hydatid disease in a mandrill baboon.hydatidosis has been described in many species of domestic and wild mammals, including primates. among the latter reported to have been infected are rhesus monkeys, orangutans, and savannah and drill baboons. this is a case report of hydatid disease due to echinococcus granulosus in a mandrill baboon (mandrillus sphinx).1975809388
comparison of spatial and orientational relationships as manifestations of divergent modes of social organization in captive groups of mandrillus sphinx and theropithecus gelada.recent theories of nonhuman primate social organization and behavior suggest the existence of two primary modes of attention. in centripetal social groups attention is directed inward toward the group, ultimately to the dominant male. in acentric social groups attention is directed outward toward the surrounding environment. such fundamental differences in postulated attention structure promote extreme, but predictable, variability in spatial relationships and social organization between primate ...1975811514
comparative study of the banding patterns of the chromosomes of cercopithecidae. i. subfamily papinae: macaca fascicularis and papio sphinx.the diploid number of macaca fascicularis and papio sphinx is 42. all chromosomes are biarmed. using g-banding techniques, the complements of these two species have been compared. the topography of the bands is identical in all but one chromosome pair, showing a small pericentric inversion. the results indicate the existence of an extreme conservation in the arrangement of the genetic material and that changes at the gene level may have contributed to speciation in the papinae.1976827484
mitochondrial dna phylogeny of the old-world monkey tribe papionini.the evolution of the old world monkey tribe papionini, composed of macaques, baboons, mandrills, drills, and mangabeys, was examined using mitochondrial dna (mtdna) sequence data on the cytochrome oxidase subunit ii gene. when analyzed cladistically, these data support a baboon clade of savannah (papio) plus gelada (theropithecus) baboons, as well as a clade containing drill (mandrillus) plus mangabey (cerocebus) genera. this result stands in opposition to most morphological phylogenies, which b ...19921313138
sequences responsible for efficient replication of simian immunodeficiency virus sivmnd in cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage.we determined the susceptibility of monocytic cell lines to infection with viral strains derived from two infectious clones of simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from a mandrill. one of the strains, which replicates poorly in t cell lines, was found to grow more rapidly than the other in these cells. the viral determinant for this property was genetically mapped within the env gene encoding a surface protein. six amino acid substitutions identified appeared to be located outside of the domai ...19921431813
analysis of the envelope region of the highly divergent hiv-2alt isolate extends the known range of variability within the primate immunodeficiency is a highly divergent hiv-2-related isolate that is genetically equidistant to the prototypic hiv-2 strains, defined by hiv-2rod, and to the simian immunodeficiency viruses sivmac and sivsm. we have now cloned and sequenced the envelope region of hiv-2alt, thus completing the analysis of the whole viral genome. the sequences of env and nef and of the second exons of tat and rev were compared with those of the other viruses of the hiv-2/sivsm/sivmac group. despite of the high degree of v ...19921457208
testicular function, secondary sexual development, and social status in male mandrills (mandrillus sphinx).positive correlations between dominance rank and plasma testosterone levels have been described for adult males of several primate species in captivity, but the relevance of such observations to free-ranging animals is unclear. cirmf in gabon maintains a breeding group of 45 mandrills in a six hectare, naturally rainforested enclosure. this study describes correlations between dominance rank (in agonistic encounters), levels of plasma testosterone, testicular volume, body weight, and development ...19921484847
homologies in human and macaca fuscata chromosomes revealed by in situ suppression hybridization with human chromosome specific dna libraries.we established chromosomal homologies between all chromosomes of the human karyotype and that of an old world monkey (macaca fuscata) by chromosomal in situ suppression (ciss) hybridization with human chromosome specific dna libraries. except for the human chromosome 2 library and limited cross-hybridization of x and y chromosome libraries all human dna libraries hybridized to single gtg-banded macaque chromosomes. only three macaque chromosomes (2, 7, 13) were each hybridized by two separate hu ...19921576879
functional analysis of biologically distinct genetic variants of simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from a mandrill.we examined the biological properties of two infectious clones of a simian immunodeficiency virus, sivmnd, which were designated as pmd121 and pmd122. upon transfection into cd4-negative cells, pmd122 generated virions much less efficiently than pmd121. likewise, the growth kinetics in cd4-positive cells of virus derived from pmd122 were remarkably delayed relative to those of virus from pmd121. the cytocidal activity of the md122 virus was also low. a series of recombinant clones were construct ...19921604807
development from birth to sexual maturity in a semi-free-ranging colony of mandrills (mandrillus sphinx) in gabon.this report presents information collected over 7 years (1983-1990) in gabon, on a breeding group of 14, increasing to 45, mandrills maintained in a rainforest enclosure. under these conditions, a seasonal cycle of mating (june-october) and birth (january-may) occurred. females began to exhibit sexual skin swellings at age 2.75-4.5 years (3.6 +/- 0.6 years, mean +/- sd; n = 10) and first delivered offspring when 3.25-5.5 years old (4.4 +/- 0.8 years; n = 9). gestation periods ranged from 152 to ...19921625228
genetic characterization of simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from an african mandrill.we constructed an infectious molecular clone of simian immunodeficiency virus from an african mandrill (sivmnd). upon transfection, this clone directed the production of progeny virus particles infectious to and cytopathic for cd4+ human leukemia cells. thirteen frameshift proviral mutants with an alteration in the eight open reading frames of sivmnd were generated by recombinant dna techniques, and were analyzed biologically and biochemically. while mutations in the structural genes gag, pol, a ...19921642547
functional analysis of long terminal repeats derived from four strains of simian immunodeficiency virus sivagm in relation to other primate lentiviruses.the promoter activity of long terminal repeats (ltrs) of four strains of the simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from african green monkeys (sivagm) was compared with those of various ltrs derived from the other representative primate lentiviruses: human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1), type 2 (hiv-2), siv from a rhesus monkey (sivmac), and siv from a mandrill (sivmnd). the expression of the ltrs was evaluated by monitoring chloramphenicol acetyltransferase production after transfection ...19911656599
