a new program for investigating adult human skeletal muscle grown aneurally in tissue culture.with our new "explant-reexplanting" technique, abundant growth of mature human muscle in long-term tissue culture was achieved,and with the "sandwich" technique several histochemical reactions were obtained on serial cross sections of the cultured fibers. an advanced degree of maturation but lack of differentiation into reciprocally staining fiber-types was demonstrated. for electron-microscopic and electronmicroscopic-histochemical study, a method was developed in which the embedded fibers of g ...197546113
spontaneous diabetes mellitus in macaca cyclopis and mandrillus leucophaeus: case reports.spontaneous diabetes mellitus was reported in a mandrillus leucophaeus (drill baboon) and a mpacaca cyclopis (formosan rock macaque). each had hyperglycemia, impaired clearance of glucose during tolerance test, and reduced concentrations of immunoreactive insulin; the m cyclopis also had increased triglyceride and prebetalipoprotein concentrations. both monkeys had extensive amyloid infiltration into the islets of langerhans and loss of beta cells. beta cell obliteration can account for the appe ...1975166251
histochemical and structural changes in human myocardial cells after cardiopulmonary bypass.the histochemical and ultrastructural effects of extracorporeal circulation and aortic cross-clamping during coronary heart surgery have been examined in drill biopsy samples of the left ventricle in 22 patients. the biopsies were obtained before and after bypass with a desoutter drill. histochemical studies indicated definite differences between control and experimental biopsies, with increased succinic dehydrogenase, cytochrome oxidase, and ldh activity, while phosphorylase a and myosin atpase ...1975168988
metallic contamination of bone during drilling procedures.the influence of drills and burs of different shapes and materials on the amount of metallic transfer was studied. in these experiments, holes were drilled in bone with radioactive tools and the amount of metal transferred to the bone was measured by means of gamma-ray spectrometry. the proportion of the drill material transferred to the bone varied widely, depending on the type of the drill, its previous usage, and on the specific element considered. most of the drills transfer a few microgram ...1978273665
exogenous mycotic infections of the eye and adnexia.three cases of exogenous mycotic infections of the eye are presented. the first is a case of keratitis in a patient suffering from glaucoma simplex who removed a foreign body from the cornea, caused by fusarium solani, generally known as a saprophytic soil and plant inhabitant. as factors predisposing the patient to infection, trauma to the cornea like injury by a foreign body, as well as the preexisting disease of the eye, are discussed. the other case illustrates the change in the pathogenicit ...1978308789
[histopathological alterations in rhesus monkeys after experimental infections with african lung flukes (paragonimus africanus and p. uterobilateralis) (author's transl)].histopathological observations in monkeys experimentally infected with african lung flukes are reported. the observations were made on 3 rhesus monkeys, infected with paragonimus africanus from west-cameroon, and on 5 rhesus monkeys, infected with p. uterobilateralis from eastern nigeria. for comparison, the lung of a naturally infected drill (mandrillus leucophaeus) was included in the study. the following lesions were found: formation of parasite cavernae, intense infiltration of the cavern wa ...1977407681
preincubation dipping of turkey hatching eggs. i. effect of shell treatment on amount and variability of fluid intake.two techniques for egg-shell treatment were evaluated for their effects on the quantity and variability of the fluid absorbed by turkey hatching eggs subjected to the temperature-differential method of egg dipping. the use of pin or drill to pierce a uniform hole through the shell and membrane(s) on the large end of each egg caused a significant increase in the quantity of dip solution absorbed. variability in fluid uptake by the eggs also was reduced significantly. utilization of dilute acid to ...1977606220
[tension band wiring of canine and feline supracondylar epiphyseal femoral fractures (author's transl)].the present investigation describes the treatment of 27 cases of canine and feline supracondylar epiphyseal--metaphyseal femoral fractures with tension band wire. the wire was passed through transversal parallell drill holes, one in each fragment. the wires intercrossed dorsally. stable fixation followed tightening of the wires. 20 out of 25 primarily successful cases were re-examined. 19 were completely well. one case showed a slight transient lameness following hard exercise.1978643541
polyvinyl chloride pneumoconiosis.a 53-year-old man, who had been exposed for 23 years to polyvinyl chloride (pvc) in the bagging area of a vinyl chloride polymerisation plant, presented with a diffuse micronodular infiltrate on his chest radiograph. light microscopy of lung obtained by drill biopsy showed a diffuse infiltration with histiocytes and multinucleated giant cells, with some collagen formation. ultrastructural studies showed foreign particles in the macrophages, which were identical with pvc powder viewed under the e ...1978644535
preincubation dipping of turkey hatching eggs. ii. effect of shell treatment on hatachability.the effects of various egg-shell treatments on the hatchability of turkey eggs were investigated. hatchability was not effected significantly by drilling a hole in the large end, or removing cuticle with dilute acid from the entire shell surface of from either end. embryo deaths were increased significantly (p less than 0.005), however, by a pinhole pierced in the large end. sealing the drill or pinhole with duco cement did not significantly alter the hatchability. hatchability of treated or unt ...1978678233
percutaneous drill pulmonary biopsy in the dog.percutaneous drill pulmonary biopsy was performed 41 times in 5 dogs with a 51% rate in obtaining gross pulmonary tissue and 4% mortality from endobronchial hemorrhage. this pulmonary biopsy technique was not recommended for use in the dog.1978697165
isolated epiphyseal chondrocyte allografts into joint surfaces. an experimental study in rabbits.isolated epiphyseal chondrocytes from 5 week old female new zealand white rabbits were transplanted as allografts into drill holes in the tibial articular surface of adult male new zealand white rabbits. the grafts were examined after 8 weeks. fresh chondrocytes which were partially separated from their matrix were more successful (47%) than completely separated cells (20%) and were significantly more successful (p greater than 0.05) in skeletally mature (58%) as opposed to immature recipients ( ...1978718278
in vitro collagen biosynthesis in healing and normal rabbit articular examine the repair collagens produced by cells in injured cartilage, the femoral articular surfaces of three groups of new zealand white rabbits were injured by making both superficial and deep lacerations and drill holes. eight weeks after surgery, the rabbits were killed and slices of injured articular cartilage were harvested. the types of collagen being synthesized at the site of these lesions were identified by labeling the recovered specimens in vitro with 3h-proline and by characterizi ...1978721855
