serologic survey for brucellosis in feral swine, wild ruminants, and black bear of california, 1977 to 1989.a retrospective analysis of brucellosis serologic testing results in eight wildlife species in california from 1977 to 1989 was done. samples were collected from 5,398 live-captured or hunter-killed animals and tested by combinations of up to six serologic tests for antibodies to brucella spp. twenty-three of 611 (3.8%) feral swine (sus scrofa), one of 180 (0.6%) black bear (ursus americanus), one of 355 (0.3%) california mule deer (odocoileus hemionus californicus), and one of 1,613 (0.06%) bla ...19921512866
borreliosis in free-ranging black bears from wisconsin.blood, kidney and tick samples were obtained from 18 hunter-killed black bears (ursus americanus) from three sites in northern wisconsin. a borrelia sp., morphologically and antigenically similar to borrelia burgdorferi, was isolated from the blood of two of the animals, and from the kidney of a third. ixodes dammini and dermacentor variabilis were found on the bears. this is the first report of borreliosis in the ursidae, and of the primary vector of lyme disease, i. dammini, from this host.19883373646
a study of predominant aerobic microflora of black bears (ursus americanus) and grizzly bears (ursus arctos) in northwestern alberta.swab specimens were obtained from nasal, rectal, and preputial or vaginal areas of 37 grizzly and 17 black bears, captured during may to june of 1981 to 1983, to determine the types and frequency of predominant aerobic microflora. bacterial genera most frequently isolated from bears were escherichia, citrobacter, hafnia, proteus, staphylococcus, and streptococcus species, comprising about 65% of the isolates. erwinia, xanthomonas, agrobacterium, rhizobium, and gluconobacter/acetobacter were also ...19873447691
clinical mange of the black bear (ursus americanus) caused by sarcoptes scabiei (acarina, sarcoptidae). 19873820420
gongylonema pulchrum molin (nematoda: gongylonematidae) in black bears (ursus americanus pallas) from pennsylvania. 19863951047
renal microvasculature of the black bear (ursus americanus).this study of the black bear (ursus americanus) was undertaken to provide basic information related to structural modifications in the renal microvasculature that might provide insight into the drastic alteration in renal urinary output that occurs during winter sleep. vascular casts, as well as light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, were used to study the vascular components of the juxtaglomerular complex and related vessels. histologically, arterial cushions were readily identified ...19883414357
serologic survey for selected microbial pathogens in alaskan wildlife.antibodies to brucella spp. were detected in sera of seven of 67 (10%) caribou (rangifer tarandus), one of 39 (3%) moose (alces alces), and six of 122 (5%) grizzly bears (ursus arctos). antibodies to leptospira spp. were found in sera of one of 61 (2%) caribou, one of 37 (3%) moose, six of 122 (5%) grizzly bears, and one of 28 (4%) black bears (ursus americanus). antibodies to contagious ecthyma virus were detected in sera of seven of 17 (41%) dall sheep (ovis dalli) and five of 53 (10%) caribou ...19836139490
serologic survey for selected microbial agents in mammals from alberta, 1976.blood samples were taken from humans and several species of free-ranging wild mammals from five different geographic areas of alberta, canada. sera were tested for antibody to eastern equine encephalitis (eee) virus, western equine encephalitis (wee) virus, st. louis encephalitis (sle) virus, powassan (pow) virus, the snowshoe hare (ssh) strain of the california group (cal) of viruses, northway (nor) virus, klamath (kla) virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (ibr) virus, and two bacteria, bru ...19816273600
beta-endorphin levels in blood from selected alaskan mammals.blood samples were analyzed for beta-endorphin from 43 non-torpid black bear (ursus americanus), 8 torpid black bear, 3 non-torpid brown bear (ursus arctos), 14 moose (alces alces), 6 mountain goats (oreamnus americanus) and 30 steller sea lions (eumetopias jubatus). beta-endorphin levels were detected in all species sampled and there were no significant differences in levels among non-torpid black bear, brown bear and sea lions. also, no differences were detected between moose and mountain goat ...19816279890
free and conjugated plasma catecholamines, dopa and 3-o-methyldopa in humans and in various animal species.the aim of the present study was to determine the extent to which plasma catecholamines are conjugated in different animals compared to man and how widespread is the presence of dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylalanine (3-omd) in plasma among the different animal species. free and conjugated norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine were measured in plasma in humans and in several animal species (dog, rat, gunn rat, cat, rabbit, guinea pig, african green monkey, young p ...19883138688
serologic evidence of yersinia pestis infection in small mammals and bears from a temperate rainforest of north coastal california.from 1983 to 1985, 463 serum samples from 11 species of mammals in redwood national park (rnp) (california, usa) were evaluated for antibodies to yersinia pestis by the passive hemagglutination method. yersinia pestis antibodies occurred in serum samples from 25 (36%) of 69 black bears (ursus americanus), one (50%) of two raccoons (procyon lotor), five (3%) of 170 dusky-footed woodrats (neotoma fuscipes), and one (less than 1%) of 118 deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus). two hundred seventy-three ...19892915403
protein and fat metabolism in hibernating bears.hibernation in the bear (ursus americanus) is unique in that it is continuous for 3 to 7 months and occurs at near normal body temperature, yet the bear does not eat, drink, urinate, or defecate. during hibernation there is no loss of lean body mass because amino acids enter protein synthetic pathways at increased rates producing reciprocal decreases in entry into the urea cycle. the urea that is formed is hydrolyzed and the nitrogen released is combined with glycerol to form amino acids, which ...19806998737
serologic survey for certain zoonotic diseases in black bears in bears (ursus americanus) from 3 geographic areas of california were tested for antibodies against agents of 6 zoonotic diseases: toxoplasmosis (indirect hemagglutination), q fever (microagglutination), trichinosis (latex particle agglutination), botulism (passive hemagglutination), leptospirosis (plate agglutination), and plague (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). of 149 sera tested, 40 (27%) were positive for toxoplasma gondii antibodies and 25 (17%) had antibodies against coxiella burne ...19827174445
experimental brucella suis type 4 infections in domestic and wild alaskan carnivores.beagle dogs were readily infected by 1.3 x 10(8) colony forming units (cfu) of brucella suis type 4 administered either on canned dog food, or intraperitoneally. such infections were afebrile and otherwise asymptomatic and without any obvious gross lesions. inoculation of 10(8) cfu b. suis type 4 intraperitoneally into two gravid wolves (canis lupus) resulted in infections in both animals. about 24 days later they gave birth, apparently at full-term, to two (both alive) and six (two alive and fo ...19817241703
