the etiology of sylvatic trichinellosis in switzerland.three trichinella strains from swiss wild foxes (vulpes vulpes) were tested in crossbreeding experiments with trichinella spiralis, t. nativa and t. nelsoni using white mice as laboratory animals. the results demonstrated that t. nelsoni britov et boev 1972 is the etiologic agent of sylvatic trichinellosis in switzerland. former isolations of these species were successful in materials from east and south africa, ussr (republics of tadzhikistan, turkmenia and kazakhstan) and bulgaria. the area of ...197723655
chronic form of experimental rabies in mice.the l-28 strain of street rabies virus isolated from the salivary gland of a red fox caused chronic infection in mice. after intracerebral (i.e.) infection with virus-containing fox salivary gland suspension, 13.9% of mice showed clinical signs of disease for 11--52 days. clear-cut stages of irritation and paralysis were distinguished in the course of infection of mice. the diagnosis of chronic rabies in mice was confirmed by immunofluorescence and isolation of virus by i.c. inoculation of mice. ...197939437
[immunodiffusion analysis of plasma proteins in the canine family].immunodiffusion studies have been made on the plasma of 9 species (vulpes vulpes, v. corsak, alopex lagopus, canis aureus, c. lupus, c. familiaris, c. dingo, nyctereutes procynoides, fennecus zerde) from the family of canidae using milk antisera. unlike rabbit antisera used earlier, milk antisera make it possible to detect more significant antigenic divergency with respect to 5 alpha- and beta-globulins. these globulins seem to have a higher evolution rate of antigenic mosaics as compared to oth ...197662473
[cyto-immunological study of the somatostatin hypothalamic peptidergic system in the fox (vulpes vulpes)].immunocytological investigations on the hypothalamus of the red fox with rabbit anti-srif showed large or small perikarya in the supra-optical and paraventricular nuclei. in the median eminence srif-positive nerve fibres and their endings have a characteristic distribution in areas different from those of lh-rh containing nerve fibres.1976135618
[epidemiology of rabies (author's transl)].rabies is widespread in all continents except australia. as an anthropozoonosis its main importance is in areas with uncontrolled dog rabies, nowadays principally topical and subtropical regions. the greatest economic losses however are encountered in the cattle herds of south and central america, where paralyssa prevails. in the northern hemisphere particularly rabies is enzootic among wildlife. under the given ecological conditions only one or two species act as primary vectors of the infectio ...1978306053
the fox, vulpes vulpes, as a final host for sarcocystis of sheep. 1977403866
the prevalence of sarcocystis spp in dogs and red foxes.protozoan parasites of the genus sarcocystis have been recognised for many years as intramuscular cysts of numerous vertebrates. it is only comparatively recently that the two-host nature of the life cycle has been recognised and that the intramuscular cysts are a stage in the developmental cycle of coccidian parasites of flesh eating mammals (fayer 1974, fayer and johnson 1973, 1974, rommel and others 1972, dubey 1976). carnivores ingest the intramuscular cysts from herbivores and presumably fr ...1978416553
presence of trichinella spiralis in free-living red foxes (vulpes vulpes) in sweden related to trichinella infection in swine and man. 1979546215
present status of kala-azar in iran.sporadic cases of visceral leishmaniasis have been reported from all parts of iran except the deserts and very arid zones in the southeast. about 120 cases have been reported up to the present time, the majority from the mountainous areas of the southwest. most patients (76%) have been children under 10 years of age. the probable reservoirs of infection are wild carnivores, infection of man and dog being accidental. during a survey conducted in the caspian area and northeastern part of iran in 1 ...1978626277
survey for toxoplasmosis in wild and domestic animals from norway and sweden.fifty-nine of 1250 (4.7%) wild and domestic animals from norway and sweden had positive dye-test titers (greater than or equal to 1:8) for antibody against toxoplasma gondii. a dye-test titer of 1:8 (30-40 i.u.) or higher was detected in 3 of 732 small rodents (0.4%), 21 of 87 domestic cats (24%), 9 of 29 red foxes (vulpes vulpes) (31%), 2 of 2 domesticated arctic foxes (alopex lagopus), 12 of 99 red deer (cervus elaphus) (12%), 5 of 8 roe deer (capreolus capreolus) (63%) and in 7 of 34 wild rab ...1978650778
laboratory observations on the fox (vulpes vulpes crucigera) in dyfed during the winters of 1974/75 and 1975/76. 1978678969
studies on sylvatic echinococcosis. v. factors influencing prevalence of echinococcus multilocularis leuckart 1863, in red foxes from north dakota, 1965--1972.a total of 1,153 red foxes, vulpes vulpes, was examined for strobilae of echinococcus multilocularis from 2 geographic regions in north dakota during 1965 through 1972. echinococcus multilocularis was found in 184 (16%) of these foxes. the data including date and location of collection, age and sex of the host, and presence or absence of the cestode were used to assess the relative influence of collection interval (sampling period), climatic season, geographic location, and age and sex of the ho ...1978682065
visceral lesions in wild carnivores naturally infected with spirocerca lupi.aortic lesions pathognomonic for spirocerca lupi were found in 123 of 150 (82%) coyotes, canis latrans, 23 of 66 (35%) bobcats, felis rufus, one of five gray foxes, urocyon cinereoargenteus and one of two red foxes, vulpes vulpes, examined in west texas. adult nematodes in the esophagus were recovered from 11 of 150 (7%) coyotes. in the aorta there was initially an acute inflammatory response followed by an eosinophilic granuloma surrounding larval nematodes. the principal lesions was scarring o ...1978685080
[comparative anatomy of the spinal cord of semi-aquatic, aquatic and terrestrial mammals].skeletotopically, cervical thickening of the spinal cord in semiwater mammals (callorhinus ursinus, eumetopias jubatus, phoca larga, phoca kurilensis, enhydra lutris) corresponds to 4--5, and in terrestrial mammals (ursus arctos, vulpes vulpes)--to 3--6 cervical vertebrae. lumbar thickening in terrestrial spicies and in enhydra lutris is situated more caudally from the thoracic portion than in phocidae. in a typically water animal (phocaenoides dalli) the cervical thickening is expressed feebly, ...1978736804
