[anatomical variations and taxonomic relatedness in hominoidea].31 anatomical variations were examined in 125 pan paniscus and 96 gorilla gorilla beringei skulls. comparisons with published data of hominoidea show that differences in their frequencies are proportional and parallel to taxonomic relationships on the subspecific, specific and generic level.1977409527
production of antibodies to human immunoglobulins in a gibbon.immunization of a chimpanzee, a gibbon, a baboon and a rhesus monkey with human globulins gave different results. while chimpanzees did not produce any anti-human antibodies, baboon and rhesus monkey responded by producing anti-human igg antibodies that did not show subclass or allotype specificity. in the gibbon antiserum, on the other hand, six different antibodies were demonstrated with a specificity against one or more of the four human igg subclasses, including one allotype. comparative inv ...197993346
some aspects of the proposed captive breeding of dwarf chimpanzees (pan paniscus) 1978712809
chromosomal analysis of the pygmy chimpanzee (pan paniscus) with a comparison to man.the karyotype of pan paniscus is reexamined by g-banding and examined for the first time by c-banding. in addition, examination of the chromosomes by the use of the fluorochromes adreamycine and 33258 hoechst is undertaken. c-banding showed a surprising pattern with numerous terminal c-bands, as interstitial c-band, and several chromosomes lacking c-bands. polymorphic conditions for c-bands are also identified involving several pairs. in a comparison to the chromosomes of man, g-banding revealed ...197764439
[analysis of the karyotype of pan paniscus. comparison with other pongidae and man (author's transl)].the analysis of the karyotype of pygmee chimpanzee (pan paniscus), and its comparison with the one of pan troglodytes shows some differences on chromosomes 2q, 7, 13, and 22. the study of the chromosomal rearrangements differentiating the chimpanzees and the others anthropoids and man allows us to propose a filiation of ancestral species.197550278
morphological affinities of pan paniscus.although the pygmy chimpanzee (pan paniscus) is more similar to man than is the common chimpanzee (pan troglodytes) in some traits, the resemblance is due primarily to the smaller size and concomitant allometric generalization of the former. the two species of chimpanzees are equally good models for the common ancestry of african apes and man.1979451545
blood groups of pygmy chimpanzees (pan paniscus): human-type and simian-type.blood grouping of nine pygmy chimpanzees revealed them to be human-type group a1, m,rho, and simian-type v.d, ccef, g, h, i, k, l. only group nc was polymorphic. pan paniscus red cells can be easily distinguished from those of pan troglodytes by the serological characteristics of human-type blood groups a and m. also, the distribution of the simian-type blood group systems v-a-b and c-e-f are strikingly different in the two species.1975808629
chromosomal distribution of rdna in pan paniscus, gorilla gorilla beringei, and symphalangus syndactylus: comparison to related primates.hybridization in situ was used to identify rdna in chromosomes of the pygmy chimpanzee, mountain gorilla, and siamang gibbon. in contrast to other pongids, and man, the gorilla has only two pairs of rdna-containing chromosomes. the single pair in the siamang bears no resemblance to the nucleolar chromosome of the closely related lar gibbon. pan paniscus and p. troglodytes have the same rdna distribution, and similar karyotypes except in the structure of chromosome 23p. grain counts over unbanded ...19761009815
studbook of pan paniscus schwarz, 1929.on the basis of information provided by various zoos who have, or used to have, pan paniscus in their collections, as well as information in the international zoo yearbook or in the literature, an approximate outline has been given of our knowledge of this animal since the description given in 1929 by schwarz. the status of species is preferred to that of subspecies. the question whether the bonobo should be regarded as a true dwarf form is considered. it is, however, emphasized that the majorit ...19751163394
reexamination of the african hominoid trichotomy with additional sequences from the primate beta-globin gene cluster.additional dna sequence information from a range of primates, including 13.7 kb from pygmy chimpanzee (pan paniscus), was added to data sets of beta-globin gene cluster sequence alignments that span the gamma 1, gamma 2, and psi eta loci and their flanking and intergenic regions. this enlarged body of data was used to address the issue of whether the ancestral separations of gorilla, chimpanzee, and human lineages resulted from only one trichotomous branching or from two dichotomous branching ev ...19921342932
[parapox in a pigmy chimpanzee].parapoxvirus was found using electron microscopy in skin scrapings from a pygmy chimpanzee with a pustular skin disease. clinical findings are described and possible ways of transmission are discussed. it seems remarkable that this is the first time parapoxvirus has been diagnosed in a nonhuman primate.19921324536
human papillomavirus type 13 and pygmy chimpanzee papillomavirus type 1: comparison of the genome organizations.human papillomavirus type 13(hpv-13) is associated with oral focal epithelial hyperplasia (feh) in humans. a recent epidemic of a feh-like disease in a pygmy chimpanzee (pan paniscus) colony allowed us to clone a novel papillomavirus genome. to assess the homology between hpv-13 and the pygmy chimpanzee papillomavirus type 1 (pcpv-1), the complete nucleotide sequences of both feh-related viruses were determined. in both viruses, all eight major open reading frames were located on one strand and ...19921325697
[balck piedra in chimpanzees from zaire].black piedra was present in 21 of 72 museum pelts of chimpanzees (pan paniscus and pan satyrus) from zaïre. in the absence of culture, the mycological characteristics observed in vivo, although insufficient to allow a definite identification of the piedraia species involved, are almost identical with those of piedraia quintanilhae van uden, de barros-machado & castelo-branco, 1963.19751124462
a papillomavirus related to hpv type 13 in oral focal epithelial hyperplasia in the pygmy epizootic of focal epithelial hyperplasia (feh) or morbus heck in a pygmy chimpanzee (pan paniscus) colony is described. papovavirus-like particles were observed in the nuclei of epithelial cells. analysis of the dna of the lesions revealed an episomal papillomavirus-specific band with a molecular size of approximately 8,000 bp. in situ hybridization under high stringency conditions showed cross-hybridization between the chimpanzee papillomavirus dna and human papillomavirus (hpv) type 13. th ...19911654423
the main regulatory region of mammalian mitochondrial dna: structure-function model and evolutionary pattern.the evolution of the main regulatory region (d-loop) of the mammalian mitochondrial genome was analyzed by comparing the sequences of eight mammalian species: human, common chimpanzee, pygmy chimpanzee, dolphin, cow, rat, mouse, and rabbit. the best alignment of the sequences was obtained by optimization of the sequence similarities common to all these species. the two peripheral left and right d-loop domains, which contain the main regulatory elements so far discovered, evolved rapidly in a spe ...19911909377