characterization of canine adenovirus type 1 isolated from american black bears.viruses recovered from tissues taken at necropsy from american black bears were examined by use of immunofluorescence with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, virus neutralization with monoclonal antibodies, and restriction endonuclease analyses of the viral genomes. with these techniques, viruses were determined to be canine adenovirus type 1. seronegative dogs that were inoculated with the virus had clinical signs typical of infectious canine hepatitis, suggesting that the virus, which was v ...19882840839
arterial supply and venous drainage of the brain of the black bear (ursus americanus). i. gross anatomical distribution.a morphological study of the intracranial vessels of the black bear (ursus americanus) was undertaken. the object was to provide basic information related to the vascular pattern in these animals as compared with other carnivores and with the human. vascular casts were prepared from 6 animals. the vasculature of the brain disclosed patterns comparable to other species previously studied.19892782024
sarcocystis sp. in mountain goats (oreamnos americanus) in washington: prevalence and search for the definitive host.during october and november 1986, sarcocystis sp. was detected in 24 of 56 (43%) tongues from hunter-killed mountain goats (oreamnos americanus) in washington (usa). sarcocysts had an unusual sessile polyp-shaped branched wall. mean size of 154 sarcocysts was 71.3 x 37.8 microns (range, 20 to 248 x 10 to 120 microns), and the mean intensity was 2.3 (range, 1 to 28). in an attempt to identify the definitive host, infected tongues were fed to four coyotes (canis latrans), eight domestic dogs, four ...19892509738
calcium and bone metabolic homeostasis in active and denning black bears (ursus americanus).decreased mechanical use of the skeleton results in osteoporosis in all species that have been studied, including humans. the unique metabolic adaptations of denning bears, however, suggest that these animals have evolved osteoregulatory mechanisms to protect against osteoporosis. the authors studied calcium and bone metabolism in black bears during three seasons: summer, winter, and spring. the serum calcium concentration did not change despite the fact that the bears remained metabolically act ...19902189632
membrane transport of potassium ions in erythrocytes of the american black bear, ursus americanus.1. membrane transport of k ions was investigated in red blood cells of bears by methods of measurement of unidirectional isotopic fluxes. 2. unlike red cells of dogs, red cells of bears exhibited a significant, though small, component of ouabain-sensitive k influx. 3. ouabain-insensitive k influx, as in other carnivore cells, was activated by swelling and inhibited by shrinkage. swelling-induced k influx was dependent upon presence of chloride ions but was not inhibited by furosemide or bumetani ...19901975545
membrane transport of sodium ions in erythrocytes of the american black bear, ursus americanus.1. membrane transport of na ions was investigated in red blood cells of bears by methods of measurement of unidirectional isotopic fluxes. 2. like red blood cells of dogs, bear red cells contain a high na concentration and low concentrations of k and atp. 3. as in dog red cells, na efflux from bear cells was not inhibited by ouabain but was activated by the presence of ca in the medium, possibly indicating the presence of a na-ca exchange mechanism. 4. atp depletion of cells was accelerated by c ...19901975544
prevalence of trichinella spiralis in black bears (ursus americanus) from newfoundland and labrador, canada.tongue and diaphragm samples from 158 black bears (ursus americanus) from newfoundland and labrador were examined for trichinella spiralis. no larvae were detected in samples from the island of newfoundland but one animal from the labrador samples was infected. the results of this and other studies suggest a lack of involvement of the black bear in a sylvatic cycle of t. spiralis in eastern canada.19921512886
forensic application of repetitive dna markers to the species identification of animal tissues.highly repetitive dna markers have been used for determining the species origin of animal tissues in cases of illegal commercialization and poaching of game animals. this approach has been used in cases involving white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), moose (alces alces) and black bear (ursus americanus). digesting the dna with various restriction enzymes, agarose electrophoresis and staining with ethidium bromide revealed unique banding patterns for each species. these patterns have been u ...19948195749
helminths of the black bear, ursus americanus, in new brunswick.between may 1989 and october 1991, 544 black bears ursus americanus were collected in new brunswick and examined for trichinella spiralis larvae. in addition, 110 of these bears were examined for filarial nematodes, and the entire intestinal tracts of 12 bears were examined for intestinal helminths. four species of helminths were identified from these bears, including trichinella spiralis, dirofilaria ursi, baylisascaris transfuga, and taenia krabbei. this represents the first documentation of t ...19948195953
prevalence of toxoplasma gondii infections in pennsylvania black bears, ursus americanus.serum samples from 665 hunter-killed black bears killed in 1989 to 1992 throughout pennsylvania (usa) were tested for toxoplasma gondii antibodies by the agglutination test in dilutions of 1:25, 1:50, and 1:500. toxoplasma gondii antibodies were found in 535 of 665 (80%) bears. considering the highest dilutions at which antibodies were detected, prevalences were 10% at 1:25, 37% at 1:50 and 33% at 1:500. no significant difference in antibody prevalence was found between males (79%) and females ( ...19938258862
ursus americanus (black bear) a new host for dirofilaria immitis. 19751185438
investigation, control and epizootiology of anthrax in a geographically isolated, free-roaming bison population in northern july 1993 anthrax caused significant mortality in an isolated, free-ranging population of bison (bos bison athabascae) west of great slave lake in the northwest territories. there was no previous record of anthrax in this area. an emergency response was undertaken to reduce the scale of environmental contamination and dissemination of anthrax spores and hence to reduce the likelihood of future outbreaks. one-hundred-and-seventy-two bison, 3 moose (alces alces), and 3 black bear (ursus america ...19958548686
