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distemper infection in lesser pandas due to administration of a canine distemper live vaccine. 1979574575
vaccine-induced canine distemper in a lesser panda.a fatal disease occurred in a lesser panda (ailurus fulgens) 2 weeks after vaccination with modified live distemper vaccine. the disease clinically resembled canine distemper. pathologically there was giant cell pneumonia, with canine distemper viral inclusion bodies in pulmonary and digestive tract epithelium. viral isolates were indicative of an attenuated strain rather than virulent types.1976988010
pneumocystis carinii infections in zoo animals.pneumocystis carinii was found to be present in the lungs of twenty-three zoo animals in the netherlands. the following species were represented: red kangaroo, common tree shrew, senegal-galago, demidoff's-galago, brown howler monkey, woolly monkey, long-haired spider monkey, white-eared marmoset, chimpanzee, three-toed sloth, palm squirrel, red panda, fennec fox, tree hyrax and large-toothed hyrax.19751079994
effect of coliform bacteria, feed deprivation, and ph on ruminal d-lactic acid production by steer or continuous-culture microbial populations changed from forage to concentrates.fecal coliform bacteria were isolated from three herbivores (cattle, horse, and red panda) and shown to produce primarily the d-form of lactate, plus acetate and ethanol when grown anaerobically in 1.0% glucose broth. to evaluate coliform contribution to d-lactate acidosis in cattle, experiments involving a forage-adapted steer (fasted or normally fed) and four 500-ml fermentors were compared during 3 d of grain overload. in both systems, coliforms and d- and l-lactic acid production were greate ...19911885414
canine distemper virus infection in lesser pandas (ailurus fulgens). 19892601238
carnivora: the primary structure of the common otter (lutra lutra, mustelidae) hemoglobin.the hemoglobin of the common otter (lutra lutra, carnivora) contains only one component. the complete primary structures of the alpha- and beta-chains are presented. they were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography and the sequences determined by automatic liquid and gas-phase edman degradation of the chains and their tryptic peptides. the alpha-chains show 18 and the beta-chains 13 substitutions compared to human alpha- and beta-chains, respectively. in the alpha-chains one heme- a ...19883166739
a comparison of the primary structures of lactate dehydrogenase isozymes m4 from giant panda, red panda, black bear and dog.lactate dehydrogenase isozymes m4 have been isolated and purified from red panda (ailurus fulgens), black bear (selenarctos thibetanus) and dog (canis familiars) by affinity chromatography and compared with that from giant panda (ailuropoda melanoleuca). experimental results have shown that the n-termini, c-termini and the molecular weights of ldh-m subunits of red panda, black bear and dog are the same as those of the ldh-m subunit of giant panda. analysis and comparison of hplc peptide maps fr ...19873629217
clinical trials with canine distemper vaccines in exotic carnivores.two types of killed canine distemper virus (cdv) vaccine and a modified-live cdv vaccine were clinically evaluated in four species of exotic carnivores. in 16 trials in which 13 red pandas (ailurus fulgens) were given the killed vaccine, only 1 animal had a virus-neutralization titer that exceeded 1:100. a red panda given modified-live cdv vaccine deemed safe for gray foxes and ferrets died of bacterial pneumonia 16 days later. there was no pathologic evidence of canine distemper in that panda. ...19836358163
saprophytic fungi isolated from the hair of domestic and laboratory animals with suspected dermatophytosis.hair samples from domestic and laboratory animals with suspected dermatophytosis were examined for the presence of saprophytic fungi. a nutritionally poor base medium, developed by the author, was used in the isolation and identification of the saprophytes. three hundred and ninety-four specimens were examined of which 246 were from dogs, 75 from cats, 30 from horses, 19 from cows, 12 from guinea pigs, 5 from rats, 2 from parakeets, 2 from chinchillas and one each from a goat, a mink and a lesse ...19836669166
dirofilariasis in a red panda. 19817328015
ursodeoxycholic acid in the ursidae: biliary bile acids of bears, pandas, and related carnivores.the biliary bile acid composition of gallbladder bile obtained from six species of bears (ursidae), the giant panda, the red panda, and 11 related carnivores were determined by reversed phase liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. bile acids were conjugated solely with taurine (in n-acyl linkage) in all species. ursodeoxycholic acid (3 alpha, 7 beta-dihydroxy-5 beta-cholan-24-oic acid) was present in all ursidae, averaging 1-39% of biliary bile acids depending on the spe ...19938263415
pathogenicity of morbilliviruses for terrestrial carnivores.many different species of the order carnivora are susceptible to canine distemper and the mortality rate varies greatly between species. ailuridae, canidae, hyaenidae, mustelidae, procyonidae, ursidae, viverridae and now felidae have been reported to be susceptible to canine distemper virus infection. although distemper outbreaks in dogs, fur farms and in zoo carnivores have been greatly reduced in recent years due to vaccination, there are still regular outbreaks in free-living carnivores. unex ...19958588312
molecular cloning and phylogenetic analysis of canine beta-casein.a canine beta-casein cdna was isolated from mammary tissue by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) using degenerate primers. it encodes 250 amino acids protein containing the conserved sequence motif of beta-casein. it showed the highest homology with snow-leopard (uncia uncia (55-62% identity). it also showed 44-53% identity with human, 33-42%, identity with mouse, 29-37%, identity with rat, 43-53% identity with rabbit, 41-48% identity with pig, 44-51% identity with cattle and 44-50% identity with s ...200011092743
tyzzer's disease in a red panda (ailurus fulgens fulgens).a debilitated 9-yr-old female red panda (ailurus fulgens fulgens) with a recent history of corticosteroid administration displayed anorexia, depression, and diarrhea for 2 days. blood work revealed a moderate nonregenerative anemia, leukocytosis, hypokalemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and mildly elevated alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. serology was negative for occult heartworm, toxoplasma gondii, feline leukemia virus, feline infectious peritonitis, feline immunodeficiency vi ...200011428405
exploring the demographic history of dna sequences using the generalized skyline plot.we present an intuitive visual framework, the generalized skyline plot, to explore the demographic history of sampled dna sequences. this approach is based on a genealogy inferred from the sequences and provides a nonparametric estimate of effective population size through time. in contrast to previous related procedures, the generalized skyline plot is more applicable to cases where the underlying tree is not fully resolved and the data is not highly variable. this is achieved by the grouping o ...200111719579
