Publications

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sarcocystis in feces of coyotes from montana: prevalence and experimental transmission to sheep and cattle. 1978104939
brucella abortus in coyotes. i. a serologic and bacteriologic survey in eastern texas.prevalence of brucella abortus serum antibodies in coyotes from east central texas was determined by the buffered brucella antigen (card test), rivanol, standard agglutination tube, and cold complement fixation tube tests. eighteen percent (9 of 51) of the coyotes were positive serologically. b. abortus biotype 1 was isolated from various tissues from 7 of 43 coyotes by bacteriologic culture. congenital transmission was found.1979116012
trichodectes canis: severe pediculosis in coyotes. 1978249149
epidemiologic survey of sylvatic plague by serotesting coyote sentinels with enzyme immunoassay.the geographic distribution and areas of high sylvatic plague activity in california were verified by using coyotes (canis latrans) as sentinel animals. antibody levels against yersinia pestis were tested using the enzyme-labelled antibody (ela) test and the microtiter passive hemagglutination and hemagglutination inhibition. a survey using the ela test indicated that the overall antibody prevalence among 143 coyotes was 21%. by geographic regions, the highest antibody prevalence was 27% among c ...1979382839
sarcocystis hemionilatrantis (sp. n.) life cycle in mule deer and coyotes.fifteen coyotes (canis latrans) shed sporulated sporocysts in their feces after eating freshly ground skeletal muscles from a mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus) infected with microscopic-sized cysts of sarcocystis. sporocysts were shed intermittently from 12 to 36 days after ingestion of the infected meat. sporocyst size averaged 14.4 x 9.3 mum. eleven mule deer fawns orally inoculated with these sporocysts became infected and 9 of 11 died between post-inoculation days (pid) 27 and 63. cli ...1977402485
coccidia of coyotes in eastern colorado.eighty-two coyote fecal samples were collected from eastern colorado and examined for coccidia. sporocysts of sarcocystis were observed in 17 of the samples and oocysts of isospora ohioensis were observed in two samples. ten fecal samples contained eimerian coccidia thought to be pseudoparasites of the coyote acquired while ingesting heavily infected rabbits.1977402487
parasites of the coyote (canis latrans) in central utah.seventeen coyotes, canis latrans, from central utah were surveyed for parasites. five species of parasites not reported previously from coyotes in utah were detected: filaroides osleri, physaloptera sp., spirocerca sp., ancylostoma caninum, and cediopsylla simplex. in all, 11 genera of parasites were observed.1978418190
transmission of transmissible venereal tumor of the dog to the coyote.three coyotes experimentally implanted with cells from a transmissible venereal tumor of a dog developed neoplasms. histopathologic appearances of the tumors in the coyotes were similar to those described in the dog. attempts to transmit the tumor to suckling mice, rats, hamsters, kittens, and opossums were not successful.1979475096
epizootic streptococcal pneumonia in captive coyotes.severe death loss was observed in captive coyotes, canis latrans. of 48 coyotes in one kennel, 22 (46%) died within a 7 day period. cause of death was determined to be acute fibrinopurulent (bacterial) broncho-pneumonia and pleuritis. streptococcus equisimilis was isolated from the lungs of two coyotes examined.1979522217
parasitic infection of filaroides osleri, capillaria aerophila and spirocera lupi in coyotes from the southwestern united states.a total of 181 coyotes (canis latrans) was examined for helminth parasites filaroides osleri, capillari aerophila, and spirocerca lupi. coyote carcasses were obtained from kansas, western oklahoma-northern texas, colorado, new mexico, arizona and southern california. cysts of f. osleri were present in the trachea or bronchial division in 39 (22%) coyotes. c. aerophila were present in only 7 (4%) coyotes. s. lupi lesions were present in the aorta of 59 (33%) coyotes. esophageal infections of s. l ...1979522226
experimentally induced leptospirosis in coyotes (canis latrans).infection of coyotes (canis latrans) with leptospira interrogans serovars pomona, canicola, and copenhageni was accomplished by percutaneous inoculation. bacteriologic, serologic, histopathologic, and fluorescent antibody techniques were used to investigate the infections. leptospiremia was established with pomona. leptospiruria was demonstrated with the three serovars. serovar canicola was recovered from one coyote 134 days after it was inoculated.1979525917
gastrointestinal parasitism of iowa coyotes in relation to age.taenia sp., physaloptera sp., ancylostoma caninum, toxascaris leonina, and/or trichuris vulpis were recovered from gastrointestinal tracts of 141 and 144 (97.9%) coyotes ranging from 1/2 to 8 1/2 years of age. ancylostoma caninum exhibited a significant decline in both prevalence and mean number per coyote with increasing age of the host. taenia sp. appeared with consistently high prevalence in all age classes. physaloptera sp. and t. leonina showed general reductions in prevalence in all age cl ...1978641673
naturally occurring hepatozoonosis in a coyote.schizonts of hepatozoon sp. were found in the myocardium of an adult cyote (canis latrans) collected from the aransas national wildlife refuge, austwell, texas. this constitutes the first time hepatozoonosis has been recorded in canidae in the western hemisphere.1978650792