bear meat trichinosis with a concomitant serologic response to toxoplasma gondii.a severe case of trichinosis occurred following the ingestion of raw meat from a common black bear, ursus americanus, that was shot in butte county, california. examination of steaks cut from the bear revealed heavy infection with t. spiralis. a good clinical response was obtained following treatment with prednisone (1 mg/kg body weight per day) and thiabendazole (50 mg/kg body weight per day); no toxic effects were observed. in comparison with the pre-treatment biopsy, a more intense inflammato ...19751146849
parasites of black bears of the lake superior region.parasites collected from free-ranging black bears, ursus americanus pallas, 1780, from northeastern minnesota or northern michigan include the dog tick, dermacentor variabilis (say, 1821), the winter tick, d. albipictus (packard, 1869), a louse, trichodectes pinguis euarctidoes hopkins, 1954, an ascarid worm, baylisascaris transfuga (rudolphi, 1819), a filarial worm, dirofilaria ursi yamaguti, 1941, taeniid tapeworms, and unidentified fleas. the broad fish tapeworm, diphyllobothrium latum (linna ...19751142551
status of trichinosis in bears in the atlantic provinces of canada 1971--1976.during 1971 to 1976 inclusive, 73 black bears, ursus americanus and one polar bear, thalarctos maritimus, originating in the atlantic provinces of canada were examined for the presence of trichinosis. the polar bear was infected but all of the black bears were negative.1978667710
pityrosporum pachydermatis in a black bear (ursus americanus).pityrosporum pachydermatis was repeatedly isolated from portions of alopecic tissue from the throax and ears of a black bear cub (ursus americanus). yeastlike cells morphologically identical with those of p. pachydermatis were observed in stained tissue sections. this is the first reported association of this yeast with a member of the family ursidae.1978635724
ecto- and endoparasites of the black bear in northern wisconsin.parasites collected from free-ranging black bears, ursus americanus, in northern wisconsin included dermacentor variabilis, d. albipictus, ixodes scapularis, demodex sp., trichodectes pinguis euarctidos, baylisascaris transfuga and dirofilaria ursi. mange, possibly caused by the demodex sp., also was observed. dental caries were common and periodontal disease was observed in one animal.1978633522
seasonal changes in the prevalence of ova of diphyllobothrium ursi and baylisascaris transfuga in the feces of the black bear (ursus americanus).an analysis of 114 samples of feces from black bears (ursus americanus) from la verendrye park, quebec revealed that the prevalence of eggs of diphyllobothrium ursi and baylisascaris transfuga varied seasonally. d. ursi ova were most prevalent during the summer and fall and at their lowest in spring while the converse was true for b. transfuga. this phenomenon possibly is associated with the cessation of feeding during the winter denning of black bears.1978567699
trichinosis in bears of western and northcentral united bears (ursus americanus) from 10 states were examined for trichinella spiralis during the 1970-1975 period. trichinae were found in 14 (3.1%) of 454 bears examined. infected bears were found from california, seven (13.2%) of 54; idaho, one (2.3%) of 44; and wisconsin, six (3.8%) of 163. trichina counts per gram of tissue obtained by the artificial digestion-baermann method ranged from 1390 to 0.02. six california bears and one from wisconsin contained more than one trichina per gram, a lev ...1977560797
seroprevalence of selected disease agents from free-ranging black bears in florida.sera obtained from 66 free-ranging florida black bears (ursus americanus floridanus) from three geographic areas of florida (usa) between november 1993 and august 1995 were tested for antibodies to 13 disease agents. antibody prevalences were 3 positive of 37 tested (8%) coxiella burnetti, 37 of 66 (56%) toxoplasma gondii, 3 of 61 (5%) bluetongue virus/epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (btv/ehdv), 4 of 66 (6%) canine adenovirus-type 1, 5 of 66 (8%) canine distemper virus (cdv), 10 of 62 (16%) ...19989706572
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii and trichinella spiralis in north carolina black bears (ursus americanus).serum samples from 143 hunter-killed black bears were collected during the 1996 and 1997 black bear hunting seasons in eastern north carolina. all samples were tested for antibodies to toxoplasma gondii by the modified agglutination test. antibodies to t. gondii were present in 120 of 143 (84%) bears. females had significantly higher titers than males (wilcoxon rank sums test, p = 0.045), and titers increased with age (jonckheere test, p = 0.01). samples collected during 1996 (n = 79) were teste ...19989794654
serologic survey for toxoplasma gondii in wild animals in florida.blood samples were collected for serum separation from 114 species of wild animals (25 species of mammals, 82 species of birds, and 7 species of reptiles) in florida. each of the 3,471 samples was tested for antibodies to toxoplasma gondii, using the indirect hemagglutination test. the highest prevalences of t gondii antibodies were 19% in armadillos (dasypus novemcinctus), 18% in raccoons (procyon lotor), 13% in black rats (rattus rattus), and 11% in opossums (didelphis marsupialis). antibody p ...1979521384
search for the trematode prouterina wescotti in black bears in oregon.forty-six heads of free-ranging black bears (ursus americanus) collected in may and june of 1995 and 1996 from oregon (usa) were examined for the trematode prouterina wescotti and other parasites. only sarcocystis sp. was detected in two adult male bears. prouterina wescotti has been found only once previously in one black bear from idaho (usa); its normal definitive host remains unknown.199910479105
effect of winter sleep on pituitary-thyroid axis in american black bear.during winter sleep the black bear has decreased levels of serum total and free thyroxine (t4) and triiodothyronine (t3) and a prolonged, delayed response of serum thyrotropin (tsh) (bioassay) to thyrotropin-releasing hormone (trh). four weeks after the end of winter sleep, levels of serum thyroid hormones increase, and tsh response to trh is short and brisk. serum t4 and t3 rise after trh administration both during and after winter sleep; however, the maximum increment in serum t3 is greater du ...1979474749
helminths recovered from black bears in the peace river region of northwestern alberta.a total of 91 free-ranging black bears (ursus americanus) from the peace river region of northwestern alberta was examined for helminths. four species, baylisascaris transfuga, taenia krabbei, taenia hydatigena and dirofilaria ursi, were found. none of the bears was heavily infected. results are compared with other similar north american surveys.1979459048
serologic survey for toxoplasma gondii in selected wildlife species from alaska.blood was collected from selected wildlife species in specific areas of alaska (usa) during 1976-96. a modified agglutination test was used to test sera for evidence of exposure to toxoplasma gondii. serum antibody prevalence was 43% (62 positive of 143 tested) for black bears (ursus americanus), 9% (11/125) for wolves (canis lupus), 7% (22/319) for dall sheep (ovis dalli), 6% (14/241) for caribou (rangifer tarandus), 1% (3/240) for moose (alces alces), and 1% (2/241) for bison (bison bison). a ...200010813602