leptospiral antibodies in wild living animals from north tyrol.the authors examined serologically 623 wild living animals (22 species) from north tyrol for the incidence of leptospirosis. positive reactions (mal) in the titre 1: 100 and more were found in 4.5% of the animals examined; the serotypes concerned were these: icterohaemorrhagiae, sorex-jalna, castellonis or arboreae, grippotyphosa, bratislava, pomona, sejroe, saxkoebing. positive reactions were obtained with the sera of sorex araneus, erinaceus europaeus, putorius putorius, vulpes vulpes, cervus ...1976780229
wildlife rabies in europe and the british situation.the red fox is considered to be the main reservoir of the present european rabies epizootic which began in poland in 1939-40. its usual rate of spread is 20 to 60 km a year. mortality among rabies-infected fox populations is estimated variously to be 20 to 60%. the infection spreads more rapidly among foxes in the autumn and winter and its occurrence is dependent on fox populations is estimated variously to be 20 to 60%. the infection spreads more rapidly among foxes in the autumn and winter an ...1976790670
[importance of the fox (vulpes vulpes) in the transmission of sarcosporidiosis from the steinbock (capra ibex) at the gran paradiso national park].sarcosporidiasis is a very common infection of steinbocks (capra ibex) and chamois (rupicapra rupicapra) of gran paradiso national park, italian western alps, frequently with serious cardiac involvement. no dogs or cats are allowed inside the park, to the contrary foxes (vulpes vulpes) are present every where, near steinbocks and chamois, and eat on the bodies of dead animals. feces of vulpes vulpes were collected in the same area, where the infected capra ibex used for the following experiment ...1975823518
the aerobic bacterial flora of the anal sac of the red fox. 1976825502
yersinia enterocolitica and yersinia like microbes isolated from mammals and water in norway and pertaining to 149 strains belonging to genus yersinia are summarized in this paper. yersinia enterocolitica (y.e.) was isolated from the faeces of 31 of 305 small rodents and from 5 of 31 shrews (soricidae) trapped at five localities in norway and one locality in denmark. isolations were obtained from 9 of 29 water samples collected within the trapping areas. three of 25 red foxes (vulpes vulpes) from one locality in norway harbored y.e. in their faeces. y.e. serotype 16 was isolated from o ...1977857609
the prevalence of trichinella spiralis in foxes (vulpes vulpes) and other game species in denmark.a survey of the rate of infection with trichinella spiralis among game animals in denmark is given with special regard to foxes. a total of 5084 foxes and 293 mustelidae were examined, most of them by a combined digestion and baermann technique. deep-frozen samples were examined by a method including digestion, filtration, and sedimentation. four foxes were found infected (cf. fig. 1). three of them were shot inside or just outside a fenced area within which wild boars had previously been found ...1976934811
intermittent chemotherapy of pulmonary tuberculosis using rifampicin and isoniazed for primary treatment: the influence of various factors on the frequency off side-effects.after studying more than 1,000 siphonaptera tera collected from about 300 wild carnivora (with a majority of foxes, vulpes vulpes), in the north-east of france, the authors state more precisely the biology and chorology of the main fleas collected: pulex irritans, ctenocephalides felis felis, c, canis, chaetopsylla globiceps, ch. rothschildi, ch. trichosa, paraceras melis melis. 9 other species are also noted.1976937975
adiaspiromycosis in large free living carnivores.adiaspiromycosis was identified in 6 animals in the examination of the lungs of 90 large carnivores. emmonsia crescens (chrysosporium parvum var. crescens) was demonstrated as the causative agent in 5 cases of disease-in the badger (meles meles), the otter (lutra lutra) and the fox (vulpes vulpes). e. parva was demonstrated in the remaining case of disease in a fox. the badger is a new, up to the present unknown host of e. crescens. the sporadic occurrence of adiaspiromycosis in the fox and the ...1976945461
the occurrence of mesocestoides sp. in british wild red foxes (vulpes vulpes crucigera).infection with the cyclophyllidean tapeworm mesocestoides sp. is recorded in british wild red foxes (vulpes vulpes cr-cigera) from scotland and south east england. previously, the occurence of this parasite in great britain has been rarely reported, but the results of the present study indicate that vulpine infection may be common.1976965710
isospora vulpina nieschulz and bos, 1933: description, and transmission from the fox (vulpes vulpes) to the dog.oocysts of isospora vulpina were found in silver foxes (vulpes vulpes) on a fox farm in wisconsin. they were 29.7 (25-38) x 24.3 (21-32) mum. the sporocysts were 17.7 (15-23) x 13 (11-16) mum. five coccidia-free puppies were inoculated with 22,000-42,000 oocysts each of i. vulpina from the fox: a patent infection resulted after 6-7 days. the infection was then transferred from 1 of these dogs to another coccidia-free puppy. after a 7-day prepatent period the puppy passed oocysts for 7 days.1976972349
helminth parasites of the fox (vulpes vulpes) in new south wales.a total of 930 foxes (vulpes vulpes) from new south wales were examined for the presence of gastro-intestinal helminth parasites. the cestodes were represented by taenia pisiformis with a prevalence of 15.7%, t. serialis (22.6%), t. taeniaeformis (0.1%), spirometra erinacei (28.7%) and dipylidium caninum (8.3%). no specimens of t. ovis, t. hydatigena or echinococcus granulosus were encountered. toxocara canis was the most prevalent nematode and occurred in 35.2% of foxes. other nematodes encount ...1976985241
[new faunal and biological observations on ticks in abruzzo].ticks collected during the years 1975-76 in abruzzo (prov. l'aquila and chieti) italy are reported. the following species have been identified: ixodes canisuga, ixodes frontalis, ixodes hexagonus, ixodes ricinus, dermacentor marginatus, haemaphysalis sulcata, rhipicephalus bursa, rhipicephalus sanguineus, hyalomma marginatum. new hosts are: felis catus for ixodes canisuga; scolopax rusticola, motacilla flava, corvus cornix for ixodes frontalis; sciurus vulgaris for haemaphysalis punctata; garrul ...19761032325
studies on the oral infectivity of rabies virus in carnivora.mature and immature red foxes (vulpes vulpes) and striped skunks (mephitis mephitis) were fed varying numbers of white mice infected with street isolates and a fixed strain of rabies virus. rabies deaths and the development of serum neutralizing antibody to rabies virus occurred in both species. the epizootiological implications of these findings are discussed.19751097742
