restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of zoo animals using haeiii and four single-locus probes.using haeiii as the restriction endonuclease, restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of dried blood samples from various animals was conducted. single-locus probes d2s44, d10s28, d1s7, and d4s139, as well as monomorphic probe d7z2, were used to examine for banding patterns. if bands were present, the samples were further examined for heterogeneity (whether single or multiple bands were observed) and polymorphism (whether variation in band location was shown between the animals studied ...19921362080
the first capitular joint in primates: cebidae, cercopithecidae and for the first capitular joint, ohman (1986) claimed that a univertebral type is unique to modern and fossil hominids among primates. stern and jungers (1990) compiled the data in a wider range of primate and demonstrated as follows. the univertebral type, rather than being unique to hominids, is common among siamang, occurs in an occasional gibbon, and is typical of the larger indriids. we added the data of genera of cebidae and cercopithecidae to that observation, and found that the univerte ...19921620527
axenic isolation of giardia strains from primates and rodents.during the examination of animals at the poznan zoological gardens, attempts were made to isolate giardia strains. using an in vitro excystation procedure, eight samples of cysts from animals with asymptomatic giardiasis were inoculated on bi-s-33 medium. the ease of isolation and axenization of giardia was surprising; five axenic isolates of giardia, belonging to the g. duodenalis morphological group, were established from primates (slow loris, lesser slow loris and siamang) and from rodents (g ...19902343527
comparison of the a-b-h blood group specificities and m-n blood types in man, gibbons (hylobates), and siamangs (symphalangus). 19684970377
mycobacterium bovis infection in primates in dublin zoo: epidemiological aspects and implications for outbreak of tuberculosis in non-human primates was successfully contained in the isolation area of dublin zoo. a mayotte lemur, a lion-tailed macaque, a patas monkey and a siamang gibbon developed tuberculosis, and mycobacterium bovis was isolated from all but the lemur, from which lesions were not cultured. procedures for the prevention of tuberculosis in primate collections and for the management of outbreaks are discussed. the need for typing of the isolated pathogen is emphasized.19846392739
new host record for the entodiniomorphid ciliate, troglodytella abrassarti, from siamangs (hylobates syndactylus).examination of faecal samples from several diarrhoeic siamangs hylobates syndactylus (anthropoidea: hylobatidae) revealed the presence of numerous entodiniomorphid ciliates whose morphological and ultrastructural characteristics were consistent with those of troglodytella abrassarti previously recorded from chimpanzees, orangutans and gorillas (anthropoidea: pongidae).19938359993
prevalence of shigellosis and other enteric pathogens in a zoologic collection of epidemiologic study of shigellosis was the preliminary step in the formulation of a plan for the control of devastating infectious diseases in nonhuman primates at the national zoological park. data were collected from primate groups with enzootic shigellosis and included the following species: white-cheeked and siamong gibbons (hylobates concolor and h syndactylies); lion-tailed, celebes, and barbary macaques (macaca silenus, m nigera, and m sylvanus); black and white colobus monkeys (colobu ...19938407446
fluorescene in situ hybridization establishes homology between human and silvered leaf monkey chromosomes, reveals reciprocal translocations between chromosomes homologous to human y/5, 1/9, and 6/16, and delineates an x1x2y1y2/x1x1x2x2 sex-chromosome system.we employed in situ hybridization of chromosome-specific dna probes ("chromosome painting") of all human chromosomes to establish homologies between the human and the silvered lead monkey karyotypes (presbytis cristata 2n = 44). the 24 human paints gave 30 signals on the haploid female chromosome set and 34 signals on the haploid male chromosome set. this difference is due to a reciprocal translocation between the y and an autosome homologous to human chromosome 5. this y/autosome reciprocal tra ...19979098501
comparative observations on the spacing of short-period (von ebner's) lines in dentine.the spacing of short-period incremental markings in dentine was measured in longitudinal ground sections and in longitudinal demineralized silver-stained sections of permanent human canines and premolars. measurements were made (i) within 50 microm from the granular layer of tomes (glt), (ii) between 100 and 200 microm from the glt, and (iii) in the axial plane of the tallest cusps. median values for the spacing of calcospheritic lines closest to the glt in the ground sections increased from 1.8 ...19989877332
long bone articular and diaphyseal structure in old world monkeys and apes. i: locomotor effects.the relationship between locomotor behavior and long bone structural proportions is examined in 179 individuals and 13 species of hominoids and cercopithecoids. articular surface areas, estimated from linear caliper measurements, and diaphyseal section moduli (strengths), determined from ct scans, were obtained for the femur, tibia, humerus, radius, and ulna. both within-bone (articular to shaft) and between-bone (forelimb to hindlimb) proportions were calculated and compared between taxa. it wa ...200212448016
catarrhine phylogeny: noncoding dna evidence for a diphyletic origin of the mangabeys and for a human-chimpanzee clade.maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood analyses of two of the serum albumin gene's intron sequences from 24 catarrhines (17 cercopithecid and 7 hominid) and 3 platyrrhines (an outgroup to the catarrhines) yielded results on catarrhine phylogeny that are congruent with those obtained with noncoding sequences of the gamma(1)-gamma(2) globin gene genomic region, using only those flanking and intergenic gamma sequences that in their history were not involved in gene conversion. a data set that com ...200111161738
phalangeal curvature and positional behavior in extinct sloth lemurs (primates, palaeopropithecidae).recent paleontological discoveries in madagascar document the existence of a diverse clade of palaeopropithecids or "sloth lemurs": mesopropithecus (three species), babakotia (one species), palaeopropithecus (three species), and archaeoindris (one species). this mini-radiation of now extinct ("subfossil") lemurs is most closely related to the living indrids (indri, propithecus, and avahi). whereas the extant indrids are known for their leaping acrobatics, the palaeopropithecids (except perhaps f ...199711038588
genomic differentiation of 18s ribosomal dna and beta-satellite dna in the hominoid and its evolutionary aspects.the chromosome localization of two human multisequence families, rdna and beta-satellite (beta-sat) dna, was determined in humans and apes using double color fluorescence in-situ hybridization. both dna probes showed a distinct hybridization pattern with species-specific variations in hominoids. the stepwise differentiation of the integration, amplification, multilocalization, and reduction of the dnas were observed interspecifically through the seven species examined. the stepwise events allowe ...199910598568
