 sera assayed, 21 (27%) neutralized trivittatus (tvt) virus infectivity. the antibody prevalence rate was highest for eastern cottontail rabbits inasmuch as 46% (10/22) of the serum specimens form this spe ...19751200251
edwardsiella tarda infections in florida racoons, procyon lotor.edwardsiella tarda was isolated from the large intestine of seven (17%) of 42 racoons from florida. the rate varied from 12% in south florida to 25% in north florida. in addition, 52% of the racoons examined were carrying salmonella, with numerous serotypes represented.19751200720
the basal forebrain cholinergic system in the raccoon.the distribution of neurons displaying choline acetyltransferase (chat) immunoreactivity was examined in the raccoon basal forebrain using a rabbit antiserum and a monoclonal antibody. alternating sections were used for nissl staining. chat-positive neurons were arranged in a continuous mass extending from the medial septum to the caudal pole of the pallidum. based upon spatial relations to fibre tracts, the clustering of neuronal groups, and cytological criteria, the basal forebrain magnocellul ...19921282324
concomitant cryptosporidia, coronavirus and parvovirus infection in a raccoon (procyon lotor).a juvenile raccoon (procyon lotor) was found moribund near fort collins, colorado (usa). upon examination, the raccoon was dehydrated, had a mucopurulent oculonasal discharge and diarrhea, and was euthanized. postmortem examination revealed emaciation, severe fibrinous gastroenteritis and a small, firm liver. histopathological findings included blunting of villi, infiltration of lamina propria with neutrophils and plasma cells, and mild bronchopneumonia. cryptosporidium sp. was demonstrated on i ...19921312645
rocky mountain spotted fever in connecticut: human cases, spotted-fever group rickettsiae in ticks, and antibodies in mammals.three parameters were used in 1976 and 1977 to assess the status of rocky mountain spotted fever (rmsf) in connecticut--compilation and review of clinical data on suspected human cases for the 13-year period 1965--1977, examination of tick tissues for spotted fever-group rickettsiae by the hemolymph test and direct immunofluorescence, and analyses of mammalian sera for antibodies against rickettsia rickettsii. there were six presumptive rmsf cases which probably originated in connecticut. four o ...1979111543
experimental oral administration of canine adenovirus (type 2) to raccoons (procyon lotor).canine adenovirus type 2 (cav2) has been proposed for recombinant vaccines to control rabies in wild animals. to evaluate the suitability of cav2 as a safe vector for the genetically engineered vaccines, seven wild-caught raccoons (three males and four females) were administered cav2 per os. two of the animals were euthanatized on each of post-infection days 3, 6, and 14, and one was euthanatized on day 21. two other control raccoons (a male and a female) were also euthanatized on day 21. micros ...19921448897
consideration of inactivated rabies vaccines as oral immunogens of wild experimental beta-propiolactone (bpl)-inactivated rabies virus vaccine was evaluated for the oral immunization of captive raccoons (procyon lotor) and red foxes (vulpes vulpes). none of 10 red foxes administered a single 1.0 ml dose of bpl-inactivated rabies virus vaccine (pm strain; 100 or 500 micrograms protein) per os developed detectable anti-rabies virus-neutralizing antibodies (vna) at any time over 8 wk of observation. foxes were excluded from further study. in two different groups of ...19921474662
rabies surveillance in the united states during 1991, 49 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico reported 6,972 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 3 cases in human beings to the centers for disease control. ninety-one percent (6,354 cases) were wild animals, whereas 8.9% (618 cases) were domestic species. the total number of reported cases of rabies increased 42.9% over that of 1990 (4,881 cases), with most of the increase resulting from continued spread of the epizootic of rabies in raccoons in the mid-atlantic and northeas ...19921483899
benefits and costs of using an orally absorbed vaccine to control rabies in november 1989, the epizootic of rabies affecting raccoons in the mid-atlantic states reached new jersey. an economic evaluation was conducted in 2 counties first affected by the epizootic to estimate the costs of the epizootic and to assess the costs and benefits of orally administering a newly developed recombinant rabies vaccine to prevent further spread of the disease. data on expenditures associated with prevention of rabies in human beings and domestic animals and laboratory testing of s ...19921483905