the genome phylogeny of domestic cat, red panda and five mustelid species revealed by comparative chromosome painting and g-banding.genome-wide homology maps among stone marten (martes foina, 2n = 38), domestic cat (felis catus, 2n = 38), american mink (mustela vison, 2n = 30), yellow-throated marten (martes flavigula, 2n = 40), old world badger (meles meles, 2n = 44), ferret badger (melogale moschata, 2n = 38) and red panda (ailurus fulgens, 2n = 36) have been established by cross-species chromosome painting with a complete set of stone marten probes. in total, 18 stone marten autosomal probes reveal 20, 19, 21, 18 and 21 p ...200212067210
[whole sequence analysis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene in asiatic black bear through faecal sampling].using our lab's improved protocol for faecal dna extraction, the entire 753-bp dna coding sequence of the nuclear brain-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf) gene was cloned for the first time from asiatic black bear selenarctos thibetanus faecal samples with primers based on the reported sequence of the malayan bear bdnf gene. hair was used as a positive control and the experiments were repeated several times to obtain reliable and identical results. sequence analysis showed that the bdnf gene of ...200616818427
sequence analysis of a canine parvovirus isolated from a red panda (ailurus fulgens) in china.canine parvovirus (cpv) was first recognized in the late 1970 s in dogs and has mutated and spread throughout the world in canid and felid species since then. in this study, a novel cpv was isolated from the endangered red panda (ailurus fulgens) in china. nucleotide and phylogenetic analysis of the capsid protein vp2 gene classified the red panda parvovirus (rppv) as a cpv-2a type. substitution of val for gly at the conserved 300 residue in rppv presents an unusual variation in the cpv-2a amino ...200716927123
[a molecular phylogeny of shennongjia white bear based on mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequence].the phylogenetic relationship of shennongjia white bear has been an open question. total dna was extracted and sequenced from hair and feces of shennongjia white bear. based on the partial cyt b gene sequence obtained from the samples, the authors aligned them using the clustal w software program. the mega software was used to analyze the divergences and base substitutions of the partial cyt b gene among the 11 species: shennongjia white bear, selenarctos thibetanus, euarctos americanus, helarct ...200617035181
serosurvey of infectious disease agents of carnivores in captive red pandas (ailurus fulgens) in china.the future of the endangered red panda (ailurusfulgens) depends in part on the development of protective measures against infectious diseases. the present study is a first step toward improved understanding of infectious diseases in the species' home regions. serum samples obtained from 73 red pandas in 10 captive facilities in southwest, east, and northeast china from october to december 2004 were tested for antibodies against nine common infectious pathogens of carnivores. antibody titers agai ...200717469274
molecular characterization of cryptosporidium from animal sources in qinghai province of china.the presence of cryptosporidium oocysts in 20 zoo animals of the xining zoo, 16 farm yaks and 42 farm goats in qinghai province, china was investigated by an immunofluorescence test (ift). the species and/or genotypes were determined by nested polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and sequence analysis of a fragment of the small subunit (ssu) rrna gene. cryptosporidium oocysts were found in 16 zoo animals, 2 yaks, and 15 goats by ift. the ift positive samples were further investigated by pcr, and 16 o ...200717701218
red panda biology. a. r. glatston, ed. spb academic publishing, the hague, 1989. xvi, 187 pp., illus. paper, $34. from a conference, rotterdam, the netherlands, aug. 1987. 199017784496
serosurvey of ex situ giant pandas (ailuropoda melanoleuca) and red pandas (ailurus fulgens) in china with implications for species conservation.conservation strategies for the giant panda (ailuropoda melanoleuca) include the development of a self-sustaining ex situ population. this study examined the potential significance of infectious pathogens in giant pandas ex situ. serologic antibody titers against canine distemper virus (cdv), canine parvovirus (cpv), canine adenovirus (cav), canine coronavirus (ccv), canine herpesvirus, canine parainfluenza virus (cpiv), toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum, and leptospira interrogans were measur ...200718229861
prevalence of gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens in a population of zoo animals.faecal prevalence of gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens, including campylobacter, escherichia coli o157:h7, salmonella, shigella, yersinia, as well as arcobacter, were examined in 317 faecal specimens from 44 animal species in belfast zoological gardens, during july-september 2006. thermophilic campylobacters including campylobacter jejuni, campylobacter coli and campylobacter lari, were the most frequently isolated pathogens, where members of this genus were isolated from 11 animal species (1 ...200818331520
pneumonia from angiostrongylus vasorum infection in a red panda (ailurus fulgens fulgens).a 9-year-old, male, captive red panda (ailurus fulgens fulgens) in an urban zoo in the united kingdom presented with respiratory distress and weight loss. the animal was euthanatized, and a postmortem examination was performed. the lungs were diffusely consolidated with extensive mineralization. microscopically, there was extensive obliteration of normal pulmonary architecture by sheets and coalescing nodules of partially mineralized fibrous tissue and granulomatous inflammation centered on larg ...200919286513
[microstructure of skin derivatives as a reflection of phylogenesis of vertebrates].the possibility of using separate signs of microstructure of skin derivatives to understand phylogenesis processes at various hierarchical levels on the example of elasmoid scale of bony fish, feathers of paleognathae birds, hepatoid glands, and mammal hair was demonstrated and discussed. it was shown that (1) the presence of toothed sclerite growths on the surface of the elasmoid scale of bony fish provided with a central canal can serve as a proof of the evolutional relation of placoid and ela ...201021061666
lights and shades on an historical vaccine canine distemper virus, the rockborn strain.both egg- and cell-adapted canine distemper virus (cdv) vaccines are suspected to retain residual virulence, especially if administered to immuno-suppressed animals, very young pups or to highly susceptible animal species. in the early 1980s, post-vaccine encephalitis was reported in dogs from various parts of britain after administration of a particular batch of combined cdv rockborn strain/canine adenovirus type-1 vaccine, although incrimination of the rockborn strain was subsequently retracte ...201021167117