resolution of the african hominoid trichotomy by use of a mitochondrial gene sequence.mitochondrial dna sequences encoding the cytochrome oxidase subunit ii gene have been determined for five primate species, siamang (hylobates syndactylus), lowland gorilla (gorilla gorilla), pygmy chimpanzee (pan paniscus), crab-eating macaque (macaca fascicularis), and green monkey (cercopithecus aethiops), and compared with published sequences of other primate and nonprimate species. comparisons of cytochrome oxidase subunit ii gene sequences provide clear-cut evidence from the mitochondrial g ...19911996358
a chimpanzee-derived chromosome-specific alpha satellite dna sequence conserved between chimpanzee and human.we describe a cloned 2.7 kb alpha satellite sequence, pan-3, from the pygmy chimpanzee (pan paniscus) that specifically hybridizes in situ to chromosome 19 in the pygmy chimpanzee and to the homeologous human chromosome, no. 17. using high stringency conditions of hybridization on southern blots, this sequence hybridized to dna from both species of chimpanzee (p. paniscus and p. troglodytes) and from human but not to dna from gorilla (gorilla gorilla) or orangutan (pongo pygmaeus). partial seque ...19912040204
deconstructing reconstruction: the oh 62 humerofemoral index.the humerus and femur of the fossil hominid oh 62 are badly damaged and their lengths are not directly measurable (johanson et al., 1987). nevertheless, using relatively intact reference materials from another early hominid, al 288-1, johanson et al. (1987) reconstructed the bones to estimate the humerofemoral index, which falls well above the range for modern homo, above the estimate for al 288-1, and within the range for pan paniscus. the reconstruction of missing bone by the method originally ...19902221028
position and orientation of the foramen magnum in higher primates.the location of the foramen magnum, with respect to the longitudinal axis of the cranium, and its orientation with respect to the frankfurt horizontal, have been studied in a total of 328 modern human and pan crania. the samples were chosen in order to examine the effect of overall size difference on foramen magnum disposition. foramen position (expressed as three indices) and inclination are relatively invariant among the modern human samples, but the foramen magnum is consistently, and statist ...19902301559
evolution of the glycophorin gene family in the hominoid primates.analysis of nucleotide sequences of the human glycophorin a (gpa) and glycophorin b (gpb) genes has indicated that the gpa gene most closely resembles the ancestral gene, whereas the gpb gene likely arose from the gpa gene by homologous recombination. to study the evolution of the glycophorin gene family in the hominoid primates, restricted dna on southern blots from man, pygmy chimpanzee, common chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, and gibbon was probed with cdna fragments encoding the human gpa and ...19902383247
symbolic cross-modal transfer in two species of chimpanzees.2 common chimpanzees and 1 pygmy chimpanzee, all of whom were proficient lexigram symbol users, were tested on symbolic cross-modal tasks. previous cross-modal work with nonhuman primates has been limited to nonsymbolic matching tasks. none of these chimpanzees received any advance training on cross-modal tasks prior to the testing reported here. the common chimpanzees, sherman and austin, were tested on visual to haptic, visual-symbolic to haptic, haptic to visual-symbolic, and olfactory to vis ...19882454784
the capacity of animals to acquire language: do species differences have anything to say to us?following the gardners' discovery that an ape named washoe could learn to produce and combine a number of hand movements similar to those used by deaf human beings, a variety of 'ape-language projects' sprang up. some projects used different symbol systems, others used different training techniques, and others used different species of apes. while debate still rages regarding the appropriate way to interpret the symbolic productions of apes, three species of great apes (gorilla, orangutan, and c ...19852858874
calicivirus isolation from three species of primates: an incidental finding.calicivirus isolations were made from 3 species of subhuman primates. viruses were recovered from gingival lesions associated with periodontal disease in a spider monkey, from the oropharynx of a healthy silver leaf langur, and from the spleen of a lowland gorilla that had died of systemic coccidioidomycosis. based on the results of cross-neutralization tests, all 3 isolates were serologically indistinguishable from a primate calicivirus pan paniscus type 1. these isolations appeared to be incid ...19852998241
the alui-induced bands in great apes and man: implication for heterochromatin characterization and satellite dna distribution.restriction endonucleases have recently been proved to be active on fixed chromatin, producing differences in staining of metaphase chromosomes. in this paper we show the results obtained by treating the metaphase chromosomes of pan troglodytes, pan paniscus, and gorilla gorilla with the restriction enzyme alui. these results demonstrate qualitative differences in the telomeric heterochromatin between pan and gorilla despite the fact that these areas appear homogeneous in the two genera by the c ...19873028715
an evolutionary conserved early replicating segment on the sex chromosomes of man and the great apes.replication studies on prometaphase chromosomes of man, the chimpanzee, the pygmy chimpanzee, the gorilla, and the orangutan reveal great interspecific homologies between the autosomes. the early replicating x chromosomes clearly show a high degree of conservation of both the pattern and the time course of replication. an early replicating segment on the short arm of the x chromosomes of man (xp22.3) which escapes inactivation can be found on the x chromosomes of the great apes as well. furtherm ...19863096642
[capillaria brochieri n. sp. (nematoda: capillariinae) intestinal parasite of the chimpanzee (pan paniscus) in zaire].capillaria brochieri n. sp. is described in a chimpanzee (pan paniscus schwartz, 1929) deceased from diarrhea. the male shows a unique structure of the caudal extremity: two flat paddles, with distal insertion, extend forward on each side of the ventral genital opening. the spicule (1,750 microns in length) shows a flattened anterior extremity and a tapered, curved posterior extremity. the cirrus is non-spiny and very long. two narrow and very long lateral alae are present. the female bears a vu ...19883069028
evolutionary and morphological significance of the deflecting wrinkle in the lower molars of the hominoidea.the deflecting wrinkle is a well-known character state of the lower m2 and m1 of the human dentition, but there is little information regarding its presence in great apes. the deflecting wrinkle is more frequent on m2-3 in all extant pongid genera studied in this paper except pan paniscus, in which m1 has the highest frequency (16.0%) and in which this wrinkle is absent on m3. in gorilla, it is absent on m1, with only a low incidence on m2-3. its greatest frequency in pongo is always on m2 (20.2 ...19883129944