studies on endoparasites of the black bear (ursus americanus) in the southeastern united states.examination of 53 black bears (ursus americanus) from six states in the southeastern united states revealed at least 17 species of endoparasites, including sarcocystis sp., spirometra mansonoides (spargana), macracanthorhynchus ingens, ancylostoma caninum, arthrocephalus lotoris, baylisascaris transfuga, capillaria aerophila, capillaria putorii, crenosoma sp., cyathospirura sp., dirofilaria immitis, gnathostoma sp., gongylonema pulchrum, microfilariae, molineus barbatus, physaloptera sp. and str ...1978418189
differentiation of salmon poisoning disease and elokomin fluke fever: studies with the black bear (ursus americanus). 19734720678
bovine tuberculosis in free-ranging carnivores from michigan.during a survey of carnivores and omnivores for bovine tuberculosis conducted in michigan (usa) since 1996, mycobacterium bovis was cultured from lymph nodes pooled from six coyotes (canis latrans) (four adult female, two adult male), two adult male raccoons (procyon lotor), one adult male red fox (vulpes vulpes), and one 1.5-yr-old male black bear (ursus americanus). one adult, male bobcat (felis rufus) with histologic lesions suggestive of tuberculosis was negative on culture but positive for ...200111272505
studies of bile lipids and bile acids of wild north american black bears in nova scotia, showing a high content of ursodeoxycholic acid.does ursodeoxycholic acid (udc) production protect hibernating species of ursidae against gallstone disease? five wild bears (ursis americana) were studied. older bears had more udc than younger ones, suggesting udc production is an acquired phenomena. bile salt pools were 10 times larger than that of man and were characteristically conjugated with taurine alone. the relative composition of the principal lipids in bear bile fell well within the range of cholesterol solubility. cholesterol gallst ...19853968875
trichinella infection in wildlife of the southwestern united states.several potential mammalian reservoirs of sylvatic species of trichinella were examined from texas, new mexico, and arizona. during 1998-99, tongues were collected from a black bear (ursus americanus) in arizona; from 9 black bears, a coyote (canis latrans), and a mountain lion (felis concolor) in new mexico; and from 154 coyotes, 32 raccoons (procyon lotor), 13 opossums (didelphis marsupialis), 4 ocelots (leopardus pardalis), 3 bobcats (lynx rufus), and 5 feral hogs (sus scrofa) in southern tex ...200111695403
serologic evidence of infection with granulocytic ehrlichiae in black bears in pennsylvania.serum samples from 381 black bears (ursus americanus) killed in pennsylvania (usa) on 24 november 1997 were analyzed for antibodies reactive to the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (hge; ehrlichia sp.) by indirect immunofluorescence assay. antibody reactivity to hge antigen was detected in 21% (81/381) of the samples collected. reactive samples were reported from 56% (14/25) of the counties where bear samples were collected. endpoint antibody titer ranged from 1:8 to 1:16, 192, with a ge ...200211838228
trichinella spiralis in the black bear (ursus americanus) of pennsylvania: distribution, prevalence and intensity of infection.samples of tongue or diaphragm from 2,056 black bears harvested in pennsylvania during the 1981-1983 hunting seasons were examined for larvae of trichinella spiralis by peptic digestion. sixteen males and 21 females were infected. the overall prevalence of infection was 1.8%. infected animals were distributed widely throughout the range of the bear in pennsylvania. in samples from infected bears, the geometric mean density of muscle larvae was 7.8 per g of tissue (lpg). there were neither sex- n ...19863951059
prevalence of sarcocysts in florida black bears (ursus americanus floridanus).sections of muscle from florida black bears (ursus americanus floridanus) collected in the state of florida were observed for the presence of sarcocystis sp. sarcocysts. two of 132 (1.5%) black bears had muscle sections containing sarcocysts. one sarcocyst was observed per muscle section. the sarcocysts averaged 181.5 x 99.0 microm by light microscopy of hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections.200212099441
estimation of ursodeoxycholic acid in human and bear biles using clostridium absonum 7 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.ursodeoxycholic acid was estimated in bile samples from humans and wild north american black bears using 7 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase purified from clostridium absonum by procion red affinity chromatography. the percentage ursodeoxycholic acid was calculated by two methods: (a) 7 beta-hydroxyl groups were quantified using 7 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 3 alpha-hydroxyl groups (total bile acids) were quantified using 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. the percentage ursodeoxych ...19836581749
filarial parasites from the black bear of japan.parasitological examinations were made on the tissues and the blood of the black bears (selenarctos thibetanus japonicus) of japan. three kinds of filarial parasites were found in the tissues and the blood of the hosts: dirofilaria ursi, tetrapetalonema (tetrapetalonema) akitensis sp. n. and dipetalonema (chenofilaria) japonica sp. n. the male and the microfilaria of d. ursi were described from the type host animal. japanese specimens of d. ursi were compared with the specimens from american bla ...19836870099
clostridial myonecrosis in a black bear associated with drug administration.clostridial myonecrosis is described for the first time in a black bear (ursus americanus). this fatal condition appeared within three days following immobilization with parenterally administered promazine hydrochloride and phencyclidine hydrochloride. clostridial myonecrosis may be responsible for other unexplained deaths of animals following recovery from immobilizing drugs. administration of prophylactic antibiotics to immobilized animals might be considered.19807411734
a serologic survey for selected infectious diseases of black bears in idaho.two hundred sixty-five black bears (ursus americanus) from northcentral idaho were examined serologically over a five-year period for antibodies against selected infectious disease agents. the number of positive serum samples number of sera tested and percent positive for each infectious agent is: tularemia, 65/340 (19); brucellosis, 18/332 (5); toxoplasmosis, 23/303 (8); leptospirosis, 2/196 (1); trichinosis, 16/122 (13); q-fever, 13/210 (6); st. louis encephalitis, 3/340 (1); western equine en ...19807411749
use of dissociative anesthetics for the immobilization of captive bears: blood gas, hematology and biochemistry values.nineteen bears, representing five species (helarctos malayanus, ursus americanus, ursus arctos, tremarctos ornatus, melursus ursinus) were immobilized a total of 52 times using either phencyclidine-promazine or tiletamine-zolazepam. blood gas, hematology, and serum biochemistry values were determined during the immobilizations. immobilizations conducted with tiletamine-zolazepam were characterized by rapid induction and recovery times, good muscle relaxation, and relative freedom from convulsion ...19807463600