epizootic of rabies in raccoons in maryland from 1981 to 1987.the epizootic of rabies in raccoons entered maryland in 1981 and systematically moved through the state affecting raccoons in all counties except those of the lower eastern shore. a precoded surveillance form was provided to all county and city health departments and data were requested for each animal head submitted for testing for the year 1985. the disease persisted and, in 1987, all counties previously reporting rabies in raccoons also had documented cases in other species. the incidence of ...19921483906
the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis on iowa swine farms with an emphasis on the roles of free-living mammals.multiparous sows from 19 central iowa swine farms were tested for antibodies against toxoplasma gondii by the modified direct agglutination test. antibody titers of 1:32 or greater were considered positive. rodents, domestic cats, opossums (didelphis virginiana), raccoons (procyon lotor) and striped skunks (mephitis mephitis) were live-trapped on each farm and similarly tested for antibodies. the overall prevalence of t. gondii antibodies in the species tested was 39/273 (14.3%) swine, 31/74 (41 ...19921496780
raccoon heartworm causing a facial mass.a dirofilaria tenuis subcutaneous nodule was found in the supraorbital area of a 77-year-old woman living in miami beach. removal of this nodule revealed the worm and confirmed the diagnosis. infection with dirofilaria tenuis is most common in southern florida because of the high incidence of these worms in their natural hosts--raccoons and opossums.19921502628
a survey for toxoplasma gondii antibodies in deer and other wildlife on a sheep range.blood samples were obtained from native mammals and birds on a sheep range (hopland field station) in northern california. serums were tested for antibodies to toxoplasma gondii by the indirect hemagglutination test. of 382 deer that were tested from 1964 to 1973, 77 (20%) were seropositive for t gondii. among 36 serums representing 6 species of wild carnivores (badgers, bobcats, coyotes, foxes, raccoons, and skunks), 18 (50%) were seropositive. all of the 5 bobcats tested were seropositive, wit ...19751176348
paragonimus kellicotti infection in wild carnivores in southwestern ontario: i. prevalence and gross pathologic features.paragonimus kellicotti ward, 1908 was recovered from 16 of 105 mink (mustela vison), 14 of 244 striped skunks (mephitis mephitis), 10 of 446 red foxes (vulpes vulpes), 1 of 31 coyotes (canis latrans), 0 of 326 raccoons (procyon lotor) and 0 of 8 weasels (mustela spp.) collected from southwestern ontario. the majority of carnivores harboring p. kellicotti was collected from two counties (huron and bruce) bordering the east shore of lake huron where 6.0% of the animals (excluding raccoons) were in ...19751113433
toxoplasma antibodies among bobcats and other carnivores of norther california.the prevalence of antibodies to toxoplasma gondii was investigated among five species of wild carnivores in norther ccalifornia. the highest prevalence was among bobcats (lynx rufus), with 15 of 21 tested being serologically positive. other results included serological evidence of toxoplasmosis in two of seven raccoons (procyon lotor), one of three badgers (taxidea taxus) and two of three coyotes (canis latrans). two gray foxes (urocyon cinereoargenteus) were serologically negative. oone badger ...19751142562
experimental inoculation of raccoons (procyon lotor) with rabies virus of skunk determine raccoon (procyon lotor) susceptibility and serum neutralizing antibody response to a skunk salivary gland rabies virus, raccoons were inoculated with a rabies virus isolated from a naturally-infected striped skunk (mephitis mephitis). raccoons were divided into four groups of three animals each. a dilution of the rabies virus suspension, 10(2.4), 10(3.4), or 10(4.8), mouse intracerebral lethal dose50 (micld50), was administered into the masseter muscles of each animal. three negativ ...19921548802