a human-derived probe, p82h, hybridizes to the centromeres of gorilla, chimpanzee, and orangutan.a human-derived centromeric sequence, p82h, hybridizes to dna from gorilla, chimpanzee, pygmy chimpanzee, and orangutan. on dna blots, multimeric ladders based on 170 or 340 bp repeat units are seen. in metaphase chromosome preparations from these species, p82h hybridizes to the centromeric region of every chromosome. p82h forms less stable hybrids with dna from the lion-tailed macaque and does not hybridize to dna or chromosomes of the owl monkey or the mouse.19883133178
lucy's length: stature reconstruction in australopithecus afarensis (a.l.288-1) with implications for other small-bodied stature estimates are provided for a.l.288-1 (australopithecus afarensis) based on (1) the relationship between femur length and stature in separate samples of human pygmies and pygmy chimpanzees and (2) model ii regression alternatives to standard least-squares methods. estimates from the two samples are very similar and converge on a value of approximately 3'6" for "lucy." these results are compared to prior estimates and extended to other small-bodied hominids such as sts-14 and o.h.62. a ...19883137822
comparisons of ape and human sequences that regulate mitochondrial dna transcription and d-loop dna synthesis.the mitochondrial dna (mtdna) control regions for common chimpanzee, pygmy chimpanzee and gorilla were sequenced and the lengths and termini of their d-loop dna's characterized. in these and all other species for which there are data, 5' termini map to sequences that contain the trinucleotide yay. 3' termini are 25-51 nucleotides downstream from a sequence that is moderately conserved among vertebrates. substitutions were greater than 1.5 times more frequent in the control region than in regions ...19883399380
a comparison of the small ribosomal rna genes from the mitochondrial dna of the great apes and humans: sequence, structure, evolution, and phylogenetic implications.restriction endonuclease fragments produced by ecori/avai or kpni digestion and containing the small (12s) ribosomal rna (rrna) genes from the mitochondrial dnas (mtdnas) of the common chimpanzee, pygmy chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutan were inserted into the plasmids pbr322 or padd1. after species verification the inserted fragments were digested with sauiiia, subcloned into m13mp7 vectors, and sequenced. the small rrna gene sequences were compared with each other and with the published human ...19863444394
homoeologic aberrations in human and chimpanzee y chromosomes: inverted and satellited y inverted and a satellited y chromosome detected in peripheral blood lymphocytes of a chimpanzee and a pygmy chimpanzee, respectively, were characterized cytogenetically by various banding techniques. a detailed comparison with an inverted and a satellited y chromosome in man suggested that the corresponding aberrations were homoeologic.19883356165
evolution of immunoglobulin allotypes and phylogeny of apes.serum samples from 72 pan troglodytes, 5 pan paniscus, 22 gorilla gorilla, 23 pongo pygmaeus abelii, 5 pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus, 2 hybrids p.p. abelii x p.p. pygmaeus and 13 hylobates lar were tested for gm(1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 21, 24, 28), km(1) and bm(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8) immunoglobulin allotypes by the classical hemagglutination inhibition method. the distribution of the various alleles and phenotypes makes it possible to distinguish each species or subspecies. common ...19873504421
comparison of proto oncogene expression in seven primate fibroblast an interspecies comparison of seven primate species, the expression of the erbb proto oncogene was found to be higher in fibroblasts derived from three relatively long-lived species, the human, gorilla, and chimpanzee than in cells from the orangutan, pygmy chimpanzee, squirrel monkey, or red-bellied tamarin. no significant difference was found in the expression of the ras-k, myc, or src proto oncogenes. the difference would not seem to be the result of age differences of the donor animals as ...19873626640
the external genitalia of female pygmy chimpanzees.the external genitalia of four adult female pygmy chimpanzees (pan paniscus) were examined during a 2-year period. it was found that the labia majora are retained in adults of this species and that, when tumescent, the labia minora effectively relocate the frenulum and clitoris so that they point anteriorly between the thighs. when detumescent, the configuration of the labia minora and clitoris resembles that of immature common chimpanzees (p. troglodytes). it is suggested that the simple, struc ...19853985376
evolution of butyrylcholinesterase in higher primates: an immunochemical study.serum butyrylcholinesterase (buche; ec of man and the higher primates was tested enzymatically and immunochemically, with the aid of monoclonal antibodies (mcab) developed against the enzyme isolated from human blood. enzyme activities showed great differences across species and among individuals, but all samples tested were dibucaine-sensitive. one mcab showed similar affinities for buche of each species, but another showed marked differences in affinity, preferring species in the orde ...19846149875
language learning in two species of apes.a 4 year old pygmy chimpanzee (pan paniscus) has spontaneously begun to use symbols for the purpose of communicating. other apes have required training before they began to use symbols fluently. by contrast, this pygmy chimpanzee has begun to learn and appropriately employ graphic symbols simply as the result of exposure to human models. he has also spontaneously demonstrated an ability to comprehend many spoken english words and his multi-word utterances consistently provide more information th ...19854080283
immunochemical data suggesting a pattern for the evolution of human placental alkaline phosphatase.hyperimmune absorbed rabbit antisera which were reactive with epitopes specific for individual variants of human placental alkaline phosphatase were tested for their reactivity with primate placental alkaline phosphatases. using the three epitope-specific reactivities defined previously, we found that: epitope i is present in the s-, d- and i-variants of human placental phosphatase, and in the chimpanzee and pygmy chimpanzee placentae; epitope ii is present in the f- and 17-variants, and in the ...19846201730
natural genital herpesvirus hominis infection in chimpanzees (pan troglodytes and pan paniscus).type 2 herpesvirus hominis was isolated from pustulovesicular lesions on the external genitalia of two chimpanzees. histopathologic examination of biopsy specimens from both animals revealed typical herpetic changes which included necrosis, superficial ulceration acute inflammatory cell infiltration, multinucleated syncytial giant cells, and intranuclear inclusions. large numbers of herpes-type viruses were demonstrated by electron microscopy in biopsy specimens from both animals. serologic stud ...19806253747