lungworms in coyotes on the great plains.a total of 395 coyotes (canis latrans) was examined in the field for lungworms (filaroides osleri and capillaria aerophila) with 60 trachea and bronchial trees returned to the laboratory for detailed examination. coyote carcasses were obtained from eight central states (oklahoma, colorado, wyoming, iowa, south dakota, nebraska, texas, and three regions of kansas). cysts of f. osleri were present in the trachea or first division of bronchi of 68 (17%) of the coyotes examined. c. aerophila infecti ...1978691122
capillaria hepatica infection in coyotes of louisiana.capillaria hepatica infection was diagnosed by histologic examination in 21 of 71 (30%) coyotes in louisiana. all infected coyotes were at least 1 year old, and most (19 of 21) were more than 2 year years old. capillaria hepatica was not found in any livers from 31 red foxes and 20 gray foxes examined.1978738939
sarcocystis fusiformis infection in the coyote (canis latrans).of 150 fecal samples from coyotes from northern utah and southern idaho, 21 contained coccidian sporocysts. these were found singly, contained four sporozoites and a granular residuum, and averaged 16.9 x 10.9 mum in size. none of four lambs inoculated with these sporocysts showed clinical signs of disease, and no parasites were found in their tissues. one calf inoculated with 135,000 sporocysts and another inoculated with 720,000 sporocysts eventually became unable to rise from recumbency. one ...1975804020
experimentally induced sarcocystis infection in calves: pathology.calves fed sporocysts of sarcocystis isolated from the feces of dogs and coyotes became anorectic, lost weight, and became anemic and prostrate, and died. the most severe pathologic changes occurred between 26 and 33 days after infection; schizonts were found throughout the body. schizonts were not found after this time. sarcocytis cysts were in skeletal and cardiac muscles between 33 and 54 days. necropsy revealed lymphadenopathy, paleness of the mucous membranes and visceral organs, ascites, h ...1975807136
oral infection of mammals with sarcocystis fusiformis bradyzoites from cattle and sporocysts from dogs and coyotes.individual sporocysts containing 4 sporozoites were shed in the feces of dogs, foxes, and raccoons after ingestion of bovine tissue infected with sarcocystis fusiformis bradyzoites. no sporocysts were shed by cats, monkeys, swine, skunks, ferrets, rats, guinea pigs, or rabbits after ingestion of similar bovine tissue. the shedding of sporocysts by dogs that had ingested tissue from a bovine experimentally infected with sporocysts from coyotes indicated that both canids were definitive hosts for ...1976815528
possible species differences between sarcocystis from mule deer and cattle.in preliminary studies with sarcocystis from bovine (bos taurus) and mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus), a coccidia-free laboratory dog (canis familiaris) and captive coyote (canis latrans) were fed flesh from a local sarcocystis-infected bovine and later flesh from an infected mule deer from eastern oregon. sporocysts were passed in the feces of both canine hosts 10-15 days after ingestion of infected meat. there was a statistical difference in the size of sporocysts derived from bovine a ...1976815572
a review of sarcocystis of domestic animals and of other coccidia of cats and dogs.the nomenclature, life cycles, and pathogenicity of sarcocystis of domestic animals are reviewed. sarcocystis had a 2-host life cycle, with carnivores as definitive hosts and herbivores as intermediate hosts. the following species are found in domestic animals (with the definitive hosts given in parentheses): 3 species in the ox: s cruzi (dog, wolf, coyote, raccoon, fox), s hirsuta (cat), s hominis (man, monkey); 2 species in the sheep: s ovicanis (dog), s tenella (cat); 3 species in the pig: s ...1976824260
agglutinins to coxiella burnetii and brucella spp, with particular reference to brucella canis, in wild animals of southern texas.the prevalence of agglutinins to coxiella burnetii and brucella spp, particularly brucella canis, was determined in 269 wild animals (14 species) in southern texas. serologic evidence of coxiellosis and brucellosis, including b canis infection, was shown for coyotes, raccoons, opossums, badgers, jackrabbits, and feral hogs. using the microagglutination test, the seroprevalence of c burnetii, phases i and ii (titer greater than or equal to 4) was 4.1 and 27.9%, respectively. for brucella agglutin ...1977924870
species and hybrid differences in frequencies of play and agonistic actions in canids.developmental changes in the frequency of occurrence of some 23 action patterns were studied in pairs of coyotes, wolves, dogs and their hybrids. over 4,300 entries were recorded from days 24--42 (85.5 h observations in toto). all subjects showed a decrease in contactual behaviors from 24--30 days, and a subsequent increase in play fighting and chasing. in all species, with the exception of the coyotes, the bite was inhibited and play behavior was recorded from 24 days onwards, but only after th ...1976944512
bubonic plague from direct exposure to a naturally infected wild coyote.an 11-year-old boy developed axillary bubonic plague and plague meningitis 3 days after skinning a dead coyote near albuquerque, new mexico. the coyoto carcass was recovered 10 days later, and yersinia pestis was isolated from spleen and marrow of the animal. this is the first report of human plague from exposure to a coyote. a review of experimental and epidemiologic studies suggests that severe plague infection in members of the family canidae is unusual, and that the risk of acquiring plague ...1976961983
prevalence of toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild and domestic animals in northern california.wild and domestic animals from 3 geographic-climatologic areas in northern california were tested for antibodies against toxoplasma gondii. a total of 2,796 serum samples representing 37 species of wild mammals, 35 species of wild birds, and 5 species of domestic animals were tested by the indirect hemagglutination test. of 1,174 wild mammal serums tested, 10.8% were positive, which compared with 14.7% of the 1,221 domestic mammal serums. of 229 wild carnivores tested, 45% were seropositive, inc ...1976977457