molecular and biologic characteristics of toxoplasma gondii isolates from wildlife in the united states.toxoplasma gondii isolates can be grouped into 3 genetic lineages. type i isolates are considered more virulent in outbred mice and have been isolated predominantly from clinical cases of human toxoplasmosis, whereas types ii and iii isolates are considered less virulent for mice and are found in humans and food animals. little is known of genotypes of t. gondii isolates from wild animals. in the present report, genotypes of isolates of t. gondii from wildlife in the united states are described. ...200415040668
annual changes in serum concentrations of prolactin in captive male black bears (ursus americanus).prolactin may be involved in the regulation of reproduction in black bears (ursus americanus) as it is a mediator of photoperiodic changes in a number of species. the objectives of this study were to validate a radioimmunoassay to measure prolactin in bear serum and to describe seasonal changes in serum prolactin concentrations in captive male bears. serum samples were obtained nine times during a year from three captive male black bears that were denning between november and march and active du ...19957473406
phylogenetic relationships of bears (the ursidae) inferred from mitochondrial dna sequences.the phylogenetic relationships among some bear species are still open questions. we present here mitochondrial dna sequences of d-loop region, cytochrome b, 12s rrna, trna(pro), and trna(thr) genes from all bear species and the giant panda. a series of evolutionary trees with concordant topology has been derived based on the combined data set of all of the mitochondrial dna sequences, which may have resolved the evolutionary relationships of all bear species: the ancestor of the spectacled bear ...19947697192
observation of helicobacter-like organisms in gastric mucosa of grey foxes (urocyon cinereoargenteus) and bobcats (lynx rufus).archival specimens of gastric mucosa of 10 raccoons (procyon lotor), 9 porcupines (erethizon dorsatum), 6 grey foxes (urocyon cinereoargenteus), 6 bobcats (lynx rufus), 4 skunks (mephitis mephitis), and 3 black bears (ursus americanus) were microscopically examined for evidence of helicobacter-like organisms. such organisms were seen in the specimens from the grey foxes and bobcats only. histochemical stains (modified steiner and carbol fuchsin methods) revealed long spiral organisms within lumi ...200415188962
prevalence of viable toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts and antibodies to t. gondii by various serologic tests in black bears (ursus americanus) from pennsylvania.during the hunting season of 1993, hearts from 28 black bears (ursus americanus) from pennsylvania were examined for toxoplasma gondii infection. serum samples from heart blood were examined for t. gondii antibodies by the use of the modified agglutination test (mat), the sabin-feldman dye test (dt), the latex agglutination test (lat), and the indirect hemagglutination test (iha). one-hundred grams of myocardium from each bear were bioassayed in mice. approximately 500 g of myocardium from 11 be ...19957876963
antibodies to selected pathogens in free-ranging terrestrial carnivores and marine mammals in canada.antibody titres to selected pathogens (canine adenovirus [cav-2], feline herpesvirus [fhv], phocine herpesvirus [phv-1], canine distemper virus, dolphin morbillivirus [dmv], phocine distemper virus [pdv], parainfluenza virus type 3 [pi3], rabies virus, dolphin rhabdovirus [drv], canine coronavirus, feline coronavirus, feline leukaemia virus, borrelia burgdorferi and toxoplasma gondii) were determined in whole blood or serum samples from selected free-ranging terrestrial carnivores and marine mam ...200415338705
seasonal response of the pituitary and testes to gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the black bear (ursus americanus).1. the reproductive physiology of the black bear has not been studied extensively. our objective was to determine if the sensitivity of the pituitary-testes axis to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (gnrh) changes with season. 2. a gnrh dose-response study was conducted using three captive male black bears. each bear received the same dose of 30, 95 or 300 micrograms gnrh per total body weight in the fall, winter, spring and summer. blood was sampled at 15-min intervals 1 hr before and 1 hr after g ...19937902794
ursodeoxycholic acid in the ursidae: biliary bile acids of bears, pandas, and related carnivores.the biliary bile acid composition of gallbladder bile obtained from six species of bears (ursidae), the giant panda, the red panda, and 11 related carnivores were determined by reversed phase liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. bile acids were conjugated solely with taurine (in n-acyl linkage) in all species. ursodeoxycholic acid (3 alpha, 7 beta-dihydroxy-5 beta-cholan-24-oic acid) was present in all ursidae, averaging 1-39% of biliary bile acids depending on the spe ...19938263415
fatal baylisascaris larva migrans in a colony of japanese macaques kept by a safari-style zoo in japan.a colony of japanese macaques (macaca fuscata fuscata) kept by a safari-style zoo in japan experienced 9 sporadic cases of fatal neurological diseases, such as epilepsy and posterior paralysis, during the 12 yr from 1989 to 2001. this macaque colony consisted of approximately 30 animals, on average, during this period, and the macaques shared their living space with ii american black bears (ursus americanus) harboring zoonotic roundworms (baylisascaris transfuga). close to this enclosure, a cote ...200516108577
prevalence of antibodies to neospora caninum in wild animals.antibodies to neospora caninum were determined in several species of wild animals in the united states by the neospora agglutination test (nat). antibodies (nat 1:40 or higher) were found in 5 of 249 bison (bison bison), 5 of 160 caribou (rangifer tarandus), 4 of 162 moose (alces alces), 4 of 122 wolves (canis lupus), and 1 of 224 musk ox (ovibos moschatus) but not in 197 black bears (ursus americanus). to our knowledge, this is the first report of antibodies to n. caninum in bison and caribou. ...200516419771
immobilization of black bears (ursus americanus) with orally administered carfentanil citrate.ten black bears (ursus americanus) were immobilized with orally administered carfentanil citrate. the total carfentanil dose was mixed with 5 to 20 ml honey and given incrementally to captive bears. the bears ranged in weight from 80 (estimated) to 233 kg. total carfentanil doses ranged from 0.7 to 3.0 mg, resulting in dosages of 6.8 to 18.8 micrograms carfentanil/kg. mean (+/- sd) times from estimated 80% mixture consumption to sternal recumbency, and first safe human contact were 7.7 +/- 2.3 m ...19958592362