evolutionary tree for apes and humans based on cleavage maps of mitochondrial dna.the high rate of evolution of mitochondrial dna makes this molecule suitable for genealogical research on such closely related species as humans and apes. because previous approaches failed to establish the branching order of the lineages leading to humans, gorillas, and chimpanzees, we compared human mitochondrial dna to mitochondrial dna from five species of ape (common chimpanzee, pygmy chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, and gibbon). about 50 restriction endonuclease cleavage sites were mapped i ...19816264476
calicivirus isolation and persistence in a pygmy chimpanzee (pan paniscus).what may be the first calicivirus isolate from any primate species, including man, was recovered from a herpesvirus-like lip lesion on a pygmy chimpanzee and then, 6 months later, from the throat of the same animal. the infected individual and its cage mates had circulating antibodies that were type-specific for this calicivirus. the agent was antigenically different from 30 other calicivirus serotypes and is tentatively designated primate calicivirus pan paniscus type 1 (pcv-pan 1).19836304880
evidence on human origins from haemoglobins of african apes.molecular data have influenced views concerning human origins, first, by supporting the genealogical classification of pan (chimpanzee) and gorilla with homo rather than with pongo (orangutan) and, second, by suggesting that only a few million years separate humans and chimpanzees from their last common ancestor. indeed, the cladistic distances in phylogenetic trees constructed from amino acid sequence data, on detecting many superimposed mutations, yielded a 'molecular-clock' divergence date be ...19836406908
individual and evolutionary variation of primate ribosomal dna transcription initiation regions.a 16-kilobase region surrounding the transcription initiation site for ribosomal dna and including the entire ribosomal dna transcription unit has been characterized in man and compared in higher primates. restriction analysis of ribosomal dna from the pygmy chimpanzee (pan paniscus), the common chimpanzee (pan troglodytes), the gorilla (gorilla gorilla), the orangutan (pongo pygmaeus), the gibbon (hylobates lar), and the rhesus monkey (macaca mulatta) allows a primate phylogeny to be constructe ...19846599965
chimpanzee reproductive senescence: a possible model for evolution of the menopause.reproductive senescence was studied in 2 female pan troglodytes and one pan paniscus over 40 yr old. menstrual cycle data for these animals, in the last 3 yr, when compared to that of the same animals in previous years and to records obtained between 1967 and 1980 on 51 pan troglodytes between 18-39 yr old, demonstrated increased length of menstrual cycles, as shown by decreases in frequency of menses. oestrone glucuronide and pregnanediol glucuronide were measured in 24-h urine samples by radio ...19816793812
humeral outlines in some hominoid primates and in plio-pleistocene hominids.a method of drawing outlines of the distal end of the humerus is presented and carried out on some pongids (pan troglodytes, pan paniscus, pongo pygmaeus), on modern man, and on some casts of plio-pleistocene hominids. it appears that these outlines are good indicators of the overall morphology and permit the distinguishing of the different hominoids. for example, the morphology of the pillars surrounding the fossa olecrani is useful for this purpose. in modern man, the lateral pillar is quadran ...19816798880
the external relief of the naso-labial integument of pan troglodytes, pan paniscus and gorilla gorilla (primates, hominoidea). 19836837092
size and diet in the evolution of african ape craniodental form.interspecific differences in craniodental morphology among pan paniscus, pan troglodytes, and gorilla gorilla are analyzed. these apes differ in both diet and body size, and thus present an excellent example in which to apply an allometric criterion of subtraction in order to determine morphological differences which might be related to divergent dietary specialization. the use of ontogenetic allometry in particular as a criterion of subtraction is discussed. bivariate and multivariate results i ...19836862324
chromosomes and spermatozoa of the african great apes.we have analysed the chromosome constitution of 8 chimpanzees (pan troglodytes), 3 pygmy chimpanzees (pan paniscus), and 16 gorillas (gorilla gorilla). in the chimpanzees, the frequency of brilliant q-band polymorphisms accounted for 8.85 regions per individual, and in the gorilla 14.9, whereas in man it was only 2.9-4.6. variation in the amount of constitutive heterochromatin was also observed, and the gorilla appeared to be the most variable of all. a detailed analysis of the spermatozoa of th ...19806934315
relative growth of the limbs and trunk in the african apes.examination of relative growth and allometry is important for our understanding of the african apes, as they represent a closely related group of species of increasing body size. this study presents a comparison of ontogenetic relative growth patterns of some postcranial dimensions in pan paniscus, pan troglodytes, and gorilla gorilla. interspecific proportion differences among the three species are also analyzed. it is stressed that reliable ontogenetic information can only be obtained if subad ...19817325219
pregnancy monitoring in diverse primate species by estrogen and bioactive luteinizing hormone determinations in small volumes of urine.immunoreactive estrogen and luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin (lh/cg) bioactivity have been measured throughout pregnancy in diverse primate species with a sample methodological approach utilizing small volumes of urine collected randomly. total immunoreactive estrogen levels and the relative abundance of component estrogens (estrone, estradiol and estriol) at various stages of gestation were compared in the human, orangutan, pygmy chimpanzee, douc langur and capuchin. measurement of ur ...19817277459
recent african origin of modern humans revealed by complete sequences of hominoid mitochondrial dnas.we analyzed the complete mitochondrial dna (mtdna) sequences of three humans (african, european, and japanese), three african apes (common and pygmy chimpanzees, and gorilla), and one orangutan in an attempt to estimate most accurately the substitution rates and divergence times of hominoid mtdnas. nonsynonymous substitutions and substitutions in rna genes have accumulated with an approximately clock-like regularity. from these substitutions and under the assumption that the orangutan and africa ...19957530363
presence and abundance of cenp-b box sequences in great ape subsets of primate-specific alpha-satellite dna.cenp-b, a highly conserved centromere-associated protein, binds to alpha-satellite dna, the centromeric satellite of primate chromosomes, at a 17-bp sequence, the cenp-b box. by fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish) with an oligomer specific for the cenp-b box sequence, we have demonstrated the abundance of cenp-b boxes on all chromosomes (except the y) of humans, chimpanzee, pygmy chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutan. this sequence motif was not detected in the genomes of other primates, incl ...19957563136