encephalitis in a confined coyote. 1976988012
an investigation of the products of 53 gene loci in three species of wild canidae: canis lupus, canis latrans, and canis familiaris.this article describes an investigation of inter- and intraspecific variation in three small populations of wild canidae-wolf, coyote, and dingo. the products of 53 gene loci were examined. very little interspecies variation was observed, but the level of intraspecific variation was compatible with that found in man.19761016229
toxoplasma antibodies among bobcats and other carnivores of norther california.the prevalence of antibodies to toxoplasma gondii was investigated among five species of wild carnivores in norther ccalifornia. the highest prevalence was among bobcats (lynx rufus), with 15 of 21 tested being serologically positive. other results included serological evidence of toxoplasmosis in two of seven raccoons (procyon lotor), one of three badgers (taxidea taxus) and two of three coyotes (canis latrans). two gray foxes (urocyon cinereoargenteus) were serologically negative. oone badger ...19751142562
paragonimus kellicotti infection in wild carnivores in southwestern ontario: ii. histopathologic features.pulmonary lesions associated with naturally acquired paragonimus kellicotti infection were studied in mink (mustela vison), striped skunks (mephitis mephitis), red foxes (vulpes vulpes) and a coyote (canis latrans). in ,ink a fibrous capsule was formed around mature flukes in dilated bronchioles or bronchi, and there was mild focal interstitial pneumonitis adjacent to fluke eggs in alveoli and migrating parasites. a thick wall, infiltrated heavily with mononuclear cells and eosinophils, surroun ...19751152176
a survey for toxoplasma gondii antibodies in deer and other wildlife on a sheep range.blood samples were obtained from native mammals and birds on a sheep range (hopland field station) in northern california. serums were tested for antibodies to toxoplasma gondii by the indirect hemagglutination test. of 382 deer that were tested from 1964 to 1973, 77 (20%) were seropositive for t gondii. among 36 serums representing 6 species of wild carnivores (badgers, bobcats, coyotes, foxes, raccoons, and skunks), 18 (50%) were seropositive. all of the 5 bobcats tested were seropositive, wit ...19751176348
muscular cysticercosis from taenia ovis in feedlot lambs.from a colorado enterprise annually fattening about 50,000 lambs, 3,664 animals were examined for muscular cysticercosis. of the total number, 406 (11.1%) were parasitized, wheras an estimated 0.1% of colorado lamb carcasses are infected. of the infected lambs, 60% had cardiac lesions. two types of cysticerci-viable and degenerated-were found. the lambs probably acquired infection from grazing summer ranges and pastures where coyotes or dogs infected with taenia ovis contaminated the forage.19751184435
diseases, parasites and survival of coyotes in south-central georgia.serologic testing, radio-telemetry and post-mortem diagnostic evaluations were used to investigate survival and causes of mortality among 17 coyotes (canis latrans) in south-central georgia (usa). prevalence of canine heartworm (dirofilaria immitis) microfilariae was lower (p = 0.057) among fall-captured (22%) than among winter-captured (75%) coyotes. prevalence of heartworm was higher among adults than juveniles in the fall, but no significant difference was detected between animals captured in ...19921474655
diseases and parasites of red foxes, gray foxes, and coyotes from commercial sources selling to fox-chasing enclosures.fifty-six red foxes (vulpes vulpes), 18 gray foxes (urocyon cinereoargenteus), and 13 coyotes (canis latrans) obtained by the south carolina wildlife and marine resources department during an investigation of suspected illegal wildlife translocation were examined for diseases and parasites. red foxes and coyotes were confiscated from an animal dealer based in ohio (usa), and gray foxes were purchased from an animal dealer in indiana (usa). emphasis was placed on detection of pathogens representi ...19921474656
plague surveillance by serological testing of coyotes (canis latrans) in los angeles county, california.sera from 19 (5.6%) of 338 coyotes (canis latrans) collected in los angeles county, california between 1986 and 1990 had antibodies against yersinia pestis using the passive hemagglutination test. coyotes were excellent sentinels of plague activity in los angeles county. enzootic plague declined dramatically in the county during the 5-yr period.19921474660
prevalence of antibodies against canine parvovirus and canine distemper virus in wild coyotes in southeastern colorado.serum from 72 wild coyotes (canis latrans) in southeastern colorado (usa) was collected and analyzed for prevalence of antibody to canine parvovirus (cpv) and canine distemper virus (cdv) from 1985 to 1988. the prevalence of antibodies to cpv and cdv was 71% and 57%, respectively, for the 4 yr of the study. prevalence of antibody to cpv did not differ among years, between sexes, or with age. prevalence of antibody to cdv did not differ among years or between sexes, but was significantly higher i ...19911648628
carnivora: the primary structure of the hemoglobin from the silver fox (vulpes vulpes var., canidae).the primary structure determination of the hemoglobin alpha- and beta-chains from the silver fox (vulpes vulpes var., canidae) is described. the separation of the chains could be achieved directly from the hemoglobin by rp-hplc as well as by column chromatography of the globin using carboxymethyl-cellulose. following tryptic digestion of the chains, the peptides were isolated by rp-hplc. amino-acid sequences were determined by edman degradation in liquid and gas phase sequencers. the peptides co ...19912039604