prevalence and transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus and simian t-cell leukemia virus in a semi-free-range breeding colony of mandrills in gabon. 19911662960
the improvement of maintenance conditions for wild-caught chrysops silacea and the production of infective larvae of loa loa.previous reports have shown that chyrsops silacea survive poorly in captivity. only 5% survive for more than 12 days, which is the time required for loa loa microfilariae to develop into infective larvae. improved maintenance conditions for c. silacea for the production of infective larvae were studied. wild-caught female c. silacea were allowed to feed to repletion on mandrills, (mandrillus sphinx), which were microfilaremic with human l. loa or on uninfected laboratory rats. under optimal cond ...19911684264
evolutionary origin of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses.from what viruses the human immunodeficiency viruses (hivs) originated is an extremely controversial question. to address this question, we have analyzed nucleotide sequences of simian immunodeficiency viruses (sivs) and hivs by using the techniques for understanding molecular evolution. in particular, we compared the nucleotide sequences of whole genomes, gene region by gene region, between a given pair of viruses, including four types of sivs--isolated from mandrills (papio sphinx), african gr ...19901693430
compatibility of rev gene activity in the four groups of primate lentiviruses.the compatibility of rev genes derived from various primate immunodeficiency viruses of all distinct subgroups identified was assessed in three experimental systems: complementation experiments between proviral rev and gag mutants, evaluation of the ability of the rev gene products to activate proviral reporters, and examination of the capacity of various viruses to augment marker gene expression in the infected reporter cell lines. in all systems, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) rev ...19911716025
structural features in tar rna of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses: a phylogenetic analysis.a comparative analysis of tar rna structures in human and simian immunodeficiency viruses reveals the conservation of certain structural features despite the divergence in sequence. both the tar elements of hiv-1 and siv-chimpanzee can be folded into relatively simple one-stem hairpin structures. chemical and rnaase probes were used to analyze the more complex structure of hiv-2 tar rna, which folds into a branched hairpin structure. a surprisingly similar rna conformation can be proposed for si ...19921738599
a survey for a trypanocidal factor in primate sera.the sera of 21 different species of primates were surveyed for the presence of a trypanocidal factor to a monomorphic human serum-sensitive clone of trypanosoma brucei gambiense (t.b.g.); human, gorilla, baboon (2 species), and the mandrill were found to contain this factor. the factor in all the sera is in the high density lipoprotein (hdl) fraction, and has similar modes of biological action. it has been shown that the human and gorilla trypanocidal factor share cross-reactive antigenic epitop ...19902120433
genetic organization of a chimpanzee lentivirus related to hiv-1.simian immunodeficiency viruses have been isolated from four species of monkey, the 'captive' macaque and mangabey and the 'feral' african green monkey and mandrill. while none of these viruses is a replica of hiv-1, the macaque and mangabey viruses represent correct genetic models for hiv-2, possessing exactly the same complement of genes. recently a lentivirus has been identified in two wild chimpanzees (pan troglodytes troglodytes) in gabon, west equatorial africa, and isolated from one of th ...19902188136
leptomyxid ameba, a new agent of amebic meningoencephalitis in humans and animals.amebae belonging to the order leptomyxida are regarded as innocuous soil organisms incapable of infecting mammals. we report here the isolation of a leptomyxid ameba from the brain of a pregnant baboon (papio sphinx) that died of meningoencephalitis at the san diego zoo wild animal park. by using rabbit anti-leptomyxid serum in the immunofluorescence assay, we have identified the leptomyxid ameba in the brain sections of a number of human encephalitic cases from around the world as well as a few ...19902280005
macaca fascicularis, a nonpermissive host for the human filarial parasite loa loa.the ability of the filarial nematode loa loa to infect 2 species of primates was studied. the primate species selected were closely related to species known to be susceptible. a mandrill (mandrillus sphinx) and 6 cynomolgus monkeys (macaca fascularis) were infected by subcutaneous injection of third-stage larvae of human l. loa from gabon. the mandrill developed microfilaremia with an estimated prepatent period of 147 days, but microfilariae were not detected in any of the cynomolgus monkeys. th ...19902352067
seroepidemiologic survey of captive old-world primates for antibodies to human and simian retroviruses, and isolation of a lentivirus from sooty mangabeys (cercocebus atys).sera from 526 old-world monkeys and apes, representing 50 species and 20 genera and living in us zoos and vivaria, were screened for antibodies to htlv-i, htlv-iii/lav, and simian-aids retrovirus, type i (srv-i). sera were screened initially by elisa, and elisa-positive sera, as well as elisa-negative sera from cage contacts, were further tested by western blotting. a large number of false-positive and a small number of false-negative elisa sera were identified. although most true positive react ...19862428760
serological survey and virus isolation of simian t-cell leukemia/t-lymphotropic virus type i (stlv-i) in non-human primates in their native countries.infection with a simian retrovirus (stlv-i) closely related to human t-lymphotropic virus type i (htlv-i) was investigated in non-human primates living in their native countries in africa and asia. serum antibodies cross-reacting with htlv-i antigens were detected in 85 of 567 non-human primates of 30 species. seropositive animals were found among african green monkeys, olive baboons, sykes' monkeys, mandrills and patas monkeys in several countries in africa, and cynomolgus monkeys, celebes maca ...19872440820
isolation of simian immunodeficiency virus from african green monkeys and seroepidemiologic survey of the virus in various non-human primates.sixteen isolates of simian retrovirus closely related to human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) were obtained from healthy african green monkeys (agm) (cercopithecus aethiops). the first isolate was obtained from a monkey seropositive for hiv, and the others were isolated from monkeys harboring antibodies to the first isolate. these simian retroviruses were referred to as simian immunodeficiency virus from agm, siv[agm], due to their cross-reactivities with hiv structural proteins. these siv[agm] is ...19882447023