c4 gene polymorphism in primates: evolution, generation, and chido and rodgers antigenicity.eleven new c4d genomic primate sequences of the fourth complement factor (c4) have been obtained. seven of them belong to five species not yet explored for this gene: pan paniscus (pygmy chimpanzee), cercopithecus aethiops (green monkey), macaca mulatta (rhesus monkey), macaca fascicularis (cynomolgus), and saguinus oedipus (cotton top tamarin). the new world monkeys (tamarins, four individuals) sequenced for c4 have a single c4d sequence only, which shows a b isotypic specificity and a rodgers ...19947525470
comparing communicative competence in child and chimp: the pragmatics of repetition.through an analysis of chimpanzee-human discourse, we show that two pan troglodytes chimpanzees and two pan paniscus chimpanzees (bonobos) exposed to a humanly devised symbol system use partial or complete repetition of others' symbols, as children do: they do not produce rote imitations, but instead use repetition to fulfil a variety of pragmatic functions in discourse. these functions include agreement, request, promise, excitement, and selection from alternatives. in so doing, the chimpanzees ...19937681067
comparative mapping of yrrm- and tspy-related cosmids in man and hominoid apes.using chromosomal in situ hybridization it has been demonstrated that specific members of the yrrm and the tspy families are multicopy and y chromosome specific in hominoids. after hybridization with the yrrm-related cosmid a5f and the tspy-related cosmids cos36 and cy91, a reverse and complementary pattern of main and secondary signals is detected on the y chromosomes of the human, the pygmy chimpanzee and the gorilla, while the location of signals coincides on the y chromosomes of the chimpanz ...19957606360
performance in a tool-using task by common chimpanzees (pan troglodytes), bonobos (pan paniscus), an orangutan (pongo pygmaeus), and capuchin monkeys (cebus apella).performance by individual animals of three species of great apes (pan troglodytes, pan paniscus, and pongo pygmaeus) and capuchin monkeys (cebus apella) was assessed by presenting a food treat inside a clear tube. the subjects readily used a straight stick to obtain the food. when sticks were bundled together, the apes immediately unwrapped the bundle to obtain an individual stick, whereas capuchins attempted to insert the bundled sticks. when a misshapen stick was provided, apes, but not capuch ...19957705062
the immunoglobulin kappa locus of primates.the immunoglobulin kappa genes of nonhuman primates were studied by using sequence information and hybridization probes derived from the human kappa gene regions. the following results were obtained: (1) v kappa gene probes of the three major human kappa subgroups hybridized to restriction nuclease digests of dna from the chimpanzees pan troglodytes (ptr) and pan paniscus (ppa), the gorilla gorilla gorilla (ggo), the orangutan pongo pygmaeus (ppy), the macaque macaca mulatta (mmu), the marmoset ...19957759095
chimpanzee mhc class i a locus alleles are related to only one of the six families of human a locus alleles.there are nearly 50 alleles at the highly polymorphic hla-a class i locus that fall into six distinct families. to determine the allelic repertoire and the mechanism of generation of diversity of the a locus in primates we have analyzed a locus alleles from 28 apparently unrelated chimpanzees (pan troglodytes) and bonobos (pan paniscus). we have, therefore, compared the sequences of 19 hla-a homologues from chimpanzees and bonobos to 42 hla-a sequences. hla-a homologues were well preserved in ch ...19957759878
pattern profile analysis of hominid and chimpanzee hand a study designed to complement morphological research on hominid hand bones, length and width measurements of the thumb, index, and middle rays were obtained from radiographs of modern human hands. these rays are primary in precision-gripping postures and are therefore the ones most relevant for investigating evolutionary changes in fine manipulation. pattern profile analysis allows individuals or samples to be plotted against a reference sample in standard deviation units, or z-scores. it pr ...19957785726
comparative mapping of the immunoglobulin c epsilon 1 gene (ighe) in five species of nonhuman primates by fluorescence in situ hybridization.the orthologous immunoglobulin c epsilon 1 gene (ighe) of the common chimpanzee, pygmy chimpanzee, orangutan, white-handed gibbon, and japanese macaque was assigned to the human chromosome 14 homologue in each species and regionally mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization to ptr15q32 (common chimpanzee), ppa15q32 (pygmy chimpanzee), ppy15q32 (orangutan), hla17qter (white-handed gibbon), and mfu7q29 (japanese macaque). the gene localized to the terminal region of the chromosome in each speci ...19957789180
construction of molecular evolutionary phylogenetic trees from dna sequences based on minimum complexity principle.ever since the discovery of a molecular clock, many methods have been developed to reconstruct the molecular evolutionary phylogenetic trees. in this paper, we deal with the problem from the viewpoint of an inductive inference and apply rissanen's minimum description length principle to extract the minimum complexity phylogenetic tree. our method describes the complexity of the molecular phylogenetic tree by three terms which are related to the tree topology, the sum of the branch lengths and th ...19957796581
contrasting chimpanzees and bonobos: nearest neighbor distances and an effort to understand factors underlying differences in the social organization of pan troglodytes and p. paniscus, we measured the nearest neighbor distances and choices for chimpanzees in kibale national park, uganda, and for bonobos in lomako forest, zaire. we assume that the spatial organization of a set of individuals should reflect the underlying relationships between them. bonobos were found to have smaller nearest neighbor distances than chimpanzees. the distribution and variability ...19947797164
phylogenetic relationships among homo sapiens and related species based on restriction site variations in rdna spacers.a rapid method, using 12 restriction enzymes, was employed to analyze variations in ribosomal dna (rdna) spacers in a study of phylogenetic relationships between homo sapiens and related species. we mapped restriction sites in the external and internal spacer regions and compared the arrangements of sites. the estimated sequence divergence between homo sapiens and pan troglodytes, pan paniscus, gorilla gorilla, pongo pygmaeus, hylobates lar, h. agilis, and macaca fuscata was 2.7, 2.3, 3.8, 7.3, ...19947826313
a uniquely high level of recombination at the hla-b locus.major histocompatibility complex (mhc) loci are some of the most polymorphic genes in the animal kingdom. recently, it has been suggested that although most of the human mhc loci are relatively stable, the hla-b locus can undergo rapid changes, especially in isolated populations. to investigate the mechanisms of hla-b evolution we have compared the sequences of 19 hla-b homologues from chimpanzees and bonobos to 65 hla-b sequences. analysis of the chimpanzee and bonobo hla-b homologues revealed ...19948016085