genetically engineered mengo virus vaccination of multiple captive wildlife species.encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv), has caused the deaths of many species of animals in zoological parks and research institutions. the audubon park zoo, (new orleans, louisiana, usa) attempted vaccination of several species with a killed emcv vaccine with mixed results. this paper reports an attempt at vaccination against emcv using a genetically engineered, live attenuated mengo virus (vmc0) at the audubon park zoo and miami metro zoo, (miami, florida, usa) from december 1996 to june 1997. seve ...199910231768
toward a phylogenetic classification of primates based on dna evidence complemented by fossil evidence.a highly resolved primate cladogram based on dna evidence is congruent with extant and fossil osteological evidence. a provisional primate classification based on this cladogram and the time scale provided by fossils and the model of local molecular clocks has all named taxa represent clades and assigns the same taxonomic rank to those clades of roughly equivalent age. order primates divides into strepsirhini and haplorhini. strepsirhines divide into lemuriformes and loriformes, whereas haplorhi ...19989668008
a hominoid-specific nuclear insertion of the mitochondrial d-loop: implications for reconstructing ancestral mitochondrial sequences.a nuclear integration of a mitochondrial control region sequence on human chromosome 9 has been isolated. pcr analyses with primers specific for the respective insertion-flanking nuclear regions showed that the insertion took place on the lineage leading to hominoidea (gibbon, orangutan, gorilla, chimpanzee, and human) after the old world monkey-hominoidea split. the sequences of the control region integrations were determined for humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans, and siamangs. these se ...19989549097
phylogeny of primate t lymphotropic virus type 1 (ptlv-1) including various new asian and african non-human primate further unravel intra- and interspecies ptlv-1 evolution in asia and africa, we phylogenetically analysed 15 new stlv-1 ltr and env sequences discovered in eight different asian and african non-human primate species. we show that orang-utan stlv-1s form a tight, deeply branching monophyletic cluster between asian stlv-1 macaque species clades, suggesting natural cross-species transmission. novel viruses of macaca maura, macaca nigra and siamang cluster with other sulawesian stlv-1s, demonstra ...200716931175
alternative splicing in lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase mrna: an evolutionary paradigm in humans and great apes.lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (lcat), an important enzyme affecting reverse cholesterol transport, is expressed in liver and cultured fibroblasts. sequencing of lcat cdna clones demonstrated the coexistence of two mrna products. in addition to the normal transcript, we identified an alternate message with a splice-mediated insertion of a 95 bp alu cassette at the junction of exons 5 and 6. in humans, the alternate transcript represents 5-20% of the complete lcat message in cultured fibrob ...19979197549
molecular features of the tspy gene of gibbons and old world monkeys.restriction pattern, chromosome localization and the sequence of the testis-specific gene, tspy, were investigated in the white-handed gibbon, agile gibbon, siamang, hamadryas baboon and japanese monkey. southern blot analysis showed the tspy gene to be male specific in the primates used and disclosed variability of restriction pattern in gibbons. fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated that the probe pptspy2372, biotinylated using polymerase chain reaction, is located as a slight signal ...19968939361
maximum-likelihood models for combined analyses of multiple sequence dataabstract. models of nucleotide substitution were constructed for combined analyses of heterogeneous sequence data (such as those of multiple genes) from the same set of species. the models account for different aspects of the heterogeneity in the evolutionary process of different genes, such as differences in nucleotide frequencies, in substitution rate bias (for example, the transition/transversion rate bias), and in the extent of rate variation across sites. model parameters were estimated by ...19968662011
anaesthesia of a siamang monkey (hylobates syndactylus) for the surgical correction of a hand injury. 200717704469
use of a sustained release preparation of clotrimazole to treat dermatophytosis in a siamang (hylobates syndactylus).in november 2004, an adult male siamang (hylobates syndactylus) from the tisch family zoological gardens-jerusalem biblical zoo (israel) presented with skin lesions on various body parts. lesions consisted of alopecia and dry, crusty areas of hyperkeratosis. a diagnosis of dermatophytosis due to microsporum canis was determined by fungal culture of skin scraping taken from the edge of several lesions. treatment with various oral and topical antifungal agents such as griseofluvin, itraconozole, a ...200818432106
comparative high-resolution mapping of human and primate chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization.a molecular cytogenetic approach that facilitates high-resolution comparative mapping of defined human genes in different primate species is presented. fluorescence in situ hybridization and digital imaging microscopy were used to visualize human dna probes on simultaneously banded or "painted" metaphase chromosomes of great apes (pan troglodytes, gorilla gorilla, pongo pygmaeus), hylobatids (hylobates lar and hylobates syndactylus), and old world monkeys (macaca fuscata and cercopithecus aethio ...19938288242
genomic reorganization and disrupted chromosomal synteny in the siamang (hylobates syndactylus) revealed by fluorescence in situ hybridization.we employed in situ hybridization ("chromosome painting") of chromosome-specific dna libraries of all human chromosomes to establish homologies between the human and siamang karyotypes (hylobates syndactylus, 2n = 50). numerous intra- and interchromosomal rearrangements have led to a massive reorganization of the siamang karyotype. there have been a minimum of 33 translocations. the 24 siamang autosomes are composed of 60 recognizable segments that show dna homology to regions of the 22 human au ...19957645672
stereophotogrammetric analysis of occlusal morphology of extant hominoid molars: phenetics and function.because teeth are commonly preserved in the fossil record, dental remains have often been employed in estimating evolutionary relationships among fossil hominoids. this is appropriate, however, only to the extent that dental morphology is phylogenetically informative. i have used phenetic analytic techniques to assess whether hominoid molars are likely to be useful for phylogenetic inference. thirty-four occlusal landmarks for first and second molars were chosen; seven on each maxillary and ten ...19892801908
resolution of the african hominoid trichotomy by use of a mitochondrial gene sequence.mitochondrial dna sequences encoding the cytochrome oxidase subunit ii gene have been determined for five primate species, siamang (hylobates syndactylus), lowland gorilla (gorilla gorilla), pygmy chimpanzee (pan paniscus), crab-eating macaque (macaca fascicularis), and green monkey (cercopithecus aethiops), and compared with published sequences of other primate and nonprimate species. comparisons of cytochrome oxidase subunit ii gene sequences provide clear-cut evidence from the mitochondrial g ...19911996358