paragonimus kellicotti infection in wild carnivores in southwestern ontario: i. prevalence and gross pathologic features.paragonimus kellicotti ward, 1908 was recovered from 16 of 105 mink (mustela vison), 14 of 244 striped skunks (mephitis mephitis), 10 of 446 red foxes (vulpes vulpes), 1 of 31 coyotes (canis latrans), 0 of 326 raccoons (procyon lotor) and 0 of 8 weasels (mustela spp.) collected from southwestern ontario. the majority of carnivores harboring p. kellicotti was collected from two counties (huron and bruce) bordering the east shore of lake huron where 6.0% of the animals (excluding raccoons) were in ...19751113433
emmonsia parva as causal agent of adiaspiromycosis in a fox.the authors report on adiaspiromycosis of a fox (vulpes vulpes) caused by emmonsia parva. species diagnosis was made on the basis of dimensions of the fungus found in the lungs of the animal, the histopathological picture of tissue changes and the properties of the isolated culture. the identification of the fungus was also confirmed by experimental infection. the differential diagnosis of the agent of adiaspiromycosis is discussed by experimental infection. the differential diagnosed of the age ...19751124461
some helminths of the red fox, vulpes vulpes schlencki kishida, in hokkaido, japan, with a description of a new trematode, massaliatrema yamashitai n. sp. 19751142572
paragonimus kellicotti infection in wild carnivores in southwestern ontario: ii. histopathologic features.pulmonary lesions associated with naturally acquired paragonimus kellicotti infection were studied in mink (mustela vison), striped skunks (mephitis mephitis), red foxes (vulpes vulpes) and a coyote (canis latrans). in ,ink a fibrous capsule was formed around mature flukes in dilated bronchioles or bronchi, and there was mild focal interstitial pneumonitis adjacent to fluke eggs in alveoli and migrating parasites. a thick wall, infiltrated heavily with mononuclear cells and eosinophils, surroun ...19751152176
[a further contribution to the parasite fauna of the red fox, vulpes vulpes (l.), in austria]. 19761258570
[parasitism of the fox (vulpes vulpes l.) by ixodidae (acarina) in northeast france. interpretation of the seasonal dynamics of the parasites in relation to the biology of the host]. 19761266553
development of a recombinant vaccinia-rabies vaccine for oral vaccination of foxes against improve both safety and stability of the vaccines used in the field to vaccinate foxes against rabies by the oral route, a recombinant vaccinia virus, expressing the immunizing g protein of rabies virus (vvtgg rab-26d3 187 x p strain) has been developed. the c-dna corresponding to the glycoprotein of the era strain of rabies virus has been inserted into the thymidine kinase (tk) gene of the vaccinia virus (copenhagen strain). the efficacy of this recombinant strain was tested by the oral rout ...19921286744
epidemiology of sylvatic trichinellosis in north-western italy.muscle samples from 7,142 wild boars (sus scrofa), 80 free-ranging hogs, 1,462 red foxes (vulpes vulpes) 90 mustelids, 15 alpine marmots (marmota marmota), 873 rodents and 92 insectivores were examined for trichinella railliet, 1895. a wild boar, a badger (meles meles) and 30 foxes (2.1%) were found to be infected. eleven vulpine isolates and the wild boar isolate were identified as trichinella britovi. these results show that the wild boar has little significance as a reservoir of t. britovi in ...19921305850
[detection of the eggs of echinococcus multilocularis leuckart, 1863, in the feces of the fox (vulpes vulpes linnaeus, 1758) by the polymerase chain reaction].the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was applied to the identification of eggs of echinococcus multilocularis in faeces from foxes. the test was positive in three of six faeces samples from foxes which were harbouring adult worms, and in one of four samples from foxes in which no adult e. multilocularis was found in the intestines. these initial results show that it is possible to use pcr to identify e. multilocularis eggs in faeces. pcr can be used to complement examination of intestinal content ...19921305852
parasitological and serological studies on the prevalence of echinococcus multilocularis leuckart, 1863 in red foxes (vulpes vulpes linnaeus, 1758) in the canton of zurich in switzerland, 1,252 red foxes (vulpes vulpes) were examined during 1990-1991 for intestinal stages of echinococcus multilocularis using the mucosal smear technique. special safety precautions were employed during examination. an average of 35% (432 foxes) were infected, mostly with low to medium numbers of gravid worms producing thick-shelled eggs. in the eleven districts of the canton, prevalence rates varied between 13% and 57%. an average of 29% of the foxes had anti ...19921305853
sarcoptic mange in swedish wildlife.mange caused by sarcoptes scabiei var. vulpes appeared among red foxes (vulpes vulpes) in scandinavia (south-west finland) for the first time in this century in 1967. the disease was most probably introduced by foxes crossing the gulf of finland from estonia. the mange epizootic spread northwards through finland and reached sweden in late 1975, when mangy foxes appeared in the northern part of the country. in 1984, mange was observed in most parts of sweden. the disease was observed to spread ra ...19921305857
[the helminth fauna of red foxes (vulpes vulpes linnaeus 1758) in north hesse and east westphalia. 1. cestodes].between november 1989 and june 1990 a total number of 397 foxes were examined for the presence of cestodes. the animals came from the districts of arnsberg, detmold and kassel. in 16.4% of the foxes infections with echinococcus multilocularis were found, in 28.5% taenia crassiceps, in 14.4% taenia polyacantha, in 4.3% mesocestoides spp., in 3.3% multiceps multiceps, in 2.5% hydatigera taeniaeformis, in 0.8% taenia hydatigena and in 0.3% taenia martis. infections with echinococcus multilocularis ...19921396164
the role of foxes vulpes vulpes in the epidemiology of echinococcus granulosus in urban survey the prevalence of intestinal worms, particularly echinococcus granulosus, in foxes in canberra.19921454000
[the testosterone level in the testes of silver foxes during prenatal development].the level of testosterone in serum and testes of the silver fox fetuses on days 31, 35, 40, 45, and 50 of gestation was determined using radioimmunoassay. in testes, testosterone was first detected at day 31; then its level gradually increased. serum testosterone was detected only at day 40. subsequent increase in its concentration was insignificant. human chorionic gonadotropin stimulated testicular testosterone production in vitro beginning from day 40. we suggest that in the silver fox, teste ...19921454293
