a primate transfer rna gene cluster and the evolution of human chromosome 1.the localisation of trna(asn) gene clusters in the karyotypes of primates has been studied by means of in situ hybridisation. in the human and orangutan (pongo pygmaeus) karyotypes there are two such gene clusters, one each on the long and short arms of chromosome 1. old world monkeys, however, contain both gene clusters on their equivalent of the human chromosome 1 short arm, which can be explained by a pericentric inversion which (amongst other chromosome changes) distinguishes the human and o ...19921505225
dna sequence polymorphism within hominoid species exceeds the number of phylogenetically informative characters for a hox2 locus.within- and between-species variability was examined in a noncoding 238-bp segment of the hox2 cluster. dna of 4-26 individuals of four species (pongo pygmaeus, pan troglodytes, gorilla gorilla, and homo sapiens) was pcr amplified and electrophoresed in a denaturing gradient gel to screen for variability. coupled amplification and sequencing was used to determine the complete sequence for each of the different alleles identified, one each in humans and orangutans, two in chimpanzees, and four in ...19921352841
strongyloidiasis in an infant orangutan (pongo pygmaeus).necropsy of a 15-month-old male orangutan (pongo pygmaeus) showed multiple nodular elevations of the mucosa of the colon, petechial hemorrhages in both lungs, and mucosal ulcerations in the cecum, appendix, and proximal colon. light microscopy revealed filariform larvae of strongyloides in the lung, colon, and mesenteric lymph nodes. rhabditiform larvae were also observed in sections of colon.1979537030
calcaneocuboid joint and stability of the longitudinal arch of the foot at high and low gear push off.the calcaneocuboid joint was studied in ligamentous specimens of ten human feet, and in skeletons of two gorillas (gorilla gorilla beringei), six chimpanzees (pan troglodytes), three orangutans (pongo pygmaeus) and 25 human feet. the movement of the transverse tarsal joint was further studied in a living foot on a walk-way with a glass plate inserted, and with an underlying mirror. in man the joint is shaped as an asymmetrical sector of one end of an hour-glass shaped surface of revolution with ...1979511760
a case of trisomy 22 in pongo pygmaeus.a behaviorally and clinically abnormal female orangutan was analyzed cytologically using general banding techniques and by an alkaline silver method for staining nucleolus organizer regions. the karyotype had 49 chromosomes, including an extra chromosome 22 (49,xx + 22). no variant chromosome types or heterozygous structural rearrangements were found. nine of the 14 large acrocentric chromosomes, nos. 11--17, and three of the five presumptive human g-group equivalents, i.e., two of three chromos ...197988305
quantification and excretion profiles of pteridines in primate urine.biopterin, 6-hydroxymethyl-pterin, isoxanthopterin, neopterin and, pterin were quantified in stress-free collected spontaneous morning urine samples from callithrix jacchus, saguinus fuscicollis, saguinus labiatus, saimiri sciureus, presbytis entellus, cercopithecus albogularis, cercocebus torquatus, macaca fascicularis, hylobates concolor, pongo pygmaeus, and gorilla gorilla. in most species, biopterin was the most frequent urinary pteridine followed by neopterin. sex differences in biopterin a ...19921404333
two independent mutational events in the loss of urate oxidase during hominoid evolution.urate oxidase was lost in hominoids during primate evolution. the mechanism and biological reason for this loss remain unknown. in an attempt to address these questions, we analyzed the sequence of urate oxidase genes from four species of hominoids: human (homo sapiens), chimpanzee (pan troglodytes), orangutan (pongo pygmaeus), and gibbon (hylobates). two nonsense mutations at codon positions 33 and 187 and an aberrant splice site were found in the human gene. these three deleterious mutations w ...19921556746
[comparison of the karyotype of the orangutan (pongo pygmaeus) to those of man, chimpazee, and gorilla].various banding thechniques were employed to compare the karyotype of the orang-utan (pongo pygmaeus) with those of man, the chimpanzee, and the gorilla. the following was concluded: 1) almost all the bands are common, their analogy being close to 99%. the four species derive, therefore, from a common ancestor. the rearrangements which occurred during evolution were generally balanced; 2) the analysis of rearrangements shows that the orang-utan, then the gorilla, then the chimpanzee, and lastly ...19751080978
the location of dna homologous to human satellite iii dna in the chromosomes of chimpanzee (pan troglodytes), gorilla (gorilla gorilla) and orang utan (pongo pygmaeus).radioactive rna with sequences complementary to human dna satellite iii was hybridised in situ to metaphase chromosomes of the chimpanzee (pan troglodytes), the gorilla (gorilla gorilla) and the orangutan (pongo pygmaeus). a quantitative analysis of the radioactivity, and hence of the chromosomal distribution of human dna satellite iii equivalent sequences in the great apes, was undertaken, and the results compared with interspecies chromosome homologies based upon giemsa banding patterns. in so ...1977880842
pulmonary nocardiosis in an orangutan.pulmonary nocardiosis was diagnosed in an adult male orangutan (pongo pygmaeus) being maintained in an outdoor facility. periodically, the orangutan had had clinical signs of an upper respiratory tract infection, as evidenced by slight nasal discharge and cough. at the terminal stage, the orangutan had acute respiratory embarrassment, with epistaxis, and died before diagnosis could be made and treatment initiated. gross necropsy findings included fibrosis of the pulmonary parenchyma as well as e ...1976789315
morphometric studies in the taxonomy of the orang-utan (pongo pygmaeus. l. 1760.the purpose of this study is to verify the subspecific level of the two recent refugial groups of orang-utan on borneo and sumatra. a total of 47 skulls from both regions were studied by means of 32 craniometric characters. univariate analysis showed highly significant differences only in males, whereas multivariate statistical analysis led to complete discrimination in both sexes. these results support the assumption that the geographically isolated orang groups are subspecies.1979527917