hydatid disease in a mandrill baboon.hydatidosis has been described in many species of domestic and wild mammals, including primates. among the latter reported to have been infected are rhesus monkeys, orangutans, and savannah and drill baboons. this is a case report of hydatid disease due to echinococcus granulosus in a mandrill baboon (mandrillus sphinx).1975809388
miliary tuberculosis following homograft valve replacement.postoperative septicaemia with infective endocarditis is a recognized complication of open-heart surgery, in particular homograft or prosthetic replacement of cardiac valves. several infective organisms, both bacterial and fungal, have been incriminated but infection due to tubercle bacilli has not, to our knowledge, been reported. the clinicopathological features of this condition are discussed. during a five-year period, over 800 homograft replacements in the aortic and/or mitral positions hav ...1976816028
[improved procedure for hypophysectomy of the mouse (author's transl)].a practical procedure for hypophysectomy of the mouse by paraphyaryngeal approach has been developed by modifying the technics of motizuki [5] and lostroh and jordan [4]. postoperative care in c3h/he strain of female mice was also studied. the main points improved are as follows: (a) the dental drill bar made of a needle with 2mm outer diameter was devised for making a hole in the cranium (fig. 2). the bar does not grind the cranium, but cuts it in the circle, resulting in speeding up of the ope ...1976944136
[dynamics of calcium metabolism in lactating cows when the calcium content of the rations is reduced (author's transl)].from twenty-eight balance trials and supplementary findings on the state of health, milk production, body weight and composition of the bone, blood, saliva, milk, urine and faeces it is concluded that four cows of the dutch-friesian breed can conveniently live and produce for seven and, including the preliminary period, for sixteen months on a ration consisting of straw, potatoes and concentrates having an average calcium content (including calcium in drinking water) of 0.22 per cent (varying fr ...1976951697
scanning electron microscopic study of the organ of corti in normal and sound-damaged guinea pigs.a method was evolved by which the organ of corti could be examined in its entirety with the scanning electron microscope, the organ meanwhile retaining its spiral form. this made it possible to assess traumatic effects on the cochlea and qualify lesions in terms of extent, localization and pattern. it was also found possible eventually to cut the same specimen into sections for cellular and subcellular studies. the number of guinea pigs examined totalled 91, divided into three groups. the first ...1976962272
a multiple head tissue sampler drill for regional myocardial studies. 1976994194
[age dependent possibilities for healing in cartilage injuries (experimental investigations with animals) (author's transl)].regenerative and degenerative changes of cartilage were studied in animals by micromorphological methods and autoradiography. cartilage lesions of defined size were set in the femoral condyle of rabbits of variing age by means of an electrical drill developed by us. we used juvenile animals, 3 months old, and senile animals 4 years old. the lesions were studied by lightmicroscopy, electronmicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. in young animals we were able to demonstrate prevailing reparat ...1976997729
drill-generated noise levels in ear surgery.the noise levels in the cochlea when a drill is used in the mastoid process have been calculated from vibration measurements on intact skulls of human cadavers and temporal bones. the results lend support to the conclusion that, in ear surgery the ipsilateral cochlea is exposed to noise levels of about 100 db and the contralateral cochlea to levels 5-10 db lower every time the drill is used. this noise trauma may account for some of the high-tone sensorineural hearing losses after tympanoplasty ...1976998209
repair of experimental autologous grafts of cortical bone.fresh autologous segmental grafts of fibula, four centimeters long, were obtained from thirteen adult dogs. holes were drilled in each before replantation. the amount of repair was determined after intervals of from four to twenty-four weeks. torsional stress testing showed that the six drill holes 500 micrometers in diameter confined within an expanse of two centimeters did not mechanically weaken the transplants at the time of surgery. the drill holes were rapidly filled with cancellous bone w ...19751099104
a primate, mandrillus leucophaeus, as natural host of the african lung flukeparagonimus africanus in west-cameroon.paragonimus africanus was recovered from a free-living drill (mandrillus leucophaeus) in cameroon. this is the first record on the natural infection of a non-human primate with lung flukes in africa.19751162736
antiarrhythmic effects of the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor perindoprilat in a pig model of acute regional myocardial ischemia.previous studies on the possible antiarrhythmic effects of angiotensin converting enzyme (ace) inhibitors during early ischemia in pigs have been inconclusive or negative; however, proof of adequate ace inhibition was not provided. perindoprilat, 0.06 mg/kg, i.v., was administered 30 min prior to ligation of the anterior descending coronary artery (cal) in anesthetised open-chest pigs. plasma ace activity was decreased by 95.0 +/- 1.9% when measured 5 min before cal. within 5 min of cal, the ven ...19921381773
biomechanical comparisons of unidirectional and bidirectional kirschner-wire insertion.peak axial loads on entry and peak pull-out loads were measured for kirschner-wires (k-wire) inserted into canine metacarpals. the wires were placed using a standard, unidirectional drill and using an oscillating, bidirectional drill that reversed spin direction every 120 degrees. seven trocar-tip wires were compared with seven diamond-tip wires using each drilling method. the trocar-tip wires demonstrated equal peak axial loads on entry when drilled at comparable speeds unidirectionally and bid ...19921395308
heat distribution in bone during preparation of implant sites: heat analysis by real-time thermography.the purpose of this experiment was to observe and measure the distribution of heat to bones and the maximum temperature that developed when cutting bone with drills. generation of heat that spread in the presence or absence of irrigation when drilling with imz, brånemark, and iti implant (f type) drills was observed in the pig rib via thermography. without irrigation, the condition of heat spread in each drill and bur differed according to bur shape and drilling site. maximum heat temperature wi ...19921398838
intraoperative evoked emg monitoring in an animal model. a new technique for evaluating pedicle screw electric drill was used to introduce holes in the l4 through l7 pedicles in pigs. constant-voltage stimulating pulses (5.5 v, stimulus rate = 3/sec) were delivered through a ball-tipped probe used to palpate the walls of each pedicle, and observation was made of electromyogram (emg) evoked from hind limb muscles. screws were placed in each pedicle hole, and evaluated for absolute voltage necessary to evoke emg (threshold). at the conclusion of each experiment, screw positions were ascertained ...19921440014