production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific for the transmembrane protein of simian immunodeficiency virus from the african green monkey.mouse monoclonal antibodies were produced against simian immunodeficiency virus (siv) from the african green monkey (sivagm). the antibodies reacted with the transmembrane protein of all five sivagm isolates but not with those of sivs from the rhesus macaque and mandrill or of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 or type 2, indicating that they recognize a species-specific epitope strongly conserved in sivagm. the transmembrane proteins of several sivagm isolates were found to vary in molecular s ...19882460641
the current source of human alu retroposons is a conserved gene shared with old world monkey.a significant fraction of human alu repeated sequences are members of the precise, recently inserted class. a cloned member of this class has been used as a probe for interspecies hybridization and thermal stability determination. the probe was reassociated with human, mandrill, and spider monkey dna under conditions such that only almost perfectly matching duplexes could form. equally precise hybrids were formed with human and mandrill dna (old world monkey) but not with spider monkey dna (new ...19892542945
genetic analysis and infection of sivagm and sivmnd.recently, the authors determined the partial sequence of simian immunodeficiency virus (siv) from the mandrill (sivmnd) and found sivmnd to be a new member of the hiv/siv group, equidistant from other members, including sivagm. experimentally, the african green monkey and cynomolgus monkey could be infected with sivagm and the cottontop tamarin with sivmnd. however, no clinical sign of an aids-like disease was observed in these monkeys.19892547961
sequence of a novel simian immunodeficiency virus from a wild-caught african mandrill.since the isolation of an hiv-2-related virus from captive macaques (sivmac), the origin of human immunodeficiency viruses, a much debated subject, has been attributed to monkeys. the sequence of sivagm, which is derived from a naturally infected african green monkey, shows equal relatedness to hiv-1 and hiv-2, suggesting that the derivation of these viruses from sivagm is unlikely. recent sequence analysis of siv from a captive sooty mangabey (sivmac), however, shows its close relatedness to hi ...19892797181
animal models for hiv infection and aids: memorandum from a who meeting.the human immunodeficiency virus is a member of the lentivirus subfamily of the retrovirus family. retroviruses are rna viruses which code for an rna-dependent dna polymerase (reverse transcriptase), which transcribes the rna genome into a dna provirus which, on integration with the host dna, directs the synthesis of new virions. the rna genome consists of a gag gene, which codes for the viral core proteins, a pol gene, which codes for the reverse transcriptase, an env gene, which codes for th ...19882850118
the causes of false-positives encountered during the screening of old-world primates for antibodies to human and simian retroviruses by elisa.sera from 526 old-world primates representing 50 different species were screened by elisa for antibodies to human t-lymphotropic viruses i and iii, and simian retrovirus type 1 (srv-1). about one-fourth of the sera were positive by elisa. there was a tendency, however, for the same sera to be positive for all three human and simian retroviruses. only about one in five of the elisa antibody-positive sera were confirmed to be positive by western blotting. false-positive elisa antibody tests were p ...19863025237
identification of a surface antigen on loa loa microfilariae the recognition of which correlates with the amicrofilaremic state in man.filarial infections induce a spectrum of disease in their natural hosts, and by correlating immunity found in individuals with their disease pattern, one may delineate non-pathogenic, protective mechanisms. loa loa is causal of mild to moderate pathology, and it is unique among the human filaria in that adult worms are occasionally visible during subconjunctival migration. to study immune mechanisms controlling microfilaremia, sera from 15 subjects with amicrofilaremic occult loiasis (ol) were c ...19883049808
isolation and characterization of simian immunodeficiency virus from mandrills in africa and its relationship to other human and simian immunodeficiency viruses.two isolates of simian retrovirus related to the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) were obtained from apparently healthy mandrills, papio (mandrillus) sphinx, in western equatorial africa. this virus, designated sivmnd (simian immunodeficiency virus from mandrills), appeared morphologically similar to hiv by electron microscopy, showed mg2+-dependent reverse transcriptase activity, and induced cytopathic effect in human cd4-positive cells. western blotting (immunoblotting) analyses revealed tha ...19883172337
lion-tailed macaques (macaca silenus) manufacture and use tools.lion-tailed macaques (macaca silenus) in captive social groups spontaneously manufactured and used tools to extract syrup from an apparatus that was designed to accommodate probing behavior. an attempt to replicate these findings with mandrills (mandrillus sphinx) was unsuccessful. this report is the first to describe spontaneous manufacture of tools in any group of old world monkeys and provides evidence of greater continuity among primates for the expression of complex cognitive abilities. the ...19883396313
the primary structure of the mandrill (mandrillus sphinx, primates) hemoglobin.the complete primary structure of the hemoglobin from the mandrill (mandrillus sphinx, primates) is presented. this hemoglobin comprises two components in approximately equal amounts (hb i and hb ii). the alpha-chains differ in positions 5 (a3) and 9 (a7) having ala and asn in the alpha i-chains and asp and his in the alpha ii-chains. the beta-chains are identical. the components could be separated by deae-sephacel chromatography. the globin chains were obtained by carboxymethylcellulose chromat ...19883401326
diffuse nodular hyperplasia and fibrosis of the liver in lead-poisoned mandrills.two sibling mandrills with clinical evidence of lead intoxication showed previously unreported hepatic alterations. the younger animal had high lead concentrations in blood, kidneys, and liver and characteristic intranuclear inclusions in renal tubules and hepatocytes. the liver showed diffuse nodular regenerative hyperplasia. the older mandrill had high lead concentrations in blood only and resolving intranuclear inclusions in liver and kidneys. the liver showed prominent portal fibrosis with e ...19863746884
distribution, divergence and speciation of the drill and mandrill. 19734207774
perceptual learning ability in mandrillus sphinx and cercopithecus nictitans. 19744216054
contribution to the ecology of mandrillus sphinx linnaeus 1758 of rio muni (republic of equatorial guinea). 19724624917
notes on two anomalies in mandrills (mandrillus sphinx linn.). 19705462091
phycomycosis in a mandrill (mandrillus sphinx). 19655891424
[electrophoretic distance between the mandrill and the drill (author's transl)].the mandrill (mandrillus sphinx) and the drill (m. leucophaeus) differ by approximately 30% of their genes as shown by electrophoretic studies. the reasons of this differenciation are discussed with regard to divergence of characters, geographical isolation, and social organization of both species.19806965840