[the occurrence of echinococcus granulosis and e. multilocularis in thuringia].the occurrence of e. granulosus and e. multilocularis in the region of thuringia is reported. parasitological investigations showed 1421 e. granulosus metacestodes, 91.7% of them in lungs and 1.3% in livers of cattle, 6% in lungs and 1% in livers of pigs; that means an infestation rate at slaughter of 0.1%-0.3% in cattle and 0.001-0.004% or less in pigs resp. 90.1% of the hydatid cysts proved to be fertile even in a size of 1.5 cm diameter. adult e. granulosus was found post mortem in 2 of 324 d ...19921456463
[the helminth fauna of the red fox (vulpes vulpes linne, 1758) in nordhessen and ostwestfalen. 2. nematodes].between november 1989 and june 1990 a total number of 397 foxes were examined for the presence of nematodes in the stomach and the small intestine and 403 foxes for the presence of trichinella spiralis larvae. the animals came from the districts of kassel, arnsberg and detmold. in 32.7% of the foxes infections with toxocara canis were found, in 11.1% toxascaris leonina, in 3.8% ancylostoma caninum, in 3.5% uncinaria stenocephala and in 2.3% capillaria species. in most cases the number of nematod ...19921459030
diseases and parasites of red foxes, gray foxes, and coyotes from commercial sources selling to fox-chasing enclosures.fifty-six red foxes (vulpes vulpes), 18 gray foxes (urocyon cinereoargenteus), and 13 coyotes (canis latrans) obtained by the south carolina wildlife and marine resources department during an investigation of suspected illegal wildlife translocation were examined for diseases and parasites. red foxes and coyotes were confiscated from an animal dealer based in ohio (usa), and gray foxes were purchased from an animal dealer in indiana (usa). emphasis was placed on detection of pathogens representi ...19921474656
consideration of inactivated rabies vaccines as oral immunogens of wild experimental beta-propiolactone (bpl)-inactivated rabies virus vaccine was evaluated for the oral immunization of captive raccoons (procyon lotor) and red foxes (vulpes vulpes). none of 10 red foxes administered a single 1.0 ml dose of bpl-inactivated rabies virus vaccine (pm strain; 100 or 500 micrograms protein) per os developed detectable anti-rabies virus-neutralizing antibodies (vna) at any time over 8 wk of observation. foxes were excluded from further study. in two different groups of ...19921474662
the fox (vulpes vulpes) as a reservoir for canine angiostrongylosis in denmark. field survey and experimental infections.until recently, angiostrongylus vasorum was not considered to be an endogenous danish parasite, since demonstration of this worm had been confined to necropsy findings in 2 dogs, both of which had visited france. during the last 2 years, however, clinical cases have been diagnosed among a considerable number of danish dogs, none of which had ever been outside denmark. all these cases have occurred north of copenhagen, where an endemic focus seems to exist. in this field survey a. vasorum was fou ...19921488951
xylazine hydrochloride-ketamine hydrochloride immobilization of free-living red foxes (vulpes vulpes) in spain.a combination of xylazine hydrochloride-ketamine hydrochloride was used to immobilize 83 wild red foxes (vulpes vulpes) (15 pups and 68 adults) at doñana national park (spain). mean ketamine hydrochloride doses were 17.1 mg/kg (se = 1.53) and 12.3 mg/kg (se = 0.4) for pups and adults, respectively, and mean xylazine hydrochloride doses for the same groups were 6.2 mg/kg (se = 0.63) and 4.7 mg/kg (se = 0.14), respectively. mean induction times and first reaction times were 1.6 minutes and 22.5 mi ...19921512894
[environmental hygienic aspects of echinococcosis].a literature review on the current situation of echinococcosis in central europe is given. the only final host for echinococcus granulosus in this region ist the dog. the infection rate of dogs with e. granulosus in central europe is less than 1%. according to meat inspection statistics in germany less than 0.008% of sheep, pigs and horses carry larval stages of e. granulosus. parasitologically confirmed is the occurrence of a cattle-dog strain, the cysts of which were found in 0.26% of slaughte ...19921516550
oral rabies vaccination of skunks and foxes with a recombinant human adenovirus vaccine.a new recombinant rabies vaccine (human adenovirus 5 containing the rabies glycoprotein gene) was given to striped skunks (mephitis mephitis) and red foxes (vulpes vulpes). groups of skunks received the vaccine in baits, by direct instillation into the mouth, or intramuscularly. foxes were given vaccine by direct instillation into the oral cavity (dioc). selected groups of vaccinated skunks and foxes were challenged with street rabies virus. there were high rates of seroconversion (generally wit ...19921550495
mapping of silver fox genes: chromosomal localization of the genes for got2, ak1, aldoc, acp1, itpa, pgp, and blvr.evidence is presented for the chromosome localization of seven silver fox genes by the use of a panel of fox x chinese hamster somatic cell hybrids. ak1, got2, and aldoc are assigned to chromosome vfu2, pgp to chromosome vfu38, blvr to chromosome vfu5, acp1 to chromosome vfu8, and itpa to chromosome vfu14. the genetic map of 29 fox genes is compared with those reported for man and other mammals. the results we obtained support and extend our previous suggestion that the formation of the canidae ...19911647290
polyglucosan bodies in the central nervous system of a fox.polyglucosan bodies (pgb) in the central nervous system of an old male fox, vulpes vulpes japonica, without neurological signs were examined by light and electron microscopy, lectin histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. fox pgb were round, slightly-basophilic and pas-positive structures. most of the bodies were situated free in the neuropil. electron microscopically, fox pgb were composed mainly of branching filaments and electron-dense material. lectin histochemistry revealed that fox pgb co ...19911663141
rabies in urban foxes (vulpes vulpes) in britain: the use of a spatial stochastic simulation model to examine the pattern of spread and evaluate the efficacy of different control régimes.the threat of rabies being reintroduced into britain is probably greater now than at any time over the last 60 years. this threat is reviewed with particular regard to the problems that would be posed should rabies be introduced to the high-density fox populations found in many cities in southern england. computer models can provide a valuable means of understanding the pattern of rabies spread in fox populations and the likely problems of control, so the construction of previous rabies models w ...19911686115