prerequisites for oral immunization of free-ranging raccoons (procyon lotor) with a recombinant rabies virus vaccine: study site ecology and bait system development.a model baiting system suitable for the delivery of an oral rabies vaccine to free-ranging raccoons (procyon lotor) was developed and tested on barrier islands in south carolina (usa). features of barrier island physiography and ecology were studied relative to selective bait deployment and site biosecurity. capture-mark-recapture data were obtained from 228 raccoons. raccoon density estimates, using a modified census assessment technique, were one raccoon per 1.8 to 2.7 ha. mean (+/- se) and ra ...19921548804
leptospirosis in selected wild mammals of the florida panhandle and southwestern georgia.a group of 144 wild mammals, including white-tailed deer, cottontail rabbits, fox squirrels, gray squirrels, raccoons, opossums, a bobcat, and various small rodents was examined for cultural or serologic evidence of leptospiral infection. leptospires were isolated from 1 of 25 rabbits, 1 of 27 fox squirrels, 1 of 26 gray squirrels, 4 of 18 mice and rats, 8 of 21 raccoons, 7 of 17 opossums, and a bobcat. isolations were not made from 6 deer examined. serotypes isolated were leptospira interrogans ...19751176352
prevalence of toxoplasma gondii infection in raccoons.serum samples from 427 raccoons (93 from pennsylvania, 45 from new jersey, 72 from south carolina, 68 from virginia, 30 from iowa, and 119 from ohio) were evaluated for toxoplasma gondii antibodies in dilutions of 1:25, 1:50, and 1:500. the distribution of t gondii antibody titers was less than 1:25 for 212 raccoons (49.6%), 1:25 for 34 raccoons (7.9%), 1:50 for 117 raccoons (27.4%), and greater than or equal to 1:500 for 64 raccoons (14.9%). tissue cysts were seen in the liver, and tachyzoites ...19921559896
rabies surveillance in the united states during 1990, the united states and its territories reported 4,881 cases of rabies in animals to the centers for disease control, a 1.5% increase from 1989. of these, 553 were domestic animals, 4,327 were wild animals, and one was a human being. pennsylvania reported the highest number (611) of rabies cases in animals in 1990. for the first time since surveillance of rabies in wild animals was begun in the 1950s, the number of cases of rabies in raccoons exceeded that in skunks. particularly large in ...19921577642
trypanosoma cruzi in wild raccoons and opossums in north carolina.trypanosoma cruzi was isolated from 1 of 12 (8.3%) opossums and 3 of 20 (15%) raccoons from the piedmont area of north carolina. although t. cruzi has been isolated previously from wild mammals in the southern united states, the present study is the first published report of naturally occurring t. cruzi infection of wild mammals in north carolina. all 4 isolates were maintained successfully in axenic culture and in murine fibroblasts. in addition, intraperitoneal injection of 1 x 10(6) culture f ...19921597808
an epidemic of sylvatic rabies in finland--descriptive epidemiology and results of oral vaccination.when rabies reappeared in finland in april 1988, the country had been rabies free since 1959. soon a picture of sylvatic rabies become evident, its main vector and victim being the raccoon dog (nyctereutes procyonoides). between 8 april 1988 and 16 february 1989, 66 virologically verified cases were recorded (48 raccoon dogs, 12 red foxes, 2 badgers, 2 cats, 1 dog and 1 dairy bull) in an area estimated at 1700 km2 in south-eastern finland. the greatest distance between recorded cases was 67 km. ...19921598857
somatosensory receptive field properties of corpus callosum fibres in the raccoon.anatomical studies in a number of species have shown that most areas of the somatosensory cortex are callosally interconnected. this is also true for the raccoon, at least for those parts representing proximal and axial body regions. electrophysiologically, studies carried out in cats and monkeys have demonstrated that all sensory sub-modalities cross in the callosum. moreover, cells representing the paws and fingers, though occupying a large portion of areas si and sii, seem to send proportiona ...19921613134
a five year (1985-1989) retrospective study of equine neurological diseases with special reference to rabies.a retrospective study of horses necropsied between 1985 and 1989 at a diagnostic laboratory of a veterinary school in north america is documented. in this investigation over 20 per cent of the horses had clinical neurological signs. equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (caused by sarcocystis neurona) and cervical stenotic myelopathy (wobbler syndrome) were the most common of these disorders. the veterinary school is located in the midst of a raccoon rabies enzootic area. however, only four cases o ...19921644935