disseminated entomophthoromycosis in a mandrill (mandrillus sphinx). 19827147614
a comparative study of culturally transmitted patterns of feeding habits in the chacma baboon papio ursinus and the vervet monkey cercopithecus aethiops.japanese workers have studied social acquisition patterns of new feeding habits in macaca fuscata which they have termed precultural. the present study investigates the same phenomenon in the chacma baboon and the vervet monkey in their natural habitat. the questions addressed are: (1) how a new feeding habit enters a troop and by which age and sex category, also how it is propagated? (2) when individuals are permitted with a choice between palatable and unpalatable food, can they learn by demon ...19817319426
distribution of baboon endogenous virus among species of african monkeys suggests multiple ancient cross-species transmissions in shared habitats.pcr amplification of baboon endogenous virus (baev) long terminal repeat, reverse transcriptase gene, and env fragments from 24 different species of african monkeys indicates that baev is less widespread than was formerly thought. instead of being present in every species of african primates, baev can be found only in baboons, geladas, and mangabeys (all belonging to the papionini tribe) and in african green monkey (cercopithecus aethiops)subspecies. baev, which can be activated from baboon and ...19957494300
phylogeny of african monkeys based upon mitochondrial 12s rrna sequences.the suborder anthropoidea of the primates has traditionally been divided in three superfamilies: the hominoidea (apes and humans) and the cercopithecoidea (old world monkeys), together comprising the infraorder catarrhini, and the ceboidea (new world monkeys) belonging to the infraorder platyrrhini. we have sequenced an approximately 390-base-pair part of the mitochondrial 12s rrna gene for 26 species of the major groups of african monkeys and apes and constructed an extensive phylogeny based up ...19957535363
a conserved hairpin structure predicted for the poly(a) signal of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses.a comparative sequence analysis of part of the rna genome containing the poly(a) signal of different groups of immunodeficiency viruses, including human types 1 and 2, simian types mandrill, african green monkey, and sykes, reveals the conservation of certain structural features despite the divergence in sequence. in all cases, the aauaaa signal was found to be flanked by nucleotide segments that can basepair, thus forming a hairpin structure with the poly(a) signal in the single-stranded loop. ...19957755727
loa loa: immunological responses during experimental infections in mandrills (mandrillus sphinx).six intact, adult mandrills (mandrillus sphinx) were infected with human-derived, diurnal loa loa infective larvae. microfilaremia, hematological, and immunological parameters were followed for 2-4 years. a major aim was to investigate the relationship between specific humoral immunity to microfilariae and microfilaremia and also to assess whether infection led to generalized immune dysfunction. microfilaremia was similar to previous studies for 4 mandrills, with a prepatent period of 153.5 +/- ...19948056077
coraco-clavicular joint: normal variant in humans. a radiographic demonstration in the human and non-human primate.the coraco-clavicular joint is a true synovial joint that may become painful in some patients after trauma. among the descriptions of this entity is the assertion that the coraco-clavicular joint is routinely seen in gorillas and gibbons. we undertook to assess the incidence of this variant among gorillas, gibbons, and other non-human primates. all available radiographs of large primates performed at the international wildlife conservation park/bronx zoo (iwcp) over the past 10 years were review ...19948191295
balamuthia mandrillaris, n. g., n. sp., agent of amebic meningoencephalitis in humans and other animals.we recently reported the isolation of a leptomyxid ameba from the brain of a mandrill baboon that died of meningoencephalitis. based on light and electron microscopic studies, animal pathogenicity tests, and immunofluorescence patterns, we conclude that our isolate differs fundamentally from the other two amebas (leptomyxa and gephyramoeba) included in the order leptomyxida. we therefore created a new genus, balamuthia, to accommodate our isolate and described it as balamuthia mandrillaris to re ...19938330028
a distinct african lentivirus from sykes' monkeys.asymptomatic infection with simian immunodeficiency virus (siv) has been demonstrated in african sykes' monkeys (cercopithecus mitis albogularis), and virus isolation confirmed infection with a novel siv from sykes' monkeys (sivsyk). macaques inoculated with sivsyk became persistently infected but remained clinically healthy. we utilized polymerase chain reaction amplification to generate a full-length, infectious molecular clone of sivsyk. the genome organization of sivsyk is similar to that of ...19938382307
compatibility of tat and rev transactivators in the primate lentiviruses.primate immunodeficiency viruses carry a unique set of transacting regulator genes, which are essential for viral replication. the exchangeability of these tat and rev transactivators derived from viruses of the four major subgroups identified to date was assessed in transient transfection and infection assay systems. the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1), a major causative virus of human aids, efficiently activated the other viruses. in contrast, the tat and rev gene products of hiv-2 ...19938385908
genetic self-management in a captive colony of mandrills (mandrillus sphinx) as revealed by dna minisatellite fingerprints.dna fingerprints using three oligonucleotide probes, a (gtg)5 short tandem repeat sequence, and 2 corresponding to the core sequences of minisatellites 33.15 and 33.6, have been used to generate dna fingerprints of a captive colony of mandrills (mandrillus sphinx) housed at the centre international de recherches médicales de franceville (cirmf), in order to monitor paternity. a colony of 6 males and 7 females was established in a 6 ha. rain-forested enclosure in 1983. band sharing scores indicat ...19958582355
[an outbreak of streptococcus zooepidemicus-caused infection among laboratory primates].an outbreak of septicemia caused by s. zooepidemicus in representatives of 5 species of lower monkeys, viz. macaca mulatta (5), macaca nemestrina (1), macaca fascicularis (2), cercopithecus aethiops (2), mandrillus sphinx (1), is described. the disease was accompanied by the symptoms of enteric infection and well responded to etiotropic therapy with antibiotics of the penicillin row. the source of this infection was not established. until now it is one of few descriptions of enteric infection in ...19968820687
hematology and serum chemistry in the white-crowned mangabey (cercocebus torquatus lunulatus) and in the mandrill (mandrillus sphinx).reference values of some hematologic and plasma chemical parameters were established in two species of clinically normal cercopithecidae. the following variables were studied in seven mandrills (mandrillus sphinx) and nine white-crowned mangabeys (cercocebus torquatus lunulatus): hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte and leucocyte counts, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, glucose, urea, uric acid, cholesterol, creatinine, ...19968906607