prevalence of cryptosporidium infection in captive lesser panda (ailurus fulgens) in china.cryptosporidium is a global epidemic parasite and one of the most important intestinal pathogens causing diarrhea in animals and humans. despite extensive research on this parasite group, little is known about rates of cryptosporidium infection in lesser pandas. in this study, we use molecular diagnostic tools to detect cryptosporidium infections and identify cryptosporidium species in the lesser panda. using a pcr approach, we sequenced the 18s rrna gene in fecal samples collected from 110 capt ...201525563613
isolation of campylobacter fetus subsp jejuni from zoo animals.over a 1-year period, 619 fecal specimens from animals at the denver zoo were cultured for campylobacter fetus subsp jejuni. the organism was isolated from 35 animals, including 12 primates, 2 felids, a red panda, 13 hooved animals, 6 birds, and 1 reptile. of 44 cultured fecal specimens from diarrheal animals, 31.8% were positive for campylobacter, whereas only 5.6% of 575 specimens from animals without diarrhea were positive (p less than 0.001). among 25 isolates tested, 12 serotypes were repre ...19816799468
the fibre-type composition of the first branchial arch muscles in carnivora and primates.a combination of standard histochemical techniques and immunohistochemical staining using myosin type-specific antisera was used to determine the fibre-type composition of the muscles of first branchial arch origin (that is, masseter, temporalis, pterygoideus medialis and lateralis, tensor veli palatini, tensor tympani, anterior digastricus and mylohyoideus) in a wide range of the carnivora and the primates. the rare iim fibre type was found in the first branchial arch muscles of most of the spe ...19836355175
treatment and prevention of natural heartworm (dirofilaria immitis) infections in red pandas (ailurus fulgens) with selamectin and ivermectin.ten of the 48 red pandas in the chengdu research base of giant panda breeding, sichuan province, china, died in 2006 after prolonged periods of depression, weight loss, and mucocutaneous membrane xanthochromia. during postmortem examination, live heartworms were found in the right cardiac ventricles and pulmonary arteries of all 10 animals. selamectin and ivermectin were used for clinical prophylaxis in the remaining red pandas between december 2006 and november 2010. we observed a gradual decre ...201222306025
non-tuberculous mycobacteriosis with t-cell lymphoma in a red panda (ailurus fulgens).a 9-year-old male red panda (ailurus fulgens) became emaciated and died. necropsy examination revealed systemic lymphadenomegaly. the liver, lungs and left kidney contained multifocal yellow nodules. microscopical examination revealed granulomatous inflammation in the liver, lungs, kidney, spleen and lymph nodes, with numerous acid-fast bacilli. sequencing of genetic material isolated from the tissues classified the pathogen as mycobacterium gastri. lymphoma was found in the liver, lungs, kidney ...201627421619
sarcocystis spp. infection in two red panda cubs (ailurus fulgens).two neonatal male red panda (ailurus fulgens) littermates were submitted for necropsy examination. one animal was found dead with no prior signs of illness; the other had a brief history of laboured breathing. post-mortem examination revealed disseminated protozoal infection. to further characterize the causative agent, transmission electron microscopy (tem), immunohistochemistry (ihc), polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and amplification and nucleic acid sequencing were performed. ihc was negative ...201526054654
habitat correlates of the red panda in the temperate forests of bhutan.anthropogenic activities and associated global climate change are threatening the biodiversity in the himalayas against a backdrop of poor knowledge of the region's threatened species. the red panda (ailurus fulgens) is a threatened mammal confined to the eastern himalayas, and because of bhutan's central location in the distributional range of red pandas, its forests are integral to the long-term viability of wild populations. detailed habitat requirements of the red panda are largely speculati ...201122039497
diversity and prevalence of metastrongyloid nematodes infecting the red panda (ailurus fulgens) in european zoos.metastrongyloid induced pneumonia has been described sporadically in the red panda (ailurus fulgens). early descriptions in pandas recently imported to the usa from china involved parasites morphologically similar to angiostrongylus spp. and crenosomatidae. more recently, four cases of severe verminous pneumonia associated with angiostrongylus vasorum have been reported from european zoos. a coprological survey of the red panda population within european zoos was conducted in 2008. faecal sample ...201020570049
dogs, cats, and kin: a molecular species-level phylogeny of carnivora.phylogenies underpin comparative biology as high-utility tools to test evolutionary and biogeographic hypotheses, inform on conservation strategies, and reveal the age and evolutionary histories of traits and lineages. as tools, most powerful are those phylogenies that contain all, or nearly all, of the taxa of a given group. despite their obvious utility, such phylogenies, other than summary 'supertrees', are currently lacking for most mammalian orders, including the order carnivora. carnivora ...201019900567
fibroblast cell line establishment, cryopreservation and interspecies embryos reconstruction in red panda ( ailurus fulgens).in evolution, the red panda (ailurus fulgens) plays a pivotal role in the higher level phylogeny of arctoides carnivore mammals. the red panda inhabits certain asian countries only and its numbers are decreasing. therefore, the development of feasible ways to preserve this species is necessary. genetic resource cryopreservation and somatic cell nuclear transfer (scnt) have been used extensively to rescue this endangered species. the present study describes the establishment, for the first time, ...200919232145
comment on "brominated flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticides in captive giant panda (ailuropoda melanoleuca) and red panda (ailurus fulgens) from china". 200819031922
the phylogeny of the red panda (ailurus fulgens): evidence from the hindlimb.the red panda (ailurus fulgens) is an endangered carnivore living in the temperate forests of the himalayas and southern china. the phylogeny of the red panda has been the subject of much debate. morphological and molecular studies have supported a wide range of possible relationships, including close ties to procyonids, ursids, mustelids, and mephitids. this study provides additional morphological data, including muscle maps, for ailurus. the hindlimbs of four cadavers from the national zoologi ...200819014366