a dipstick elisa for rapid detection of human blood meals in mosquitoes.a dot-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, dot-elisa, that allows for identification of human blood meals in mosquitoes in less than 2 h is presented. strips of mylar-backed nitrocellulose paper, the dipstick, may be inoculated with anti-human capture antibody, blocked, dried and stored for at least 3 months before use. the dipstick elisa consistently detected human blood meals at 24 h post-blood meal in frozen anopheles mosquitoes and at 32 h post-blood meal on samples eluted off filter-paper sme ...19911675255
the use of isoelectric focusing to identify rhinoceros keratins.keratins represent the principal structural proteins of hair. they are also found in horn, nail, claw, hoof, and feather. hair and nail samples from human and canine sources and hair samples from mule deer, white tail deer, cat, moose, elk, antelope, caribou, raccoon, and goat were studied. parrot and goose feathers were also analyzed. keratins are polymorphic, and species differences are known to exist. proteinaceous extracts of deer and antelope antlers and bovine and rhinoceros horn were prep ...19901691773
an epizootic of cerebral nematodiasis in rabbits due to ascaris epizootic of cerebral nematodiasis due to ascaris columnaris occurred in a commercial rabbitry, and 80 diseased rabbits died or were killed. the morbidity was high in groups of recently purchased rabbits and in the offspring of 12 breeder rabbits. the breeder rabbits which had been on the farm for more than a yr survived the outbreaks. wild animals and birds had access to the facilities, but raccoons and skunks were never observed. a columnaris larvae were found on histopathologic examination ...19751121166
helminth parasites of the raccoon (procyon lotor) from north-central arkansas.twenty-three species of helminths (4 trematodes, 2 cestodes, 14 nematodes, and 3 acanthocephalans) were found in the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, pancreas, tongue, urinary bladder, and subcutaneous tissues of 30 live-trapped or hunter-shot raccoons from north-central arkansas between november 1989 and april 1990. helminths were not detected in the brain, diaphragm, gallbladder, heart, liver, reproductive system, or trachea. each raccoon examined was infected with 3 or more of the following hel ...19921738063
the cuneate nucleus in the rat does have an anatomically distinct middle region.recently obtained anatomical evidence supports the division of the rat cuneate nucleus (cn) into three rostrocaudal regions, with the middle region receiving a disproportionately greater share of the primary sensory input. the cn in the rat conforms to the basic rostrocaudal cn pattern described in other mammals, including cat, monkey and raccoon.19921383882
concurrent protozoal encephalitis and canine distemper virus infection in a raccoon (procyon lotor). 19921566543
demonstration of rabies virus-specific antibody in the sera of free-ranging iowa raccoons (procyon lotor).between 1984 and 1988, a study was conducted to evaluate the frequency of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies in raccoons (procyon lotor) in two counties in iowa. nine hundred eighty five raccoons were trapped and tagged in guthrie and cerro gordo counties during the spring, summer and fall of each year. sex, age and weight were recorded for each animal and a blood sample was collected. serum samples were tested for the presence of serum neutralizing antibodies (sna) by the rapid fluorescent fo ...19921512869
large-scale eradication of rabies using recombinant vaccinia-rabies vaccine.rabies infection of domestic and wild animals is a serious problem throughout the world. the major disease vector in europe is the red fox (vulpes vulpes) and rabies control has focused on vaccinating and/or culling foxes. culling has not been effective, and the distribution of five vaccine baits is the only appropriate method for the vaccination of wild foxes. although some european countries have conducted field vaccination campaigns using attenuated rabies virus strains, their use has not bee ...19911758494