drill bit failure without implant involvement--an intraoperative complication in orthopaedic surgery.the aetiology, frequency and consequences of drill bit failure during surgical intervention in human and animal bone tissue are investigated and discussed to provide the surgeon confronted with this problem with a scientifically based procedure. the literature on this subject is rather inadequate, i.e. only one publication in the last decade could be found dealing with this topic and this was a veterinary case. the laboratory for experimental surgery in davos has received several enquiries from ...19921446952
bone repair in the otic capsule of the rabbit.the repair of 1 mm drill hole lesions in rabbit long bones and otic capsules was studied in undecalcified sections. following surgery, bone formation was monitored during 12 weeks by intravital sequential time labeling with bone-seeking fluorochromes. in diaphyseal bone, initial repair by trabecular woven bone was accompanied by a transient remodeling response in primary repair bone and the surrounding compacta. in comparison, capsular defects showed a slightly deficient initial repair by woven ...19921481667
moderate heat treatment of bone allografts. experimental results of osteointegration.the use of bone allografts is often essential in orthopedic surgery. strict donor screening, including hiv testing 3 months postoperatively, is mandatory before a transplant may be used. yet these measures do not definitely rule out the possibility of hiv transmission, as there is a window period before infection is revealed by blood testing. accordingly, there is a need for virus inactivation methods that can be used on bone allografts. as radiation treatment and chemical methods have a number ...19921482613
[the effect of various sterilization procedures on the osteoinductive properties of demineralized bone matrix].to minimize potential infection following the transplantation of allogeneic bone, extremely rigorous selection of donors and careful processing and storage of samples are required. other major problems related to allogeneic transplants, such as reduced osteogenic properties and immunological reactions, led to the development of demineralized bone matrix (dbm). this osteoinductive bone extract is largely free of antigens and is easy to produce. however, to eliminate the potential risk of infectio ...19921502568
blood-containing aerosols generated by surgical techniques: a possible infectious hazard.the aerosols generated in an operating room during surgery were simulated in the laboratory by using a variety of common surgical power tools. a stryker bone saw, a hall drill, and a shea drill were used on bone, and a bovie electrocautery was used in both the cutting and coagulation modes on tendon, all in the presence of a thin film of blood. a 10-stage, low-pressure cascade impactor was used to determine the particle size distribution of each aerosol, and hemastix was used to assess the hemog ...19921529914
biodegradation of polydioxanone in bone tissue: effect on the epiphyseal plate in immature rabbits.implants of polydioxanone (pds), 1.3 mm in diameter, were operatively fixed in the juxta-epiphyseal area of the right proximal tibial metaphysis in six rabbits and were driven into a drill hole of equal bore through the right proximal tibial epiphyseal plate in ten rabbits. the pds implants had biodegraded almost completely in cortical bone at 16 weeks without any significant sign of inflammation or foreign body reaction. the pds implants did not cause any growth disturbance. histologic studies, ...19921552020
[proximal tubal recanalization by endoluminal laser probe. i. anatomic results in the female rat].to evaluate the cicatrization of the uterine horn after the recanalization by endoluminal laser probe, 50 white female rats of wistar's race have been separated into two groups. the group 1 (nb = 10) had for aim to validated the procedure of obstruction. in group 2 (nb = 40), we performed the recanalization six weeks after the obstruction. histologic samples were obtained 48 hours, 3 weeks and 6 weeks after treatment. in group 1, we found a complete obstruction in 70% of the cases, and a tight s ...19921583290
bone hole diameter as a function of drill guide length and drilling method in rigid internal fixation.this study examines drill guide length and drilling method to see which technique produces the most accurate hole diameter. two hundred twenty-five holes were produced in fresh porcine mandibles and then measured with a micrometer. a long guide, a short guide, and no guide were used with a drill press, a pneumatic drill, and a manual drill. using a 2-mm drill bit, the overall average diameter was 2.03 mm and the overall range was 1.85 mm to 2.60 mm. statistical analysis of the data indicates the ...19921593324
retrograde axonal transport of mercury in primary sensory neurons innervating the tooth pulp in the rat.the pulp cavity of the first upper molar was exposed unilaterally in adult rats with a dental drill and about 1 microliter of mercuric chloride was injected into the coronal pulp. the rats were killed after 1-24 days and frozen sections from the trigeminal ganglia were subjected to silver acetate autometallography for demonstration of mercury. mercury was found to have accumulated in neurons of the ipsilateral trigeminal ganglion by retrograde axonal transport. the possible implications of this ...19901699174
ankylosing spondylitis in nonhuman primates: the drill and the siamang.nonhuman primates are known to be susceptible to many of the arthritides that afflict humans. psoriatic like spondyloarthropathies have been reported in gorillas and skeletal hyperostosis in gibbons, rhesus monkeys, and gorillas, and additional cases of both of these conditions occurring in drills (baboons) are noted in this report. one western lowland gorilla and two rhesus monkeys with clinical features consistent with ankylosing spondylitis have been documented previously. two additional nonh ...19911788553
bone biopsy in the horse. 1. method using the wing of ilium.two hundred and five bone biopsies from the wing of ilium were taken from 52 growing and 70 older horses. the method was initially evaluated in 4 horses at post mortem and then performed in 26 horses under general anaesthesia. the technique was later developed for biopsying horses in the standing position under local anaesthesia (n = 70 adults; n = 22 foals). the core of the bone biopsy consisted of a central cancellous portion between two cortices. this type of sample allowed a complete histomo ...19911796680
bone morphogenesis of rabbit bone morphogenetic protein-bound hydroxyapatite-fibrin composite.hydroxyapatite (hap) and fibrin have been implanted in patients and observed to be well tolerated in orthotopic sites. this is a report on a composite of hap, fibrin, and rabbit bone morphogenetic protein and insoluble noncollagenous protein (bmp-incp). drill holes in the femoral condyles of rabbits were packed with granulated hap (200 mg), fibrin (0.3 ml), bmp-incp (5 mg), or various combinations of the two. the fibrin consisted mainly of sterilized human fibrinogen and thrombin, and bmp-incp w ...19911847098