siderophilic bodies associated with hemosiderosis and atypical mycobacterial infection in an island siamang (hylobates syndactylus).laminated iron concretions were noted in the liver of an aged siamang (hylobates syndactylus) that had granulomatous enteritis and hepatitis due to mycobacterium avium intracellulare infection. preexisting hepatic siderosis, iron sequestration in macrophages, and compromised macrophage function due to mycobacterial infection are proposed as the basis for the abundance and size of the concretions. similar siderophilic bodies and concomitant siderosis occurred in other siamangs. the concretions ar ...19911920383
man's place in hominoidea revealed by mitochondrial dna genealogy.molecular biology has resurrected c. darwin and t.h. huxley's question about the origin of humans, but the precise branching pattern and dating remain controversial. to settle this issue, a large amount of sequence information is required. we determined mitochondrial (mt) dna sequences for five hominoids; pygmy and common chimpanzees, gorilla, orangutan, and siamang. the common region compared with the known human sequence is 4759 bp long, encompassing genes for 11 transfer rnas and 6 proteins. ...19921518083
observations on stria morphology in the lateral enamel of pongo, hylobates and proconsul teeth.the enamel of certain primates (orang-utans, siamangs and the early miocene fossil hominoid, proconsul) occasionally contains striae of retzius that appear distinct from those more typical of the lateral and cervical enamel of other anthropoids. these striae can be described as "s-shaped" since their contour is markedly sinuous as it passes from the enamel dentine junction (edj) to the tooth surface. "s-shaped" striae have never been described in the comparative literature on primate enamel and ...19989774502
comparison of human and siamang abh and mn blood groups using monoclonal antibodies.comparison of human and siamang abhii and mnss blood groups using monoclonal antibodies and enzyme-modified erythrocytes showed a different organization of abhii in the siamang, and a greatly altered expression of the sialoglycoproteins that express mnss. while several monoclonal antibodies to human mnss sialoglycoproteins failed to agglutinate siamang erythrocytes, moab145, a monoclonal antibody that reacts with the mn sialoglycoprotein, agglutinated siamang erythrocytes to almost the same tite ...19846520861
auditory brainstem and middle latency responses in non-human primates.auditory brainstem (abr) and middle latency responses (mlr) were obtained from each ear in 8 crab-eating macaques, 4 white-handed gibbons, 4 siamangs and 2 orangutans. macaques ranged in age from 5 days to 15 years with the 6 older animals in age-matched, male-female pairs. from each animal, latency-intensity functions were obtained and multiple mlr recordings were measured at 60 and 70 db. latency-intensity functions, interwave intervals, thresholds and percent detectability were calculated for ...19854019328
evolution of glycophorin a in the hominoid primates studied with monoclonal antibodies, and description of a sialoglycoprotein analogous to human glycophorin b in chimpanzee.comparison of human and primate erythrocyte membrane sialoglycoproteins showed that common chimpanzee, dwarf chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, and gibbon have major periodic acid schiff-positive proteins resembling human glycophorin a (gpa) monomer and dimer in electrophoretic mobility on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. immunoperoxidase staining of western blots with monoclonal antibodies to human gpa showed that these primate bands express some gpa antigenic determinants. a new sialog ...19863950419
a molecular phylogeny of the hominoid primates as indicated by two-dimensional protein electrophoresis.a molecular phylogeny for the hominoid primates was constructed by using genetic distances from a survey of 383 radiolabeled fibroblast polypeptides resolved by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2de). an internally consistent matrix of nei genetic distances was generated on the basis of variants in electrophoretic position. the derived phylogenetic tree indicated a branching sequence, from oldest to most recent, of cercopithecoids (macaca fascicularis), gibbon-siamang, orangutan, gorilla, and hum ...19873106965
phylogenetic relationships of malaysian monkeys, cercopithecidae, based on mitochondrial cytochrome c sequences.mitochondrial dna cytochrome c oxidase ii (coii) gene sequences of malaysian cercopithecidae were examined to ascertain their phylogenetic relationships. colobinae were represented by the genera presbytis, trachypithecus and nasalis, while the genus macaca represented cercopithecinae. dna amplification and sequencing of the coii gene was performed on 16 samples. symphalangus syndactylus (hylobatidae) was used as the outgroup. data were analyzed using both character (maximum parsimony) and distan ...201020927717
sexual dimorphism in laccopithecus robustus, a late miocene hominoid from china.laccopithecus robustus is a siamang-sized fossil ape from the miocene site of lufeng, china. the species is known from a partial cranium, numerous mandibles, and scores of isolated teeth. this species shows striking dental similarities to pliopithecus from the miocene of europe and a number of cranial similarities to extant gibbons. laccopithecus differs from extant gibbons and resembles other fossil and extant apes in showing marked sexual dimorphism in the size and shape of the canines and ant ...19892742002
serological survey and virus isolation of simian t-cell leukemia/t-lymphotropic virus type i (stlv-i) in non-human primates in their native countries.infection with a simian retrovirus (stlv-i) closely related to human t-lymphotropic virus type i (htlv-i) was investigated in non-human primates living in their native countries in africa and asia. serum antibodies cross-reacting with htlv-i antigens were detected in 85 of 567 non-human primates of 30 species. seropositive animals were found among african green monkeys, olive baboons, sykes' monkeys, mandrills and patas monkeys in several countries in africa, and cynomolgus monkeys, celebes maca ...19872440820
hybrid ape offspring of a mating of gibbon and siamang.the serendipitous mating of a male gibbon, hylobates moloch, and a female siamang, symphalangus syndactylus, has produced two female offspring born 1 year apart. the hybrid karyotype of 47 chromosomes comprises the haploid complements of the parental species, 22 for the gibbon and 25 for the siamang. chromosomal g and c banding comparisons revealed no clear homologies between the parental karyotypes except for the single chromosome in each species containing the nucleolus organizer region. the l ...2004451603
polydactylism in a siamang. 20165038375
ankylosing spondylitis in nonhuman primates: the drill and the siamang.nonhuman primates are known to be susceptible to many of the arthritides that afflict humans. psoriatic like spondyloarthropathies have been reported in gorillas and skeletal hyperostosis in gibbons, rhesus monkeys, and gorillas, and additional cases of both of these conditions occurring in drills (baboons) are noted in this report. one western lowland gorilla and two rhesus monkeys with clinical features consistent with ankylosing spondylitis have been documented previously. two additional nonh ...19911788553