sarcocystis sp. in mountain goats (oreamnos americanus) in washington: prevalence and search for the definitive host.during october and november 1986, sarcocystis sp. was detected in 24 of 56 (43%) tongues from hunter-killed mountain goats (oreamnos americanus) in washington (usa). sarcocysts had an unusual sessile polyp-shaped branched wall. mean size of 154 sarcocysts was 71.3 x 37.8 microns (range, 20 to 248 x 10 to 120 microns), and the mean intensity was 2.3 (range, 1 to 28). in an attempt to identify the definitive host, infected tongues were fed to four coyotes (canis latrans), eight domestic dogs, four ...19892509738
molecular characterization of sylvatic isolates of trichinella spiralis.genetic relationships of 20 trichinella isolates from indiana wildlife were assessed and compared to trichinella isolated from an infected swine herd. trichinella larvae were isolated from coyotes, mink, raccoons, and red foxes. the larvae were maintained and amplified in white mice (icr) and wild mice (peromyscus leucopus). differences in phenotypic characters of sylvatic isolates in the 2 laboratory hosts included an approximately 10-30-fold increase in parasite fecundity in wild mice. dna for ...19892542508
antibodies to borrelia sp. in wild foxes and coyotes from wisconsin and minnesota.serum samples from 93 red foxes (vulpes vulpes) and nine gray foxes (urocyon cinereoargenteus) trapped in wisconsin and 23 coyotes (canis latrans) trapped in wisconsin and minnesota were tested for antibodies to borrelia sp. with an indirect fluorescent antibody test which used borrelia burgdorferi as the whole-cell antigen. seven red foxes (8%) and two coyotes (9%) had antibody titers greater than or equal to 1:64. all the positive samples were from areas known to be endemic for human lyme dise ...19892644451
borrelia sp. infection in coyotes, black-tailed jack rabbits and desert cottontails in southern texas.coyotes (canis latrans) from southern texas were sampled for antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi from 1980 to 1986; black-tailed jack rabbits (lepus californicus) and desert cottontails (sylvilagus audubonii) were sampled in 1986. coyote fetuses, adult coyote kidneys, and black-tailed jack rabbit and desert cottontail kidneys were cultured for b. burgdorferi in 1986. results of indirect immunofluorescent antibody (ifa) tests for b. burgdorferi in coyotes were as follows (number positive at a dilu ...19892644452
canid scavenging/disarticulation sequence of human remains in the pacific northwest.greater understanding of animal scavenging of human remains can assist forensic science investigators in locating and recovering dispersed skeletal elements, in recognizing damage produced by scavengers, and in making more informed estimates of the postmortem interval. the pattern of skeletal damage can indicate whether the body was scavenged while intact or at some time after other natural processes of disarticulation had begun. this study analyzed thirty partially to fully skeletonized human r ...19892738562
mortality of harbor seal pups at different sites in the inland waters of washington.we examined the mortality rates and causes of death of harbor seal (phoca vitulina) pups in three regions of the inland waters of washington (usa) in 1984. one hundred eight pups were collected during 239 searches of the shoreline areas near harbor seal haulout sites or through public reports. minimum neonatal (up to 1 mo after birth) mortality rates at these regions ranged from 12% to 26% of the pups born. neonatal mortality was highest in the strait of juan de fuca; 33 of the estimated 105 (31 ...19892761005
growth stage dependent expression of mhc antigens on the canine transmissible venereal sarcoma.canine transmissible venereal sarcoma (ctvs) is a naturally occurring contagious neoplasm which can be transplanted with intact viable cells across major histocompatibility (mhc) barriers within the species and even to other members of the canine family, such as foxes, coyotes, and wolves. after 2 to 4 months of progressive growth the tumour regresses spontaneously in adults but metastasizes in immunosuppressed hosts and neonates. the mechanisms of how the tumour cells manage to overcome histoco ...19872949770
isolation and identification of caliciviruses from dogs with enteric infections.caliciviruses were isolated from 7 dogs and 1 captured coyote with enteritis. there was a high fatality rate in dogs 4 to 16 weeks of age. the occurrence in these dogs of concurrent infection with known enteric pathogens such as salmonella sp, canine parvovirus, canine coronavirus, and canine rotavirus did not allow making any conclusions regarding the pathogenicity of this newly recognized calicivirus. the caliciviruses were characterized by electron microscopy and were further identified as be ...19852982299
serologic survey of canine coronavirus in wild coyotes in the western united states, 1972-1982. 19853001373
arbovirus infections in several ontario mammals, 1975-1980.serological studies for arboviruses were conducted on 725 animal sera collected in 22 ontario townships between 1975 and 1980 including 44 coyote (canis latrans), 277 red fox (vulpes vulpes), 192 raccoon (procyon lotor) and 212 striped skunk (mephitis mephitis). hemagglutination inhibition antibodies to two flaviviruses, namely st. louis encephalitis and powassan were found in 50% of coyote, 47% of skunk, 26% of fox and 10% of raccoon sera. similarly, hemagglutination inhibition antibodies to a ...19863017527