magnetic resonance artifact in the postoperative cervical spine. a potential magnetic resonance imaging artifact that stimulates hypertrophic bone formation is described in patients who have had an anterior cervical discectomy. the magnetic resonance images of 26 patients with anterior cervical discectomy were retrospectively reviewed. comparison was made to the available concurrent computed tomographic scans, computed tomographic myelograms, and operative reports. a bovine spine was drilled with a drill only at one level and with a metal suction tip in close proximit ...19911925744
longitudinal crack propagation in bone around femoral prosthesis.intraoperative femoral fracture is a well-recognized technical complication of cementless total hip arthroplasty. this study was designed to establish an in vitro model for initiation and propagation of fractures of the proximal femur in cementless tha and to assess the effect of fracture fixation in the form of cerclage wiring and drilling a hole in the distal extent of the fracture line. fourteen human anatomic femur specimens were studied. longitudinal cracks were made and propagation was per ...19911934730
the history of the neurosurgical engine.the opening of the skull of a living human being dates back to early civilization. the procedure may have been performed as early as the neolithic period. surgeons have continued to search for a better, easier, quicker, and safer method to open the skull. today, most neurosurgeons are well acquainted with the surgical drill; however, few are familiar with the development of this instrument from its beginnings in dentistry to its use in modern neurosurgery. as cerebral localization advanced in th ...19911994266
bone weakness after the removal of plates and screws. cortical atrophy or screw holes?bone weakness leading to refracture is a recognised complication of the removal of rigid fixation plates. we have used partially demineralised rabbit tibiae to simulate atrophic changes and to determine whether weakness is due to atrophy or to residual screw holes. partial demineralisation and a screw hole each reduced maximum bending moment. however, energy absorbing capacity was little affected by demineralisation, but was reduced to 50% by a single drill hole. residual screw holes are a consi ...19912005156
a comparison of rust-ring removal methods in a rabbit model: small-gauge hypodermic needle versus electric drill.corneal rust rings are common findings after removal of a metallic foreign body. these rings should be removed to prevent inflammation and scarring. we compared the corneal damage in rabbit eyes caused by rust-ring removal using two different methods: a small-gauge hypodermic needle and a hand-held electric ophthalmic drill. no significant difference was found in the amount of corneal scarring as graded by a masked observer. however, there was a trend toward deeper stromal damage in the drill-tr ...19912012370
[an experimental verification of the thermal changes in the bone tissue during drilling for cavity preparation for an endosseous implant].the local temperature increase of the bone following drilling procedures has been evaluated. without any cooling device, and using a standard-speed drill, in few seconds the temperature reaches the necrosis-limit for living tissues (55 celsius degrees). we compared the effectiveness of the most common cooling methods involving a forced flow of saline reaching the bone through an axial canal in the drill or just applied to the external surfaces of drill and bone with that of a device allowing a 1 ...19912041537
stabilization of bilateral sacroiliac fracture-luxations in small animals with a single transsacral screw.bilateral sacroiliac fracture-luxations in four dogs and four cats weighing 3.5 kg to 30.9 kg were reduced and stabilized with a single 3.5 mm, 4.5 mm, or 6.5 mm transsacral screw. alignment of the drill bit was visual in six cases and assisted by the use of an aiming device in two cases. seven animals were reevaluated at months 3 to 6. no significant screw loosening or loss of reduction had occurred. although no intraoperative complications were encountered with visual drill bit alignment, use ...19912042287
a method for rapid implantation of multielectrode systems.the implantation of several chronic electrodes at the same time was needed for the studies in which both evoked slow potential and multiple unit neural activity of different brain sites were recorded during classical conditioning in freely moving cats. the recording electrodes were made of 25-75 microns insulated stainless steel or nichrome wires which were inserted into a thin hypodermic needle of a fixed, calibrated length. the fast implantation system described here is based on the use of a s ...19912062914
[acid-base equilibrium values in the blood of dogs during training and work stress].separate components of acid-base balance in blood (abr)-ph, pco2, be, sb, bb-were studied during the long-term drill of service dogs of two age categories. these service dogs were included in two different work strain groups (patrol dogs and searching dogs). the results of long-term drill demonstrated, in particular, significant changes in dynamics of ph and pco2. the ph values were permanently raised as compared with reduced pco2 values during the whole period of 130-days exercise and as compar ...19902102583
[heat distribution within the bone tissue by rotary cutting instrument for imz implant. heat analysis by a real-time thermography].a highly skilled surgical technic is an important factor for the success of implant. but the heat generation during bone preparation will greatly affect the healing process of bone and prognosis of implant. in this study, the heat occurrence and distribution during bone preparation which performed on an in vitro mandible model (ribs of pig) were considered with the aid of a real-time thermography. imz implant drills and bur, designed for cylindrical type implant were used for the bone preparatio ...19902134919
quantitative comparison of the histological effects of particulate polymethylmethacrylate versus polyethylene in the rabbit tibia.fourteen mature female new zealand white rabbits underwent implantation of simplex polymethylmethacrylate (pmma) powder or particulate (average 67 microns) ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (uhmwpe) through a drill hole in the proximal right tibia. the left tibia functioned as a prepared but nonimplanted control. animals were killed after 16 weeks. histological examination of the bone-implant interface in the particulate pmma group disclosed a florid foreign-body reaction with the presence ...19912059533
a comparison of manual and power-assisted thoracolumbar disc fenestration in dogs.thoracolumbar disc fenestration was performed in eight canine cadavers. a hole was cut in the anulus fibrosus with a scalpel in four dogs, and with a high speed drill and burr in four dogs. a curette was used to remove as much of the nucleus pulposus as possible. sixty-five percent of the nucleus pulposus was removed with the power-assisted technique and 41% was removed by manual fenestration. manual and power-assisted disc fenestration were performed on alternate intervertebral discs from t11-1 ...19902145687