hypoglossal canal size in living hominoids and the evolution of human speech.the relative size of the hypoglossal canal has been proposed as a useful diagnostic tool for the identification of human-like speech capabilities in the hominid fossil record. relatively large hypoglossal canals (standardized to oral cavity size) were observed in humans and assumed to correspond to relatively large hypoglossal nerves, the cranial nerve that controls motor function of the tongue. it was suggested that the human pattern of tongue motor innervation and associated speech potential a ...200314655872
comparison of androgen receptor cag and ggn repeat length polymorphism in humans and apes.two polymorphic trinucleotide repeats of human androgen receptor gene (har), cag and ggn which encode glutamine and glycine, have been shown to be associated with human diseases. the number of repeats ranges from 8 to 35 for the cag and from 10 to 30 for the ggn in human populations. longer cag repeats are associated with reduced har transcriptional activity, spinal bulbar muscular atrophy and lower cognitive function in older men, whereas shorter cag repeats are associated with increased risk o ...200616467955
plasticity of human chromosome 3 during primate evolution.comparative mapping of more than 100 region-specific clones from human chromosome 3 in bornean and sumatran orangutans, siamang gibbon, and old and new world monkeys allowed us to reconstruct ancestral simian and hominoid chromosomes. a single paracentric inversion derives chromosome 1 of the old world monkey presbytis cristata from the simian ancestor. in the new world monkey callithrix geoffroyi and siamang, the ancestor diverged on multiple chromosomes, through utilizing different breakpoints ...200414706448
nonhuman anthropoid primate femoral neck trabecular architecture and its relationship to locomotor mode.functional analyses of human and nonhuman anthropoid primate femoral neck structure have largely ignored the trabecular bone. we tested hypotheses regarding differences in the relative distribution and structural anisotropy of trabecular bone in the femoral neck of quadrupedal and climbing/suspensory anthropoids. we used high-resolution x-ray computed tomography to analyze quantitatively the femoral neck trabecular structure of ateles geoffroyi, symphalangus syndactylus, alouatta seniculus, colo ...200717514766
chemical characterization of oligosaccharides in chimpanzee, bonobo, gorilla, orangutan, and siamang milk or colostrum.neutral and acidic oligosaccharides were isolated from the milk or colostrum of four great ape species (chimpanzee (pan troglodytes), bonobo (pan paniscus), gorilla (gorilla gorilla), and orangutan (pongo pygmaeus)) and one lesser ape species (siamang (symphalangus syndactylus)), and their chemical structures were characterized by (1)h-nmr spectroscopy. oligosaccharides containing the type ii unit (gal(beta1-4)glcnac) were found exclusively (gorilla and siamang) or predominately (chimpanzee, bon ...200919164487
articular structure and function in hylobates, colobus, and has been demonstrated in clinical and experimental studies that subarticular trabecular bone responds to mechanical loads transmitted across joints through changes in mass and structural organization. we investigated differences in mass, volume, and density of subarticular trabecular bone of the humeral and femoral head in hylobates syndactylus, colobus guereza, and papio cynocephalus. our hypothesis was that variations in trabecular properties between taxa may reflect differences in mechanic ...19947943193
evolution of primate theta-defensins: a serpentine path to a sweet tooth.retrocyclins (ancestral human theta-defensins) are cyclic antimicrobial octadecapeptides that interfere with viral uptake and protect human cells from infection by t- and m-tropic strains of hiv-1 in vitro. as are other theta-defensins, retrocyclins are lectins that bind gp120, cd4, and galactosylceramide-all of which are implicated in hiv-1 uptake. although theta-defensin mrna transcripts are present in human bone marrow, spleen, thymus, testis, and skeletal muscle, a premature stop codon abort ...200315019196
comparative cytogenetics of human chromosome 3q21.3 reveals a hot spot for ectopic recombination in hominoid evolution.fluorescence in situ hybridization mapping of fully integrated human bac clones to primate chromosomes, combined with precise breakpoint localization by pcr analysis of flow-sorted chromosomes, was used to analyze the evolutionary rearrangements of the human 3q21.3-syntenic region in orangutan, siamang gibbon, and silvered-leaf monkey. three independent evolutionary breakpoints were localized within a 230-kb segment contained in bacs rp11-93k22 and rp11-77p16. approximately 200 kb of the human 3 ...200515607420
endemic infections of parastrongylus (=angiostrongylus) costaricensis in two species of nonhuman primates, raccoons, and an opossum from miami, florida.parastrongylus (=angiostrongylus) costaricensis was first reported in the united states from cotton rats, sigmodon hispidus, in texas in 1979. here, we report the findings of p. costaricensis in a siamang (hylobates syndactylus) from the miami metrozoo, in 2 ma's night monkeys (aotus nancymaae) from the dumond conservancy located at monkey jungle in miami, in 4 raccoons (procyon lotor) trapped near the metrozoo, and in an opossum (didelphis virginiana) trapped at the metrozoo. these records are ...200616729706
repeat expansion in spinocerebellar ataxia type 17 alleles of the tata-box binding protein gene: an evolutionary approach.the variability and mutational changes of the cag microsatellite in the tata-box binding protein gene (tbp) were studied. we sequenced the microsatellite of the tbp gene of 25 unrelated individuals from northern germany (10 sca17 patients and 15 unaffected control individuals). in addition, the microsatellites were sequenced from individuals of 10 northern german families with at least one family member affected by sca17. to study also the evolutionary history of this cag/caa microsatellite in n ...200717033685
patterns of dispersal in sumatran siamangs (symphalangus syndactylus): preliminary mtdna evidence suggests more frequent male than female dispersal to adjacent groups.gibbons of both sexes have been observed emigrating from their natal groups, but the consequences of dispersal in gibbons are poorly understood, and it is unclear whether these are the same for both sexes. i sequenced a 350-bp fragment of mitochondrial dna from 18 adults in seven siamang (symphalangus syndactylus) groups at the way canguk research station in southern sumatra to assess patterns of matrilineal relatedness among and within siamang groups, and to assess their fit with different patt ...200717171713
phylogenetic relationships and divergence dates of the whole mitochondrial genome sequences among three gibbon genera.phylogenetic relationships of gibbons (4 genera, 12 species) deduced from short/partial mitochondrial dna sequences were with low resolution and inconsistent. their divergence over the short period of time may require longer sequences for the higher resolution. to solve the problems, we newly sequenced the whole mitochondrial genome of hylobates agilis, hylobates pileatus, nomascus sp. and symphalangus syndactylus. a highly resolved phylogenetic tree was obtained for the mitochondrial genome in ...201020138221