on the facial artery of the raccoon dog (nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus temminck).detailed observations were made of the facial artery in 20 raccoon dogs (nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus temminck) utilizing the plastic injection method. the findings obtained were discussed in comparison with the facial artery of carnivorae. the facial artery diverged anterolaterally from the external carotid artery independently at a position between the origins of the lingual and the posterior auricular arteries when the external carotid bent laterally in front of the tympanic bulla. thi ...19911758686
[species-specific features of the distribution of restriction sites in bsp-repeats of canidae genome].differences and similarities of the bsp-repeats' organization in fox, dog, polar fox and raccoon dog genomes were studied. specificity of bsp-repeats to the canidae family was demonstrated. the repeats are mainly organized in large clusters in all species studied. the species-specific features in restriction patterns were revealed for all five genomes, in spite of high intragenomic polymorphism exhibited in each case. this suggests that certain unique sets of structural versions of bsp-repeats w ...19911773937
[heterogeneity of the canidae bsp-repeats family: discovery of the ecori subfamily].a 1600 bp ecori fragment was cloned from genome of raccoon dog. the structure obtained is homologous to the canidae bsp-repeats family. comparative blot hybridization of the ecori fragment and bamhi repeat from fox genome with restricted hydrolysates of the total of raccoon dog and fox dnas revealed differences both in structure and genomic organization between these two bsp-repeats versions. evidently, the ecori fragment contains a sequence lacking from the bamhi fragment of the fox bsp-repeats ...19911773938
comparison of host-feeding patterns between anopheles quadrimaculatus sibling species a and b.bloodmeal sources for sympatric species a and b of anopheles quadrimaculatus in an area of mississippi were identified using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. females had fed only on 6 species of mammals including dog/fox, pig, opossum, raccoon, cottontail rabbit and white-tailed deer. the latter species was the predominant host, representing 96.7 and 89.5% of the bloodmeals taken by species a and b, respectively. no marked difference in feeding patterns was found.19911791465
present status of trichinellosis in japan.there have been three mass outbreaks of human trichinellosis in japan. the first was in 1974 in iwasaki, aomori prefecture, involving a group of hunters who ate raw meat of a black bear they had shot. of the 20 people who ate the bear meat raw, 15 showed clinical symptoms of trichinellosis. the second outbreak was experienced in sapporo, hokkaido, in 1980. the patients had eaten the raw meat of a brown bear served in a local restaurant. twelve people were diagnosed positive on the basis of clini ...19911822910
antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in deer and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed to detect serum antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme borreliosis, in deer (odocoileus virginianus) and raccoons (procyon lotor). blood samples were collected from these mammals in connecticut, maryland, north carolina, georgia and florida. seropositivity for deer was highest in connecticut (56% of 353 sera) and maryland (51% of 35 sera). raccoons in connecticut, maryland, north carolina, and florida also had an ...19911758022
hemoparasites of raccoons (procyon lotor) in florida.four hemoparasite species (babesia lotori, trypanosoma cruzi, dirofilaria tenuis and mansonella llewellyni) were found in raccoons (procyon lotor) collected from 1972 to 1974 in duval (n = 14) and collier (n = 170) counties, florida (usa). trypanosoma cruzi was found in thin blood smears from one raccoon at each locality. the prevalence of b. lotori was 79% and 80% in samples taken in december 1973 in collier and duval counties, respectively. no patent infections by b. lotori were detected in ra ...19911920671
further analyses of the orthopoxviruses volepox virus and raccoon poxvirus.volepox virus (vpx) from skin lesions on a vole and a piñon mouse caught in california and raccoon poxvirus (rcn) from raccoons trapped in maryland were examined to begin elucidating their relationship to other orthopoxviruses, most of which are not known to be indigenous to the americas. vpx and rcn produced pinpoint, nonhemorrhagic pocks on chick embryo chorioallantoic membranes. in cell cultures both viruses produced 1-mm diameter, irregular plaques, a-type inclusions (atis), and despite prod ...19921529541