the amino acid sequences of the two main components of adult hemoglobin from orangutan (pongo pygmaeus). 1978627398
the distribution of sequences complementary to human satellite dnas i, ii and iv in the chromosomes of chimpanzee (pan troglodytes), gorilla (gorilla gorilla) and orang utan (pongo pygmaeus).human satellite dnas i, ii and iv were transcribed to yield radioactive complementary rnas (crnas). these crnas were hybridised to metaphase chromosomes of man, chimpanzee (pan troglodytes), gorilla (gorilla gorilla) and orang utan (pongo pygmaeus). the results of this in situ hybridisation were analysed quantitatively and compared with accepted chromosome homologies based on giemsa banding patterns. the crna to satellite ii (crnaii) did not hybridise to chimpanzee chromosomes, although its hybr ...1977561680
demonstration of specific heterochromatic segments in the orangutan (pongo pygmaeus) by a distamycin/dapi double staining technique.orangutan metaphase chromosomes, obtained from a female animal with trisomy 22, were stained by a recently developed distamycin/dapi fluorescent technique which had been shown to differentiate specific c-bands on human chromosomes, as well as by other banding techniques. distamycin/dapi-brilliant fluorescence was observed in the short arm regions of acrocentric chromosomes 11--17, 22 and 23, and a brightly fluorescent paracentromeric band was seen on chromosome 8. a smaller amount of fluorescenc ...197988309
analysis of the hominoid os coxae by cartesian coordinates.this study is based upon 48 3-dimensional coordinates taken on 4 fossil hominid and 127 extant hominoid coxal bones. the follis include sts 14, sk 3155, mld 7, and mld 25. the comparative sample consists of 42 homo sapiens, 27 pan troglodytes, 29 gorilla gorilla and 29 pongo pygmaeus. the coordinates improve the metrical representation of the bone beyond what can be done with linear measurements because the shape complexity of the os coxae is so great. the coordinates are rotated and translated ...1978416722
the chromosomal location of rdna in the sumatran orangutan, pongo pygmaeus albei. 1979436453
hepatocystis in the orangutan, pongo pygmaeus. 1978416523
ribosomal and human-homologous repeated dna distribution in the orangutan (pongo pygmaeus). comparison with distribution of these dnas in the other species of the hominidae. 1978417898
tooth size/body size in gorilla gorilla and pongo pygmaeus. 1978280574
scanning electron microscopic analysis of dental wear on the heavily worn second molars of the wild japanese monkey (macaca fuscata).microscopic features on scanning electron micrographs of epoxy-replicas of the second molars of nine wild-caught adult female japanese monkeys, macaca fuscata, from oita takasakiyama, kyushu, were measured using a digitizer. these monkeys had been fed a monkey-diet during three or four days of captivity before replicas were made. six of these specimens showed such heavily worn second molars that narrow peripheral enamel bands surrounded large dentin exposures and the cusps of the others had been ...19911947932
further characterization of a herpesvirus-positive orang-utan cell line and comparative aspects of in vitro transformation with lymphotropic old world primate orang-utan (pongo pygmaeus) suspension line, cp81, was shown to lack myeloid markers of lysozyme activity an d phagocytosis but to be positive for lymphocytic n-alkaline phosphatase activity, and to release a b-cell-tropic herpesvirus. this herpesvirus, termed herpesvirus pongo, had 30--40% dna homology with ebv and was present at 2-3 genome copies per cp-81 cell. gibbon lymphocytes transformed by h. pongo, epstein-barr virus (ebv), and h. papio (of baboon, papio hamadryas, origin) were found ...1978208990
malaria of the orang-utan (pongo pygmaeus) in borneo.the primary objective of this project was to study the life cycle and ecology of plasmodium pitheci, a malaria parasite of the orang-utan. the field work was based on the orang-utan rehabilitation centre in the sepilok forest reserve of eastern sabah. two visits were made to sepilok, the first in february and march, 1972, and the second (by w.p.) in january 1974. on the first visit two species of "surrogate host" were taken to sabah, i.e. chimpanzees and aotus monkeys for experimental work. the ...197610589
electromyography of pronators and supinators in great apes.we obtained electromyographic recordings from the supinator, biceps brachii, pronator quadratus, and pronator teres muscles of a chimpanzee and a gorilla and from the supinator, pronator quadratus, and biceps brachii muscles of an orangutan as they stood and walked quadrupedally on horizontal and inclined surfaces, engaged in suspensory behavior, reached overhead, and manipulated a variety of foods and artifacts. in pan troglodytes and pan gorilla, as in homo sapiens, the supinator muscle is the ...19921543246
intraspecific variation and sexual dimorphism in cranial and dental variables among higher primates and their bearing on the hominid fossil record.the extent and nature of dental and cranial sexual dimorphisms in extant hominoids have been investigated using reliably sexed samples of homo sapiens (n = 75), pan troglodytes (n = 51), gorilla gorilla (n = 64) and pongo pygmaeus (n = 43). seventy nine measurements (35 dental, 16 mandibular and 28 cranial) formed the basis of the study. the patterns of mean differences and dispersions between the taxa were compared across the anatomical regions and the group structures of the separate sex sampl ...19912032934
the relative body weights of bornean and sumatran orangutans.although original field data suggested that the average bornean orangutan weighed twice as much as the sumatran ones, this is shown to be an error. the only statistically significant difference in weight is between males and females, regardless of geographical area or data source.19751146986
a chimpanzee-derived chromosome-specific alpha satellite dna sequence conserved between chimpanzee and human.we describe a cloned 2.7 kb alpha satellite sequence, pan-3, from the pygmy chimpanzee (pan paniscus) that specifically hybridizes in situ to chromosome 19 in the pygmy chimpanzee and to the homeologous human chromosome, no. 17. using high stringency conditions of hybridization on southern blots, this sequence hybridized to dna from both species of chimpanzee (p. paniscus and p. troglodytes) and from human but not to dna from gorilla (gorilla gorilla) or orangutan (pongo pygmaeus). partial seque ...19912040204
pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis in the orang-utan (pongo pygmaeus).a 19-years-old male orang-utan had a brief illness of two weeks with marked dyspnoea. necropsy revealed diffuse bilateral pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis. this is the first account of this pathoanatomical entity in lower primates.19761028347
endodontic surgery for treatment of a fistulated molar abscess in an adult bornean orangutan was treated for bacterial labyrinthitis, which was a sequela to a molar abscess and maxillary sinusitis. antibiotic therapy and endodontic surgery led to complete remission of clinical signs.1978738934
chromosomal assignment of a large trna gene cluster (trna(leu), trna(gln), trna(lys), trna(arg), trna(gly)) to 17p13.1.a cluster of trna genes (trna(uagleu), trna(cuggln), trna(uuulys), trna(ucuarg)) and an adjacent trna(gccgly) have been assigned to human chromosome 17p12-p13.1 by in situ hybridization using a 4.2 kb human dna fragment for trna(leu), trna(gln), trna(lys), trna(arg), and, for trna(gly), 1.3 kb and 0.58 kb human dna fragments containing these genes as probes. this localization was confirmed and refined to 17p13.100-p13.105 using a somatic cell hybrid mapping panel. preliminary experiments with th ...19912066114
suppurative arthritis in an infant orangutan.a 12-day-old male orangutan (pongo pygmaeus) was removed from its mother because of oral ulcers and reluctance to suckle. close examination revealed ulcerations extended to the mandibular bone. staphylococcus aureus was cultured from the oral lesions. despite intensive antibiotic therapy, the infection progressed to septicemia, with suppurative arthritis of the left coxofemoral and right radiohumeral joints. treatment included removal of synovial exudate by aspiration, indwelling drains, and art ...1978738935
pregnancy diagnosis in the orangutan (pongo pygmaeus) using the subhuman primate pregnancy test kit.a determination was made of the gestational interval over which the subhuman primate pregnancy test, a hemagglutination inhibition test for urinary chorionic gonadotropin, accurately indicated conception and the continuation of pregnancy in an orangutan (pongo pygmaseus). the initial positive diagnostic test response occurred about 8 months before parturition and positive responses continued throughout gestation. a test made one day after parturition was positive indicative of some residual urin ...1977850394
molecular genetic divergence of orang utan (pongo pygmaeus) subspecies based on isozyme and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.the orang utan (pongo pygmaeus), as currently recognized, includes two geographically separated subspecies: pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus, which resides on borneo, and p. p. abelii, which inhabits sumatra. at present, there is no known route of gene flow between the two populations except through captive individuals which have been released back into the wild over the last several decades. the two subspecies are differentiated by morphological and behavioral characters, and they can be distinguished b ...19902230076
characterization of cr1- and membrane cofactor protein-like proteins of two primates.we have identified and characterized c3b binding proteins of two primates, orangutan (pongo pygmaeus) and gorilla (gorilla gorilla). detergent solubilized 125i surface-labeled e and pbmc were subjected to affinity chromatography with homologous or human ic3/c3b. these ligands bound a 225,000 single chain protein from orangutan e and pbmc and a 220,000 protein from gorilla e. proteins of the same mr were immunoprecipitated by a rabbit polyclonal and two murine mab to the human cr1 (cd35). the c3b ...19902140391
allelic diversity at the primate major histocompatibility complex drb6 locus.the hla-drb6 gene (also called drb sigma/v1) has been found only in about 26% of human hla haplotypes, i.e.; dr1, drw10, and dr2-bearing ones (corell et al. 1991). in contrast, exon-2 drb6 sequences have been obtained from all tested primates: nine chimpanzees (pan troglodytes), three gorillas (gorilla gorilla) and three orangutans (pongo pygmaeus); other apes which had already been sequenced (one gorilla and one chimpanzee) also had the drb6 gene. thus, all apes tested from three different spec ...19921587552
comparative morphology of the lateral meniscus of the knee in primates.the morphology of the lateral meniscus has been studied in a series of 316 non-human primates, representative of 43 genera. the lateral meniscus has a crescentic shape in prosimii, in platyrrhinii (new world monkeys) and in pongo pygmaeus. the lateral meniscus is disc-shaped, with a central foramen, in catarrhinii (old world monkeys), in hylobates, in gorilla and in pan troglodytes. in man, the lateral meniscus has a crescentic shape. discoid lateral menisci are reported as anomalies in man; the ...19902123845
homologies of the meningeal-orbital arteries of humans: a reappraisal.two arteries connect the anterior branch of the middle meningeal artery to the lacrimal artery. one vessel, the sphenoidal artery, passes through the superior orbital fissure. the other vessel, the meningolacrimal artery, passes through the cranio-orbital foramen. an analysis of data derived from embryology, comparative anatomy, and patterns of adult variation indicates that the meningolacrimal artery is homologous with the ramus superior of the stapedial artery, an embryologically and phylogene ...19911810930
[the morphology of the palatine arch of pongids].with the help of frontal cuts through casts of skulls of pongids we demonstrated the postnatal development of the form of the hard palate. the form of the hard palate is similar to a semicircle in the frontal cut. in the chimpanzee the palatal form in the frontal cut ist not as semicircular as in the other great apes and is similar to the palatal form of humans in the molar region. the differences between pongo pygmaeus and the african apes consists in the fact, that the palate of the pongo pygm ...19902375499