tracking the complex flow of chromosome rearrangements from the hominoidea ancestor to extant hylobates and nomascus gibbons by high-resolution synteny this study we characterized the extension, reciprocal arrangement, and orientation of syntenic chromosomal segments in the lar gibbon (hylobates lar, hla) by hybridization of a panel of approximately 1000 human bac clones. each lar gibbon rearrangement was defined by a splitting bac clone or by two overlapping clones flanking the breakpoint. a reconstruction of the synteny arrangement of the last common ancestor of all living lesser apes was made by combining these data with previous results ...200818552313
hominoid seminal protein evolution and ancestral mating behavior.hominoid mating systems show extensive variation among species. the degree of sexual dimorphism in body size and canine size varies among primates in accordance with their mating system, as does the testes size and the consistency of ejaculated semen, in response to differing levels of sperm competition. to investigate patterns of evolution at hominoid seminal proteins and to make inferences regarding the mating systems of extinct taxa, we sequenced the entire coding region of the prostate-speci ...200818561295
evolutionary modifications of human milk composition: evidence from long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of anthropoid milks.brain growth in mammals is associated with increased accretion of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (lcpufa) in brain phospholipids. the period of maximum accumulation is during the brain growth spurt. humans have a perinatal brain growth spurt, selectively accumulating docosahexaenoic acid (dha) and other lcpufa from the third trimester through the second year of life. the emphasis on rapid postnatal brain growth and lcpufa transfer during lactation has led to the suggestion that human mil ...200818809203
acoustic analysis of primate air sacs and their effect on vocalization.this paper presents an analysis of the acoustic impedance of primate air sacs and their interaction with the vocal tract. a lumped element model is derived and it is found that the inertance of the neck and the volume of the air sac are relevant, as well as the mass and stiffness of the walls (depending on the tissue). it is also shown that at low frequencies, radiation from the air sac can be non-negligible, even if the mouth is open. it is furthermore shown that an air sac can add one or two l ...200920000947
hominoid visual brain structure volumes and the position of the lunate has been argued that changes in the relative sizes of visual system structures predated an increase in brain size and provide evidence of brain reorganization in hominins. however, data about the volume and anatomical limits of visual brain structures in the extant taxa phylogenetically closest to humans-the apes-remain scarce, thus complicating tests of hypotheses about evolutionary changes. here, we analyze new volumetric data for the primary visual cortex and the lateral geniculate nucleus ...201020172590
a case study of orangutan and siamang behavior within a mixed-species zoo exhibit.this empirical case study assessed the behavior and welfare of 2 orangutans (pongo abelii) and 2 siamangs (symphalangus syndactylus) within a mixed-species zoo exhibit. the study used instantaneous scan-sampling to record behavior, location, and interspecies proximity over 174 hr and all-occurrences data for any interactions between species. results revealed frequent affiliative interactions between the female orangutan and siamang pair and an absence of agonistic or aggressive encounters. all i ...201020865616
evolutionary glycomics: characterization of milk oligosaccharides in oligosaccharides are abundant components of mammalian milk and have primary roles as prebiotic compounds, in immune defense, and in brain development. a mass spectrometry-based technique is applied to profile milk oligosaccharides from apes (chimpanzee, gorilla, and siamang), new world monkeys (golden lion tamarin and common marmoset), and an old world monkey (rhesus). the purpose of this study is to evaluate the patterns of primate milk oligosaccharide composition from a phylogenetic persp ...201121214271
species-specific distributions of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons in the prefrontal cortex of anthropoid this study, we assessed the distribution of cortical neurons immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase (th) in prefrontal cortical regions of humans and nonhuman primate species. immunohistochemical methods were used to visualize th-immunoreactive (th-ir) neurons in areas 9 (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) and 32 (anterior paracingulate cortex). the study sample included humans, great apes (chimpanzee, bonobo, gorilla, orangutan), one lesser ape (siamang), and old world monkeys (golden guenon, ...200919041377
inferential reasoning by exclusion in great apes, lesser apes, and spider monkeys.using the cups task, in which subjects are presented with limited visual or auditory information that can be used to deduce the location of a hidden reward, call (2004) found prima facie evidence of inferential reasoning by exclusion in several great ape species. one bonobo (pan paniscus) and two gorillas (gorilla gorilla) appeared to make such inferences in both the visual and auditory domains. however, common chimpanzees (pan troglodytes) were successful only in the visual domain, and bornean ...201121341913
identification and functional comparison of seven-transmembrane g-protein-coupled bilf1 receptors in recently discovered nonhuman primate lymphocryptoviruses.coevolution of herpesviruses with their respective host has resulted in a delicate balance between virus-encoded immune evasion mechanisms and host antiviral immunity. bilf1 encoded by human epstein-barr virus (ebv) is a 7-transmembrane (7tm) g-protein-coupled receptor (gpcr) with multiple immunomodulatory functions, including attenuation of pkr phosphorylation, activation of g-protein signaling, and downregulation of major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class i surface expression. in this stu ...201525505061
hyperplastic dermatitis associated with acariasis in a siamang (symphalangus syndactylus).a 36-yr-old male captive siamang (symphalangus syndactylus) was evaluated for mange in the form of generalized alopecia, flaky skin, and pruritus of 1 mo duration. multiple skin scrapings and biopsies revealed high numbers of trombidiiform mites identified as psorobia (formerly psorergates) sp. near cercopitheci (acarina: psorergatidae) based on morphologic characteristics. prolonged repetitive treatment with ivermectin killed the mites and resolved the clinical signs. psorergatid mites should b ...200819110709
relic of ancient recombinations in gibbon abo blood group genes deciphered through phylogenetic network analysis.the primate abo blood group gene encodes a glycosyl transferase (either a or b type), and is known to have large coalescence times among the allelic lineages in human. we determined nucleotide sequences of ca. 2.2kb of this gene for 23 individuals of three gibbon species (agile gibbon, white-handed gibbon, and siamang), and observed a total of 24 haplotypes. we found relics of five ancient intragenic recombinations, occurred during ca. 2-7 million years ago, through a phylogenetic network analys ...200919298858