compartment syndrome after closed intramedullary nailing of the tibia: a canine model and report of two cases.two patients developed an anterior tibial compartment syndrome after closed reamed intramedullary nailing of their fractured tibial shaft. subsequently, a study was undertaken using a canine model to evaluate the risk of compartment syndrome after this operative procedure. a closed tibial fracture was created in 20 mongrel canines by applying a torsional load localized to the tibial shaft through a stress riser made with an intramedullary drill. compartment pressures were measured in the canine ...19912023047
hole preparation techniques for transpedicle screws. effect on pull-out strength from human cadaveric each of eight thoracolumbar human cadaveric vertebrae, a hole was made through one pedicle into the vertebral body with a drill bit and through the contralateral pedicle with a probe. identical metal screws were implanted into the holes to equal depths, and maximum pull-out force was determined for each screw. using a paired student t test, no significant difference (p = 0.87) was found in pull-out strength between the screws implanted into drilled holes and those implanted into probed holes. ...19912011773
laser doppler flowmetry and bone blood flow in an isolated perfused preparation.a preparation of an isolated bovine forefoot was established which could be perfused with blood at variable rates. a laser doppler flowmeter probe inserted into the cancellous bone of the metatarsal produced a signal which varied with changes in perfusion rate and oscillated in synchrony with the peristaltic perfusion pump. a stronger laser doppler signal was obtained when the probe was inserted into a drill hole than when inserted into a hole bored with a guide wire. it appears that laser doppl ...19902231667
[life style of schoolchildren in frederiksberg].in 1989, a total of 674 pupils in the sixth and eighth grades in nine municipal schools in the municipality of frederiksberg replied to a questionnaire containing questions about health knowledge and behaviour. the behaviour of the pupils as regards tobacco, alcohol, diet, exercise, sleep, traffic, employment of medicine and general health were compared. in the sixth grade, 16% of the pupils and 48% of the pupils in the eighth grade had somewhat unsuitable behaviour as regards more than three of ...19911949285
effect of diethylcarbamazine on adult loa in monkeys.the effect of diethylcarbamazine citrate (dec) treatment (43-150 mg kg-1 daily for 12-21 days) on adult loa worms in five drills (mandrillus leucophaeus) is described. in individual monkeys, between one-third and all of the adult worms survived the treatment, and most of the surviving females were still producing live microfilariae. these experiments provide direct evidence which may explain the common clinical experience that single courses of dec do not always succeed in eliminating the signs ...19902260903
human nail dust: hazard to chiropodists or merely nuisance?this survey was carried out in response to anxiety among chiropodists as earlier reports had raised the possibility of respiratory damage as a result of sensitization to trichophytons. questionnaires were sent to 327 chiropodists and 168 replies were received. the aim was to investigate respiratory symptoms and their relationship to work and drill usage. all of those completing questionnaires were invited to attend the occupational health department for prick tests and lung function tests. just ...19911921341
suppression of prostaglandin e2 synthesis in the membrane surrounding particulate polymethylmethacrylate in the rabbit tibia.fifteen mature, new zealand, female rabbits were divided into two groups. using sterile technique, a 6-mm drill hole was made in the tibia 1 cm distal to the knee joint bilaterally. the marrow was scooped out underneath the hole. the right tibia received simplex particulate cement polymer and the left leg functioned as a prepared, but nonimplanted, control. all animals were fed a standard diet. whereas the six animals in group 1 received regular water, the nine animals in group 2 drank water in ...19911914312
myocardial protective effects of lidoflazine during ischemia and reperfusion.the myocardial protective effect of intravenous (i.v.) lidoflazine with potassium cardioplegia and hypothermia (28 degrees c) was investigated in 21 greyhounds. animals were injected a single dose of cardioplegia (30 ml/kg body weight) and subjected to 120 minutes of ischaemia and 60 minutes of reperfusion. ten dogs served as controls (group c) and 11 dogs received i.v. lidoflazine (1.25 mg/kg b.w.) (group l). myocardial drill biopsies for the adenosine triphosphate (atp) and the creatine phosph ...19902309223
modulation of the membrane surrounding particulate cement and polyethylene in the rabbit tibia.twenty-nine mature new zealand white, female rabbits were divided into four groups. using sterile technique, a 6 mm drill hole was made in the tibia 1 cm distal to the knee joint. the marrow was scooped out underneath the hole. the right tibia received simplex particulate cement polymer (pmma) (groups 1 and 2) or polyethylene particles (uhmwp) (groups 3 and 4). the left leg functioned as a prepared but non-implanted control. all animals were fed a standard diet; those in groups 1 and 3 received ...19911878453
effects of clustered drill holes on the breaking strength of the equine third metacarpal bone.the breaking strength (stress at failure) of equine third metacarpal bones, with and without clustered drill holes, was determined in vitro. paired ossa metacarpalia ii-iv of 39 horses (n = 39) between 2 and 7 years old were tested in palmarodorsal 3-point bending. four treatments were compared. clustered 2.7- or 3.5-mm drill holes, in a 4- or 7-hole pattern, were made in the dorsal cortex of the distal diaphysis of the left third metacarpal bone. undrilled right third metacarpi were used as con ...19902386322
external fixator pin insertion techniques: biomechanical analysis and clinical relevance.a series of identically matched pairs of fresh-frozen canine femora (approximating human radii in size and dimension) were used to mechanically compare pull-out strength between 4 mm predrilled, self-tapping, half-pins and 4 mm self-drilling, self-tapping half-pins with drill bit-like cutting flutes. a second biomechanical and videotape analysis was done comparing the differences of pin insertion by power versus hand drilling. results indicated a mean 22% reduction in bone purchase of self-drill ...19911861045
experimental studies on the influence of fibrin adhesive, factor xiii, and calcitonin on the incorporation and remodeling of autologous bone an experimental study on sheep the effects of fibrin adhesive system (fas), plasma factor xiii (fxiii), and calcitonin on autologous cancellous bone grafts were studied. drill holes in the tibia were filled with transplant bone, either untreated or locally treated with fibrin adhesive, with or without plasma factor xiii. we used 24 sheep, divided into three groups. plasma factor xiii and calcitonin were administered parenterally; the third group received no treatment. for evaluation we carrie ...19862436594