toxoplasmosis: a serological survey in ontario wildlife.sera from seven species of wild animals in ontario were examined for antibody to toxoplasma gondii using the sabin-feldman dye test. of 158 sera tested, 53% of the red foxes (vulpes vulpes), 56% of the striped skunks (mephitis mephitis), 78% of the coyotes (canis latrans), 33% of the black bears (ursus americanus), 18% of the short tailed shrews (blarina brevicauda) and none of the field voles (microtus pennsylvanicus) had antibody. antibody to t. gondii was present in sera from wild animals cap ...197616502687
serologic survey of toxoplasma gondii in grizzly bears (ursus arctos) and black bears (ursus americanus), from alaska, 1988 to 1991.we tested 644 serum samples from 480 grizzly bears and 40 black bears from alaska (usa), collected between 1988 and 1991, for toxoplasma gondii antibodies, using a commercially available latex agglutination test (lat). a titer > or = 64 was considered positive. serum antibody prevalence for t. gondii in grizzly bears (ursus arctos) was 18% (87 of 480). prevalence ranged from 9% (seven of 77) on kodiak island to 28% (15 of 54) in northern alaska. prevalence was directly correlated to age. no griz ...19958592377
a phylogeny of the bears (ursidae) inferred from complete sequences of three mitochondrial genes.complete sequences of dna are described for the cytochrome b trna(thr) and trna(pro) genes of mitochondria of four extant species of ursids and compared to sequences of four other species of ursids previously studied by us. phylogenetic analyses indicate that the giant panda and the spectacled bear are the basal taxa of the ursid radiation. the ursines, a group which includes the sun bear, sloth bear, american black bear, asiatic black bear, brown bear, and polar bear, experienced a rapid radiat ...19968744769
dna-confirmed taenia solium cysticercosis in black bears (ursus americanus) from california.three cases of cysticercosis in black bears (ursus americanus) in three northern california counties between 1990 and 1994 have been identified as due to the tapeworm taenia solium. both morphologic characteristics as well as the presence of t. solium mitochondria cytochrome oxidase i gene sequences, as detected by the polymerase chain reaction, confirmed the diagnosis. the number and geographic separation of the cases suggests that infection of the bears was not due to a single contamination. h ...19968916808
seasonal changes in spermatogenesis and testicular steroidogenesis in the male black bear ursus americanus.american black bears, ursus americanus, are seasonal breeders with a mating season in late spring to early summer. the objectives of this study were to determine whether there are seasonal changes in spermatogenesis and immunolocalization of testicular steroidogenic enzymes, and to correlate these changes with peripheral steroid concentrations. three captive mature bears were maintained in open cages during the summer season and provided with chambers for denning during the winter. testicular bi ...19979068409
interspecific resource partitioning in sympatric ursids.the fundamental niche of a species is rarely if ever realized because the presence of other species restricts it to a narrower range of ecological conditions. the effects of this narrower range of conditions define how resources are partitioned. resource partitioning has been inferred but not demonstrated previously for sympatric ursids. we estimated assimilated diet in relation to body condition (body fat and lean and total body mass) and reproduction for sympatric brown bears (ursus arctos) an ...200617205908
the complete mitochondrial genome and phylogenetic analysis of the giant panda (ailuropoda melanoleuca).the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the giant panda, ailuropoda melanoleuca, was determined by the long and accurate polymerase chain reaction (la-pcr) with conserved primers and primer walking sequence methods. the complete mitochondrial dna is 16,805 nucleotides in length and contains two ribosomal rna genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer rna genes and one control region. the total length of the 13 protein-coding genes is longer than the american black bear, brown bear and pol ...200717499457
deer exposed to exceptionally high concentrations of lead near the continental mine in idaho, usa.habitat surrounding the inactive continental mine in northern idaho, usa, supports bear (ursus arctos, ursus americanus), moose (alces alces), elk (cervus elaphus), woodland caribou (rangifer tarandus caribou), and abundant mule (odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus). tailings on the mining site were capped and remediated in 2003 to reduce environmental exposure of surrounding soil and sediments of blue joe creek, downslope of the mine. before capping, the mean pb c ...200717521153
identification and differentiation of bear bile used in medicinal products in hundred eighty-three suspect bear bile used in medicinal products, collected in taiwan as gall bladders or dried powder forms, were analyzed using ftir, hptlc, and hplc techniques to identify whether they are indeed bear bile. those confirmed were further examined to determine whether the observed analytical parameters can be reliably used for source inference, i.e., differentiating products among north american black bear, farmed asiatic black bear, polar bear, etc. our data suggested that ...19979304828
thyroid hormone concentrations in black bears (ursus americanus): hibernation and pregnancy effects.previous studies on thyroid hormones in hibernating bears have used very few sampling periods, so that the time course of any change is poorly understood. in this study, plasma sampled from pregnant and nonpregnant black bears before and during hibernation (16 samples each at 10-day intervals) was assayed by radioimmunoassay for concentrations of thyroxine (t4) and triiodothyronine (t3). only free t4 showed a difference (p = 0.019) between females that produced cubs and those that did not, but t ...19989473364
serological survey of selected canine viral pathogens and zoonoses in grizzly bears (ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (ursus americanus) from alaska.between 1988 and 1991, 644 serum samples were collected from 480 grizzly bears (ursus arctos horribilis) and 40 black bears (ursus americanus) from alaska, united states of america, and were tested for selected canine viral infections and zoonoses. antibody prevalence in grizzly bears was 0% for parvovirus, 8.3% (40/480) for distemper, 14% (68/480) for infectious hepatitis, 16.5% (79/480) for brucellosis, 19% (93/480) for tularaemia and 47% (225/478) for trichinellosis. in black bears, prevalenc ...19989850547
cloning and sequence analysis of the extracellular region of the polar bear (ursus maritimus) luteinizing hormone receptor (lhr), follicle stimulating hormone receptor (fshr), and prolactin receptor (prlr) genes and their expression in the testis of the black bear (ursus americanus).male black bears undergo seasonal changes in testicular activity. the testes are fully functional from may through july, regress from july through december, and recrudesce from january until may. the mechanisms responsible for the initiation of testicular recrudescence in the bear are unknown. the objectives of this study were to: (1) clone and sequence a substantial fragment of the extracellular portion of the luteinizing hormone receptor (lhr: 646 bp) and follicle stimulating hormone receptor ...200010618652