large-scale eradication of rabies using recombinant vaccinia-rabies vaccine.rabies infection of domestic and wild animals is a serious problem throughout the world. the major disease vector in europe is the red fox (vulpes vulpes) and rabies control has focused on vaccinating and/or culling foxes. culling has not been effective, and the distribution of five vaccine baits is the only appropriate method for the vaccination of wild foxes. although some european countries have conducted field vaccination campaigns using attenuated rabies virus strains, their use has not bee ...19911758494
identification of sylvatic trichinella (t3) in foxes from france.thirty-three foxes (vulpes vulpes) from a sample of 1912 collected in france were found to be infected with trichinella spp. four isolates were obtained for genetic identification. isoenzymatic and biological analysis of these isolates revealed the presence of two distinct genetic types of trichinella, trichinella spiralis s.str. (t1) and trichinella sp. (t3) (trichinella nelsoni according to soviet authors) in the fox population. the reproductive capacity index of these isolates in wistar rats ...19911763479
lung and hearth nematodes in some spanish mammals.thirteen host species belonging to the orders rodentia, insectivora and carnivora from various localities in galicia (nw spain) were examined for heart and lung parasites. the following species were found: parastrongylus dujardini (5.5%) in apodemus sylvaticus, crenosoma striatum in erinaceus europaeus (83%), angiostrongylus vasorum, crenosoma vulpis and eucoleus aerophilus in vulpes vulpes (3, 3.46 and 0.50%, respectively), crenosoma taiga in putorius putorius (100%) and crenosoma sp. in meles ...19911844789
serological (em2-elisa) and parasitological examinations of fox populations for echinococcus multilocularis infections.serum or body fluid samples of 1,006 foxes were investigated in an elisa for antibodies against a highly sensitive and specific antigen (em2-antigen) of echinococcus multilocularis. parasitological examinations of the intestines and simultaneous serological examinations were carried out in 505 foxes: a group of 98 blue foxes (alopex lagopus) from norwegian fox farms did not contain intestinal stages of e. multilocularis and was clearly sero-negative in em2-elisa. on the other hand in red foxes ( ...19911858455
[parasite fauna of red foxes in berlin (west)].the infestation with ecto- and endoparasites of red foxes in berlin (west) was investigated. as shown by post mortems of 100 animals (47 males and 53 females), none of them was found to be free of parasites. with regard to ectoparasites, 3 species of ixodes ticks, 7 flea species, one species of biting lice and mite species were demonstrated. the sarcoptic mange is often inducing the death of the foxes and is considered to be a limiting factor of the population increment. concerning endoparasites ...19911872791
[behavioral ecology of the transmission of rabies].red fox behavioural ecology was studied in a rabies-enzootic area in order to determine how population size is balanced despite rabies-induced mortality. the results suggest that the red fox rabies virus equilibrium evolves, and is due to the solitary behaviour pattern of the fox which reduces the risk of virus transmission from on territory to another; and to the subsequent autumn dispersal, which allows the local fox population to recover in the space of under a year. the hypothesis is put for ...19911897867
[methodological approach to genetic-selection analysis of social behavior of animals (using as an example domestic behavior of the silver fox].social behaviour of animals, i.e. interspecies contacts, were studied in a population of silver foxes in the longitudinal model domestication experiment. three social behaviour traits were analysed: contactibility, critical distance and domestication index. the latter trait is a linear function of elementary behaviour reactions, postures induced by man which is determined by the principal components method. the most valiable selection phenotype for further modelling of domestication, as shown by ...19911916254
vitamin a in the urine of carnivores.vitamin a levels (retinol equivalents) in the urine of canines were between 423 ng/ml (dog) and 6304 ng/ml (silver fox). neither vitamin a nor vitamin e was found in the urine of herbivores, omnivorous and rodents. no vitamin a but low levels of vitamin e were detected in cats. vitamin a in the urine was present as retinol and retinyl esters (basically retinyl palmitate/oleate). the total excretion of vitamin a represented 15 to 63% of the daily uptake in dogs, while less than 4% of vitamin e wa ...19911917346
pathology of naturally acquired angiostrongylus vasorum infection in the red fox (vulpes vulpes).199 out of 509 foxes culled in a rabies control scheme, were shown to be infected with the metastrongylid parasite angiostrongylus vasorum. pathological lesions associated with angiostrongylosis in the fox are described and compared to reported lesions of a. vasorum infection in the dog. the lesions observed in the foxes seemed to be less severe and mainly confined to the ventral parts of the lung lobes which showed granulomatous pneumonia. right ventricular hypertrophy of the heart was present ...19911928794
reference data on the anatomy and serum biochemistry of the silver fox.clinically healthy silver foxes obtained from a closed colony were investigated for the purpose of establishing base-line data for this species. the anthropometry (body weight; body length; length and width of the head; width, depth, and circumference of the chest; length of the tail), anatomical measurements (weight; longitudinal and transverse length; thickness of the main organs) and serum biochemical assays (ast, alt, alp, ldh, ck, lipase, ggt, t-cho, beta-lipo, tg, phos-lip, tp, t-bil, ua, ...19911956149
life cycles of echinococcus multilocularis in relation to human infection.the cycle of echinococcus multilocularus in natural and synanthropic hosts was investigated during 10 yr in an endemic focus of alveolar hydatid disease in the massif central of france. the natural cycle, involving red foxes, vulpes vulpes, and voles, arvicola terrestris, existed immediately surrounding a village in which human cases of alveolar hydatid disease occurred. both foxes and free-ranging dogs could serve as the source of infection for the human population.19911992084
prevalence and geographical distribution of the ear canker mite (otodectes cynotis) among arctic foxes (alopex lagopus) in iceland.three hundred forty five adult arctic foxes (alopex lagopus) from all counties in iceland were examined for excess cerumen and ear canker mites (otodectes cynotis). only 13 foxes (4%) from a single county in northwestern iceland were infested, where the prevalence of otodectiasis was 38%. whether or not this parasite is new to the arctic fox in iceland is unknown. if it is recently introduced, possible sources of infestation are farmed silver foxes (vulpes vulpes), domestic dogs, domestic or fer ...19912023307