loss of strength in drilled bone in orthopaedic is common practice in orthopaedic surgery to drill holes in bones for the placement of screws. such holes make the bone weaker compared to an intact one. the loss of strength after drilling holes in the compact bone is studied here.19911843123
the effects of drilling on revascularization and new bone formation in canine femoral heads with avascular necrosis: an initial this study, the effects of drilling on revascularization and new bone formation were evaluated in nine dogs with surgically induced avascular necrosis (avn) of the femoral head. six animals had holes drilled from the greater trochanter into the femoral head at the time of vascular interruption. vital fluorescent bone stains were injected immediately postoperatively (calcein green). 6 weeks postoperatively (xylenol orange), and 12 weeks postoperatively (oxytetracycline). in the operative femor ...19892481023
[morphological studies for the objective determination of a linear direct drill channel for standardized reconstruction or replacement of the anterior cruciate ligament].in 30 definitive positioned, human, cadaver knee joints a single linear drill pass, in direction of the anterior cruciate ligament, suitable for reconstruction or replacement, was installed by the help of a drill guide through femur and tibia. morphometric data of knee joints and drill passes underwent correlation- and regression analysis which showed, that the superficial drill holes in femur and tibia could be described by four functions to fix the course of a single linear drill pass individu ...19911805665
experimental ligament reconstruction by allogeneic tendon graft in a canine model.the revascularization and remodelling of fresh-frozen allografts used to replace the anterior cruciate (acl) and medial collateral ligaments (mcl) of the knee were studied by microangiographic, histological and biomechanical methods. the allografts were produced from the patellar tendons of dogs. no bone was attached on either end. the tissue was frozen and thawed immediately before grafting. the grafts were shaped to either 4 to 4.5 mm (for acl or mcl) or 8 to 9 mm wide (for acl), and fixed int ...19911792884
transient changes in cyclic amp and in the enzymic activity of protein kinase and phosphorylase during the cardiac cycle in the canine myocardium and the effect of propranolol.oscillation of cyclic amp and in the activity ratio of cyclic amp-dependent protein kinase and of glycogen phosphorylase with the cardiac cycle were demonstrated in the canine heart in situ. for tissue sampling an ecg (r-wave)-triggered, automatically working push-freeze-drill apparatus was developed which allows intraventricular cryobiopsies from the left ventricular muscle of anaesthetized open-chest dogs. the nucleotide cyclic amp oscillated with the cardiac cycle during normal working condit ...19892554124
[experimental study on hydroxyapatite soaked in sodium fluoride--with special reference to bone formation].an experimental comparative study on bone formation regarding surface implantation was performed on thirty three adult mongrel dogs; using either a hydroxyapatite soaked in sodium fluoride (f-hap) or a hydroxyapatite (hap). f-hap was made as follows: the hap was soaked in 100ml of sodium fluoride solution of 5ppm., 10ppm. and 100ppm. concentration for an hour under vacuum deaeration+. under general anesthesia, specimens were implanted into the bone immediately inferior to tibial tubercle by open ...19911787344
local demineralization as a model for bone strength reductions in lytic transcortical metastatic lesions.the structural consequences of bone density changes associated with lytic metastatic lesions were investigated using an experimental model of regular, lytic metastatic lesions in bone. circular holes were drilled in the mid-diaphyseal cortex of paired adult canine femora. the region around the defect was demineralized in one bone of each pair with 0.8 n hcl. specimens were tested to failure in four-point bending. defect size was determined from conventional planar radiographs as the maximum appa ...19911743916
evaluation of the max titanium alloy retentive pins.this study evaluated the max 017 retentive pin (.019 in./.48 mm) and its twist drill (.017 in./.43 mm) along with the max 021 pin (.024 in., .61 mm) and its twist drill (.021 in./.53 mm), in relation to shoulder stop position, space between the end of the pin and the end of the channel and the development of cracks in dentin adjacent to pin channels. a total of 20 non-carious human molar teeth were used, 10 for each size pin. four pins were placed in each tooth for a total of 40 of each size pin ...19892638854
low cost device for removing human and small primate temporal bone plugs.previously, only the expensive oscillating saw and schuknecht temporal trephine were available for removing human temporal bone plugs and no trephines were made for smaller research primates. an inexpensive hole saw has been modified for removing such plugs with an electric drill. this device is less expensive, easier to use, causes less potential impact damage to the plug, and the size of the hole saw can be varied for the size of the skull.19892644182
bone graft incorporation around titanium-alloy- and hydroxyapatite-coated implants in evaluate cancellous allogenic bone graft incorporation into porous-coated implants, the fixation of titanium alloy-(ti) and hydroxyapatite-(ha) coated implants with and without bone graft was compared. an unloaded model with unilateral carragheenin-induced osteopenia of the knee was used in 12 mature dogs. ti- and ha-coated cylinders were implanted in the distal femoral condyles and centralized in 2-mm overreamed drill holes. allogenic, fresh-frozen (-80 degrees) cancellous bone graft was pac ...19921729014
walking through a human ear.a computer animation system was developed to show the inside of a human ear as if the viewer were walking through it. a surface model of the human temporal bone was graphically reconstructed from serially sectioned celloidin specimens. in order to input the outline curves of ear structures, several reference marks were drilled into a celloidin block prior to sectioning. a sliding microtome was put on a worktable with a specially designed motor-driven drill. the machine made it possible to drill ...19892756826
[percutaneous partial diskectomy in the dog--an alternative to surgical disk fenestration].a new, technically simple operation method for the fenestration of disks is described which was performed successfully on six experimental dogs on the thoracolumbar disks and did not stress them very much. a percutaneous partial diskectomy (ppd) of the anulus fibrosus and the nucleus pulposus with a bone drill (diameter 5 mm) is performed. the extracted cylinder bone allows a histological judgement of the disci intervertebrales. this method was applied to 10 animal patients with discopathia, and ...19892763293
recurrent radial head subluxation treated with annular ligament reconstruction. a case report and follow-up study.radial head subluxation secondary to traumatic rupture of the annular ligament has been well described in the literature. annular ligament reconstruction utilizing fascia lata graft has been proposed and described, but no follow-up reports have been published. a 21-year-old man was treated by annular ligament reconstruction for recurrent radial head subluxation with a good result and no recurrent subluxation at more than four years postoperatively. the operative technique is as follows: a fascia ...19892766601