borrelia burgdorferi in ticks (acari: ixodidae) from coastal virginia.ixodid ticks removed from hosts and from vegetation during march-november 1987 at sites in coastal virginia and north carolina were examined for borrelia burgdorferi. b. burgdorferi was evident in nine (22%) ixodes cookei packard removed from rice rats (oryzomys palustris), a white-footed mouse (peromyscus leucopus), and raccoons (procyon lotor); four (6%) amblyomma americanum (l.) removed from raccoons; and two (3%) dermacentor variabilis (say) removed from a raccoon and a rice rat. b. burgdorf ...19911941936
new locality record for heterobilharzia americana.thirty raccoons (procyon lotor) from three counties in east-central and southeast kansas (usa) were examined for schistosomiasis. eleven (37%) of the raccoons had adult schistosomes identified as heterobilharzia americana present in the mesenteric vessels, histopathological lesions compatible with schistosomiasis, or both. this represents the first report of h. americana in kansas and in the central united states.19912023315
formulation and evaluation of baits for oral rabies vaccination of raccoons (procyon lotor).captive raccoons were offered a variety of vaccine containers and bait components in a series of three-choice tests. paraffin wax ampules were the most readily accepted vaccine container. preferred bait components included corn and shellfish oils, deep fried corn meal batter, and egg, apple and buttermilk flavorings. these results, together with factors including ease of bait formulation, cost, and suitability for field use, were used to develop an experimental delivery system for an oral rabies ...19912023324
raccoon poxvirus recombinants expressing the rabies virus nucleoprotein protect mice against lethal rabies virus infection.raccoon poxvirus (rcn) recombinants expressing the rabies virus internal structural nucleoprotein (rcn-n) protected a/wysnj mice against a lethal challenge with street rabies virus (srv). maximum survival was achieved following vaccination by tail scratch and footpad (fp) srv challenge. rcn-n-vaccinated mice inoculated in the fp with srv were resistant to infection for at least 54 weeks postvaccination. protection was also elicited by rcn recombinants expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (rc ...19912033678
epidemiologic characteristics of human tularemia in the southwest-central states, 1981-1987.from 1981 through 1987, a total of 1,041 cases of tularemia in humans were reported in arkansas, kansas, louisiana, missouri, oklahoma, and texas; this represents 60% of the cases reported in the united states during this same time period. the state of arkansas reported the highest total (420 cases). annual incidence rates per one million population ranged from 36.3 in arkansas to less than 5.0 in kansas, louisiana, and texas. epidemiologic data were available for 1,026 cases. the majority of ca ...19912035503
a sarcocystis sp.-like protozoan and concurrent canine distemper virus infection associated with encephalitis in a raccoon (procyon lotor).a raccoon (procyon lotor) with signs of weakness was captured in upstate new york (usa). despite attempted care in a rehabilitation facility, the animal died and was examined because of suspected infectious neurologic disease. the cerebrum had a marked, locally extensive, neutrophilic, necrotizing encephalitis with numerous associated intralesional protozoal organisms, and a moderate to marked multifocal perivascular nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis. based on morphology and immunohistochemical ...19911758036
on the robertsonian polymorphism found in the japanese raccoon dog (nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus).karyotypes of 39 japanese raccoon dogs (npv) which appeared in the literature and of 7 previously unreported specimens were examined. thirty four individuals showed the standard karyotype 2k = 26m + 10a + (m)x + (a)y + bs (2n = 38 + bs), where bs are supernumerary chromosomes. the remaining 11 individuals had 2k = 25m + 12a + xy + bs (2n = 39 + bs) and one was 2k = 23m + 16a + xy + bs (2n = 41 + bs). the g- and c-banding analyses of both somatic and germ cells revealed that these karyotypes with ...19912064799