dirofilaria immitis in coyotes and foxes in missouri.wild canid carcasses were obtained during the 1986-1987 and 1987-1988 trapping seasons in missouri. hearts and lungs from 293 coyotes (canis latrans), 85 red foxes (vulpes vulpes) and 70 gray foxes (urocyon cinereoargenteus) were examined for dirofilaria immitis. age of hosts was determined by radiographic and histologic techniques. nineteen coyotes (7%) had from 1 to 100 d. immitis and five red foxes (6%) had from 1 to 7 d. immitis, whereas gray foxes had none. this study indicates that heartwo ...19912023319
carnivora: the primary structure of the hemoglobin from the silver fox (vulpes vulpes var., canidae).the primary structure determination of the hemoglobin alpha- and beta-chains from the silver fox (vulpes vulpes var., canidae) is described. the separation of the chains could be achieved directly from the hemoglobin by rp-hplc as well as by column chromatography of the globin using carboxymethyl-cellulose. following tryptic digestion of the chains, the peptides were isolated by rp-hplc. amino-acid sequences were determined by edman degradation in liquid and gas phase sequencers. the peptides co ...19912039604
[transmissibility and pathogenicity in the red fox of two rabies viruses isolated at a 10 year interval].two rabies virus strains collected from naturally infected foxes in france in 1976 and 1986 were inoculated in 2 groups each consisting of 10 foxes (approximately 50 lethal doses50 mouse intracerebral per fox). another 20 healthy foxes were kept in the same cages as the inoculated animals in order to study the transmission of both strains. all the inoculated foxes became rabid and transmitted rabies to their cage companion. the intervals between death of the inoculated foxes and death of the cag ...19912042909
[mapping of the silver fox genome. iii. determination of the chromosomal localization of the got2, ak1, aldoc, acp1, itpa, pgp and blvr genes].evidence is presented for the chromosome localization of seven silver fox genes obtained with the help of panel of fox x chinese hamster somatic cell hybrids. thus, the ak1, got2 and aldoc are assigned to chromosome vfu2, pgp to chromosome vfu3, blvr to chromosome vfu5, acp1 to chromosome vfu8 and itpa to chromosome vfu14. the genetic map of 29 fox genes is compared with those reported for man and other animals. the results obtained support and extend our previous suggestion that formation of th ...19902074010
[importance of the wild boar in the epidemiology of wild trichinellosis in piedmont and liguria].muscle samples from 1,508 wild boars (sus scrofa) harvested in piedmont and liguria between 1987 and 1990 were examined for larvae of trichinella sp. by trichinelloscopy and peptic digestion. no wild boar was infected, though trichinellosis was present in foxes (vulpes vulpes) from the same areas (14 positives out of 608) with the highest prevalence in the mountain range (25.0%). infection was also not found in 40 stone martens, 5 badgers and 3 stoats. five vulpine isolates were identified as be ...19902132444
[visceral leishmaniasis in central asia and kazakhstan].at present sporadic foci of visceral leishmaniasis (vl) are encountered mainly in the natural foci. the natural foci of vl are situated mainly in valleys and foothills. in southern areas of the turkmen ssr the majority of cases were registered in small settlements situated near wells in interbarkhan lowerings. the reservoir of pathogen here may be vulpes vulpes and dogs and the most likely vector is phlebotomus turanicus. in kazakhstan cases of vl are encountered in the thickets of the syr-darya ...19902146471
a comparison of cardiac glutathione s-transferases from wild and domestic animals.1. cardiac glutathione s-transferases from wild animals; hyena, red fox, porcupine, coypu and mountain gazelle were purified and compared with the enzymes from domestic animals; cow, camel, goat and sheep. 2. by using 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene as a substrate, domestic hearts expressed higher glutathione conjugating activity than wild animals hearts. 3. in all the studied hearts, the bulk of the activity was associated with near neutral and acidic glutathione s-transferase isozymes with pi valu ...19902328567
acute disseminated toxoplasmosis in a red fox (vulpes vulpes).a red fox (vulpes vulpes) with signs of neurological disease was captured in fairmount park, philadelphia, pennsylvania (usa). the animal died in captivity and was examined because of suspected rabies. the liver had pale foci up to 4 mm in diameter. foci of necrosis were associated with toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites in several organs including liver, lungs and adrenal glands. rabies antigen and distemper virus inclusions were not detected. the diagnosis of acute disseminated toxoplasmosis was co ...19902338735
[epidemiology of alveolar echinococcosis in france. 1. intestinal helminths in the red fox (vulpes vulpes l.) from haute-savoie].in the course of an epidemiological survey concerning the alveolar echinococcosis and its causative agent, echinococcus multilocularis, the autopsies of 150 wild red foxes captured in the department of the haute-savoie between december 1983 and august 1988 disclosed 139 cases of intestinal helminthiasis with cestodes and nematodes; no trematode was found. multiple infections were frequent. the cestoda recorded consist of the following species: taenia crassiceps: 44 cases (29%); echinococcus mult ...19902344133
epidemiological analyses on animal parasitoses: recent activity of the i.m.i.p.p.v.the paper presents a selected review of the epidemiological analyses performed in recent years (1984-1988) in the institute of malattie infettive, profilassi e polizia veterinaria of the university of bologna on animal parasitoses, with special reference to the evaluation of some risk factors of bovine, swine and canine helminthoses, and to the validity of the coprological test for some parasites of the red fox.19892487000
the epidemiology of echinococcus granulosus in great britain. v. the status of subspecies of echinococcus granulosus in great britain.twenty-five years ago williams and sweatman suggested that in great britain there are two subspecies of echinococcus granulosus--e. granulosus granulosus and e. granulosus equinus. echinococcus granulosus granulosus does not mature either in foxes or in horses: e. granulosus equinus will mature in either. the prepatent period of e. granulosus granulosus in the definitive host is about 42 days while that of e. granulosus equinus is about 70 days. each subspecies has a characteristic morphology. m ...19892596902