occurrence and frequency of transmission of naturally occurring simian retroviral infections (siv, stlv, and srv) at the cirmf primate center, gabon.among the primates held at the cirmf primate center, gabon, no serological sign of siv infection could be demonstrated in 68 cynomolgus monkeys, 60 chimpanzees, nine gorillas, and 12 sun-tailed monkeys, while seven of 102 mandrills and six of 24 vervets were infected with siv. six mandrills, seven vervets and ten cynomolgus monkeys exhibited a full htlv type 1 western blot profile. the sera of two gorillas and one chimpanzee presented with a positive but not typical htlv western blot profile. th ...19969029395
the primate community of the lopé reserve, gabon: diets, responses to fruit scarcity, and effects on biomass.the diets of all diurnal primates (gorilla g. gorilla, pan t. troglodytes, mandrillus sphinx, colobus satanas, cercocebus albigena, cercopithecus nictitans, c. pogonias, c. cephus) in the lópe reserve, central gabon, are described from qualitative and quantitative data collected over 10 years. a total of 397 foods were recorded, of which 91% were from plants. the diet of seven of the eight species were numerically dominated by fruit, the exception being colobus satanas with a diet dominated by s ...19979108968
fatal infections with balamuthia mandrillaris (a free-living amoeba) in gorillas and other old world primates.balamuthia mandrillaris is a newly described free-living amoeba capable of causing fatal meningoencephalitis in humans and animals. because the number of human cases is rapidly increasing, this infection is now considered an important emerging disease by the medical community. a retrospective review of the pathology database for the zoological society of san diego (the san diego zoo and san diego wild animal park) for the period july 1965 through december 1994 revealed five cases of amoebic meni ...19979150541
nonhuman primate models to evaluate vaccine safety and immunogenicity.when considering preclinical studies to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of putative vaccine candidates, such as nucleic acid vaccines, species most closely related to humans should be considered. phylogenetically, the great apes (chimpanzees, orangutans, gorillas, and gibbons) are most closely related to humans. however, the great apes, which diverged from humans over 5 million years ago, represent endangered or threatened species that limits their utility in preclinical studies. in addit ...19979234544
encephalomyocarditis virus infections in an australian zoo.fatal encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv) infections in a ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta), a squirrel monkey (saimiri sciureus), three mandrills (mandrillus sphinx), a chimpanzee (pan troglodytes), a pygmy hippopotamus (choeropsis liberiensis), and two goodfellows tree kangaroos (dendrolagus goodfellowi) occurred at taronga zoo. this is the first description of emcv in a zoological collection outside of the united states. regardless of species, the most common clinical presentation was sudden deat ...19979279403
phylogenetic analysis of siv and stlv type i in mandrills (mandrillus sphinx): indications that intracolony transmissions are predominantly the result of male-to-male aggressive contacts.natural sivmnd and stlvmnd infections of mandrills in a colony at the centre international de recherches médicales de franceville (cirmf) in gabon were investigated by genetic analysis to determine the extent of intracolony transmission. sivmnd pol sequence analysis indicates that the six strains present in the colony belong to the sivmnd lentivirus subgroup previously defined according to the only available prototype sequence (sivmndgb1), which originated from the same colony. the intraanimal n ...19989643378
disseminated coccidioidomycosis in a mandrill baboon (mandrillus sphinx): a case report.a case of disseminated coccidioidomycosis caused by a dimorphic fungus coccidioides immitis in a mandrill baboon (mandrillus sphinx) was diagnosed following radiography, ultrasound-guided aspiration of thoracic lesions, and aspiration cytology of skeletal lesions of the left sixth rib. the diagnosis was confirmed by fungal culture and serum quantitative immunodiffusion for antibodies against c. immitis.19989732039
the simian immunodeficiency virus mnd(gb-1) strain uses cxcr4, not ccr5, as coreceptor for entry in human cells.the simian immunodeficiency virus (siv) mnd(gb-1) strain, isolated from a mandrill, replicates in a human t cell line, cem cells, and is inhibited by the cxc-chemokines, stromal cell-derived factor 1alpha and 1beta (sdf-1alpha/sdf-1beta), the natural ligands for cxcr4. the ic50 was around 70-80 ng/ml, which corresponds to the ic50 of sdf-1alpha/sdf-1beta for t-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) and hiv-2. the specific anti-cxcr4 mab 12g5 inhibited replication of sivmnd at an ic50 ...19989747729
simian t-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 from mandrillus sphinx as a simian counterpart of human t-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 subtype d.a recent serological and molecular survey of a semifree-ranging colony of mandrills (mandrillus sphinx) living in gabon, central africa, indicated that 6 of 102 animals, all males, were infected with simian t-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (stlv-1). these animals naturally live in the same forest area as do human inhabitants (mostly pygmies) who are infected by the recently described human t-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (htlv-1) subtype d. we therefore investigated whether these mandrills were ...19989811783
characterization of a novel simian immunodeficiency virus (siv) from l'hoest monkeys (cercopithecus l'hoesti): implications for the origins of sivmnd and other primate lentiviruses.the human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 (hiv-1 and hiv-2) appear to have originated by cross-species transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus (siv) from asymptomatically infected african primates. few of the sivs characterized to date efficiently infect human primary lymphocytes. interesting, two of the three identified to infect such cultures (sivsm and sivcpz) have appeared in human populations as genetically related hivs. in the present study, we characterized a novel siv isolate ...19999882304
skeletal and dental morphology supports diphyletic origin of baboons and mandrills.numerous biomolecular studies from the past 20 years have indicated that the large african monkeys papio, theropithecus, and mandrillus have a diphyletic relationship with different species groups of mangabeys. according to the results of these studies, mandrills and drills (mandrillus) are most closely related to the torquatus-galeritus group of mangabeys placed in the genus cercocebus, whereas baboons (papio) and geladas (theropithecus) are most closely related to the albigena-aterrimus mangab ...19999927710