brominated flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticides in captive giant panda (ailuropoda melanoleuca) and red panda (ailurus fulgens) from china.organochlorine pesticides (ocps), polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs), and brominated flame retardants (bfrs) were investigated in captive giant and red panda tissues from china. the total concentrations of ocps, pcbs, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes) in tissues ranged from 16.3 to 888 ng/g lipid weight (lw), 24.8 to 854 ng/g lw, and 16.4 to 2158 ng/g lw, respectively. p,p'-dde and beta-hch were major ocp contaminants. pcbs 99, 118, 153/132, 170, 180, and 209 were the major contributing c ...200818677994
assessment of pcr-dgge for the identification of diverse helicobacter species, and application to faecal samples from zoo animals to determine helicobacter prevalence.helicobacter species are fastidious bacterial pathogens that are difficult to culture by standard methods. a pcr-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (pcr-dgge) technique for detection and identification of different helicobacter species was developed and evaluated. the method involves pcr detection of helicobacter dna by genus-specific primers that target 16s rdna and subsequent differentiation of helicobacter pcr products by use of dgge. strains are identified by comparing mobilities of unk ...200312909652
mortality associated with melarsomine dihydrochloride administration in two north american river otters (lontra canadensis) and a red panda (ailurus fulgens fulgens).two adult north american river otters (lontra canadensis) and an adult red panda (ailurus fulgens fulgens) at three separate institutions died within 22 hr after receiving single 2.5- to 2.7-mg/kg doses of melarsomine dihydrochloride administered in the epaxial musculature as a treatment for filarid nematodes. one otter had a suspected dirofilaria immitis infection, the other had a confirmed d. lutrae infection, and the red panda had a confirmed dirofilaria sp. infection, presumably with d. immi ...200212462491
[comparative chromosome painting shows the red panda (ailurus fulgens) has a highly conserved karyotype].we have established a comparative chromosome map between red panda (ailurus fulgens, 2n = 36) and dog by chromosome painting with biotin-labelled chromosome-specific probes of the dog. dog probes specific for the 38 automates delineated 71 homologous segments in the metaphase chromosomes of red panda. of the 38 autosomal paints, 18 probes each delineated one homologous segment in red panda genome, while the other 20 ones each detected two to five homologous segments. the dog x chromosome-specifi ...200211901994
comparative ribotyping of staphylococcus intermedius isolated from members of the canoidea gives possible evidence for host-specificity and co-evolution of bacteria and hosts.a total of 41 staphylococcus intermedius isolates were isolated from skin of healthy members of six phylogenetic groups within the canoidea (the dog family, skunk subfamily, weasel subfamily, racoon family, red panda and bear family) of different geographical origin and compared by ecori ribotyping and cluster analysis. the s. intermedius isolates from the different families and subfamilies clustered together in separate groups, almost completely following the phylogenetic relationship of the an ...200111491331
the interrelationship of chromosome banding patterns in the giant panda (ailuropoda melanoleuca), hybrid bear (ursus middendorfi x thalarctos maritimus), and other carnivores.the banded chromosomes of the giant panda (ailuropoda melanoleuca) and a hybrid bear (ursus middendorfi x thalarctos maritimus) have been studied and compared to those of other carnivores. the giant panda shares only a few apparently homologous chromosome arms with the bear (ursidae) and equally few with the lesser panda, ailurus fulgens (procyonidae). chromosomal evidence suggests appropriate placement of the giant panda in a family separate from the uridae and the procyonidae.19807398370
applying behavioral conditioning to identify anticipatory behaviors.the ability to predict regular events can be adaptive for nonhuman animals living in an otherwise unpredictable environment. animals may exhibit behavioral changes preceding a predictable event; such changes reflect anticipatory behavior. anticipatory behavior is broadly defined as a goal-directed increase in activity preceding a predictable event and can be useful for assessing well being in animals in captivity. anticipation may look different in different animals, however, necessitating metho ...201728375754
integrating trans-abdominal ultrasonography with fecal steroid metabolite monitoring to accurately diagnose pregnancy and predict the timing of parturition in the red panda (ailurus fulgens styani).red pandas (ailurus fulgens styani) exhibit a variable gestation length and may experience a pseudopregnancy indistinguishable from true pregnancy; therefore, it is not possible to deduce an individual's true pregnancy status and parturition date based on breeding dates or fecal progesterone excretion patterns alone. the goal of this study was to evaluate the use of transabdominal ultrasonography for pregnancy diagnosis in red pandas. two to three females were monitored over 4 consecutive years, ...201728230329
mobility of the forearm in the raccoon (procyon lotor), raccoon dog (nyctereutes procyonoides) and red panda (ailurus fulgens).the ranges of pronation/supination of forearms in raccoons, raccoon dogs and red pandas were nondestructively examined. three carcasses of each species were used for ct analysis, and the left forearms were scanned with a ct scanner in two positions: maximal supination and maximal pronation. scanning data were reconstructed into three-dimensional images, cross-sectional images were extracted at the position that shows the largest area in the distal part of ulna, and then, the centroids of each cr ...201727840376
genetic diversity and population history of the red panda (ailurus fulgens) as inferred from mitochondrial dna sequence variations.the red panda (ailurus fulgens) is one of the flagship species in worldwide conservation and is of special interest in evolutionary studies due to its taxonomic uniqueness. we sequenced a 236-bp fragment of the mitochondrial d-loop region in a sample of 53 red pandas from two populations in southwestern china. seventeen polymorphic sites were found, together with a total of 25 haplotypes, indicating a high level of genetic diversity in the red panda. however, no obvious genetic divergence was de ...200111371595
dermatophytosis in red pandas (ailurus fulgens fulgens): a review of 14 cases.fourteen cases of dermatophytosis were identified from medical records of red pandas (ailurus fulgens fulgens) housed at the knoxville zoo between 1980 and 1996. the median age of affected animals on initial presentation was 8.5 wk (3 wk-11 mo). clinical signs included crusting, purulent exudate, alopecia, thickening of affected skin, ulceration, and necrosis. seven animals had mild lesions with signs restricted to crusting and/or alopecia, and six animals had more severe infections, with ulcera ...199910749446