subclinical lumbar polyradiculopathy in aged domestic, laboratory, and exotic mammalian species--a light and selected electron microscopic study.lumbar polyradiculopathy, characterized by ballooning myelin sheaths and axonal distortion, was documented in multiple, aged, domestic, laboratory, and exotic mammalian species. animals studied that exhibited this nerve rootlet change included the goat, sheep, pig, white-tailed deer, gerbil, vole, ferret, beaver, hedgehog, chinchilla, north chinese leopard, lion, cheetah, mountain lion, llama, east african eland, uganda giraffe, polar bear, and drill. ultrastructurally, lumbar nerve rootlets fro ...19892766747
waterborne outbreak of campylobacter enteritis after outdoors infantry drill in utti, finland.diarrhoea, abdominal pain, malaise and fever affected 75 of the 88 conscript soldiers in utti, finland after an outdoors infantry drill. campylobacter jejuni, heat-stable serotype 3/43/59, was isolated from 37 out of 63 men investigated. a clear serological response was evident in the risk group and negligible in the control group. the entire population at risk was interviewed. the outbreak was associated with the consumption of untreated surface water. c. jejuni, heat-stable serotype 3/43/59, w ...19892776848
in vitro and in vivo evaluation of antibiotic diffusion from antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads.the elution of antibiotics from antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate (pmma) beads was measured in mongrel dogs. the antibiotics, used in mixture with simplex cement, included cefazolin (ancef; 4.5 g/40 g cement powder), ciprofloxacin (cipro; 6 g/40 g powder), clindamycin (cleocin; 6 g/40 g powder), ticarcillin (ticar; 12 g/40 g powder), tobramycin (nebcin; 9.8 g/40 g powder), and vancomycin (vancocin; 4 g/40 g powder). after a pneumatic drill was used to dredge a trough in the tibia, fi ...19921563160
the effects of fat interposition for central-physeal defects. a histologic study in rabbits.the effects of autogeneic fat interposition in a central cylindrical physeal defect were observed in rabbits. a 3.6-mm longitudinal drill hole was made across the physis of the distal femur, bilaterally, in four- to six-week-old new zealand rabbits. one side was filled with an autogeneic fat graft and the contralateral defect was left as a control. the rabbits were killed at intervals during the remaining growth period, and the defects were examined histologically. although fat grafts reduced th ...19921516323
thermal response to multiple use of a twist drill.the objective of the present investigation was to determine whether injurious thermal changes occur in the pulp chamber if a twist drill is used 10 times, and to find whether there is a correlation between temperature rise and distance between a drilled channel and the pulp chamber. twenty caries-free, human, premolar teeth were randomly distributed to two dentists. with a new 2 mm twist drill, each dentist prepared 10 pinholes (one hole per tooth). intrapulpal temperature change during the dril ...19921507124
[microangiographic research on revascularization in the fracture model of the canine tibia].micro-angiograms were performed between eight weeks and one year following osteotomies and pressure osteosyntheses in 34 dog tibiae. seventeen animals also underwent lumbar sympathectomy. in more than half of the cases, vascularisation of the medulla was reduced by damage to the nutrient artery. segmental connections could be demonstrated by means of transcortical anastomoses. following sympathectomy, revascularisation was more marked as a result of numerous trans-osseus anastomoses. this, howev ...19873031762
an arthroscopic biopsy procedure for obtaining osteochondral samples from the equine midcarpal in vivo biopsy technique was developed to harvest cylindrical osteochondral core samples (2 mm diameter x 2 mm depth) from the articular surfaces of radial carpal bones in adult horses for use in osteoarthritis drug kinetic studies. a 25 degree arthroscope was introduced into the midcarpal joint through the dorsolateral surface, and a custom-built motorized core drill was introduced through the dorsomedial surface to create the osteochondral core samples. a total of 24 core samples were seque ...19921472487
the biomechanical efficacy of an oscillating k-wire driver.a new oscillating drill, designed for insertional ease and safety, was biomechanically tested using an mts 812 servohydraulic material testing machine (instrom). holding strength and drilling force were compared against a traditional rotary drill using rabbit tibias to approximate the diameter and cortical thickness of human metacarpals. three differently sized (0.028-, 0.045-, and 0.062-in. diameter) k-wires were evaluated for each drill. mean peak axial load (drilling force) was significantly ...19921466521
holding power of cortical screws after power tapping and hand tapping.paired equine third metacarpal bones were drilled and tapped for 4.5 mm and 5.5 mm cortical screws. tapping was done by hand or with an air-driven reversible orthopedic drill. screws were inserted and subjected to extraction forces to failure of the osseous threads or the screws. there was no difference in holding power of either screw size between hand-tapped and power-tapped holes.19921413469
the effect of carbon dioxide laser irradiation on cranial bone healing. an experimental experimental study on the effects of carbon dioxide laser irradiation osteotomy of the calvarium of 4-week old rabbits was compared with tht of an osteotomy performed with a high speed drill. histological studies of calvarium cross sections were performed at 2, 4 and 6 weeks following the osteotomies. as early as 2 weeks following high speed drill osteotomy connective tissue bridged the bone edges. by 4 weeks this bridge was thickened and endowed with numerous vessels. at 6 weeks numerous ost ...19863098420
co2 laser management of laryngeal stenosis.the introduction of the carbon dioxide laser as an endoscopic surgical instrument has stimulated interest in its application for removal of stenotic lesions of the larynx. clinical reports have indicated mixed results in the efficacy of this treatment modality. nineteen large dogs received acute subglottic injuries from a high-speed electric drill and electrocautery. all animals developed obstructing lesions from 7 to 21 days after injury. with at least weekly removal of granulation tissue and d ...19863106914
biomechanical effects of a new point configuration and a modified cross-sectional configuration in kirschner-wire fixation.kirschner-type wires (k-wires) comprising three different point configurations and two cross-sectional shaft configurations were drilled into bone to determine the insertional force required and the holding power achieved with each type. round k-wires with either a diamond point or a high rake-angle trocar point were compared with each other and with c-wires, which have a rounded square cross section and a short diamond point. the k-wires performed superiorly to c-wires with respect to bone pene ...19921395263