flowers are an important food for small apes in southern are included in the diets of many primates, but are not generally regarded as making an important contribution to primate energy budgets. however, observations of a number of lemur, platyrrhine, and cercopithecine populations suggest that some flower species may function as key primate fallback foods in periods of low abundance of preferred foods (generally ripe fruits), and that flowers may be preferred foods in some cases. i report heavy reliance on flowers during some study months for ...200919459180
chromosomal distribution of rdna in pan paniscus, gorilla gorilla beringei, and symphalangus syndactylus: comparison to related primates.hybridization in situ was used to identify rdna in chromosomes of the pygmy chimpanzee, mountain gorilla, and siamang gibbon. in contrast to other pongids, and man, the gorilla has only two pairs of rdna-containing chromosomes. the single pair in the siamang bears no resemblance to the nucleolar chromosome of the closely related lar gibbon. pan paniscus and p. troglodytes have the same rdna distribution, and similar karyotypes except in the structure of chromosome 23p. grain counts over unbanded ...19761009815
technical note: forearm pronation efficiency analysis in skeletal remains.this work presents an original methodology for analyzing forearm-pronation efficiency from skeletal remains and its variation with regard to changes in the elbow position. the methodology is based on a biomechanical model that defines rotational efficiency as a mathematical function expressing a geometrical relationship between the origin and insertion of the pronator teres. the methodology uses humeral distal epiphysis photography, from which the geometrical parameters for the efficiency calcul ...200919672849
trabecular bone structure in the humeral and femoral heads of anthropoid primates.the functional significance of three-dimensional trabecular bone architecture in the primate postcranial skeleton has received significant interest over the last decade. some previous work has produced promising results, finding significant relationships between femoral head trabecular bone structure and hypothesized locomotor loading in leaping and nonleaping strepsirrhines. conversely, most studies of anthropoid femoral head bone structure have found broad similarity across taxonomic and locom ...201020235327
new evidence for diet and niche partitioning in rudapithecus and anapithecus from rudabánya, hungary.rudabánya is rare among eurasian miocene fossil primate localities in preserving both a hominid and pliopithecoid, and as such provides the unique opportunity to reconstruct the nature of sympatry and niche partitioning in these taxa. rudapithecus and anapithecus have similar locomotor and positional behavior and overlapping body mass ranges. while prior analyses of molar occlusal anatomy and microwear identify rudapithecus as a soft-object frugivore, reconstructing the dietary behavior of anapi ...201324034983
looking in apes as a source of human pathogens.because of the close genetic relatedness between apes and humans, apes are susceptible to many human infectious agents and can serve as carriers of these pathogens. consequently, they present a serious health hazard to humans. moreover, many emerging infectious diseases originate in wildlife and continue to threaten human populations, especially vector-borne diseases described in great apes, such as malaria and rickettsiosis. these wild primates may be permanent reservoirs and important sources ...201425220240
preliminary investigation of flexibility in learning color-reward associations in gibbons (hylobatidae).previous studies in learning set formation have shown that most animal species can learn to learn with subsequent novel presentations being solved in fewer presentations than when they first encounter a task. gibbons (hylobatidae) have generally struggled with these tasks and do not show the learning to learn pattern found in other species. this is surprising given their phylogenetic position and level of cortical development. however, there have been conflicting results with some studies demons ...201525845982
tube task hand preference in captive hylobatids.the link between laterality in humans and other primates is still hotly debated. hylobatids have been rather neglected in this research area, yet they can provide important insights because: (1) they share with humans a complex vocal repertoire, which in humans is thought to be associated with brain hemispheric specialization and lateralized behaviors; (2) their adaptation to arboreality has produced unique postural constraints; (3) the little that is known about laterality in gibbons is contrad ...201728342054
watering holes: the use of arboreal sources of drinking water by old world monkeys and apes.water is one of the most important components of an animal's diet, as it is essential for life. primates, as do most animals, procure water directly from standing or free-flowing sources such as pools, ponds and rivers, or indirectly by the ingestion of certain plant parts. the latter is frequently described as the main source of water for predominantly arboreal species. however, in addition to these, many species are known to drink water accumulated in tree-holes. this has been commonly observe ...201627234173
anatomical contributions to hylobatid taxonomy and adaptation.compared with the great apes, the small-bodied hylobatids were treated historically as a relatively uniform group with 2 genera, hylobates and the larger-bodied symphalangus. four genera are now recognized, each with a different chromosome number: hoolock (hoolock) (38), hylobates (44), nomascus (crested gibbon) (52), and symphalangus (siamang) (50). previous morphological studies based on relative bone lengths, e.g., intermembral indices; molar tooth sizes; and body masses did not distinguish t ...201121892236
a phylogeny of gibbons (hylobates spp.) based on morphological and behavioural characters.a new estimate of the phylogenetic relationships among the nine gibbon taxa is presented, based on a compatibility analysis of 55 morphological and behavioural characters. the phylogeny presented here differs somewhat from those of other studies, but there appears to be a basic consensus that: the siamang and concolor gibbons represent the earliest forms to speciate; the agile, lar, moloch, müller's, and pileated gibbons represent the lates forms to speciate; with the kloss and hoolock gibbons r ...19827166287
locomotion behavior of cao vit gibbon (nomascus nasutus) living in karst forest in bangliang nature reserve, guangxi, china.the cao vit gibbon is a critically endangered species. only approximately 110 individuals remain in degraded karst forest along the china-vietnam border. karst forest is unusual gibbon habitat. currently, the canopy height of cao vit gibbon habitat is approximately 10 m. research on the locomotor behavior of gibbons living in this particular forest type might provide important insight into locomotor stability and variability of gibbons. we used 5 min scan samples to record the locomotion mode, s ...201324344959