chromobacteriosis in a chinese red panda (ailurus fulgens styani).an adult chinese red panda (ailurus fulgens styani) transported by airplane from florida to a north dakota zoo died 1 week after arrival. grossly, an interscapular abscess, subcutaneous inflammation, lymphadenitis, and pulmonary abscesses were observed. microscopic findings included necrotizing inflammation in liver, lung, lymph node, and spleen. chromobacterium violaceum was cultured from the interscapular abscess, liver, lung, and spleen and was injected into swiss webster mice. these mice die ...200010730953
immunogenetic evidence for the phylogenetic sister group relationship of dogs and bears (mammalia, carnivora: canidae and crsidae). a comparative determinant analysis of carnivoran albumin, c3 complement and immunoglobulin micro-chain.thirty-seven antigenic determinants were identified in the albumins, the immunoglobulin micro- and igg(fc) chains, and the c3 proteins of 51 carnivoran (sub)species from 31 genera, and in 12 noncarnivoran mammals. in addition to 19 determinants plesiomorphic for carnivora as an order, 18 synapomorphic epitopes of carnivoran families revealed nine phylogenetic reaction groups: (1) canids, (2) ursids, (3) the racoon, (4) the weddell seal, (5) the lesser panda, (6) the harbour seal, (7) mustelids, ...19989813413
molecular phylogeny of the red panda (ailurus fulgens).the phylogenetic placement of the red panda (ailurus fulgens) and the giant panda (ailuropoda melanoleuca) has been an evolutionary enigma since their original descriptions in the nineteenth century. a series of recent molecular analyses led to a consensus that the giant panda's ancestors were derived from early bears (ursidae), but left unsettled the phylogenetic relationship of the red panda. previous molecular and morphological phylogenies were inconclusive and varied among placement of the r ...19958568209
first report of enterocytozoon bieneusi from giant pandas (ailuropoda melanoleuca) and red pandas (ailurus fulgens) in china.enterocytozoon bieneusi is an emerging and opportunistic enteric pathogen triggering diarrhea and enteric disease in humans and animals. despite extensive research on this pathogen, the prevalence and genotypes of e. bieneusi infection in precious wild animals of giant and red pandas have not been reported. in the present study, 82 faecal specimens were collected from 46 giant pandas (ailuropoda melanoleuca) and 36 red pandas (ailurus fulgens) in the northwest of china. by pcr and sequencing of ...201526079276
swine and rabbits are the main reservoirs of hepatitis e virus in china: detection of hev rna in feces of farmed and wild animals.hepatitis e virus (hev) infection is recognized as a zoonosis. the prevalence of hev rna and anti-hev antibodies in many animal species has been reported, but the host range of hev is unclear. the aims of this study were to investigate hev infection in various animal species and to determine the reservoirs of hev. eight hundred twenty-two fecal samples from 17 mammal species and 67 fecal samples from 24 avian species were collected in china and tested for hev rna by rt-npcr. the products of pcr ...201526303139
complete mitochondrial genomes of baylisascaris schroederi, baylisascaris ailuri and baylisascaris transfuga from giant panda, red panda and polar bear.roundworms of the genus baylisascaris are the most common parasitic nematodes of the intestinal tracts of wild mammals, and most of them have significant impacts in veterinary and public health. mitochondrial (mt) genomes provide a foundation for studying epidemiology and ecology of these parasites and therefore may be used to assist in the control of baylisascariasis. here, we determined the complete sequences of mtdnas for baylisascaris schroederi, baylisascaris ailuri and baylisascaris transf ...201121621593
mitogenomic analyses of caniform relationships.extant members of the order carnivora split into two basal groups, caniformia (dog-like carnivorans) and feliformia (cat-like carnivorans). in this study we address phylogenetic relationships within caniformia applying various methodological approaches to analyses of complete mitochondrial genomes. pinnipeds are currently well represented with respect to mitogenomic data and here we add seven mt genomes to the non-pinniped caniform collection. the analyses identified a basal caniform divergence ...200717919938
expression and partial characterization of an elastase from chromobacterium violaceum.chromobacterium violaceum was recovered at necropsy from the lungs, liver, spleen, and an interscapular abscess of a chinese red panda (strain 98-9187) [j. vet. diagn. invest. 12 (2000) 177]. as the lungs exhibited extensive, necrotizing lesions harboring bacterial aggregates, we sought to determine whether c. violaceum produced an elastase that might in part account for these lesions. the c. violaceum type strain (atcc 12472(t)) and strain 98-9187 were shown to exhibit elastolytic activity by e ...200111278124
phylogeny of the carnivora (mammalia): congruence vs incompatibility among multiple data sets.the purpose of this study was to determine the higher-level phylogenetic relationships among carnivora, using a conditional data combination (cdc) approach to analyzing multiple data sets. new nucleotide sequences (851 base pairs from intron i of the transthyretin gene) among 22 representatives of the 11 families of carnivora were generated and analyzed in concert with, and comparison to, other mitochondrial and morphological character data. conditional data combination analyses of the four inde ...19989667990
first complete genome sequence of parainfluenza virus 5 isolated from lesser panda.parainfluenza virus 5 (piv5) is widespread in mammals and humans. up to now, there is little information about piv5 infection in lesser pandas. in this study, a piv5 variant (named zjq-221) was isolated from a lesser panda with respiratory disease in guangzhou zoo in guangdong province, southern china. the full-length genome of zjq-221 was found to be 15,246 nucleotides and consisted of seven non-overlapping genes encoding eight proteins (i.e., np, v, p, m, f, sh, hn and l). sequence alignment a ...201728138777
metabolic rate of the red panda, ailurus fulgens, a dietary bamboo specialist.the red panda (ailurus fulgens) has a similar diet, primarily bamboo, and shares the same habitat as the giant panda, ailuropoda melanoleuca. there are considerable efforts underway to understand the ecology of the red panda and to increase its populations in natural reserves. yet it is difficult to design an effective strategy for red panda reintroduction if we do not understand its basic biology. here we report the resting metabolic rate of the red panda and find that it is higher than previou ...201728306740
genetic structuring and recent demographic history of red pandas (ailurus fulgens) inferred from microsatellite and mitochondrial dna.clarification of the genetic structure and population history of a species can shed light on the impacts of landscapes, historical climate change and contemporary human activities and thus enables evidence-based conservation decisions for endangered organisms. the red panda (ailurus fulgens) is an endangered species distributing at the edge of the qinghai-tibetan plateau and is currently subject to habitat loss, fragmentation and population decline, thus representing a good model to test the inf ...201121585580