fragile sites, telomeric dna sequences, b chromosomes, and dna content in raccoon dogs, nyctereutes procyonoides, with comparative notes on foxes, coyote, wolf, and raccoon.earlier studies of the genus nyctereutes disclosed two subspecies of differing chromosome numbers accompanied by b chromosomes. to further define the relationship of these subspecies to each other, and to other carnivores, and to learn more about the structure and function of their chromosomes, we characterized and compared the genomes in terms of dna content by flow cytometry, fragile sites induced by aphidicolin, and telomere sequences using biotinylated dna probes detected with fluorescence. ...19883150325
sylvatic trichinosis in canada.pepsin digestion of musculature from 2253 animals revealed that sylvatic trichinosis occurred in various species of mammals from the eastern to the western arctic and extended down into the rocky mountain and foothills regions of western canada. infections were demonstrated in arctic fox, red fox, wolf, raccoon, coyote, lynx, bobcat and dog.19883196978
preliminary evaluation of praziquantel against metacercariae of nanophyetus salmincola in chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha).praziquantel at dosages of 10, 20 or 100 mg/kg of body weight was evaluated against metacercariae of nanophyetus salmincola in chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha). ten salmon were used in each of four treated groups and 10 salmon were nontreated controls. three wk after treatment, viability of metacercariae was determined by histologic evaluation, and by feeding the salmon to coyotes and subsequently determining the numbers of trematode eggs/g of feces and numbers of n. salmincola recovere ...19883411713
transmission of ancylostoma caninum and alaria marcianae in coyotes (canis latrans).one of seven female coyotes (canis latrans) captured in webb county, texas during september 1986 and confined and mated in holding facilities at millville, utah whelped the following spring. the maternal female (greater than 5-yr-old) and her five neonates were killed at 22 days postparturition. all were infected with adult ancylostoma caninum and were passing eggs in their feces. also, the neonates and maternal female were infected with immature and adult alaria marcianae, respectively. these f ...19883411716
hepatozoon sp. in wild carnivores in texas.twelve coyotes (canis latrans), three bobcats (lynx rufus) and six ocelots (felis pardalis) from the gulf coast of texas were infected with hepatozoon sp. the geographic distribution of infected wild animals coincides with the highest prevalence of hepatozoon canis infection in domestic dogs for which the wild species may act as a reservoir.19883411720
canine distemper virus in coyotes: a serologic survey.serum samples from 228 coyotes were selected randomly from a serum bank assembled from texas from 1975 to 1984 and were evaluated serologically for neutralizing antibodies against canine distemper virus (cdv). one hundred and twenty-eight (56%) of the 228 coyotes had antibody titers of greater than or equal to 1:5 against cdv (seropositive). the serologic prevalence (seroprevalence) of antibodies against cdv infection was higher in the spring (62%) than in the fall (40%). the seroprevalence of c ...19863505937
ineffectiveness of clorsulon against nanophyetus salmincola in coyotes.efficacy of clorsulon against the trematode nanophyetus salmincola was evaluated in coyotes. ten 16-week-old coyote pups were fed fish that contained metacercariae of n. salmincola. twenty-one days later, 5 of the coyotes were given a suspension of clorsulon (approx 16 mg/kg of body weight, orally). within 30 days after treatment, the numbers of fluke eggs in fecal specimens from the 5 treated coyotes had not decreased, and numbers of fluke eggs and flukes recovered from treated coyotes at necro ...19863505938
helminth parasites of the coyote (canis latrans) in tennessee.from 1980 to 1984, 267 coyotes (canis latrans) from tennessee were examined for helminth parasites. hearts were examined for the presence of dirofilaria immitis, diaphragms for trichinella spiralis, and digestive tracts for other helminths. six species were found including 5 nematodes (d. immitis, physaloptera rara, trichuris vulpis, ancylostoma caninum, and toxascaris leonina) and 1 cestode (taenia pisiformis). univariate and multivariate statistical techniques were used to assess parasite prev ...19873585628
experimental babesiosis in coyotes and coydogs.one splenectomized and 6 intact coyotes (canis latrans), and 2 coydogs were experimentally inoculated with a recent isolate of babesia gibsoni. the disease was mild in intact animals, was fatal in the splenectomized coyote, and was characterized by a regenerative hemolytic anemia with the pcv decreasing to 16% in intact animals and to 6% in the splenectomized coyote. peak parasitemia ranged from 3% to 21% of erythrocytes infected and was inversely correlated to pcv. serum lactate dehydrogenase, ...19853970435
prevalence of oslerus osleri (cobbold, 1879) in coyotes (canis latrans say) from connecticut. 19853981749
prevalence of dirofilaria immitis in a stray dog population in western new york.in a survey in 1973 undertaken to determine the prevalence of dirofilaria immitis in 100 dogs from a public pound in western new york, 2 dogs were found to be positive. microfilariae of dipetalonema sp were not present. hearts and pulmonary blood vessels were dissected for adult worms, and blood samples were examined for microfilariae, using a modified knott technique. although adult heartworms and microfilariae have been recovered from wild foxes, coyotes, and wolves in new york, this is the fi ...19751170797
dirofilariasis in iowa coyotes.(dirofilaria immitis) were found in eight of 220 (3.6%) coyotes (canis latrans) collected from fur buyers in adams, carroll, cass, and warren counties in southwestern iowa. infections ranged from one to 23 worms per coyote.1976933306