isolation of a novel simian t-cell lymphotropic virus from pan paniscus that is distantly related to the human t-cell leukemia/lymphotropic virus types i and unusual serological profile against human t-cell leukemia/lymphotropic virus type i and ii (htlv-i and -ii) proteins was reported in several human pygmy tribes in zaire and cameroon with serum antibodies reactive with gp21 and p24. here we describe a similar pattern of serum antibodies in a colony of captive pygmy chimpanzees and the isolation of a novel retrovirus, simian t-cell lymphotropic virus from pan paniscus (stlvpan-p), from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of several seroposit ...19947966632
the origin of human chromosome 2 analyzed by comparative chromosome mapping with a dna microlibrary.fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish) of microlibraries established from distinct chromosome subregions can test the evolutionary conservation of chromosome bands as well as chromosomal rearrangements that occurred during primate evolution and will help to clarify phylogenetic relationships. we used a dna library established by microdissection and microcloning from the entire long arm of human chromosome 2 for fluorescence in situ hybridization and comparative mapping of the chromosomes of h ...19947981945
gene trees and hominoid we present a dna sequence study that incorporates intraspecific variation from all five genera of hominoids (apes and humans). recently it has been claimed that using single individuals to analyze species' relationships might be misleading if within-species variation is great. our results indicate that despite high intraspecific variation in mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit ii gene sequences of some hominoids, humans and chimpanzees are nonetheless significantly most closely related ...19948090741
immunoglobulin gm allotypes in apes: comparison with man.serum samples from 245 apes (184 pan troglodytes, five pan paniscus, 28 gorilla gorilla, 23 pongo pygmaeus abelei, and five pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus) were tested for g1m (1,2,3,17), g2m (23), and g3m (5,6,10,11,13,14,15,16,21,24,28) immunoglobulin allotypes by the classical method of inhibition of hemagglutination. some phenotypes are species specific while a few are shared by man and african apes.19938105090
mobility of short interspersed repeats within the chimpanzee lineage.the pv subfamily of alu repeats in human dna is largely composed of recently inserted members. here we document additional members of the pv subfamily that are found in chimpanzee but not in the orthologous loci of human and gorilla, confirming the relatively recent and independent expansion of this alu subfamily in the chimpanzee lineage. as further evidence for the youth of this alu subfamily, one pv alu repeat is specific to pan troglodytes, whereas others are present in pan paniscus as well. ...19938114109
meningeal arterial patterns in great apes: implications for hominid vascular evolution.arterial meningeal patterns were observed for 100 hemispheres from great ape endocasts (pan paniscus, pan troglodytes, gorilla gorilla, and pongo pygmaeus). eight patterns emerged based on the relative contributions to the walls and dura mater of the middle part of the braincase of meningeal arteries that stem from two sources. these arteries enter the braincase through either the orbit (delivering blood from the internal carotid artery) or through the base of the middle cranial fossa (via the m ...19938238293
mitochondrial coii sequences and modern human origins.the aim of this study is to measure human mitochondrial sequence variability in the relatively slowly evolving mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase subunit ii (coii) and to estimate when the human common ancestral mitochondrial type existed. new coii gene sequences were determined for five humans (homo sapiens), including some of the most mitochondrially divergent humans known; for two pygmy chimpanzees (pan paniscus); and for a common chimpanzee (p. troglodytes). coii sequences were analyzed w ...19938277847
language comprehension in ape and child.previous investigations of the linguistic capacities of apes have focused on the ape's ability to produce words, and there has been little concern for comprehension. by contrast, it is increasingly recognized that comprehension precedes production in the language development of normal human children, and it may indeed guide production. it has been demonstrated that some species can process speech sounds categorically in a manner similar to that observed in humans. consequently, it should be poss ...19938366872
glycophorin b and glycophorin e genes arose from the glycophorin a ancestral gene via two duplications during primate evolution.human glycophorin a, b, and e genes are homologous from the 5'-flanking region to 1 kilobase downstream from the exon encoding the transmembrane region. analysis of human alu sequences at the transition site from the homologous to nonhomologous region suggested that the gpa gene most closely resembles the ancestral gene, whereas gpb and gpe genes arose by homologous recombination within the alu repetitive sequence, and acquired 3' sequences from an unrelated gene (kudo, s., and fukuda, m. (1989) ...19938420995
evolution of pro-protamine p2 genes in primates.protamines p1 and p2 form a family of small basic peptides that represent the major sperm proteins in placental mammals. in human and mouse protamine p2 is one of the most abundant sperm proteins. the protamine p2 gene codes for a p2 precursor, pro-p2 which is later processed by proteolytic cleavages in its n-terminal region to form the mature p2 protamines. we have used polymerase chain amplification to directly sequence the pro-p2 genes of the five major primate families: red howler (alouatta ...19938513810
tempo and mode of synonymous substitutions in mitochondrial dna of primates.nucleotide substitutions of the four-fold degenerate sites and the total third codon positions of mitochondrial dna from human, common chimpanzee, bonobo, gorilla, and orangutan were examined in detail by three alternative markov models; (1) hasegawa, kishino, and yano's (1985) model, (2) tamura and nei's (1993) model, and (3) the general reversible markov model. these sites are expected to be relatively free from constraint, and therefore their tempo and mode in evolution should reflect those o ...19968583892
minimum description principle applied to construction of molecular phylogenetic tree.ever since the discovery of a molecular clock (constancy of molecular evolutionary rate), many methods have been developed to estimate the molecular evolutionary phylogenetic trees from the homologous nucleic sequences of different species. in this paper, we deal with this problem from the view point of an inductive inference, and apply rissanen's minimum description length principle to extract the minimum complexity phylogenetic tree. five mitochondrial dna sequences from human, common chimpanz ...19958591579
allelic diversity at the primate mhc-g locus: exon 3 bears stop codons in all cercopithecinae sequences.twenty-seven major histocompatibility complex (mhc)-g exon 2, exon 3, and exon 2 and 3 allelic sequences were obtained together with 12 different intron 2 sequences. homo sapiens, pan troglodytes, pan paniscus, gorilla gorilla, pongo pygmaeus, macaca fascicularis, macaca mulatta, and cercopithecus aethiops individuals were studied. polymorphism does not follow the classical pattern of three hypervariable regions per domain and is found in all species studied; exon 3 (equivalent to the alpha 2 pr ...19968606053