comparative genomics reveals convergent evolution between the bamboo-eating giant and red pandas.phenotypic convergence between distantly related taxa often mirrors adaptation to similar selective pressures and may be driven by genetic convergence. the giant panda (ailuropoda melanoleuca) and red panda (ailurus fulgens) belong to different families in the order carnivora, but both have evolved a specialized bamboo diet and adaptive pseudothumb, representing a classic model of convergent evolution. however, the genetic bases of these morphological and physiological convergences remain unknow ...201728096377
giant panda (ailuropoda melanoleuca) buccal mucosa tissue as a source of multipotent progenitor cells.since the first mammal was cloned, the idea of using this technique to help endangered species has aroused considerable interest. however, several issues limit this possibility, including the relatively low success rate at every stage of the cloning process, and the dearth of usable tissues from these rare animals. ips cells have been produced from cells from a number of rare mammalian species and this is the method of choice for strategies to improve cloning efficiency and create new gametes by ...201526398672
three-dimensional computer simulations of feeding behaviour in red and giant pandas relate skull biomechanics with dietary niche partitioning.the red (ailurus fulgens) and giant (ailuropoda melanoleuca) pandas are mammalian carnivores convergently adapted to a bamboo feeding diet. however, whereas ailurus forages almost entirely on younger leaves, fruits and tender trunks, ailuropoda relies more on trunks and stems. such difference in foraging mode is considered a strategy for resource partitioning where they are sympatric. here, we use finite-element analysis to test for mechanical differences and similarities in skull performance be ...201424718096
deciphering and dating the red panda's ancestry and early adaptive radiation of musteloidea.few species have been of more disputed affinities than the red or lesser panda (ailurus fulgens), an endangered endemic southeast asian vegetarian member of the placental mammalian order carnivora. this peculiar carnivoran has mostly been classified with raccoons (procyonidae) or bears (ursidae), grouped with the giant panda (ailuropoda melanoleuca) in their own family, or considered a separate lineage of equivocal ancestry. recent molecular studies have indicated a close affinity of the red pan ...200919699810
implications of the functional anatomy of the hand and forearm of ailurus fulgens (carnivora, ailuridae) for the evolution of the 'false-thumb' in pandas.both the giant panda (ailuropoda melanoleuca) and the red panda (ailurus fulgens) possess a 'false-thumb', actually an enlarged radial sesamoid bone, which contributes to the gripping action of the hand. these species are not closely related, however, as one is an ursid and the other an ailurid, so the fact that they share this adaptation implies a remarkable convergence. we studied the functional anatomy of this structure in the red panda, comparing it with existing descriptions of the grasping ...200617118063
phylogeny of the caniform carnivora: evidence from multiple genes.the monophyletic group caniformia in the order carnivora currently comprises seven families whose relationships remain contentious. the phylogenetic positions of the two panda species within the caniformia have also been evolutionary puzzles over the past decades, especially for ailurus fulgens (the red panda). here, new nuclear sequences from two introns of the beta-fibrinogen gene (beta-fibrinogen introns 4 and 7) and a complete mitochondrial (mt) gene (nd2) from 17 caniform representatives we ...200616850214
evidence of a false thumb in a fossil carnivore clarifies the evolution of pandas.the "false thumb" of pandas is a carpal bone, the radial sesamoid, which has been enlarged and functions as an opposable thumb. if the giant panda (ailuropoda melanoleuca) and the red panda (ailurus fulgens) are not closely related, their sharing of this adaptation implies a remarkable convergence. the discovery of previously unknown postcranial remains of a miocene red panda relative, simocyon batalleri, from the spanish site of batallones-1 (madrid), now shows that this animal had a false thum ...200616387860
gastric dilitation-volvulus in a red panda (ailurus fulgens).a 10-year-old male red panda presented acutely with symptoms of shock due to acute abdominal distress and respiratory compromise. abdominal ultrasound confirmed a severely distended stomach for which passage of an orogastric tube for relief was unsuccessful. intra-operatively, the stomach was found to be distended and torsed around its long axis supporting the diagnosis of gastric dilitation-volvulus (gdv). the animal arrested and died intra-operatively and was submitted for necropsy with lesion ...201424521795
characterization of the gut microbiota in the red panda (ailurus fulgens).the red panda is the only living species of the genus ailurus. like giant pandas, red pandas are also highly specialized to feed mainly on highly fibrous bamboo. although several studies have focused on the gut microbiota in the giant panda, little is known about the gut microbiota of the red panda. in this study, we characterized the fecal microbiota from both wild (nā€Š=ā€Š16) and captive (nā€Š=ā€Š6) red pandas using a pyrosequecing based approach targeting the v1-v3 hypervariable regions of the 16s r ...201424498390
thoracic limb morphology of the red panda (<i>ailurus fulgens</i>) evidenced by osteology and radiography.the red panda (ailurus fulgens) is distributed primarily in the himalayas and southern china. it is classified as a vulnerable species by the international union for conservation of nature. the aim of this study was to describe the normal osteology and radiographic anatomy of the thoracic limb of the red panda. radiography of the right thoracic limb was performed in seven captive adult red pandas. radiographic findings were correlated with bone specimens from three adult animals. the scapula was ...201528235261
no easy solution for the fractionation of faecal nitrogen in captive wild herbivores: results of a pilot study.faecal nitrogen (fn) concentration is used as a marker for habitat quality and digestive efficiency in free-ranging herbivores. in herbivores, fn can be separated into undigested plant n (analysed as the n concentration of the neutral detergent residue) and metabolic faecal n (mfn). it has been suggested that by differential analysis of the faecal fibre-bound n, the mfn fraction can be further split into a bacterial n and an endogenous n fraction [hesta et al., br. j. nutr. 90 (2003) 1007]. we a ...200919178609
gastric dilatation and volvulus in a red panda (ailurus fulgens).to describe the successful management of gastric dilatation and volvulus (gdv) in a red panda.201424467661