the tryptic peptides of coyote (canis latrans) hemoglobin. 19744458658
capillaria hepatica (nematoda: trichuridae) in a coyote (canis latrans). 19734716208
observations on the pathogenesis of rabies: experimental infection with a virus of coyote origin. 19744844503
probable transmission of echinococcus granulosus between deer and coyotes in california. 19744844505
response of the coyote to endotoxin. 19675338715
the occurrence of echinococcus granulosus in coyotes (canis latrans) in the central valley of california. 19705534027
a study of dog-coyote hybrids and implications concerning hybridization in canis. 19715581367
experimental infection of coyote pups with venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus. 19695777739
transmission experiments with bat rabies isolates: bite transmission of rabies to foxes and coyote by free-tailed bats. 19665913028
seroprevalence of canine parvovirus in wild coyotes from texas, utah, and idaho (1972 to 1983).the prevalence of serum antibodies against canine parvovirus-2 (cpv-2), as measured by a standard hemagglutination-inhibition test, was determined in serum samples collected from 1,184 coyotes (canis latrans) in texas, utah, and idaho from 1972 to 1983. no evidence of parvoviral infection was found before 1979, after which seroprevalence rapidly increased to greater than 70% at all sites by 1982. there were minor differences in prevalence between age groups and among sites, but no consistent dif ...19846096323
natural infection of captive coyote pups with a herpesvirus antigenically related to canine herpesvirus.herpesviruses were isolated from captive coyote pups with ocular discharge and hepatomegaly. the viruses were shown to be antigenically related to canine herpesvirus on the basis of specific virus neutralization with canine herpesvirus antiserum. the epizootiology of the outbreak suggested that the herpesvirus was acquired by indirect contact with guard dogs being cared for by the same animal technicians who cared for the coyotes.19846096324
acute hemorrhagic enteritis associated with canine coronavirus and parvovirus infections in a captive coyote population. 19806256330
measurement of the auditory sensitivity of the coyote. 1977871502
microencapsulation and dissolution parameters of undecenovanillylamide: a potential coyote deterrent.the microencapsulation and dissolution of undecenovanillylamide (i), a potential coyote-aversive agent for use on sheep, were studied. while i has been shown to protect sheep, its short duration of action makes it economically unfeasible. compound i microcapsules were prepared, and optimum conditions for encapsulation via complex coacervation were determined. microcapsules that were hardened for 0.5, 1, and 2 hr, as well as i powder, were characterized according to their dissolution. longer hard ...1979529056
dirofilaria immitis infection in foxes and coyotes in indiana.between october 1976 and january 1977, carcasses or hearts and lungs from 202 wild foxes and coyotes in indiana were collected to determine the prevalence of dirofilaria immitis infection. three of 113 (2.7%) red foxes (vulpes fulva), 3 of 81 (3.7%) gray foxes (urocyon cinereoargenteus), and 1 of 8 (12.5%) coyotes (canis latrans) were infected with d immitis. an average of 5 worms (range, 1 to 10) were recovered from foxes and 11 worms were recovered from the coyote. worms from the coyote were o ...1979521369
serologic survey for leptospirosis in coyotes in northcentral kansas.during 1975 to 1977, serum samples were collected from 101 adult coyotes (canis latrans) captured in northcentral kansas. ten samples were seropositive by microagglutination testing and six of those samples were seropositive for multiple serovars. titers for leptospira interrogans serovars grippotyphosa, pyrogenes, djasiman, butembo, and pomona were demonstrated.1979521368
antibodies to clostridium botulinum toxins in free-living birds and mammals.naturally-occuring antibodies against clostridium botulinum toxins were found in cathartes aura (turkey vultures), canis latrans (coyotes) and corvus brachyrhynchos (crows) by the passive hemagglutination (pha) test and verified by the serum neutralization (sn) test. the prevalence of iha antibodies was 18 of 20 vultures (90%), 5 of 12 crows (42%) and 25 to 110 coyotes (23%). vultures and coyotes were seropositive by the pha test against a, b, c, d, and f toxins. the highest antibody titer 1:819 ...1979459044
canine distemper in black-footed ferrets (mustela nigripes) from wyoming.in september and october 1985, six black-footed ferrets (mustela nigripes) were captured from the only known population, located near meeteetse, wyoming for captive propagation. two days following capture an adult male showed signs of canine distemper and an adult female displayed similar signs 7 days postcapture; these infections were undoubtedly acquired prior to capture. subsequently the four remaining captive black-footed ferrets also developed canine distemper and all eventually died. clini ...19883411697
immunobiology of a spontaneously regressive tumor, the canine transmissible venereal sarcoma (review).canine transmissible venereal sarcoma (ctvs) is a contagious neoplasm of dogs that can be transplanted with intact viable cells across major histocompatibility (mhc) barriers among dogs and even other canine such as foxes, coyotes, and jackals. after two to four months of progressive growth, the tumor regresses in adults, but metastasizes in immunosuppressed dogs and neonatally inoculated pups. the mechanisms of how the tumor cells manage to overcome histocompatibility barriers so successfully f ...19883282476
trichodectes canis on the gray wolf and coyote on kenai peninsula, alaska. 19836644943