analysis of the effect of natural sequence variation in tat and in cyclin t on the formation and rna binding properties of tat-cyclin t complexes.the biological activity of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) tat (tat1) transcriptional activator requires the recruitment of a tat1-cyclint1 (cyct1) complex to the tar rna target encoded within the viral long terminal repeat (ltr). while other primate immunodeficiency viruses, such as hiv-2 and mandrill simian immunodeficiency virus (sivmnd), also encode tat proteins that activate transcription via rna targets, these proteins differ significantly, both from each other and from tat ...199910364329
experimental studies on application of small-caliber vascular prosthesis produced by has been suggested that a microporous structure enhances fast and complete endothelialization. for long-term patency, antithrombogenicity and microporous structure are very important factors. in this paper, we have developed a new technique to give a micro-porous structure to small-caliber vascular prosthesis produced by polyurethane which has favorable antithrombogenecity. a mixed solution (tetrahydrofuran: dimethylformamide = 1:1) containing 13 wt% of segmented polyurethane and a variable a ...199910413764
sequence conservation of repeat 3 region of the gene coding for the 15 kda polyprotein within human and simian loa loa.the human and simian strains of loa loa microfilariae are morphologically identical even though their periodicities vary. when using primate models (mandrillus sphinx) of human loaisis for vaccination trials, the absence of any ongoing simian l. loa infection must be demonstrated. nested primers derived from a human strain of l. loa (targeted on the repeat 3 region of the gene encoding the 15 kda polyprotein; 15r3) amplified at 366 bp sequence from simian l. loa genomic dna and blood lysates fro ...199910431694
simian immunodeficiency virus (siv) from sun-tailed monkeys (cercopithecus solatus): evidence for host-dependent evolution of siv within the c. lhoesti superspecies.recently we reported the characterization of simian immunodeficiency virus (sivlhoest) from a central african l'hoest monkey (cercopithecus lhoesti lhoesti) that revealed a distant relationship to siv isolated from a mandrill (sivmnd). the present report describes a novel siv (sivsun) isolated from a healthy, wild-caught sun-tailed monkey (cercopithecus lhoesti solatus), another member of the l'hoest superspecies. sivsun replicated in a variety of human t-cell lines and in peripheral blood monon ...199910438863
molecular phylogeny of old world monkeys (cercopithecidae) as inferred from gamma-globin dna sequences.dna sequence data of the nuclear-encoded gamma1-gamma2-globin duplication region were used to examine the phylogenetic relationships of 16 cercopithecid (old world monkey) species representing 12 extant genera. morphology- and molecular-based hypotheses of old world monkey branching patterns are generally congruent, except for generic relationships within the subtribe papionina. the cercopithecids divide into colobines (leaf-eating monkeys) and cercopithecines (cheek-pouched monkeys). the colobi ...199910603263
use of polymerase chain reaction for accurate follow-up of loa loa experimental infection in mandrillus sphinx.mandrills (mandrillus sphinx) experimentally infected with human loa loa usually remain microfilaremic for a long period of time. nevertheless some control their microfilaremia while still harboring adults worms, and therefore become occult-infected. a nested polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay, targeted on the repeat 3 region of the gene coding for the l. loa 15-kd protein (15r3-pcr), has been evaluated in mandrills infected with third-stage larvae (l3) of l. loa. the results of this assay we ...199910674677
cellular responses to loa loa experimental infection in mandrills (mandrillus sphinx) vaccinated with irradiated infective order to shed light on the mechanisms of antifilarial protective immunity, we investigated the course of experimental loaiosis after vaccination in a nonhuman primate host, mandrillus sphinx. six vaccinated (v) mandrills received 50 irradiated l3 while six nonvaccinated (nv) received saline solution on days -60, -30 and -15. all animals were challenged with 100 intact l3 (day 0). parasitological and immunological status were followed for 9 months. vaccination delayed the appearance and mean p ...200010760183
simian immunodeficiency viruses of diverse origin can use cxcr4 as a coreceptor for entry into human cells.primary simian immunodeficiency virus (siv) isolated from sooty mangabey (sivsm [n = 6]), stumptail (sivstm [n = 1]), mandrill (sivmnd [n = 1]), and african green (sivagm [n = 1]) primates were examined for their ability to infect human cells and for their coreceptor requirements. all isolates infected human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmcs) from a ccr5(+/+) donor, and seven of eight isolates tested also infected ccr5(-/-) pbmcs. analysis of coreceptor utilization using ghost and u87 ce ...200010823878
[ecology and social organization of african tropical forest primates: aid in understanding retrovirus transmission].the risk of transmission of primate viruses to humans is great because of their genetic proximity. it is now clear that the hiv group of retroviruses came from primates and that the origin of hiv1 is the chimpanzee subspecies of central africa, pan troglodytes troglodytes. many african primates are natural hosts of retroviruses and details of the natural history of both hosts and viruses are essential to understand the evolution of the latter. data on the demography, ecology and behaviour of thr ...200011030048
[epidemiology, origin and genetic diversity of htlv-1 retrovirus and stlv-1 simian affiliated retrovirus].human t cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type i, the first human oncogenic retrovirus, is the aetiological factor of adult t cell leukemia (atl), a cd4+ malignant lymphoproliferative disease and of a chronic neuromyelopathy, the tropical spastic paraparesis or htlv-1 associated myelopathy (tsp/ham). htlv-1, which infects from 15 to 25 million individuals world-wide, is highly endemic in certain areas such as south-western japan, central africa, the caribbean basin and some regions of south america, ...200011030050
simian homologues of human gamma-2 and betaherpesviruses in mandrill and drill monkeys.recent serological and molecular surveys of different primate species allowed the characterization of several kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kshv) homologues in macaques, african green monkeys, chimpanzees, and gorillas. identification of these new primate rhadinoviruses revealed the existence of two distinct genogroups, called rv1 and rv2. using a degenerate consensus primer pcr method for the herpesvirus dna polymerase gene, the presence of kshv homologues has been investigated in tw ...200011090203
simian foamy virus infections in a baboon breeding colony.the prevalence, transmission, and variation of simian foamy viruses (sfvs) in baboons was investigated. over 95% of adult baboons in the breeding colony as well as recently imported adult animals had high titers of anti-sfv serum igg. maternal antibody was detectable in infants' serum up to 6 months of age. approximately 30% of infants in breeding harems experienced sfv infections by 1 year of age. shedding of sfv in oral secretions was common, with 13% of samples from normal adult animals and 3 ...200011112493