phylogenetic relations of humans and african apes from dna sequences in the psi eta-globin region.sequences from the upstream and downstream flanking dna regions of the psi eta-globin locus in pan troglodytes (common chimpanzee), gorilla gorilla (gorilla), and pongo pygmaeus (orangutan, the closest living relative to homo, pan, and gorilla) provided further data for evaluating the phylogenetic relations of humans and african apes. these newly sequenced orthologs [an additional 4.9 kilobase pairs (kbp) for each species] were combined with published psi eta-gene sequences and then compared to ...19873116671
the involucrin gene of the orangutan: generation of the late region as an evolutionary trend in the the evolutionary line leading to the higher primates, the coding region of the involucrin gene evolved a segment consisting of numerous repeats of a 10-codon sequence. additions to this segment of repeats have been made successively, thus generating regions that can be defined as early, middle, and late. the involucrin gene of the orangutan (pongo pygmaeus abelii) possesses a segment of repeats whose early region has the same repeat structure as that in other anthropoids. the middle region is ...19892796727
increased sod1 enzymatic activity and gene modifications in orangutans: evolutionary implications.superoxide dismutase cuzn (sod1) enzymatic activity was measured in five orangutans (pongo pygmaeus, ppy) and compared to that of man, chimpanzee, and gorilla. it was found to be increased by a factor of two in one orangutan (ralfina) and by a factor of 1.5 in the four others. in situ hybridization of the sod1 cdna human probe showed a heterozygous intra-chromosomal rearrangement of pair ppy xxi, possibly an insertion, in ralfina. southern blotting showed that the sod1 gene is modified in the th ...19911916758
[light and scanning electron microscopic observations of the long hair of an orangutan (pongo pygmaeus) with trisomy 22].hair samples of a female orang-utan (pongo pygmaeus) suffering from trisomy 22 and three healthy orang-utans had been investigated in regard of their resilience, colour, medulla, cross sectional view, shaft diameter and cuticula structure. there were no characters noticed concerning the orang's hair with trisomy only. the remarkable sex-specific differences found out in hair shaft diameters have been interpreted as a manifestation of the considerable sexual-dimorphism in orang-utans. the hair sa ...19902077777
a coprological study of parasitism in orangutans (pongo pygmaeus) in indonesia.fecal specimens from 89 orangutans (36 captive, 34 rehabilitant, and 19 wild) at different locations in indonesia were examined. strongyloides spp, balantidium coli, and strongylid nematodes were the most common infestations detected. a syngamid nematode, mammomonogamus sp, is reported for the first time in orangutans.19863959059
evolution of immunoglobulin allotypes and phylogeny of apes.serum samples from 72 pan troglodytes, 5 pan paniscus, 22 gorilla gorilla, 23 pongo pygmaeus abelii, 5 pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus, 2 hybrids p.p. abelii x p.p. pygmaeus and 13 hylobates lar were tested for gm(1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 21, 24, 28), km(1) and bm(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8) immunoglobulin allotypes by the classical hemagglutination inhibition method. the distribution of the various alleles and phenotypes makes it possible to distinguish each species or subspecies. common ...19873504421
regional chromosomal assignment of the human mineralocorticoid receptor gene to 4q31.1.the gene for human mineralocorticoid receptor (hmr), previously mapped to chromosome 4, has been further localized to 4q31.1 by in situ hybridization using a biotinylated 3.75 kb human cdna clone encoding the primary amino acid sequence of hmr as a probe. preliminary comparative mapping studies in orangutan (pongo pygmaeus) suggest localization of the probe to the long arm of chromosome 3.19902162806
molecular systematics of higher primates: genealogical relations and classification.we obtained 5' and 3' flanking sequences (5.4 kilobase pairs) from the psi eta-globin gene region of the rhesus macaque (macaca mulatta) and combined them with available nucleotide data. the completed sequence, representing 10.8 kilobase pairs of contiguous noncoding dna, was compared to the same orthologous regions available for human (homo sapiens, as represented by five different alleles), common chimpanzee (pan troglodytes), gorilla (gorilla gorilla), and orangutan (pongo pygmaeus). the nucl ...19883174657
ribosomal rna gene sequences and hominoid phylogeny.sequences totaling 3,500 bases from the 28s rrna gene and from one of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacers (its1) have been determined for human, chimpanzee (pan troglodytes), gorilla (gorilla gorilla), and orangutan (pongo pygmaeus). analyses of the rrna alignments show (1) a clustering of substitutions in the "variable regions" of the 28s gene, (2) a 1.5-3-fold increase in divergence in the transcribed spacer over that in the exon, and (3) that human and chimpanzee are the most closely r ...19902359361
the ontogeny of sexual dimorphism in the cranium of bornean orang-utans (pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus): i. univariate analyses.based on a homogeneous sample of 212 individuals spanning all postnatal age periods, we examine the ontogeny of cranial sexual dimorphism in bornean orang-utans (pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus) by means of univariate statistics. a distinct pattern emerges at the early juvenile stage and continues at all subsequent stages with males tending to exceed females in all cranial dimensions. in conjunction, starting at mid-juvenile stage, there is a strong tendency for an increase in number and strength of sig ...19892603467
the alu i-induced bands in metaphase chromosomes of orangutan (pongo pygmaeus). implications for the distribution pattern of highly repetitive dna sequences.restriction endonucleases have been recently proved to be active on fixed chromosomes, thus they are useful in chromatin structure studies. within this class of enzymes, alu i is able to detect the presence and localization of highly repetitive dna sequences in human and in other mammalian and dipteran species. in this paper the pattern obtained on fixed metaphase chromosomes of orangutan (pongo pygmaeus) by alu i digestion and giemsa staining is shown. the results are discussed in the light of ...19863007330