antibodies to borrelia sp. in wild foxes and coyotes from wisconsin and minnesota.serum samples from 93 red foxes (vulpes vulpes) and nine gray foxes (urocyon cinereoargenteus) trapped in wisconsin and 23 coyotes (canis latrans) trapped in wisconsin and minnesota were tested for antibodies to borrelia sp. with an indirect fluorescent antibody test which used borrelia burgdorferi as the whole-cell antigen. seven red foxes (8%) and two coyotes (9%) had antibody titers greater than or equal to 1:64. all the positive samples were from areas known to be endemic for human lyme dise ...19892644451
use of recombinant vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein virus for oral vaccination of wildlife against rabies: innocuity to several non-target bait consuming species.the pathogenicity of a vaccinia recombinant virus expressing the rabies glycoprotein (vvtggrab) was tested in several wild animal species which could compete with the natural rabies host, the red fox (vulpes vulpes) in consuming vaccine baits in europe. the following species were included in this study: wild boar (sus scrofa), eurasian badger (meles meles), wood mouse (apodemus sylvaticus), yellow-necked mouse (apodemus flavicollis), bank vole (clethrionomys glareolus), common vole (microtus arv ...19892681844
interaction between rabies infection and oral administration of vaccinia-rabies recombinant virus to foxes (vulpes vulpes).we have investigated the influence of anti-rabies vaccination on the onset of the disease as well as the delay of death in foxes previously infected with rabies virus. a live vaccinia recombinant virus expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (vvtggrab) was used as vaccine. foxes were divided into six experimental groups of four animals. on day 0, each fox was experimentally infected with a rabies virus suspension. vvtggrab was administered by the oral route to each animal of three groups on day ...19892732723
[safety and efficacy of an antirabies vaccine consisting of recombinant vaccinia-rabies virus administered orally to the fox, dog and cat].one of the most promising ways to control rabies in wildlife seems to be the distribution of bait containing an anti-rabies vaccine. so far, the most widely used vaccines were modified live viruses (sad strain or derivatives). nevertheless, these strains retain some pathogenicity for non-target species. a novel vaccine was proposed consisting of genetically modified vaccinia virus (strain copenhagen, thermosensitive ts 26) expressing the foreign glycoprotein g for the rabies virus (strain era). ...19892751231
oral vaccination of raccoons (procyon lotor) with an attenuated (sad-b19) rabies virus vaccine.unlike previous reports to the contrary, raccoons (procyon lotor) were successfully vaccinated against rabies with a liquid sad-b19 attenuated virus vaccine administered per os and given in vaccine-laden baits. there was neither evidence of vaccine-induced rabies in raccoons nor in a limited safety trial with opossums (didelphis virginiana) given sad-b19. protection from lethal street rabies virus infection was not absolute: only three of nine raccoons given 1 x 10(6.0) tcid/ml were protected ve ...19892810555
[echinococcus multilocularis in a swamp beaver (myocaster coypus)].larval echinococcus multilocularis was found in a nutria (myocastor coypus) on a fur farm situated south of the thuringian forest near the border the federal republic of germany. this finding is of epidemiological importance. investigations of 67 red foxes (vulpes vulpes) originating from this area and the whole erfurt region (thuringia) did not reveal the presence of adult e. multilocularis.19892817506
hosts of two canid genera, the red fox and the dog, as alternate vectors in the transmission of sarcocystis tenella from sheep.microscopic sarcocysts recovered from naturally infected sheep were infective to both the domestic dog (canis familiaris) and the red fox (vulpes vulpes). the parasite was passaged through experimental specific-parasite-free (spf) sheep three times: infection was transmitted twice with sporocysts from foxes and subsequently with sporocysts from dogs. the sarcocysts from sheep muscle were infective to both dogs and foxes on each occasion. a cat was not infected. the prepatent period in individual ...19872964118
arbovirus infections in several ontario mammals, 1975-1980.serological studies for arboviruses were conducted on 725 animal sera collected in 22 ontario townships between 1975 and 1980 including 44 coyote (canis latrans), 277 red fox (vulpes vulpes), 192 raccoon (procyon lotor) and 212 striped skunk (mephitis mephitis). hemagglutination inhibition antibodies to two flaviviruses, namely st. louis encephalitis and powassan were found in 50% of coyote, 47% of skunk, 26% of fox and 10% of raccoon sera. similarly, hemagglutination inhibition antibodies to a ...19863017527
experimental infection of red fox with canine parvovirus. 19863026122
postoncospheral development and cycle of taenia polyacantha leuckart, 1856 (cestoda: taeniidae). first part.the postoncospheral development and cycle of taenia polyacantha leuckart, 1856, an holarctic species of cestode, were investigated in the laboratory as well as in the tundra of northern alaska. foxes, alopex lapogus (l.) and vulpes vulpes (l.), serve as final host of t. polyacantha; the northern vole, microtus oeconomus (pallas), and the brown lemming, lemmus sibiricus (kerr), are important as the intermediate host. as determined in experimentally infected voles and lemmings, the oncosphere of t ...19883059953
[genome mapping of the silver fox. i. determination of the chromosomal location of 8 fox genes and the search for homologous regions on fox and human chromosomes].twenty-three silver fox-chinese hamster somatic cell hybrids were analysed for the expression of fox enzyme loci and the segregation of fox chromosomes. this analysis made it possible to assign the gene pgd to chromosome 2, mdh2 to chromosome 3. np to chromosome 10. aprt, eno1, pgm1 to chromosome 12, mdh1 and idh1 to chromosome 16. possible use of the above-mentioned clone panel for fox gene mapping is analysed. an attempt to reveal homologous regions on fox and human chromosomes was made by com ...19883162722
sylvatic trichinosis in canada.pepsin digestion of musculature from 2253 animals revealed that sylvatic trichinosis occurred in various species of mammals from the eastern to the western arctic and extended down into the rocky mountain and foothills regions of western canada. infections were demonstrated in arctic fox, red fox, wolf, raccoon, coyote, lynx, bobcat and dog.19883196978