[tick spirochetosis by borrelia burgdorferi in wild carnivores in france. results of serologic tests in 372 foxes].the authors made serological examination, by passive hemagglutination, of 378 wild carnivores killed in 17 departments of western, central and eastern parts of france: 372 of foxes, of which more than 90 per cent less than one year aged, 4 raccoon dogs and 2 lynx. in foxes, they found significative seropositivity (greater than or equal to 1/200) with mean frequencies of 12.77 per cent in young animals and 42.86 % in those of 1 year and more. according the parts of france, frequency is greatly va ...19912065402
pancreatic duct hyperplasia in a raccoon (procyon lotor) caused by atriotaenia procyonis.a raccoon (procyon lotor) live-trapped in philadelphia, pennsylvania was heavily infected with the tapeworm atriotaenia procyonis. histopathologic examination of the duodenum revealed this tapeworm attached to the mucosa; the mucosa was mildly hyperplastic without a significant inflammatory infiltrate. this tapeworm was seen also within the proximal pancreatic duct and histopathologic lesions associated with its presence consisted of marked hyperplasia of mucosal cells, causing the formation of ...19912067057
eosinophilic encephalomyelitis in a raccoon experimentally infected with a dog isolate of rabies virus. 19902094438
sequences of the raccoon poxvirus hemagglutinin protein.primers based on sequences flanking the vaccinia virus (vv) strain ihd hemagglutinin protein (ha) open reading frame (orf) enabled amplification of ha dna segments from the genome of raccoon poxvirus (rcn) and vv strain wr. the amplified segments produced unequal cross-hybridization signal intensities against each other, indicating sequence differences between the ha of rcn (in hindiii-g) and that of vv-wr (in hindiii-a). about 1.5 kb of sequences in the ha region were then determined from clone ...19921529542
rotaviral enteritis in a raccoon.a hand-reared raccoon (procyon lotor) kit had severe diarrhea and died within 24 hr. gross and histopathologic findings were compatible with a diagnosis of viral enteritis. the immunoperoxidase test revealed rotavirus group a antigen in the intestinal mucosa. this is the first record of rotaviral enteritis in a raccoon.19902160022
a field trial to determine the feasibility of delivering oral vaccines to wild swine.a field study was conducted on ossabaw island, georgia (usa) to determine the feasibility of delivering oral vaccines to wild swine (sus scrofa). baits were made of polymerbound fish meal and contained a gelatin capsule as a potential vaccine chamber. two biomarkers, iophenoxic acid and tetracycline, were incorporated into each bait, and soured chicken mash was used as an attractant. baits (n = 1,980) were distributed in a grid pattern on a 405-ha test site and monitored for animal disturbance. ...19902174467
absence of rabies encephalitis in a raccoon with concurrent rabies and canine distemper infections.concurrent infection of a raccoon by rabies and canine distemper viruses is described. fluorescent antibody (fa) test demonstrated rabies antigen in the brain of this animal, however, histologically only lesions characteristic of canine distemper infection were seen. we recommend testing tissues for rabies of animals that histologically are positive for canine distemper.19902180632
somatotopic organization of the dorsal column nuclei in the rat: transganglionic labelling with b-hrp and analyze the patterns of cutaneous primary afferent fibers projecting to the dorsal column nuclei in the rat, horseradish peroxidase (hrp)-based tracers were injected intracutaneously into a number of discrete regions of the forelimbs and hindlimbs. three-4 days following the hrp injections, the rats were perfused transcardially; 60 microns transverse sections were cut, and the hrp was reacted using the tetramethyl benzidine method. comparisons were made of projections following injections wit ...19911723341
susceptibility of wild mammals to infection with naegleria fowleri.animals of 4 families of small wild mammals were live-trapped and inoculated intranasally with naegleria fowleri to determine patterns of susceptibility. of the 7 species of animals examined, only rodents were susceptible to n. fowleri. susceptible animals were eastern gray squirrel, hispid cotton rat, muskrat, and house mouse. mammals that were not susceptible at a dose of 10(6) were opossum, raccoon, and eastern cottontail rabbit. perhaps rodents and humans share a common anatomical or physiol ...19902254821