maximal oxygen consumption and pulmonary diffusing capacity: a direct comparison of physiologic and morphometric measurements in canids.the purpose of this study was to check the validity of the morphometric model for estimating physiological conductances for gases, dl. we make a direct comparison between the lung's conductance for carbon monoxide, measured physiologically using the single breath method, dlco (sb), and that measured morphometrically using the previously published model, dlco(mm). we also make a direct comparison between the maximum rate of oxygen uptake by the lung during exercise, vo2max, and the lung's conduct ...19836665333
coyote as a final host for sarcocystis species of goats, sheep, cattle, elk, bison, and moose in montana.tissues (1 kg) from sheep, goats, cattle, moose, bison, or elk naturally infected with sarcocystis species were fed to one to four sarcocystis-free coyotes and the number of sporocysts in feces and intestines were counted. all 12 coyotes fed naturally infected tissues shed sarcocystis in feces, with a prepatent period of 9 to 15 days. the four coyotes fed infected beef had 15, 25, 113, and 201 million sporocysts in their feces and intestines. the coyotes fed elk, moose, or bison had 2.5, 15, and ...19806778270
association of malassezia (pityrosporum) pachydermatis with sarcoptic mange in new york state.malassezia (pityrosporum) pachydermatis consistently accompanied sarcoptic mange in all red foxes (vulpes fulva), porcupines (erethizon dorsatum), and coyotes (canis latrans) examined. this yeastlike microorganism has not heretofore been reported on any of these hosts. its presence on the exoskeleton of sarcoptes scabiei taken from these animals suggests a carrier role for the mite. the yeast may be saprophytic or a secondary pathogen.19806780699
the global spread and replacement of canine parvovirus strains.canine parvovirus type 2 (cpv-2) became widespread during 1978 and was reported in many countries during 1978 and 1979. earlier studies showed that cpv-2 was replaced in the u.s.a. around 1980 by an antigenically and genetically variant virus (cpv-2a). here we show that cpv-2 was present in the u.s.a., japan, belgium and australia prior to 1980, but that between 1979 and 1982 cpv-2 was replaced by cpv-2a in all of those countries as well as in france and denmark. examination of sera collected be ...19882836554
comparison of results from five serologic methods used for detecting brucella abortus antibody activity in coyote sera.a total of 423 serum samples representing 94 coyotes which were wild trapped in east texas were used to compare the serologic results from five different methods for detecting antibodies to brucella abortus. the sera were tested for brucella spp. antibody activity by the card (card), rivanol precipitation (riv), standard agglutination tube (sat), cold complement fixation test (cf), and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) methods. each serum sample selected for this comparison demonstrated ...19911949585
paragonimus kellicotti infection in wild carnivores in southwestern ontario: i. prevalence and gross pathologic features.paragonimus kellicotti ward, 1908 was recovered from 16 of 105 mink (mustela vison), 14 of 244 striped skunks (mephitis mephitis), 10 of 446 red foxes (vulpes vulpes), 1 of 31 coyotes (canis latrans), 0 of 326 raccoons (procyon lotor) and 0 of 8 weasels (mustela spp.) collected from southwestern ontario. the majority of carnivores harboring p. kellicotti was collected from two counties (huron and bruce) bordering the east shore of lake huron where 6.0% of the animals (excluding raccoons) were in ...19751113433
osteoarthrosis in a coyote x dog hybrid from nebraska.osteoarthrosis is described in a wild, 14-year-old coyote (canis latrans) x dog (c. familiaris) hybrid shot in southeastern nebraska. there was ankylosis of five vertebrae, the head of the left femur was absent, and periarticular osteophytes occurred throughout the skeleton. the age is significant because wild coyotes seldom live beyond 6 years and coyote x dog hybrids are considered to be less fit for survival in the wild than coyotes.1978691134
visceral lesions in wild carnivores naturally infected with spirocerca lupi.aortic lesions pathognomonic for spirocerca lupi were found in 123 of 150 (82%) coyotes, canis latrans, 23 of 66 (35%) bobcats, felis rufus, one of five gray foxes, urocyon cinereoargenteus and one of two red foxes, vulpes vulpes, examined in west texas. adult nematodes in the esophagus were recovered from 11 of 150 (7%) coyotes. in the aorta there was initially an acute inflammatory response followed by an eosinophilic granuloma surrounding larval nematodes. the principal lesions was scarring o ...1978685080
sarcocystis of deer in south dakota.the prevalence of sarcocystis in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (o. hemionus) in south dakota was determined through microscopic examination of tongue samples. the percentage of sarcocystis infection for both species of deer was determined for prairies east of the missouri river, west of the missouri river, and black hills of western south dakota. sixteen percent (n = 62) of the white-tailed deer tongues from east river, 69% (n = 42) from west river, and 74% (n = 23) fr ...19826808161
sarcoptes scabiei infestation of the coyote (canis latrans), illustrated by the scanning electron microscopy. 19826808163
experimentally induced histoplasma capsulatum infection in coyotes and a dog.captive coyotes (canis latrans) were inoculated intragastrically (1 coyote), and intratracheally (6 coyotes) with histoplasma capsulatum to simulate natural routes of exposure. in addition, the infectious organism was inoculated iv into another coyote and into a dog (c familiaris) to simulate hematogenous dissemination of h capsulatum. isolation of the pathogen from various tissue specimens, using direct plating and mouse inoculation methods, provided mycologic evidence of infection. the presenc ...19863505936