isolation and genetic characterization of toxoplasma gondii from raccoons (procyon lotor), cats (felis domesticus), striped skunk (mephitis mephitis), black bear (ursus americanus), and cougar (puma concolor) from canada.viable toxoplasma gondii was isolated by bioassay in mice from tissues of 2 feral cats (felis domesticus), 2 raccoons (procyon lotor), a skunk (mephitis mephitis) trapped in remote locations in manitoba, canada, and a black bear (ursus americanus) from kuujjuaq, northern quebec, canada. genotyping of these t. gondii isolates using polymorphisms at 10 nuclear markers including sagi, sag2, sag3, btub, gra6, c22-8, c29-2, l358, pk1, and an apicoplast marker apico revealed 4 genotypes. none of the i ...200818372620
live birth of a bear cub following nonsurgical embryo the near future, 6 of 8 bear species will face extinction mainly because of loss of their natural habitat. this loss of habitat will ultimately require some of these bears to be maintained in zoos and wildlife preserves in the hope of conserving genetic diversity. if the giant panda is representative of other bear species, reproductive performance will be inhibited in such an environment. in this study, we used the nonendangered american black bear (ursus americanus) as the model for developi ...199910729038
trombiculiasis in the florida black bear.we found trombiculid mite (trombiculidae) infestations in 32 of 101 (32%) freeranging florida black bears (ursus americanus floridanus) live-captured or necropsied in florida from january 1999 to april 2000. prevalence of chigger infestation was greatest in june with no infestations seen october to march. chigger infestations were recognized as accumulations of bright orange granular material usually associated with hair shafts. mites were found in clusters of one to 102 (mean +/- sd = 8.5+/-19. ...200111504241
cretinism in a north american black bear (ursus americanus).congenital hyperplastic goiter and cretinism were documented in a 16 month-old male north american black bear (ursus americanus). the cub was captured at approximately 8 months of age and maintained for an additional 8 months in captivity. clinical signs included growth retardation, clumsiness, and facial dysmorphism. hypothyroidism was documented by determining serum triiodothyronine (t3) and thyroxine (t4) levels. lysosomal storage disease was ruled out by measuring various lysosomal enzyme ac ...200211866041
a comparative bear model for immobility-induced osteopenia.the national institutes of health (nih) and the national aeronautics and space administration (nasa) are seeking solutions to the human problem of osteopenia, or immobility-induced bone loss. bears, during winter dormancy, appear uniquely exempted from the debilitating effects of immobility osteopenia. nih and esa, inc. are creating a large database of metabolic information on human ambulatory and bedrest plasma samples for comparison with metabolic data obtained from bear plasma samples collect ...199812744261
induction of pseudopregnancy in the american black bear (ursus americanus).the aim of this study was to determine whether american black bears (ursus americanus) can experience a pseudopregnancy of the same duration as pregnancy. to do this, we treated three nonmated, captive female bears with human chorionic gonadotropin (hcg) during one breeding season, and saline during another. progesterone concentrations were measured in monthly blood samples to determine whether pseudopregnancy had occurred. elevated progesterone concentrations were observed in two out of three b ...200312884278
enhancement of osteoblast proliferative capacity by growth factor-like molecules in bear serum.the use of animal serum in cell culture is vital for providing the nutrient factors required to promote proliferation and function. fetal calf serum has become the preferred choice because of its abundance, reasonable cost, and ability to sustain human cells in vitro. although a wide variety of serum sources have been tested and used, little is known about the ability of serum obtained from the american black bear (ursus americanus) to support human cell growth in culture. the american black bea ...200312892520
genomic analysis of expressed sequence tags in american black bear ursus americanus.species of the bear family (ursidae) are important organisms for research in molecular evolution, comparative physiology and conservation biology, but relatively little genetic sequence information is available for this group. here we report the development and analyses of the first large scale expressed sequence tag (est) resource for the american black bear (ursus americanus).201020338065
bone formation is not impaired by hibernation (disuse) in black bears ursus americanus.disuse by bed rest, limb immobilization or space flight causes rapid bone loss by arresting bone formation and accelerating bone resorption. this net bone loss increases the risk of fracture upon remobilization. bone loss also occurs in hibernating ground squirrels, golden hamsters, and little brown bats by arresting bone formation and accelerating bone resorption. there is some histological evidence to suggest that black bears ursus americanus do not lose bone mass during hibernation (i.e. disu ...200314581593
serologic evidence of west nile virus infection in black bears (ursus americanus) from new jersey.serum samples obtained from 51 free-ranging black bears (ursus americanus) in northwestern new jersey in february and march 2002 were analyzed for neutralizing antibodies to west nile virus (wnv) and st. louis encephalitis virus. three (6%) of the black bears tested positive for wnv-neutralizing antibodies. one additional sample was positive for flavivirus-neutralizing antibodies but could not be differentiated for a specific virus type. this is the first report of wnv infection in black bears.200314733286
parasitic helminths of black bear cubs (ursus americanus) from florida.twenty-two florida black bear (ursus americanus floridanus) cubs (< or = 12 mo old) from florida were examined for endoparasites between 1998 and 2003. eleven species of helminths were found (8 nematodes, 2 trematodes, and 1 acanthocephalan). the most prevalent helminths were ancylostoma caninum (64%), macracanthorhynchus ingens (36%), strongyloides sp. (27%), baylisascaris transfuga (23%), and a. tubaeforme (14%). new host records include a. tubaeforme and brachylaima virginianum. this is the f ...200415040687
induction of osteoblast aggregation, detachment, and altered integrin expression by bear serum.animal models have long been used to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for osteoporosis in humans. the american black bear, an animal that does not experience extensive bone loss normally associated with long-term immobilization (when hibernating), may provide an insight into the nature of the pathogenesis of the disease. circulating growth and differentiation factors present in the serum may facilitate continued proliferation of bone-forming cells. the aim of our study was to determine the e ...200415180436