host-dependent differences in feeding and reproduction of ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae).the frequencies with which adult ixodes dammini spielman, clifford, piesman and corwin feed upon white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), raccoons (procyon lotor), opossums (didelphis virginiana), and domestic cats were compared in a wooded site in northeastern united states. by combining estimates of the quantity of ticks feeding on each host species with host densities, we derived the relative contribution made by each kind of host to the feeding of the tick population. to compare engorgeme ...19902280395
slowly adapting type i mechanoreceptor discharge as a function of dynamic force versus dynamic displacement of glabrous skin of raccoon and squirrel monkey hand.the effects of dynamic force and dynamic displacement on single unit discharge rate during ramp stimulation were examined in 10 raccoon and 8 squirrel monkey slowly adapting type i (sai) mechanoreceptive afferent fibers, all having receptive fields on glabrous skin of the hand. in all 18 cases, power function exponents were higher for effects of dynamic displacement than for effects of dynamic force on discharge frequency. thus, these sai mechanoreceptors are more sensitive to variations in dyna ...19902325895
land use associations and changes in population indices of urban raccoons during a rabies use associations and changes in population indices were assessed for an urban population of raccoons (procyon lotor) in baltimore, maryland (usa), from january 1984 to december 1987. records were examined for 1,458 raccoons trapped alive and removed dead from city streets during, and after, the peak of a rabies epizootic. the distribution of raccoons was associated with single-unit residential areas primarily along the northern and western perimeter of the city. beginning in march 1985 an e ...19902338721
intramuscular vaccination of skunks and raccoons against striped skunks (mephitis mephitis) and raccoons (procyon lotor) were immunized with inactivated rabies vaccine by intramuscular injection and released at the point of capture during a rabies control program in metropolitan toronto (ontario, canada). serum samples collected prior to and following vaccination revealed that 100% of the skunks and 98% of the raccoons seroconverted. rabies antibody was still detectable 314 to 757 days postvaccination. five of six skunks vaccinated in th ...19902338727
vaccination of free-ranging pennsylvania raccoons (procyon lotor) with inactivated rabies vaccine.thirty-nine free-ranging raccoons (procyon lotor) in an endemic rabies area of pennsylvania (usa) were vaccinated with a single intramuscular inoculation of commercial inactivated rabies virus vaccine, 17 june to 23 august 1987. paired serum samples, pre- and postvaccination, were obtained from eight raccoons and were analyzed in vitro for rabies virus neutralizing antibody using a modified rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test. seven of eight (88%) recaptured raccoons demonstrated seroconvers ...19902338729
raccoon forelimb motorsensory cortex: i. somatic afferent inputs to different cytoarchitectonic areas.the distribution of potentials evoked in and around forelimb msi by graded electrical stimulation of forelimb nerves has been studied in the raccoon (procyon lotor). these data have been correlated with cytoarchitectonic characteristics of pericruciate cortical tissue. potentials evoked by cutaneous nerve stimulation were widely distributed in msi and smi, but were smaller in amplitude and of longer latency in msi than in smi. stimulation of ulnar, median or deep radial nerve at 1-1.4t, a streng ...19902372699
raccoon forelimb motorsensory cortex: ii. somatosensory inputs to single neurons.somatosensory input to 431 neurons in msi has been studied in unanesthetized, paralyzed raccoons (procyon lotor). the type of sensory input to neurons in lateral sigmoid gyrus (cytoarchitectonic area 4) and in posterior sigmoid gyrus (areas 4 and 3a) was not significantly different. of these neurons, 36% were activated by superficial cutaneous stimulation (touch, tap or hair deflection) and 26% by deep stimulation (pressure or joint movement). mute neurons (not driven by any form of peripheral s ...19902372700
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