orangutan fetal globin genes. nucleotide sequence reveal multiple gene conversions during hominid phylogeny.we have determined the nucleotide sequences of the linked gamma 1- and gamma 2- fetal globin genes from a single orangutan (pongo pygmaeus) chromosome and compared them with the corresponding genes of other simian primates (gamma 1- and gamma 2-genes of human, chimpanzee, gorilla, and the single gamma-gene of the spider monkey). previous studies have indicated that the two gamma-gene loci in catarrhine primates resulted from a duplication about 25-35 million years ago. however, comparisons of al ...19873034897
pineal structure and composition in the orangutan (pongo pygmaeus). 19705469562
age-sex class differences in the positional behaviour of the sumatran orang-utan (pongo pygmaeus abelii) in the gunung leuser national park, indonesia.during a three-year field study of the socio-ecology of sumatran orang-utans, their use of the canopy was investigated in the gunung leuser national park, indonesia. this paper concerns the positional behaviour of different age-sex classes of orang-utans. adolescents and females with infants differed significantly from an adult male in the following respects: the use of locomotion types (more 'quadrumanous scrambling' and perhaps also 'quadrupedal walking' and less 'tree swaying'); substrate use ...19863557227
fractures, dislocations and contusions in the borneon orang utan (pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus)--a review of 21 cases.the clinical features, radiographic findings and management of traumatic lesions in the orang utan are described with reference to 21 cases. eight cases had fractures of the femur and five had humeral fractures; all the fractures were successfully treated. one case with a skull fracture (frontal parietal) died before treatment could be instigated. five orang utans with contusions recovered with symptomatic treatment and rest.19863739156
species differences in the detection of high molecular weight urinary plasminogen activators.urine samples from 10 species of mammals were analyzed by sds-page followed by zymography for the presence of both plasminogen activators and plasminogen activator binding proteins. in contrast to results obtained with urine from humans (homo sapiens), and to a lesser extent urine from baboons (papio cynocephalous), urine from gorillas (gorilla gorilla) and orangutans (pongo pygmaeus) did not exhibit either very high molecular weight plasminogen activators or the presence of plasminogen activato ...19863743021
urinary estrogen excretion during pregnancy in the gorilla (gorilla gorilla), orangutan (pongo pygmaeus) and the human (homo sapiens).urinary estrogen components were separated, identified and quantified throughout the pregnancy of the gorilla (gorilla gorilla) and orangutan (pongo pygmaeus) and compared to estrogen levels in normal human pregnancies. fetal and neonatal adrenals from each species were also compared in terms of weight and relative amounts of fetal zone. the results demonstrate that gorillas and chimpanzees excrete 4- to 5-fold less estrogen during pregnancy than the human and orangutan which are similar to each ...19836404315
[observations on behaviour during pregnancy and birth in orang-utan (pongo pygmaeus) at tierpark berlin (author's transl)]. 19744410247
mammalian cytogenetics. 8. q-banding of chromosomes of pan troglodytes, gorilla gorilla berngei and pongo pygmaeus. 19744135068
hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy in an orang-utan (pongo pygmaeus). 19724116686
the histochemistry and light and electron microscopy structure of the orangutan (pongo pongo pygmaeus) placenta. 19744455586
[chromosomal phylogeny of man and the anthropomorphic primates. (pan troglodytes, gorilla gorilla, pongo pygmaeus). attempt at reconstitution of the karyotype of the common ancestor]. 19724539481
phylogeny, neoteny and growth of the cranial base in hominoids.this study tests the hypothesis that there is a general pattern in the growth of the cranial base of homo sapiens that is 'essentially neotenous' [gould, 1977]. juvenile and adult crania of homo sapiens, gorilla gorilla, pan troglodytes and pongo pygmaeus were studied and the cross-sectional growth curves for 10 measurements made on the cranial base (as viewed in norma basilaris) were compared. the results of this study suggest that relatively simple modifications to the timing or pattern of gro ...19846440838
evolution of four human y chromosomal unique sequences.four cloned unique sequences from the human y chromosome, two of which are found only on the y chromosome and two of which are on both the x and y chromosomes, were hybridized to restriction enzyme-treated dna samples of a male and a female chimpanzee (pan troglodytes), gorilla (gorilla gorilla), and pig-tailed macaque (macaca nemestrina); and a male orangutan (pongo pygmaeus) and gibbon (hylobates lar). one of the human y-specific probes hybridized only to male dna among the humans and great ap ...19872822940
knuckle waking hand postures in an orangutan (pongo pygmaeus). 19724553637
hematologic and blood chemistry data for the orangutan (pongo pygmaeus). 19724650700
alkaptonuria in an orangutan (pongo pygmaeus). 19734689767
[carcinoma solidum simplex mammae in an orangutan (pongo pygmaeus)]. 19665300159
phenotypic diversity of the cellular 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin d3-receptor interaction among different genera of new world primates.high serum of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin d3 [1,25-(oh)2d3] concentrations and target organ resistance to the hormone are characteristic findings in some new world primates (platyrrhines). we examined the abilities of cultural dermal fibroblasts from individual platyrrhines of four different genera, aotus, alouatta, pithecia, and saguinus, to internalize and respond to 1,25-(oh)2d3 in an attempt to identify possible phenotypic heterogeneity in the 1,25-(oh)2d3-receptor interaction among them. results ...19882826527