tracing the origin of the panda's thumb.we investigate the relative development of the carnivoran radial sesamoids to untangle the evolution of this iconic structure. in the pandas (both giant and red), this 'false thumb' is known to perform a grasping role during bamboo feeding in both the red and giant pandas. an original locomotor role has been inferred for ailurids, but this remains to be ascertained for ursids. a large sample of radial sesamoids of indarctos arctoides from the miocene of batallones-3 (spain) indicates that this e ...201526036823
the primary structure of the hemoglobin of spectacled bear (tremarctos ornatus, carnivora).the complete primary structure of the alpha- and beta-chains of the hemoglobin of spectacled bear (tremarctos ornatus) is presented. following cleavage of the heme-protein link and chain separation by rp-hplc, their amino-acid sequences were determined by edman degradation in liquid- and gas-phase sequenators. the hemoglobin of spectacled bear displays only five amino-acid exchanges to that of polar bear (ursus maritimus, ursinae) and asiatic black bear (ursus tibetanus, ursinae) whereas 8 and 1 ...19873663329
a molecular solution to the riddle of the giant panda's phylogeny.although it is generally agreed that the giant panda (ailuropoda melanoleuca) is a member of the order carnivora, there has long been disagreement over whether it should be classified with bears, raccoons or as a single member of its own family. four independent molecular and genetic measures lead to a consensus phylogeny for the giant and lesser pandas. the lesser panda diverged from new world procyonids at approximately the same time as their departure from ursids, while ancestors of the giant ...20034033795
genetic assessment of captive red panda (ailurus fulgens) population.red panda (ailurus fulgens) is threatened across its range by detrimental human activities and rapid habitat changes necessitating captive breeding programs in various zoos globally to save this flagship species from extinction. one of the ultimate aims of ex situ conservation is reintroduction of endangered animals into their natural habitats while maintaining 90 % of the founder genetic diversity. advances in molecular genetics and microsatellite genotyping techniques make it possible to accur ...201627795893
radiographic thoracic anatomy of the red panda (ailurus fulgens).the red panda ( ailurus fulgens ) is classified as an endangered species by the international union for conservation of nature and natural resources. the natural distribution of the red panda is in the himalayas and southern china. thoracic diseases such as dirofilariasis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, tracheal obstruction, lung worm infestation, and pneumonia have been reported in the red panda. the aim of this study was to describe the normal radiographic thoracic anatomy of captive red pandas ...201627691948
the primary structure of comt gene is not involved in the diet shift of the giant or the red pandas. 201525748822
non-invasive monitoring of reproductive and stress hormones in the endangered red panda (ailurus fulgens fulgens).the red panda (ailurus fulgens fulgens) is classified as endangered due to its declining population, habitat fragmentation and poaching. efforts are being made to breed them in captivity as part of nationwide conservation breeding program. this study aimed to standardize enzyme immunoassays (eias) to monitor reproductive (progesterone metabolite, testosterone) and stress hormone (cortisol) in red panda. for this purpose, we collected 1471 faecal samples from four females and one male over a peri ...201627481551
influence of climate on the survivorship of neonatal red pandas in captivity.red pandas, ailurus fulgens, are popular exhibit animals in zoos. it is clear from data in the global studbook that there is considerable variation in their breeding success in different zoos. population managers have long suspected that environmental temperature plays a key role in these differences. it is generally thought that this species, which is so well adapted to life in the cold damp climate of the mid-altitude forests of the himalayas, has a problem coping with warmer climates. however ...201626849175
retrospective analysis of mortality in the north american captive red panda (ailurus fulgens) population, 1992-2012.red pandas ( ailurus fulgens ) are managed as captive populations in both north america and europe. regular review of pathology reports is a useful tool for developing veterinary care and husbandry strategies for such populations. though thorough pathology reviews have been conducted for the european studbook, the north american population has not been reviewed similarly until now. complete gross and histopathology reports were requested from institutions holding red pandas that died during 1992 ...201526667534
morphology of the pelvis and hind limb of the red panda (ailurus fulgens) evidenced by gross osteology, radiography and computed tomography.the red panda (ailurus fulgens) is a quadrupedal arboreal animal primarily distributed in the himalayas and southern china. it is a species commonly kept in zoological collections. this study was carried out to describe the morphology of the pelvis and hind limb of the red panda evidenced by gross osteology, radiography and computed tomography as a reference for clinical use and identification of skeletons. radiography of the pelvis and right hind limb was performed in nine and seven animals, re ...201525308447
bony labyrinth shape variation in extant carnivora: a case study of musteloidea.the bony labyrinth provides a proxy for the morphology of the inner ear, a primary cognitive organ involved in hearing, body perception in space, and balance in vertebrates. bony labyrinth shape variations often are attributed to phylogenetic and ecological factors. here we use three-dimensional (3d) geometric morphometrics to examine the phylogenetic and ecological patterns of variation in the bony labyrinth morphology of the most species-rich and ecologically diversified traditionally recogniz ...201626577069
diet and nutrient balance of red panda in nepal.we identified the winter plant species consumed by red panda in the dhorpatan hunting reserve of eastern nepal and compared this to the early-summer diet which was determined previously by panthi et al. (2012). in addition, we estimated the proximate nutritional content of the leaves identified in red panda diet for both seasons, and we used nutritional geometry to explore macronutrient balance of leaves from the two different sampling periods. we identified six different plants in winter scats, ...201526315537
excretion profiles of some reproductive steroids in the faeces of captive nepalese red panda (ailurus fulgens fulgens).faecal samples were collected up to once daily from three female nepalese red panda (ailurus fulgens fulgens) prior to, during, and after the expected 1995 breeding season. radioimmunoassay of faecal progestins and oestrogens showed hormone profiles that suggest that this species is a seasonally polyoestrous, induced ovulator. examination of faecal extracts following high pressure liquid chromatography and using antisera of high specificity, demonstrated at least five faecal progestins but only ...19979418988