thyroid cystadenoma, colloid goiter, and hypothyroidism in an american black bear (ursus americanus).a 178-kg, 14-yr-old captive female american black bear (ursus americanus) was examined because of lethargy, inappetance, obesity, and alopecia. serum chemistry and complete blood count values were within normal limits. based on serum levels for total thyroxine (t4), free t4 by equilibrium dialysis (ft4ed), and canine thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations, using assays validated for domestic dogs, hypothyroidism was diagnosed presumptively, and therapy with levothyroxine sodium (0.022 mg/kg ...200415193079
safety of brucella abortus strain rb51 in black two studies conducted from october 1999 to march 2000 and december 2000 to april 2001, adult black bears (ursus americanus) were orally inoculated with 1.4-3.1 x 10(10) colony-forming units (cfu) of brucella abortus strain rb51 (srb51, n=12) or 2 ml of 0.15 m nacl solution (saline, n=11). we did not detect a difference (p>0.05) in antibody titers to srb51 in serum obtained before vaccination, at 8 wk after vaccination, or at necropsy at 21 or 23 wk after vaccination between srb51-vaccinated a ...200415465709
immunohistochemical localization of steroidogenic enzymes in the testis of hokkaido sika deer (cervus nippon yesoensis).the testes from 15 adult male hokkaido sika deer (cervus nippon yesoensis) were collected during the rutting season (october and november). we investigated the localization of 4 kinds of steroidogenic enzymes (p450scc, 3betahsd, p450c17 and p450arom) immunohistochemically in these testicular samples. the specific immunoreactivities to these enzymes were detected only in the cytoplasm of leydig cells. this differs to the enzyme distributions reported previously in japanese black bear, japanese ra ...200415585968
blood lipid concentrations and lipoprotein patterns in captive and wild american black bears (ursus americanus).to compare blood lipid concentrations and lipoprotein patterns for captive and wild american black bears (ursus americanus).200616454642
prevalence of trichinella spp. in black bears, grizzly bears, and wolves in the dehcho region, northwest territories, canada, including the first report of t. nativa in a grizzly bear from canada.samples of muscle from 120 black bears (ursus americanus), 11 grizzly bears (ursus arctos), and 27 wolves (canis lupus) collected in the dehcho region of the northwest territories from 2001 to 2010 were examined for the presence of trichinella spp. larvae using a pepsin-hcl digestion assay. trichinella spp. larvae were found in eight of 11 (73%) grizzly bears, 14 of 27 (52%) wolves, and seven of 120 (5.8%) black bears. the average age of positive grizzly bears, black bears, and wolves was 13.5, ...201121719845
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii from free-ranging black bears (ursus americanus) from florida.abstract toxoplasma gondii is a significant worldwide parasitic protozoan. in the present study, prevalence of antibodies of t. gondii was examined from 29 free-ranging black bears (ursus americanus) from south-central florida where the host species was listed as state threatened during this project. overall t. gondii prevalence was found to be 44.8%, specifically 46.2% in male and 43.8% in female u. americanus, using a modified agglutination test (mat, 1:25 titer). seroprevalence differences ...201122150391
natural-trap ursid mortality and the kurtén response.ursid mortality data have long been used to evaluate associations between cave-bear remains (ursus deningeri and u. spelaeus) and hominin (homo sp.) remains. typically, such ursid assemblages produce mortality patterns that indicate that juvenile and old bears died during hibernation, a pattern that is used to suggest that humans and bears occupied the same caves at different times. however, a different kind of mortality pattern can also be used to suggest human influence on cave bears, particul ...200616503344
maintenance of slow type i myosin protein and mrna expression in overwintering prairie dogs (cynomys leucurus and ludovicianus) and black bears (ursus americanus).hibernating mammals have the remarkable ability to withstand long periods of fasting and reduced activity with dramatic maintenance of skeletal muscle function and protein composition. we investigated several hindlimb muscles of white-tailed prairie dogs (cynomys leucurus) and black bears (ursus americanus), two very different hibernators who are dormant and fasting during winter. the black-tailed prairie dog (c. ludovicianus) remains active during winter, but suffers minor skeletal muscle atrop ...200616758215
effectiveness of a regional corridor in connecting two florida black bear populations.corridors may mitigate the adverse effects of habitat fragmentation by restoring or maintaining connectivity between disjunct populations. the efficacy of corridors for large carnivores, however has rarely been evaluated objectively. we used noninvasive sampling, microsatellite analysis, and population assignment tests to evaluate the effectiveness of a regional corridor in connecting two florida black bear (ursus americanus floridanus) populations (osceola and ocala). bear movement was predomin ...200616909668
[a molecular phylogeny of shennongjia white bear based on mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequence].the phylogenetic relationship of shennongjia white bear has been an open question. total dna was extracted and sequenced from hair and feces of shennongjia white bear. based on the partial cyt b gene sequence obtained from the samples, the authors aligned them using the clustal w software program. the mega software was used to analyze the divergences and base substitutions of the partial cyt b gene among the 11 species: shennongjia white bear, selenarctos thibetanus, euarctos americanus, helarct ...200617035181
inoculation of female american black bears (ursus americanus) with partially purified porcine zona pellucidae limits cub production.the present 2-year study investigated the feasibility of using porcine zona pellucidae (pzp) as antigen for immunocontraception in american black bears. sows, 3-6 years of age, were administered either two doses of 250 microg pzp with freund's adjuvant (n = 10) or adjuvant alone (n = 5), one in april and one in may, and were kept away from the boars until june. serum samples were collected before injections and before denning (november). the presence of sows with cubs at side was observed during ...200717601409
prevalence of anaplasma phagocytophilum in north carolina eastern black bears ( ursus americanus ).we detected anaplasma phagocytophilum by dna amplification in whole blood from free-ranging, hunter-killed american black bears ( ursus americanus ) from the east coast of north carolina, us. molecular prevalence for anaplasma phagocytophilum was 3% from 68 black bears. no dna of other anaplasma or ehrlichia spp. was identified.201627479929
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