patterns of c-heterochromatin and telomeric dna in two representative groups of small apes, the genera hylobates and symphalangus.the course of chromosome evolution in small apes is still not clear, though painting analyses have opened the way for elucidating the puzzle. even the c-banding pattern of the lar-group of gibbons (the genus hylobates) is not clarified yet, although our previous studies suggested that lar-group gibbons have a unique c-banding pattern. we therefore made observations to establish c-banded karyotypes of the agile gibbons included in the lar-group. the data were compared with those of siamangs (the ...200516235121
gibbons (hylobates pileatus, h. moloch, h. lar, symphalangus syndactylus) follow human gaze, but do not take the visual perspective of others.we investigated four gibbon species of two different genera (hylobates pileatus, h. moloch, h. lar, symphalangus syndactylus) in terms of their looking behavior in response to a human who either looked up or looked at the gibbon. comparing those two conditions, gibbons as a group looked up more when the human was looking up, but they also performed more looks in other directions and thus generally looked more in this condition. unlike great apes, gibbons did not respond differently between condi ...201222847522
cytogenetic comparison and phylogeny of three species of hylobatidae.representatives of three subgenera of hylobatidae, hylobates (symphalangus) syndactylus, h. (nomascus) concolor and h. (hylobates) agilis were compared karyotypically by g-banding, and silver staining. a greater degree of similarity (30-55%) was found among these groups than previous reports suggest; however, these figures are still considerably lower than chromosome similarities characteristic of all other catarrhine groups. inversion, translocation, fission, and fusion have all played a role i ...19836624889
development of pelvic sexual dimorphism in hylobatids: testing the obstetric constraints hypothesis.pelvic sexual dimorphism in primates is typically seen as the result of female-specific adaptations to obstetric constraints, which arise from the tight fit between the neonate head and the maternal pelvis. however, it remains debated to which extent pelvic dimorphism is a correlate of obstetric constraints, of body size dimorphism, and/or of other factors. also, little is known on how pelvic dimorphism develops. here we use methods of biomedical imaging and geometric morphometrics to address th ...201728406562
context-specific close-range "hoo" calls in wild gibbons (hylobates lar).close range calls are produced by many animals during intra-specific interactions, such as during home range defence, playing, begging for food, and directing others. in this study, we investigated the most common close range vocalisation of lar gibbons (hylobates lar), the 'hoo' call. gibbons and siamangs (family hylobatidae) are known for their conspicuous and elaborate songs, while quieter, close range vocalisations have received almost no empirical attention, perhaps due to the difficult obs ...201525888361
sex ratio bias in managed populations of hylobatids.a number of explanations have been proposed for the occurrence of sex ratio bias in primates, including the trivers-willard hypothesis on differential investment, local resource competition or enhancement as a result of sex-biased dispersal, dominance-related advantages conferred on one sex but not the other, and the fragile male hypothesis. however, none of these theories was thought to be applicable to monogamous primate species. here, we examine data on zoo-housed populations of three hylobat ...201122248927
mechanical constraints on the functional morphology of the gibbon hind limb.gibbons utilize a number of locomotor modes in the wild, including bipedalism, leaping and, most of all, brachiation. each locomotor mode puts specific constraints on the morphology of the animal; in some cases these may be complementary, whereas in others they may conflict. despite several studies of the locomotor biomechanics of gibbons, very little is known about the musculoskeletal architecture of the limbs. in this study, we present quantitative anatomical data of the hind limb for four spe ...200919627388
object permanence tests on gibbons (hylobatidae).ten gibbons of various species (symphalangus syndactylus, hylobates lar, nomascus gabriellae, and nomascus leucogenys) were tested on object permanence tasks. three identical wooden boxes, presented in a linear line, were used to hide pieces of food. the authors conducted single visible, single invisible, double invisible, and control displacements, in both random and nonrandom order. during invisible displacements, the experimenter hid the object in her hand before putting it into a box. the pe ...200819014264
life history theory and dental development in four species of catarrhine development was reconstructed in several individuals representing four species of catarrhine primates--symphalangus syndactylus, hylobates lar, semnopithecus entellus priam, and papio hamadryas--using the techniques of dental histology. bar charts assumed to represent species-typical dental development were constructed from these data and estimated ages at first and third molar emergence were plotted on them along with ages at weaning, menarche, and first reproduction from the literature. ...200717706270
effect of diet on dental development in four species of catarrhine this study, dental development is described in two pairs of closely related catarrhine primate species that differ in their degree of folivory: 1) hylobates lar and symphalangus syndactylus, and 2) papio hamadryas hamadryas and semnopithecus entellus. growth increments in histological thin sections are used to reconstruct the chronology of dental development to determine how dental development is accelerated in the more folivorous species of each pair. although anterior tooth formation appear ...200312966517
responses of gibbons (hylobates lar) to their mirror images.nine gibbons (hylobates lar) and one gibbon-siamang crossbreed were observed during exposure to their mirror images over two 30 minute baseline condition periods (mirror off) and four 30 minute treatment condition periods (mirror on). greater frequencies and durations of gazing at the mirror and mirror-contingent behaviors were noted during the reflective conditions than for nonreflective conditions. despite two subjects' apparent use of the mirror to view body parts otherwise not visible to the ...19989651653
inter- and intraspecific variation in the diets of sympatric siamang (hylobates syndactylus) and lar gibbons (hylobates lar).studies of the siamang (hylobates syndactylus continentis) and the lar gibbon (hylobates lar lar) where they co-occur in mainland asia have demonstrated interspecific dietary segregation based on body size and have suggested that observed levels of frugivory represent metabolically based maxima for these species. i studied sympatric groups of siamang (h. s. syndactylus) and lar gibbons (h. l. vestitus) at ketambe in northern sumatra (indonesia) in order to assess the magnitude of within- and bet ...19979375367