developing pongid dentition and its use for ageing individual crania in comparative cross-sectional growth studies.this study of the developing pongid dentition is based on cross-sectional radiographic data of juvenile pan troglodytes, gorilla gorilla, and pongo pygmaeus skulls. comparisons with developmental features of the human dentition are made, and possible explanations for the formation of larger teeth within the reduced pongid growth period are discussed. the data presented in this study provide an alternative method for ageing individual pongid crania in comparative cross-sectional growth studies. t ...19817338332
the distribution of serum high density lipoprotein subfractions in non-human primates.the ultracentrifugal flotation patterns in 1.2 g/ml solvent and ultracentrifugal gradient distribution of high density lipoproteins (hdl) from the primates--human, apes and monkeys--were determined, with emphasis on the gorilla species of apes and rhesus monkeys. diets for non-human primates were commercial chow, which is low in cholesterol. molecular weights and protein, cholesterol, phospholipid and triglyceride compositions of various density fractions were determined on human, gorilla and rh ...19846438429
structure and histochemistry of corpora amylacea in the brain of an orangutan (pongo pygmaeus). 19715090890
genetic markers of immunoglobulins in the two orangutan subspecies and their hybrids.serum samples from 23 pongo pygmaeus abelii, 4 pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus and 2 hybrids were tested for gm (1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 21, 24, 28) and for km (1) allotypes. all samples were negative for gm (2, 3, 5, 6, 14, 16, 21, 28), km (1) and positive for gm (1, 15, 17, 24). the allotypes g3m (10, 11, 13) were simultaneously absent in all of the bornean orangutans and present in all of the sumatran orangutans. moreover, the analysis of 8 bm allotypes has shown that all the p. py ...19846594304
malignant rhabdoid tumor in the gastric wall of an aged orangutan (pongo pygmaeus).a 34-year-old female orangutan (pongo pygmaeus) developed renal failure and became uremic. at necropsy, large gastric masses were present around the cardia and in the corpus. abdominal metastases occurred in the liver, pancreas, and right ovary. light microscopic examination of the tumor revealed polygonal cells with vesicular nuclei and prominent nucleoli. the growth pattern was predominantly solid. focal areas contained excentric cytoplasmic intermediate filament inclusions, as identified by i ...19947801428
chondromatous metaplasia in the human larynx.the finding of metaplastic fibroelastic cartilage in both vestibular folds of the larynx of an orang-utan (pongo pygmaeus) prompted the search for similar tissue in the same situation in 111 unselected human larynges removed at autopsy. fibroelastic cartilage was found in both vestibular folds in three cases, being unilateral in a further four instances. the formation of this cartilage was preceded by the accumulation of acid mucopolysaccharide between fine collagen bundles within the vestibular ...19806444613
antistreptococcal antibodies, rheumatoid factors and haptoglobin in apes and monkeys.sera of 157 baboons (papio hamadryas and p. anubis) 21 chimpanzees (pan troglodytes) five orang utans (pongo pygmaeus) three mountain gorillas (gorilla gorilla beringei) and three gibbons (hylobates lar lar) were examined for the content of antistreptolysin o, antidesoxyribonuclease b, for the presence of rheumatoid factors as well as for the level and type of haptoglobin. the mean antistreptolysin o titer (ast) in baboons was 106 asu +/- 18 in dextransulfate absorbed sera ("real" ast) and 182 a ...19806775442
identification and quantitation of steroids in sulfate fractions from plasma of pregnant chimpanzee, orangutan, and rhesus monkey.steroids in the mono- and disulfate fractions from plasma of pregnant chimpanzees (pan troglodytes), orangutans (pongo pygmaeus), and a rhesus monkey (macaca mulatta) were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and quantitated by gas-liquid chromatography on open tubular glass capillary columns. whereas the average total concentrations were 4-5 times lower, 2.3-5.5 mumol x 1(-1) vs. 10.7-19.8 mumol x 1(-1), the pattern of steroid sulfates in the chimpanzees and orangutans were very s ...19846690281
facultative terrestrial hand postures in an orangutan (pongo pygmaeus) and pongid evolution. 19744817660
humeral outlines in some hominoid primates and in plio-pleistocene hominids.a method of drawing outlines of the distal end of the humerus is presented and carried out on some pongids (pan troglodytes, pan paniscus, pongo pygmaeus), on modern man, and on some casts of plio-pleistocene hominids. it appears that these outlines are good indicators of the overall morphology and permit the distinguishing of the different hominoids. for example, the morphology of the pillars surrounding the fossa olecrani is useful for this purpose. in modern man, the lateral pillar is quadran ...19816798880
fatal airsacculitis and pneumonia, with abortion, in an orangutan.a 14-year-old, 76-kg female orangutan (pongo pygmaeus) aborted a premature fetus and within hours experienced severe respiratory distress and died. necropsy revealed evidence of chronic airsacculitis, acute bronchopneumonia, and terminal sepsis. escherichia coli was isolated from cultures of heart blood, tracheal fluid, air-sac tissue and fluid, lung, and bile. retrospectively, it was established that the animal had had a periodic nasal discharge for many months. the aborted infant had no eviden ...19807005204
use of social information in the problem solving of orangutans (pongo pygmaeus) and human children (homo sapiens).fourteen juvenile and adult orangutans and 24 3- and 4-year-old children participated in 4 studies on imitative learning in a problem-solving situation. in all studies a simple to operate apparatus was used, but its internal mechanism was hidden from subjects to prevent individual learning. in the 1st study, orangutans observed a human demonstrator perform 1 of 4 actions on the apparatus and obtain a reward; they subsequently showed no signs of imitative learning. similar results were obtained i ...19957554827
malaria parasites of the orang-utan (pongo pygmaeus). 19725038252