the presence of a divergent t-lymphotropic virus in a wild-caught pygmy chimpanzee (pan paniscus) supports an african origin for the human t-lymphotropic/simian t-lymphotropic group of viruses.we isolated a divergent simian t-lymphotropic virus (stlv) (strain pp1664) from a wild-caught african bonobo (pygmy chimpanzee, pan paniscus). molecular and phylogenetic characterization of this virus show that it reliably separates from the two well-established primate t-lymphotropic virus types, htlv-i/stlv-i (ptlv-i) and ptlv-ii, and from a third type isolated from an african-born papio hamadryas and designated by us as ptlv-l. four of eight bonobos kept at the antwerp zoo, belgium, showed an ...19968609475
molecular anatomy of human chromosome 9: comparative mapping of the immunoglobulin processed pseudogene c epsilon 3 (ighep2) in primates.karyotypic homology in relation to human chromosome 9 (hsa 9) was studied through comparative mapping of the immunoglobulin-processed pseudogene c epsilon 3 (ighep2) in primates. ighep2, which has been mapped to 9p24.2 --> p24.1 in the human genome, was assigned to ptr 11q34 (common chimpanzee), ppa 11q34 (pygmy chimpanzee), ppy 13q16 (orangutan), hla 8qter (white-handed gibbon), hag 8qter (agile gibbon), and mfu 14q22 (japanese macaque) by fluorescence in situ hybridization. to verify the break ...19968646893
the "phoca standard": an external molecular reference for calibrating recent evolutionary divergences.comparison of the complete mitochondrial dna (mtdna) of the high-arctic ringed seal (phoca hispida) and the sub-arctic harbour (p. vitulina) and grey (halichoerus grypus) seals shows that they are genetically equidistant from one another. we relate the evolutionary divergence of the three species to expanding glaciation in the arctic basin and establish, in conjunction with mtdna data, a standard reference for calibration of recent divergence events among mammalian taxa. in the present study, we ...19968660422
characterization of a chromosome-specific chimpanzee alpha satellite subset: evolutionary relationship to subsets on human chromosomes.alpha satellite dna is a tandemly repeated dna family found at the centromeres of all primate chromosomes examined. the fundamental repeat units of alpha satellite dna are diverged 169- and 172-bp monomers, often found to be organized in chromosome-specific higher-order repeat units. the chromosomes of human (homo sapiens (hsa)), chimpanzee (pan troglodytes (ptr) and pan paniscus), and gorilla (gorilla gorilla) share a remarkable similarity and synteny. it is of interest to ask if alpha satellit ...19968660971
maximum-likelihood models for combined analyses of multiple sequence dataabstract. models of nucleotide substitution were constructed for combined analyses of heterogeneous sequence data (such as those of multiple genes) from the same set of species. the models account for different aspects of the heterogeneity in the evolutionary process of different genes, such as differences in nucleotide frequencies, in substitution rate bias (for example, the transition/transversion rate bias), and in the extent of rate variation across sites. model parameters were estimated by ...19968662011
rapid allelic diversification and intensified selection at antigen recognition sites of the mhc class ii dpb1 locus during hominoid evolution.the evolution of polymorphism at the mhc class ii dpb1 locus was studied by comparison of chimpanzee (pan troglodytes), pygmy chimpanzee (pan paniscus), gorilla (gorilla gorilla) and human dpb1 alleles. extensive polymorphism was found in all hominoids. the clustering of sequences in the phylogenetic tree is consistent with rapid generation of the dpb1 polymorphism. analysis of the substitution pattern for human alleles shows an excess of non-synonymous changes to synonymous changes at antigen r ...19968740771
is there any intermediate stage between animal communication and language?animal communication and human language have fundamental differences in their structures and functions. furthermore, there is no living species demonstrating an intermediate stage of language evolution. thus, we have difficulty in finding characteristics attributable to a communication system which can already be considered as a starting point for linguistic evolution. however, some findings coming from neurolinguistic research give us the opportunity to suppose that varying and arranging lingui ...19968763359
high-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization of rbm- and tspy-related cosmids on released y chromatin in humans and pygmy chimpanzees.applying two-colour fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish) we simultaneously hybridized rbm- and tspy-related cosmids to y chromosomes in prophase and to released y chromatin in interphase nuclei of man and pygmy chimpanzee. whereas, even on prophasic y chromosomes, no resolution of the overlapping rbm and tspy signal clusters could be achieved, the rbm and tspy signals are completely separated from each other in our maximum released y chromatin stretches in interphase nuclei. these results u ...19968793204
what is the situation of human t cell lymphotropic virus type ii (htlv-ii) in africa? origin and dissemination of genomic subtypes.human t cell lymphotropic virus type ii (htlv-ii) and its two genomic subtypes, a and b, which differ by 3 to 6% at the nucleotide level (depending on the gene studied), were until recently considered to be endemic only in certain indian tribes in the americas and were therefore considered mainly as a "new world virus." first, the evidence of htlv-ii antibodies and later characterization of isolates from sex workers or individuals living in large west and central african cities suggested that ht ...19968797728
questions on the evolution of primate t-lymphotropic viruses raised by molecular and epidemiological studies of divergent human and simian t-lymphotropic viruses (htlv and stlv), collectively referred to as primate t-lymphotropic viruses (ptlv), four distinct clades can be distinguished: ptlv-i, ptlv-ii, and the newly discovered divergent stlvs isolated from hamadryas baboons and from bonobos (pygmy chimpanzees). the hamadryas stlv is clearly distinct from types i and ii, in terms both of sequence divergence and of genomic structure, and would qualify as a separate type, provisionally called ptlv-l. the bonobo s ...19968797730
mitochondrial dna diversity in gorillas.a highly variable portion of the mitochondrial dna control region was sequenced in 63 free-living and captive gorillas including representatives of the three recognized subspecies. this region has proven useful for evaluation of relative levels of genetic variability in populations, for clarification of the subspecies identity of a wild population, and for examination of the phylogenetic relationships of the three subspecies. the eastern lowland (gorilla gorilla graueri) and mountain gorilla (go ...19968812304