incorporation of fresh and cryopreserved bone in osteochondral autografts in the horse.the structural integrity of subchondral bone in fresh and frozen osteochondral autografts was investigated at month 3 in 10 horses. two osteochondral autografts were harvested from the lateral aspect of the lateral trochlear ridge of the left talus in each of 10 anesthetized horses. grafts were frozen in 7.5% dmso. after 14 days, the thawed grafts were press-fitted into drill holes in the trochlear ridges of the right stifles. a fresh graft from the right hock was implanted in each left stifle. ...19911369529
algae-derived (phycogene) hydroxylapatite. a comparative histological study [corrected and issued with original paging in int j oral maxillofac surg 1988 oct;17(5)].3 granular hydroxylapatite (ha) biomaterials, solid, coralline and phycogene ha (obtained from calcifying algae), differing widely in their relative amounts of specific surfaces and their origin, were examined with regard to their effects on bone healing in rats. trephine drill holes were produced in the rat femur and filled with the ha granules. each biomaterial produced a characteristic pattern of bone healing. bioceramics with a small surface area showed random bone-implant contacts. biomater ...19883145947
heterotopic transfer of fresh and cryopreserved autogenous articular cartilage in the horse.two 10 mm thick osteochondral grafts were harvested from the lateral aspect of the lateral trochlear ridge of the left talus in each of 10 anesthetized horses. the grafts were frozen in a 7.5% dmso solution and stored in liquid nitrogen. the horses were anesthetized again on day 14 and the thawed grafts were press-fitted into drill holes in the trochlear ridges of the right stifle. a fresh graft was transferred from the right hock to the left stifle. to control for the effects of surgery, anothe ...19911369528
mitochondrial dna phylogeny of the old-world monkey tribe papionini.the evolution of the old world monkey tribe papionini, composed of macaques, baboons, mandrills, drills, and mangabeys, was examined using mitochondrial dna (mtdna) sequence data on the cytochrome oxidase subunit ii gene. when analyzed cladistically, these data support a baboon clade of savannah (papio) plus gelada (theropithecus) baboons, as well as a clade containing drill (mandrillus) plus mangabey (cerocebus) genera. this result stands in opposition to most morphological phylogenies, which b ...19921313138
risk evaluation and patient assessment in sedation.risk assessment gives a good clinical guide to the understanding of our patients' medical problems. the dentist can cope with problems related to patients belonging to risks group 1 and 2, but not to groups 3 or 4. the results of studies on risks, morbidity, and mortality in anaesthesia teach us that the human factor and technical error provoke complications, morbidity and mortality, seemingly unnecessarily. case history and a simple physical examination, primarily concentrated on respiration an ...19883201916
proposed digital arthroplasty critical study of the preliminary view of the results of swanson implants, particularly the long-term course of silicone implants, the authors studied and developed semi-constrained sliding arthroplasty designed for metacarpo-phalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints. the preliminary study on bones and then on cadaver hands and finally on the knee of the rabbit allowed the design and experimentation of a prototype which led to the creation of a semi-constrained arthroplasty for which the elastic diaphyseal anchoring is e ...19883233039
inability of medroxyprogesterone acetate to down regulate estrogen receptor level in human breast cancer.the influence of medroxyprogesterone acetate (mpa) on estrogen receptor (er) and progesterone receptor (pr) levels was studied in 20 postmenopausal patients with er-positive and pr-positive primary breast cancers. each patient underwent drill biopsy and subsequently mastectomy. the drill biopsy and surgical specimens were assayed for the total er and pr levels (cytosolic plus nuclear fraction) by enzyme immunoassay. between the drill biopsy and mastectomy, ten patients received no treatment (con ...19902137722
the histological effects of the implantation of different sizes of polyethylene particles in the rabbit tibia.this study examines the histological effects of different sizes of polyethylene particles implanted into the rabbit tibia. seventeen mature new zealand white female rabbits were allocated into three groups. group 1 (5 rabbits) received polyethylene particles averaging approximately 16 microns in diameter, implanted into the right proximal tibia through a drill hole. group 2 (5 animals) received particles averaging 26 microns, and group 3 (7 rabbits) received particles averaging 67 microns. the l ...19902189880
a biomechanical comparison of different surgical techniques of graft fixation in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.different surgical methods of graft fixation in acl reconstruction were examined to determine the effects on mechanical properties of the reconstructed acl. ten human cadavers were used in this study. six different types of grafts were studied. the tendon grafts were removed from each cadaver and fixed to femurs and tibias as acl substitutes with different surgical fixation methods, leaving femur-reconstructed graft-tibia preparations. the surgical techniques used were staple fixation, tying sut ...19873303979
the effect of trauma to the lower femoral epiphyseal plate. an experimental study in rabbits.forty-four rabbits were operated on when five weeks old; in one group a 2 mm drill-hole was made in the intercondylar portion of the right femur across the central portion of the growth plate up to the diaphysis, while in the other group a similar drill-hole of 3.2 mm was made. at 3, 6, 12 and 24 weeks after operation, specimens from the growth plates of both femora were analysed using radiographic, microradiographic, histological and histomorphometric techniques. it was found that destruction o ...19883346285
prostaglandin e2 levels in the membrane surrounding bulk and particulate polymethylmethacrylate in the rabbit tibia. a preliminary study.fourteen mature new zealand white female rabbits were allocated into two groups. group 1 received a bolus doughy simplex polymethylmethacrylate (pmma) cement injected into the proximal tibia through a drill hole. group 2 received an equal volume of particulate pmma cement powder. the operated but nonimplanted left tibiae served as controls. the animals were killed after four months. the membrane surrounding the implant area was harvested aseptically and grown in tissue culture. the supernatants ...19902199124
laser assisted fixation of ear prostheses after stapedectomy.three different lasers (erbium:yag, holmium:yag, alexandrite) were used to drill a hole at the end of the long process of the incus in order to fix an ear prosthesis after stapedectomy or small fenestra stapedectomy. the energy was coupled into a 250-microns core diameter zirconium-fluoride fiber. the operations were carried out on human temporal bone models from cadavers. the fiber was guided to the incus under the stereoscopic surgical microscope. the tissue response was examined under the sca ...19902233098
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