silver fox gene mapping: conserved chromosome regions in the order carnivora.twenty-three silver fox x hamster somatic cell hybrid clones were used to assign 15 fox genes: gpi to chromosome 1; pgd to chromosome 2; mdh2 to chromosome 3; esd to chromosome 6; ldhb to chromosome 8; np to chromosome 10; ldha to chromosome 11; aprt, eno1, and pgm1 to chromosome 12; idh1 and mdh1 to chromosome 16; and gla, g6pd, and hprt to the x chromosome. high-resolution g-banding of human, cat, mink, and fox chromosomes containing homologous regions (according to genetic maps) revealed regi ...19883197455
genetic polymorphism of plasma alpha 1 b-glycoprotein and transferrin in arctic and silver foxes.plasma samples of 235 foxes from 38 complete families (14 of arctic foxes, 21 of silver foxes and 3 with arctic x silver fox hybrid offspring) were analysed by one-dimensional horizontal polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page) ph 9.0 followed by general-protein staining of gels. a major postalbumin of fox plasma was identified as alpha 1b-glycoprotein (alpha 1b) by using immunoblotting with antiser m specific to human or pig plasma alpha 1b. four codominant, autosomal alleles of alpha 1b were ...19883207218
use of recombinant vaccinia-rabies virus for oral vaccination of fox cubs (vulpes vulpes, l) against rabies.thirteen fox cubs were orally administered 10(7.2) plaque-forming units of live vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein recombinant virus. on day 28 post-vaccination, all but 1 cub had produced rabies virus antibodies. twelve animals were intramuscularly inoculated with 10(3.2) mouse intracerebral ld50 of rabies virus suspension on days 33 (5 foxes), 180 (4 foxes) or 360 (3 foxes) after vaccination. eleven of them resisted rabies challenge. unvaccinated foxes, either put in contact with 1 vaccinated animal ...19883218072
rabies epidemiology, natural barriers and fox vaccination.rabies in central europe is maintained and spread by red foxes (vulpes vulpes). the epidemiology is explained by a variety of parameters of the main host. certain natural and artificial topographic features may function as barriers to the spread of the virus within fox populations. taking into account epidemiological barriers greatly facilitated the strategic application of oral immunization of foxes for freeing switzerland from rabies.19883268773
measurement of rabies-specific antibodies in carnivores by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.we describe an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) that utilizes anticanine immunoglobulin for the measurement of rabies-specific antibody in the sera of the major domestic and wildlife reservoirs of rabies in north america. sufficient cross-reactivity was found to exist between anticanine igg and serum antibody from all carnivores tested, including dogs, cats, foxes (vulpes vulpes), skunks (mephitis sp.) and raccoons (procyon lotor). with sera of most species, good correlation wa ...19883286905
a review of wildlife diseases from scandinavia.the epidemiological and historical aspects of some important and representative wildlife diseases from scandinavia are discussed. in noninfectious diseases, examples include cataract in moose (alces alces), atherosclerosis in hybrid hares (lepus timidus x l. europaeus), and ethmoid tumors in moose. the epizootiological and historical aspects of the recent epizootics of myxomatosis in european rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus) and rabies and sarcoptic mange in red foxes (vulpes vulpes) are reviewed ...19873316719
hepatozoonosis in foxes from portugal.hepatozoon, sp. is described for the first time in foxes (vulpes vulpes silacea) in portugal. of 301 foxes examined, 143 (48%) were infected. the gametocyte was the predominant stage of the life cycle and was found in every organ except the bone marrow, where schizonts were the most abundant stage. the morphological similarity of this parasite's gametocytes to hepatozoon canis is emphasized.19883373641
the amino-acid sequence of the double-headed proteinase inhibitor from fox (vulpes vulpes) submandibular submandibular glands contain a double-headed secretory proteinase inhibitor. its amino acid sequence was determined. extensive homologies were found between this inhibitor and the corresponding inhibitors of cat, lion and dog in both domains. as in dog inhibitor the trypsin-inhibiting domain of fox inhibitor contains an arg residue in the reactive site in contrast to a lys residue in the inhibitors of cat and lion. domains i and ii of fox inhibitor are structurally related both to the sequen ...19883393515
leptospirosis in red foxes in ontario.the role of the red fox (vulpes vulpes) in the epizootiology of leptospirosis in southwestern ontario was investigated in 1973-1974. leptospira interrogans serovar pomona (kennewicki by dna analysis) was isolated from the kidneys of three of eight foxes tested. severe hemorrhagic nephritis and interstitial nephritis were common to these foxes and to five others out of nine foxes examined. autumnalis antibodies were detected at titers 10(-2) to 10(-5) in 12 of 100 fox sera. pomona antibodies occu ...19863503132
chromosomal evolution of the canidae. ii. divergence from the primitive carnivore karyotype.the giemsa-banding patterns of chromosomes from the arctic fox (alopex lagopus), the red fox (vulpes vulpes), the kit fox (vulpes macrotis), and the raccoon dog (nyctereutes procyonoides) are compared. despite their traditional placement in different genera, the arctic fox and the kit fox have an identical chromosome morphology and g-banding pattern. the red fox has extensive chromosome arm homoeology with these two species, but has only two entire chromosomes in common. all three species share ...19873568762
fox colors in relation to colors in mice and sheep.color inheritance in foxes is explained in terms of homology between color loci in foxes, mice, and sheep. the hypothesis presented suggests that the loci a (agouti), b (black/chocolate brown pigment) and e (extension of eumelanin vs. phaeomelanin) all occur in foxes, both the red fox, vulpes vulpes, and the arctic fox, alopex lagopus. two alleles are postulated at each locus in each species. at the a locus, the (top) dominant allele in the red fox, ar, produces red color and the corresponding a ...19873624844
experimental rabies in skunks and foxes. pathogenesis of the spongiform lesions.the pathogenesis of rabies spongiform lesions in striped skunks (mephitis mephitis) and red foxes (vulpes vulpes) was studied by light and electron microscopy and peroxidase-antiperoxidase immunocytochemistry. studies in skunks included use of several street virus variants (different antigenic profiles as tested by monoclonal antibodies) different routes of inoculation (intranasal, intracerebral and intramuscular), immunosuppression of infected skunks, different preparations of virus (brain and ...19873695410
[structural analysis of sound signals of the domestic cat felis catus and the fox vulpes vulpes l]. 19863788361
Displaying items 1 - 100 of 1681