infectivity of sarcocystis spp. from bison, elk, moose, and cattle for cattle via sporocysts from coyotes.bison bison (bison), cervus canadensis (elk), alces alces (moose), and bos taurus (cattle) musculature containing sarcocystis spp. cysts was fed to laboratory raised canis latrans (coyotes), sporocysts collected from the feces of coyotes fed musculature of each of the ruminant species were fed to four groups of three laboratory-raised domestic calves, respectively, to determine if sarcocystis spp. was transmissible from wild to domestic ruminants and if so, to compare clinical signs of infection ...19826811717
sarcocystosis in neonatal bison fed sarcocystis cruzi sporocysts derived from cattle.a 6-day-old female (bison bison) was inoculated with 10 million sporocysts of the b1 isolate of sarcocystis cruzi originally obtained by feeding heart of a naturally infected cow (bos taurus) to a laboratory-raised coyote. the bison became febrile, lethargic, and anorectic at about 25 days after inoculation of the sporocysts, and was euthanatized 3 days later. there were widespread hemorrhages, hepatitis, myocarditis, nephritis, and enteritis; intravascular meronts were found in the adrenal cort ...19826816777
evaluation of praziquantel against induced nanophyetus salmincola infections in coyotes and dogs.efficacy of praziquantel against nanophyetus salmincola, the trematode vector of salmon poisoning disease, was determined in coyotes (n = 29) and dogs (n = 25). the 10- to 14-week-old animals were fed fish or fish kidneys that contained metacercariae of n salmincola. to prevent salmon poisoning disease, all animals were treated with tetracycline on days 8 and 9 after they were fed fish. ten days after ingestion of infected fish, 19 coyotes and 12 dogs were treated once with praziquantel, adminis ...19883377318
investigation of zoonotically acquired campylobacter jejuni enteritis with serotyping and restriction endonuclease dna analysis.five strains of campylobacter jejuni were isolated from asymptomatic coyotes being maintained in a vivarium. according to the results of serotyping with thermostable antigens and of bacterial chromosomal restriction endonuclease analysis, one of the c. jejuni strains isolated from the coyotes was responsible for enteritis in a laboratory animal technician providing husbandry for the laboratory-maintained coyotes.19892808666
experimental salmon poisoning disease in juvenile coyotes (canis latrans).salmon poisoning disease (spd) was experimentally induced in juvenile coyotes (canis latrans). the disease was lethal in 11 of 12 coyotes within 15 days after inoculation with 1,000 or 4,000 metacercariae of nanophyetus salmincola. clinical manifestations of the disease included lymph node enlargement, anorexia, pyrexia, diarrhea and death. coccoid bodies indistinguishable from rickettsiae were observed in macrophages of spleen, liver, lymph nodes, and duodenum. percentage recovery of adult trem ...19827097880
the influence of social and endocrine factors on urine-marking by captive wolves (canis lupus).although serum hormones varied seasonally in all adult animals, only dominant male and female wolves urine-marked. serum testosterone and urine-marking rates, which increased during the fall/winter breeding season, were positively correlated in both male and female dominant wolves. estradiol, which increased in conjunction with proestrus and estrus, was not correlated with female urine-marking. these findings suggest that hormonal influence on urine-marking in the wolf is modulated by social fac ...19902286365
heartworms (dirofilaria immitis) in coyotes (canis latrans) in new england. 19827131657
pancreatic adenocarcinoma in a coyote-dog cross. 19827154225
dirofilaria immitis in coyotes and foxes in missouri.wild canid carcasses were obtained during the 1986-1987 and 1987-1988 trapping seasons in missouri. hearts and lungs from 293 coyotes (canis latrans), 85 red foxes (vulpes vulpes) and 70 gray foxes (urocyon cinereoargenteus) were examined for dirofilaria immitis. age of hosts was determined by radiographic and histologic techniques. nineteen coyotes (7%) had from 1 to 100 d. immitis and five red foxes (6%) had from 1 to 7 d. immitis, whereas gray foxes had none. this study indicates that heartwo ...19912023319
an oral papillomavirus that infected one coyote and three dogs. 19911850182
dirofilaria immitis: a rare, increasing cause of pulmonary nodules.dirofilariasis is an unusual but increasing cause of solitary pulmonary nodules. in this study, we reviewed the entire experience with dirofilariasis at our institution. five such patients were identified. in all patients, the dirofilaria immitis infection manifested as a solitary pulmonary nodule, and all patients underwent thoracotomy for diagnosis. none required systemic treatment. d. immitis is found in dog, cat, wolf, coyote, and fox populations throughout the united states, but the highest ...19921434897
serologic response of captive coyotes (canis latrans say) to canine parvovirus and accompanying profiles of canine coronavirus titers.fifty-five of 66 (83%) coyote pups from bitches vaccinated against canine parvovirus (cpv) were seropositive for cpv antibodies at birth. the cpv antibody titer in the pups declined with a half-life of 6.7 days until by the 8th week, only two of 41 (5%) pups were seropositive for cpv antibodies. at 8 wk, 41 of the pups were vaccinated against cpv (killed feline origin vaccine), but only one of 37 (3%) was positive for cpv antibodies at 11 wk. the 8-wk-old pups were either too young to respond to ...19846325726
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