catarrhine phylogeny: noncoding dna evidence for a diphyletic origin of the mangabeys and for a human-chimpanzee clade.maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood analyses of two of the serum albumin gene's intron sequences from 24 catarrhines (17 cercopithecid and 7 hominid) and 3 platyrrhines (an outgroup to the catarrhines) yielded results on catarrhine phylogeny that are congruent with those obtained with noncoding sequences of the gamma(1)-gamma(2) globin gene genomic region, using only those flanking and intergenic gamma sequences that in their history were not involved in gene conversion. a data set that com ...200111161738
circannual changes in the secondary sexual adornments of semifree-ranging male and female mandrills (mandrillus sphinx).male mandrills (mandrillus sphinx) have spectacular secondary sexual adornments. these include red and blue sexual skin on the face, rump, and genitalia; a sternal scent-marking gland; and a "fatted" rump. mandrills are seasonal breeders, and in other seasonally-breeding primate species members of both sexes may show increased expression of secondary sexual characteristics during the mating season. we examined changes in male secondary sexual adornments and testosterone levels, in relation to se ...200111253846
corticotropin-releasing hormone-binding protein in humans, placental corticotropin-releasing hormone (crh) production has been linked to the determination of gestational length, and a late gestational fall in crh-binding protein (crh-bp) has been linked to the onset of parturition. expression of placental crh mrna is limited to primates, and only in man has a circulating crh-bp been described. as the fall in crh-bp in late gestation has been associated with parturition in humans, we sought to determine whether a crh-bp circulated in the plasm ...200111253847
changes in the secondary sexual adornments of male mandrills (mandrillus sphinx) are associated with gain and loss of alpha status.two semifree-ranging mandrill groups, inhabiting large, naturally rainforested enclosures in gabon, were studied to measure morphological, endocrine, and behavioral changes that occurred when adult males rose, or fell, in dominance rank. gaining alpha rank (n = 4 males) resulted in increased testicular size and circulating testosterone, reddening of the sexual skin on the face and genitalia, and heightened secretion from the sternal cutaneous gland. blue sexual skin coloration was unaffected. ne ...200111300708
comparative analysis of natural killer cell activity, lymphoproliferation and lymphocyte surface antigen expression in nonhuman primates housed at the cirmf primate center, gabon.six different species of nonhuman primates housed at the cirmf primate center, cynomolgus monkeys (macaca fascicularis), rhesus monkeys (macaca mulatta), mandrills (mandrillus sphinx), vervets (cercopithecus aethiops pygerythrus), chimpanzees (pan troglodyte) and baboons (papio hamadryas), were evaluated for their natural killer cell activity and for the ability of their peripheral blood mononuclear cells to proliferate in response to known mitogens (concanavalin a, phytohemagglutinin and staphy ...200111396861
arrested development of secondary sexual adornments in subordinate adult male mandrills (mandrillus sphinx).previous studies of semifree-ranging mandrills identified two morphological and social variants of the adult male, based on behavioral and secondary sexual characteristics. "fatted" males are social, with highly developed sex skin coloration, large testes, high plasma testosterone levels, and fat rumps; while "nonfatted" males are peripheral or solitary, with paler sex skin, smaller testes, lower plasma testosterone, and slimmer rumps. we present a detailed study of morphology and group associat ...200111424076
wild mandrillus sphinx are carriers of two types of lentivirus.mandrillus sphinx, a large primate living in cameroon and gabon and belonging to the papionini tribe, was reported to be infected by a simian immunodeficiency virus (siv) (sivmndgb1) as early as 1988. here, we have identified a second, highly divergent sivmnd (designated sivmnd-2). genomic organization differs between the two viral types; sivmnd-2 has the additional vpx gene, like other sivs naturally infecting the papionini tribe (sivsm and sivrcm) and in contrast to the other sivmnd type (here ...200111435589
simian immunodeficiency virus from mandrill (mandrillus sphinx) sivmnd experimentally infects human and nonhuman primate cells.this study set out to characterize the features of experimental infection by simian immunodeficiency virus in mandrill (sivmnd) (mandrillus sphinx), cynomolgus macaque (macaca fascicularis), rhesus macaque (macaca mulatta), chimpanzee (pan troglodytes), african green monkey (cercopithecus pygerythrus), baboon (papio cynocephalus) and human cells. purified cells were exposed to a primary isolate of sivmnd grown in the infected mandrill peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and viral p27 gag antigen ...200111445446
synthetic peptide strategy for the detection of and discrimination among highly divergent primate lentiviruses.we developed a simple, rapid, inexpensive, and highly sensitive and specific strategy for the detection and lineage differentiation of primate lentiviruses (piv-elisa). it is based on the use of two indirect elisa methods using synthetic peptides mapping the gp41/36 region (detection component) and the v3 region (differentiation component) of four lentivirus lineages, namely sivcpz/hiv-1 (groups m, o, n, and sivcpz-gab), sivmnd, sivagm, and sivsm/sivmac/hiv-2. this strategy was evaluated with pa ...200111461679
the relationship between parasitological status and humoral responses to loa loa antigens in the mandrillus sphinx model after immunization with irradiated l3 and infection with normal order to identify antigens associated with protection and those associated with active infection, the humoral immune response of 6 mandrillus sphinx immunized with 150 irradiated l3 and challenged with 100 normal l3 of loa loa or 6 animals infected with 100 l3 were compared. the plasma of these animals was analysed by western blot using adult, mf and l3 antigens. several antigens with molecular weights varying from 120 kda to 13 kda were recognized by the plasma of all animals. it was shown t ...200111467785
growth and ontogeny of sexual size dimorphism in the mandrill (mandrillus sphinx).we present body mass (n = 419) and crown-rump length (crl, n = 210) measurements from 38 male and 49 female mandrills born into a semifree-ranging colony in order to describe growth from birth to adulthood, and to investigate maternal influences upon growth. adult male mandrills are 3.4 times the body mass, and 1.3 times the crl, of adult females. body mass dimorphism arises from a combination of sex differences in length of the growth period (females attain adult body mass at 7 years, males at ...200111471133
natural infection of wild-born mandrills (mandrillus sphinx) with two different types of simian immunodeficiency virus.we found a novel primate lentivirus in mandrill (mandrillus sphinx). to clarify the evolutionary relationships and transmission patterns of human/simian immunodeficiency virus (hiv/siv), we screened blood samples from 30 wild-born healthy cameroonian mandrills. five (16.7%) of them were seropositive for siv. three siv strains were isolated from the five seropositive mandrills by cocultivation of their peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmcs) with pbmcs of rhesus macaques, a human t cell line ( ...200111522184