constraints on great apes' imitation: model and action selectivity in rehabilitant orangutan (pongo pygmaeus) imitation.we discuss selectivity in great ape imitation, on the basis of an observational study of spontaneous imitation in free-ranging rehabilitant orangutans (pongo pygmaeus). research on great ape imitation has neglected selectivity, although comparative evidence suggests it may be important. we observed orangutans in central indonesian borneo and assessed patterns in the models and actions they spontaneously imitated. the patterns we found resembled those reported in humans. orangutans preferred mode ...19957705061
performance in a tool-using task by common chimpanzees (pan troglodytes), bonobos (pan paniscus), an orangutan (pongo pygmaeus), and capuchin monkeys (cebus apella).performance by individual animals of three species of great apes (pan troglodytes, pan paniscus, and pongo pygmaeus) and capuchin monkeys (cebus apella) was assessed by presenting a food treat inside a clear tube. the subjects readily used a straight stick to obtain the food. when sticks were bundled together, the apes immediately unwrapped the bundle to obtain an individual stick, whereas capuchins attempted to insert the bundled sticks. when a misshapen stick was provided, apes, but not capuch ...19957705062
comparative mapping of dna probes derived from the v kappa immunoglobulin gene regions on human and great ape chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization.fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish) of cosmid clones of human v kappa gene regions to human and primate chromosomes contributed to the dating of chromosome reorganizations in evolution. a clone from the kappa locus at 2p11-p12 (cos 106) hybridized to the assumed homologous chromosome bands in the chimpanzees pan troglodytes (ptr) and p. paniscus (ppa), the gorilla gorilla (ggo), and the orangutan pongo pygmaeus (ppy). human and both chimpanzees differed from gorilla and orangutan by the ma ...19957782075
human (homo sapiens) and chimpanzee (pan troglodytes) share similar ancestral centromeric alpha satellite dna sequences but other fractions of heterochromatin differ considerably.the euchromatic regions of chimpanzee (pan troglodytes) genome share approximately 98% sequence similarity with the human (homo sapiens), while the heterochromatic regions display considerable divergence. positive heterochromatic regions revealed by the cbg-technique are confined to pericentromeric areas in humans, while in chimpanzees, these regions are pericentromeric, telomeric, and intercalary. when human chromosomes are digested with restriction endonuclease alui and stained by giemsa (alui ...19957726296
the immunoglobulin kappa locus of primates.the immunoglobulin kappa genes of nonhuman primates were studied by using sequence information and hybridization probes derived from the human kappa gene regions. the following results were obtained: (1) v kappa gene probes of the three major human kappa subgroups hybridized to restriction nuclease digests of dna from the chimpanzees pan troglodytes (ptr) and pan paniscus (ppa), the gorilla gorilla gorilla (ggo), the orangutan pongo pygmaeus (ppy), the macaque macaca mulatta (mmu), the marmoset ...19957759095
conservation of human y chromosome sequences among male great apes: implications for the evolution of y chromosomes.nine newly described single-copy and low-copy-number genomic dna sequences isolated from a flow-sorted human y chromosome library were mapped to regions of the human y chromosome and were hybridized to southern blots of male and female great ape genomic dnas (gorilla gorilla, pan troglodytes, pongo pygmaeus). eight of the nine sequences mapped to the euchromatic y long arm (yq) in humans, and the ninth mapped to the short arm or pericentromeric region. all nine of the newly identified sequences ...19948064869
phylogenetic relationships among homo sapiens and related species based on restriction site variations in rdna spacers.a rapid method, using 12 restriction enzymes, was employed to analyze variations in ribosomal dna (rdna) spacers in a study of phylogenetic relationships between homo sapiens and related species. we mapped restriction sites in the external and internal spacer regions and compared the arrangements of sites. the estimated sequence divergence between homo sapiens and pan troglodytes, pan paniscus, gorilla gorilla, pongo pygmaeus, hylobates lar, h. agilis, and macaca fuscata was 2.7, 2.3, 3.8, 7.3, ...19947826313
isolation of a new foamy retrovirus from orangutans.we have isolated a new foamy virus from blood samples taken from two apparently healthy orangutans (pongo pygmaeus). the older orangutan has since died with encephalopathy after a brief acute illness, while the younger one, his grandson, remains well. these animals and 12 other orangutans had specific antibodies to foamy virus as measured by immunofluorescence. the new foamy virus and the antisera showed strong and specific neutralization, with only weak cross-reaction with other simian foamy vi ...19947933094
individual and evolutionary variation of primate ribosomal dna transcription initiation regions.a 16-kilobase region surrounding the transcription initiation site for ribosomal dna and including the entire ribosomal dna transcription unit has been characterized in man and compared in higher primates. restriction analysis of ribosomal dna from the pygmy chimpanzee (pan paniscus), the common chimpanzee (pan troglodytes), the gorilla (gorilla gorilla), the orangutan (pongo pygmaeus), the gibbon (hylobates lar), and the rhesus monkey (macaca mulatta) allows a primate phylogeny to be constructe ...19846599965
seed-breaking forces exerted by orang-utans with their teeth in captivity and a new technique for estimating forces produced in the wild.orang-utans (pongo pygmaeus) at the singapore zoological gardens were presented with two thick-shelled edible seeds, mezzettia parviflora (annonaceae) and macadamia ternifolia (proteaceae) in order to estimate their maximum bite forces. the orang-utans could break the macadamia seeds in one bite, while those of mezzettia required repeated attempts. examination of shell fragments showed that many had scratches and some had clear, but small (ca. 1-2 mm diameter), impressions on them. building upon ...19947943191