[comparative karyotyping of our gibbon species or subspecies (author's transl)].the karyotypes of several hylobatidae hylobates (hylobates) lar pileatus, h. (nomascus) concolor leucogenys, h. (n.) concolor ssp, hybrid h. (n.) concolor leucogenys x h. (n.) concolor gabriellae, h (symphalangus) syndactylus are compared both each others and also to those of other primates. many rearrangements of their chromosomes have occurred during their evolution, and some polymorphism still exists in the living species. this high rate of chromosome rearrangements is in contrast with their ...19826979300
long-term observations of siamang behaviour.long-term observations are presented on the behaviour of the siamang ape, symphalangus syndactylus, in the lowland forest of central malaya. the data were collected during two dry and three fruiting seasons between 1969 and 1973 inclusive on two groups with adjacent ranges; comparisons are made within and between sample periods, and between groups. the influence of weather on daily activities is considered. food intake is analysed in terms of number of food trees, number of visits to these trees ...19751140747
seasonal variation of diet and time budget of eastern hoolock gibbons (hoolock leuconedys) living in a northern montane forest.most gibbons dwell in the tropical forests of southeastern asia, but eastern hoolock gibbons (hoolock leuconedys) survive in high montane forest ranging from 1,600 to 2,700 m a.s.l. in gaoligongshan (>24°30'n), yunnan, china. to assess the behavioral adaptations of hoolock gibbons to the montane forest, we related temperature and food availability within the habitat to the seasonal behavioral patterns of a family group and a solitary female between august 2010 and september 2011 in nankang, gaol ...201323192193
the varied path to adulthood: plasticity in developmental timing in hylobatids.maturation includes physical, reproductive, and social aspects that develop asynchronously. intra- and inter-individual variation in the relative timing of each aspect reflects context-dependent plasticity. plasticity in developmental timing may be important for the family-living small apes (family hylobatidae), where reproductive opportunities are monopolized by territorial breeding pairs. data on development in hylobatids are so far limited due to their elusive arboreal niche and long lifespan ...201626716909
genome size and constitutive heterochromatin in hylobates muelleri and symphalangus syndactylus and in their viable hybrid.genome size was measured as the amount of feulgen-stained dna in six species of the family hylobatidae and in a hybrid of the gibbon (hylobates muelleri) and siamang (symphalangus syndactylus). the family, on the whole, exhibits a wider range of genome sizes than pongids; in particular, the siamang has about 15% more dna than the 44-chromosome hylobates species of the "lar" group. quantitative analysis of c-heterochromatin in hybrid metaphases showed that the difference in genome size of the par ...19883356160
unresolved molecular phylogenies of gibbons and siamangs (family: hylobatidae) based on mitochondrial, y-linked, and x-linked loci indicate a rapid miocene radiation or sudden vicariance event.according to recent taxonomic reclassification, the primate family hylobatidae contains four genera (hoolock, nomascus, symphalangus, and hylobates) and between 14 and 18 species, making it by far the most species-rich group of extant hominoids. known as the "small apes", these small arboreal primates are distributed throughout southeast, south and east asia. considerable uncertainty surrounds the phylogeny of extant hylobatids, particularly the relationships among the genera and the species wit ...201121074627
orangutan alu quiescence reveals possible source element: support for ancient backseat drivers.sequence analysis of the orangutan genome revealed that recent proliferative activity of alu elements has been uncharacteristically quiescent in the pongo (orangutan) lineage, compared with all previously studied primate genomes. with relatively few young polymorphic insertions, the genomic landscape of the orangutan seemed like the ideal place to search for a driver, or source element, of alu retrotransposition.201222541534
muscle moment arms and function of the siamang forelimb during brachiation.moment arms have an important modulating impact on muscle function, as they represent the capacity of the muscle to convert muscle action into limb movements. in the current paper, we provide muscle moment arm data of the forelimb of four siamangs, collected by detailed dissections on unfixed cadavers. the aim of this study is to assess the role of different forelimb muscles during brachiation. moment arm data are compared with similar published data of non-brachiating primates such as macaques, ...201020673298
new perspectives on brachiation mechanics.this review is designed to evaluate and interpret studies relevant to the locomotory mode known as brachiation, particularly as performed by the hylobatid apes: the gibbon and siamang species. the older literature and its conclusions are evaluated against recent work performed by the author and other research groups working on brachiation models, either computer simulations or physical robots. the gibbon displays two types of brachiation: continuous contact, analogous to walking, and ricochetal, ...200415605388
abrupt decline in a protected population of siamangs (symphalangus syndactylus) in southern sumatra.between 2011 and 2016, approximately 50% of siamangs in the way canguk research area disappeared, including members of 7 of 12 habituated groups. demographic data from 1998 to 2015 confirm that the population decline in the habituated groups reflects a larger trend in the local population. there was no evidence of hunting of primates in the area, and ecological data do not suggest substantial changes in food availability or predation pressure during this period. from 2011 to 2014, we monitored t ...201728848177
offspring loss after male change in wild siamangs: the importance of abrupt weaning and male care.infanticide by males is assumed to promote permanent male-female associations, although its importance for social monogamy is still debated. we examined the consequences of male membership change in the largest socially monogamous primate, the siamang (symphalangus syndactylus), a species that also forms polyandrous groups and where males may provide offspring care. we examine (a) the potential risk of infanticide by documenting changes in female-offspring relationships following male change, ex ...201727591559
a simple technique to repair a hand fracture in a captive siamang.a 5-year-old female siamang (hylobates syndactilus) in captivity sustained a displaced closed fracture of the proximal phalanx of the middle digit, resulting in finger deformity and hand functional disability. anatomical reduction and stabilization of the fracture were obtained surgically using two multifilament wire sutures. the primate had a successful functional recovery.201627417283
dominance relationships among siamang males living in multimale groups.intense intolerance among males is considered to be an important mechanism maintaining the uni-male organization traditionally attributed to socially monogamous gibbons. long-term field work, however, has revealed the existence of stable, socially polyandrous groups in at least two populations, raising questions about the mechanism that allows two adult males to co-reside in the same group. i collected 21 months of behavioral data on 7 two-male groups of wild siamangs (symphalangus syndactylus) ...201625598523
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