a novel gamma 2-herpesvirus of the rhadinovirus 2 lineage in chimpanzees.old world monkeys and, recently, african great apes have been shown, by serology and polymerase chain reaction (pcr), to harbor different gamma2-herpesviruses closely related to kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kshv). although the presence of two distinct lineages of kshv-like rhadinoviruses, rv1 and rv2, has been revealed in old world primates (including african green monkeys, macaques, and, recently, mandrills), viruses belonging to the rv2 genogroup have not yet been identified from g ...200111544194
characterization of novel simian immunodeficiency viruses from red-capped mangabeys from nigeria (sivrcmng409 and -ng411).two novel simian immunodeficiency virus (siv) strains from wild-caught red-capped mangabeys (cercocebus torquatus torquatus) from nigeria were characterized. sequence analysis of the fully sequenced siv strain rcmng411 (sivrcmng411) and gag and pol sequence of sivrcmng409 revealed that they were genetically most closely related to the recently characterized sivrcm from gabon (sivrcmgb1). thus, red-capped mangabeys from distant geographic locations harbor a common lineage of siv. sivrcmng411 carr ...200111711592
molecular epidemiology of simian t-lymphotropic virus (stlv) in wild-caught monkeys and apes from cameroon: a new stlv-1, related to human t-lymphotropic virus subtype f, in a cercocebus agilis.a serological survey for human t-lymphotropic virus (htlv)/simian t-lymphotropic virus (stlv) antibodies was performed in 102 wild-caught monkeys and apes from 15 (sub)species originating from cameroon. two animals (a mandrillus sphinx and a cercocebus agilis) exhibited a complete htlv-1 seroreactivity pattern while two others lacked either the p24 (a mandrillus sphinx) or the mta-1/gp46 bands (a pan troglodytes). sequence comparison and phylogenetic analyses, using a 522 bp env gene fragment an ...200111714973
mammary gland adenocarcinoma in a mandrill (mandrillus sphinix).a 22-year-old female mandrill (mandrillus sphinix) with continuously growing mass at the right mammary gland area was found dead, and a postmortem examination was performed. at necropsy, an elevated firm subcutaneous mass about 5 cm in diameter was present at the right mammary gland area. axillary, mediastinal, and tracheobronchial lymph nodes were enlarged 2 to 4 times their normal sizes. numerous metastatic foci 2 to 5 mm in diameter were scattered in the lung. histologically, the tumor was di ...200111767060
a proper study for mankind: analogies from the papionin monkeys and their implications for human evolution.this paper's theme is that analogies drawn from the cercopithecine tribe papionini, especially the african subtribe papionina (baboons, mangabeys, and mandrills), can be a valuable source of insights about the evolution of the human tribe, hominini, to complement homologies found in extant humans and/or african apes. analogies, involving a "likeness of relations" of the form "a is to b, as x is to y," can be usefully derived from nonhomologous (homoplastic) resemblances in morphology, behavior, ...200111786995
developmental variables and dominance rank in adolescent male mandrills (mandrillus sphinx).previous research on semifree-ranging mandrills has shown that the degree of secondary sexual development differs among adult males. while some males are social, brightly colored, and have large testes and high levels of plasma testosterone, other males are peripheral or solitary, and lack fully developed secondary sexual features. in order to determine how these differences among males arise, and to investigate the influence of social factors, we examined the adolescent development of 13 semifr ...200211793410
distribution, population density, and status of sympatric cercopithecids in the campo-ma'an area, southwestern cameroon.a study on species composition, distribution, and population density of cercopithecids in the campo-ma'an area, southwestern cameroon, was undertaken from december 1997 until august 2000. a total of 665.5 km of line transects was used for the census. thirteen diurnal primate species including five endangered species (gorilla g. gorilla, pan troglodytes, mandrillus sphinx, colobus satanas, cercocebus torquatus) were recorded in the campo forest, the greatest part of which is a logging concession. ...200212145397
paratuberculosis in a mandrill (papio sphinx).a 2.5-year-old captive female mandrill (papio sphinx) died following a protracted course of intermittent abdominal bloat, diarrhea, and severe weight loss. necropsy revealed emaciation and marked gastrointestinal distention with gas and ingesta. histologic evaluation revealed severe diffuse granulomatous enterocolitis and mesenteric lymphadenitis with massive numbers of 1-2-microm acid-fast bacilli within macrophages. additionally, there was moderate to severe multifocal myocardial and vascular ...200212152813
high levels of viral replication contrast with only transient changes in cd4(+) and cd8(+) cell numbers during the early phase of experimental infection with simian immunodeficiency virus sivmnd-1 in mandrillus sphinx.early events during human immunodeficiency virus infections are considered to reflect the capacity of the host to control infection. we have studied early virus and host parameters during the early phase of simian immunodeficiency virus sivmnd-1 nonpathogenic infection in its natural host, mandrillus sphinx. four mandrills were experimentally infected with a primary sivmnd-1 strain derived from a naturally infected mandrill. two noninfected control animals were monitored in parallel. blood and l ...200212239301
distribution of tt virus (ttv), ttv-like minivirus, and related viruses in humans and nonhuman virus (ttv) and ttv-like minivirus (tlmv) are small dna viruses with single-stranded, closed circular, antisense genomes infecting man. despite their extreme sequence heterogeneity (>50%), a highly conserved region in the untranslated region (utr) allows both viruses to be amplified by polymerase chain reaction (pcr). ttv/tlmv infection was detected in 88 of 100 human plasma samples; amplified sequences were differentiated into ttv and tlmv by analysis of melting profiles, showing that both v ...200312642105
characterization and comparison of recombinant simian immunodeficiency virus from drill (mandrillus leucophaeus) and mandrill (mandrillus sphinx) isolates.since simian immunodeficiency virus (siv) was found to be the source of the human aids pandemic, a major goal has been to characterize the diversity of siv strains in the wild and to assess their potential for crossover into humans. in the present study, siv was isolated from a seropositive drill (mandrillus leucophaeus) and three seropositive mandrills (mandrillus sphinx) by using macaque peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc). full-length sequences were obtained from a drill and mandrill an ...200312663793
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