thoracic limb morphology of the red panda (ailurus fulgens) evidenced by osteology and radiography.the red panda (ailurus fulgens) is distributed primarily in the himalayas and southern china. it is classified as a vulnerable species by the international union for conservation of nature. the aim of this study was to describe the normal osteology and radiographic anatomy of the thoracic limb of the red panda. radiography of the right thoracic limb was performed in seven captive adult red pandas. radiographic findings were correlated with bone specimens from three adult animals. the scapula was ...201526244684
current husbandry of red pandas (ailurus fulgens) in zoos.the endangered red panda (ailurus fulgens) is held in zoos worldwide. the aim of this study was to examine how red pandas are kept and managed in captivity and to compare it with the management guidelines. sixty-nine zoos, mainly from europe but also from north america and australia/new zealand, responded to our survey. the results revealed that in general zoos follow the management guidelines for most of the investigated issues. the average enclosure is almost four times larger than the minimum ...201521182101
dermatitis caused by filaria taxideae in a lesser panda. 19836643248
outbreak and genotyping of canine distemper virus in captive siberian tigers and red pandas.in this study, four canine distemper virus (cdv) strains were isolated from captive siberian tigers (panthera tigris altaica) and red pandas (ailurus fulgens) during two separate cdv outbreaks in a zoo in guangdong province, china. sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses based on the full-length hemagglutinin (h) and fusion (f) genes showed that they were closely identical to genotype asia-1. prior to confirmation of cdv in siberian tigers, to control spread of the disease, a live attenuate ...201728811626
cross-species transmission of canine distemper virus-an update.canine distemper virus (cdv) is a pantropic morbillivirus with a worldwide distribution, which causes fatal disease in dogs. affected animals develop dyspnea, diarrhea, neurological signs and profound immunosuppression. systemic cdv infection, resembling distemper in domestic dogs, can be found also in wild canids (e.g. wolves, foxes), procyonids (e.g. raccoons, kinkajous), ailurids (e.g. red pandas), ursids (e.g. black bears, giant pandas), mustelids (e.g. ferrets, minks), viverrids (e.g. civet ...201528616465
the phylogeny of the red panda (ailurus fulgens): evidence from the forelimb.within the order carnivora, the phylogeny of the red panda (ailurus fulgens) is contentious, with morphological and molecular studies supporting a wide range of possible relationships, including close ties to procyonids, ursids, mustelids and mephitids. this study provides additional morphological data, including muscle maps, for the forelimb of ailurus, based on the dissection of four cadavers from the national zoological park, washington, dc, usa. the red panda forelimb is characterized by a n ...200919930516
[osteomyelitis and papillary renal adenoma in a red panda (ailurus fulgens fulgens)].a 13 year-old female red panda (ailurus fulgens fulgens) kept in a zoological garden was euthanatized due to poor general condition. pathological examination revealed a chronic bacterial ulcerative to necrotizing dermatitis and osteomyelitis at the lower jaw with subsequent pyogranulomatous pneumonia and diffuse hydropic degeneration of the liver. additionally, in the kidney a papillary renal adenoma was found. immunohistochemistry revealed an expression of cytokeratins 8 and/or 19 indicating an ...200819024549
perfluorooctanesulfonate and periluorooctanoate in red panda and giant panda from china.perfluorooctanesulfonate (pfos) and perfluorooctanoate (pfoa) are important perfluorochemicals (pfcs) in various applications. recently, it has been shown that these compounds are widespread in the environment, wildlife, and humans. the giant panda and the red panda belong to the order carnivora, but are highly specialized as bamboo feeders. both species are considered rare and endangered. in this study, we report for the first time on levels of pfos and pfoa in serum of the giant panda and the ...200617007121
the use of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog deslorelin for short-term contraception in red pandas (ailurus fulgens).red pandas (ailurus fulgens) are threatened with extinction owing to habitat loss, exacerbated by their unique ecology and low fecundity. regional breeding programs manage captive red panda populations. recommendations not to breed may be made for various reasons, including genetic overrepresentation of certain individuals. no recommendations have been published on the use of contraception for red pandas. this article discusses the use of the gnrh analog deslorelin as a reversible method of cont ...201424100162
molecular genetic-distance estimates among the ursidae as indicated by one- and two-dimensional protein electrophoresis.evolutionary relationships among eight species of ursidae (including the giant panda) relative to two procyonidae species (raccoon and red panda) were estimated based on the extent of electrophoretic variation of 289 radiolabelled fibroblast proteins resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and among 44 isozyme loci resolved by one-dimensional electrophoresis. allelic differences among these species were converted to genetic distances, and phenetic trees were constructed. in addition, the ...198928568545
polycystic kidneys in the red panda (ailurus fulgens).an intact adult male 14.3-yr-old red panda (ailurus fulgens) presented for health examination with a history of slowly progressing loss of body condition. abdominal radiographs revealed a truncated abdomen with poor serosal abdominal detail and multiple areas of spondylosis with some collapsed intervertebral disc spaces. on computed tomography, multiple ovoid hypoattenuating lesions were seen in the left and right kidneys. gross pathology and histopathology revealed multiple cystic lesions in th ...201324063113
skunk musk causes methemoglobin and heinz body formation in vitro.a captive red panda developed a regenerative anemia with heinz bodies after being sprayed by a skunk. a definite cause-and-effect relationship between skunk musk and oxidative erythrocyte damage has not been reported, but it was suspected in one reported case of a dog with heinz body hemolytic anemia.201324033800
clinical implications of infection with a novel metastrongyloid species in the red panda (ailurus fulgens).in a recent survey, 30% of the european red panda (ailurus fulgens) population was found to be infected with a newly discovered metastrongyloid nematode. in a following prospective study, four naturally infected captive-bred red pandas infected with this parasite were examined and compared with two uninfected control animals. on clinical examination, no abnormalities were detected with respect to vital parameters and cardiovascular system in all six examined animals. similarly, few and nonspecif ...201222779231
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