the origin of human chromosome 2 analyzed by comparative chromosome mapping with a dna microlibrary.fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish) of microlibraries established from distinct chromosome subregions can test the evolutionary conservation of chromosome bands as well as chromosomal rearrangements that occurred during primate evolution and will help to clarify phylogenetic relationships. we used a dna library established by microdissection and microcloning from the entire long arm of human chromosome 2 for fluorescence in situ hybridization and comparative mapping of the chromosomes of h ...19947981945
production and comprehension of referential pointing by orangutans (pongo pygmaeus).we report 3 studies of the referential pointing of 2 orangutans (pongo pygmaeus). chantek was raised in an enculturated environment; puti, raised in a nursery, had a more typical captive life. in experiment 1, flexibility of pointing behavior was investigated by requiring subjects to point in novel circumstances (for an out-of-sight tool, not food). in experiment 2, we investigated the orangutans' comprehension of the significance of a human point in helping them to locate food. in experiment 3, ...19947813191
electromyography of back muscles during quadrupedal and bipedal walking in primates.despite the extensive electromyographic research that has addressed limb muscle function during primate quadrupedalism, the role of the back muscles in this locomotor behavior has remained undocumented. we report here the results of an electromyographic (emg) analysis of three intrinsic back muscles (multifidus, longissimus, and iliocostalis) in the baboon (papio anubis), chimpanzee (pan troglodytes), and orangutan (pongo pygmaeus) during quadrupedal walking. the recruitment patterns of these th ...19948048470
incisor microwear of sumatran anthropoid primates.several studies have suggested that incisor microwear reflects diet and feeding adaptations of anthropoids. however, such studies have been largely qualitative, and interpretations have relied on anecdotal references to diet and tooth use reported in the socioecology literature. the current study relates incisor microwear in four anthropoid primates to specific ingestive behaviors and food types. central incisor casts of wild-shot museum specimens of hylobates lar, macaca fascicularis, pongo pyg ...19947943190
persistent, recurring diarrhea in a colony of orangutans (pongo pygmaeus) caused by multiple strains of campylobacter spp.a colony of 10 orangutans (pongo pygmaeus) experienced persistent, recurring diarrhea caused by multiple infections with campylobacter jejuni and c. coli. infections appeared to have occurred through several mechanisms, including fecal-oral transmission between orangutans, and possibly transmission by houseflies contaminated with the organisms from nearby chicken feces. among the 14 fecal and environmental c. jejuni isolates, 4 different antibiotic susceptibility profiles were detected; there we ...19947942349
evolution of pro-protamine p2 genes in primates.protamines p1 and p2 form a family of small basic peptides that represent the major sperm proteins in placental mammals. in human and mouse protamine p2 is one of the most abundant sperm proteins. the protamine p2 gene codes for a p2 precursor, pro-p2 which is later processed by proteolytic cleavages in its n-terminal region to form the mature p2 protamines. we have used polymerase chain amplification to directly sequence the pro-p2 genes of the five major primate families: red howler (alouatta ...19938513810
immunoglobulin gm allotypes in apes: comparison with man.serum samples from 245 apes (184 pan troglodytes, five pan paniscus, 28 gorilla gorilla, 23 pongo pygmaeus abelei, and five pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus) were tested for g1m (1,2,3,17), g2m (23), and g3m (5,6,10,11,13,14,15,16,21,24,28) immunoglobulin allotypes by the classical method of inhibition of hemagglutination. some phenotypes are species specific while a few are shared by man and african apes.19938105090
a comparison of tspy genes from y-chromosomal dna of the great apes and humans: sequence, evolution, and phylogeny.the genes for testis-specific protein y (tspy) were sequenced from chimpanzee (pan troglodytes), gorilla (gorilla gorilla), orangutan (pongo pygmaeus), and baboon (papio hamadryas). the sequences were compared with each other and with the published human sequence. substitutions were detected at 144 of the 755 nucleotide positions compared. in overviewing five sequences, one deletion in human, four successive nucleotide insertions in orangutan, and seven deletions/insertions in baboon sequence we ...19968798990
metatarsophalangeal joint function and positional behavior in australopithecus afarensis.recent discussions of the pedal morphology of australopithecus afarensis have led to conflicting interpretations of australopithecine locomotor behavior. we report the results of a study using computer aided design (cad) software that provides a quantitative assessment of the functional morphology of australopithecine metatarsophalangeal joints. the sample includes a. afarensis, homo sapiens, pan troglodytes, gorilla gorilla, and pongo pygmaeus. angular measurements of the articular surfaces rel ...19948141243
inverted and satellited y chromosome in the orangutan (pongo pygmaeus).an inverted and satellited y chromosome of almost acrocentric appearance was detected in seven of 14 male orangutans. in the remaining seven animals a submetacentric y chromosome without nors occurred. the high frequency with which the satellited y chromosomes were associated with acrocentric autosomes and the positive agno3-staining of their satellite stalks clearly indicate the active state of the nor on the y chromosomes. dna fingerprinting in two orangutan families showed that the inverted a ...19938143091
interspecific variation at the y-linked rps4y locus in hominoids: implications for phylogeny.within- and between-species variation in restriction endonuclease recognition sites was examined at the y-linked rps4y locus of six hominoid species: human (homo sapiens), gorilla (gorilla gorilla), chimpanzee (pan troglodytes), bonobo (pan paniscus), orangutan (pongo pygmaeus), and gibbon (hylobates lar). rps4y is an expressed gene that maps to the non-recombining region of the y chromosome. an approximately 1,490 base pair fragment of the rps4y gene, including all of intron 3, was amplified by ...19968922180
Displaying items 1 - 100 of 557