the mitochondrial dna molecule of sumatran orangutan and a molecular proposal for two (bornean and sumatran) species of orangutan.the complete mitochondrial dna (mtdna) molecule of sumatran orangutan, plus the complete mitochondrial control region of another sumatran specimen and the control regions and five protein-coding genes of two specimens of bornean orangutan were sequenced and compared with a previously reported complete mtdna of bornean orangutan. the two orangutans are presently separated at the subspecies level. comparison with five different species pairs-namely, harbor seal/grey seal, horse/donkey, fin whale/b ...19968875856
a source of glycosylated human t-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 envelope protein: expression of gp46 by the vaccinia virus/t7 polymerase system.heterologous expression of the human t-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (htlv-1) envelope surface glycoprotein (gp46) in a vaccinia virus/t7 polymerase system resulted in the production of authentic recombinant gp46. five differentially glycosylated forms of the surface envelope protein were produced by this mammalian system, as demonstrated by tunicamycin inhibition of n-glycosylation and n-glycan removal with endoglycosidase h and glycopeptidase f. these studies revealed that all four potential ...19968892853
ontogeny of body size variation in african apes.size variation in african apes (gorilla gorilla [gorilla], pan paniscus [pygmy chimpanzee], and pan troglodytes ["common" chimpanzee]) is substantial, both within and between species. we investigate the possible evolutionary significance of this variation through an analysis of the ontogeny of size variation in this group. in addition, we highlight possible areas of future endocrinological research, and evaluate recently proposed alternative models that attempt to account for ontogenetic variati ...19968928723
genomic differentiation among natural populations of orang-utan (pongo pygmaeus).orang-utans exist today in small isolated populations on the islands of borneo (subspecies pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus) and sumatra (subspecies p. p. abelii). although, on the basis of their morphological, behavioral and cytogenetical characteristics, the bornean and sumatran orang-utan populations are generally considered as two separate subspecies, there is no universal agreement as to whether their genetic differentiation is sufficient to consider and manage them as species, subspecies or populat ...19968939569
interspecific variation at the y-linked rps4y locus in hominoids: implications for phylogeny.within- and between-species variation in restriction endonuclease recognition sites was examined at the y-linked rps4y locus of six hominoid species: human (homo sapiens), gorilla (gorilla gorilla), chimpanzee (pan troglodytes), bonobo (pan paniscus), orangutan (pongo pygmaeus), and gibbon (hylobates lar). rps4y is an expressed gene that maps to the non-recombining region of the y chromosome. an approximately 1,490 base pair fragment of the rps4y gene, including all of intron 3, was amplified by ...19968922180
the simian t-lymphotropic/leukemia virus from pan paniscus belongs to the type 2 family and infects asian macaques.the proviral dna of the simian t-leukemia/lymphotropic virus (stlv) isolate, originally obtained from a captive colony of pygmy chimpanzees (pan paniscus) (stlv(pan-p)), was cloned from the dna of the chronically infected human t-cell line l93-79b. the entire proviral dna sequence was obtained and compared with sequences of the known genotypes of stlv and human t-leukemia/lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (htlv-1 and -2). phylogenetic analysis indicates that stlv-2(pan-p) is an early divergence w ...19979094642
pattern and timing of evolutionary divergences among hominoids based on analyses of complete mtdnas.we have examined and dated primate divergences by applying a newly established molecular/ paleontological reference, the evolutionary separation between artiodactyls and cetaceans anchored at 60 million years before present (mybp). owing to the morphological transformations coinciding with the transition from terrestrial to aquatic (marine) life and the large body size of the animals (which makes their fossils easier to find), this reference can be defined, paleontologically, within much narrowe ...19968995062
the origin of human chromosome 18 from a human/ape ancestor.karyotype analysis by previous investigators demonstrated that human chromosome 18 differs from homologous chromosomes in the great apes by a pericentric inversion. the present study uses fluorescence in situ hybridization on human and pygmy chimpanzee chromosomes to confirm the inversion and to delimit the regions where the breakpoints must have occurred in the human/ape ancestor.19979186521
the tax gene sequences form two divergent monophyletic lineages corresponding to types i and ii of simian and human t-cell leukemia/lymphotropic viruses.evolutionary associations of human and simian t-cell leukemia/lymphotropic viruses i and ii (htlv-i/ii and stlv-i/ii) are inferred from phylogenetic analysis of tax gene sequences. samples studied consisted of a geographically diverse assemblage of viral strains obtained from 10 human subjects and 20 individuals representing 12 species of nonhuman primates. sequence analyses identified distinct substitutions, which distinguished between viral types i and ii, irrespective of host species. phyloge ...19979143307
survey of maximum ctg/cag repeat lengths in humans and non-human primates: total genome scan in populations using the repeat expansion detection method.repeat expansion detection (red) is an efficient and simple method for detecting repeat expansions in the human genome, including expansion mutations resulting in disease. here we report the first population survey of ctg/cag repeat lengths in humans using the red method; we have determined maximum ctg/cag repeat length in 244 individuals from six human populations: danes, chinese, japanese, rondonian surui, maya and mbuti/biaka pygmies. we have also sampled a number of non-human primates includ ...19979147643
sexual dimorphic features within extant great ape faciodental skeletal anatomy and testing the single species hypothesis.this paper examines sexually dimorphic skeletal characters within the face and upper dentition of extant hominids (great ape), not including members of the hominini. specimens of pan paniscus, pan troglodytes, gorilla gorilla, and pongo pygmaeus are used to help identify likely sex specific characters for the hominidae. the aim of this paper is to identify extant hominid faciodental sexual features which can be used to help sex fossil specimens. a morphometric and skeletal study of sexual variab ...19979428188
a major histocompatibility complex class i allele shared by two species of chimpanzee.little is known regarding the rates at which natural selection can modify or retain antigen presenting alleles at the major histocompatibility complex (mhc). discovery of identical [1101 base pairs (bp)] coding regions at the mhc class i c locus in pan troglodytes and pan paniscus, chimpanzee species that diverged approximately 2.3 million years ago, now indicates that a class i allotype can survive for at least this period. remarkable conservation was also reflected in the (1799 bp) introns whe ...19989435339
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