prevalence of shigellosis and other enteric pathogens in a zoologic collection of epidemiologic study of shigellosis was the preliminary step in the formulation of a plan for the control of devastating infectious diseases in nonhuman primates at the national zoological park. data were collected from primate groups with enzootic shigellosis and included the following species: white-cheeked and siamong gibbons (hylobates concolor and h syndactylies); lion-tailed, celebes, and barbary macaques (macaca silenus, m nigera, and m sylvanus); black and white colobus monkeys (colobu ...19938407446
west nile virus encephalitis in a barbary macaque (macaca sylvanus).an aged barbary ape (macaca sylvanus) at the toronto zoo became infected with naturally acquired west nile virus encephalitis that caused neurologic signs, which, associated with other medical problems, led to euthanasia. the diagnosis was based on immunohistochemical assay of brain lesions, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and virus isolation.200415200866
geographic distribution and habitat diversity of the barbary macaque sylvanus l.during a 15-month behavioral study in morocco and a 3-month survey in morocco and algeria, the present distribution of the barbary macaque was determined. in algeria, monkeys are found in seven constricted and disjunct localities in the grande and petite kabylie mountain ranges. these localities are severely restricted in space and are located in remote or inaccessible areas which support only small populations. their habitats include mixed cedar and holm oak forests, humid portuguese and cork o ...1977403111
tickborne encephalitis in naturally exposed monkey (macaca sylvanus).we describe tickborne encephalitis (tbe) in a monkey (macaca sylvanus) after natural exposure in an area at risk for tbe. tbe virus was present in the brain and could be identified as closely related to the european subtype, strain neudoerfl.200717553233
phylogeny of primate t lymphotropic virus type 1 (ptlv-1) including various new asian and african non-human primate further unravel intra- and interspecies ptlv-1 evolution in asia and africa, we phylogenetically analysed 15 new stlv-1 ltr and env sequences discovered in eight different asian and african non-human primate species. we show that orang-utan stlv-1s form a tight, deeply branching monophyletic cluster between asian stlv-1 macaque species clades, suggesting natural cross-species transmission. novel viruses of macaca maura, macaca nigra and siamang cluster with other sulawesian stlv-1s, demonstra ...200716931175
are there preconceptional determinants of mammalian sex? a response to boklage (2005).boklage (2005, hum reprod 20,583-587) wrote: 'changes in, or mediated by, the epigenetic environment of embryogenesis provide the most plausible prospects for causes of changes in secondary sex ratio'. without impugning this notion, i suggest here that other causes of variation in secondary sex ratio antedate fertilization or, in other words, that there are circumstances under which unequal numbers of male and female zygotes are formed. it will be documented here that this suggestion has repeate ...200616772280
a comparative study of adult facial morphology and its ontogeny in the fossil macaque macaca majori from capo figari, sardinia, italy.this study examines the morphology of the face in the fossil macaque macaca majori from capo figari (north-eastern sardinia, italy) in a comparative ontogenetic context. thus, a fairly complete face from an adult representative of this fossil species is compared with 3 extant macaque species: macaca sylvanus (of which species it is questioned whether it is a subspecies, m. sylvanus majori), macaca mulatta and macaca fascicularis. additional incomplete subadult and adult specimens are also examin ...200515900103
[dna pcr typing of non-human primates].human beings and non human primates show similarities in the non coding dna range too, but up to now there are only a few data. this paper presents first results of a study dealing with a larger spectrum of species and individuals, considering the genetic marker hla-dqa1, ldlr, gypa, hbgg, d7s8, gc (partionally coding) and vwa, fes, f13b, th01, cd4, fga (not coding). the results show that not only the apes can be typed but also macaca sylvanus as a member of the cercopithecoidea. in contrast to ...200111591051
unique pattern of enzootic primate viruses in gibraltar macaques.because gibraltar's macaques (macaca sylvanus) have frequent contact with humans, we assayed 79 macaques for antibodies to enzootic primate viruses. all macaques were seronegative for herpesvirus b, simian t-cell lymphotropic virus, simian retrovirus, simian immunodeficiency virus, and rhesus cytomegalovirus. seroprevalence of simian foamy virus reached 88% among adult animals.200818598634
barbary macaques categorize shrill barks into two call response to disturbances in their surroundings, barbary macaques, macaca sylvanus, utter a distinctive call, the 'shrill bark'. differences within this call type correlate with the stimulus eliciting the calling. i tested whether monkeys categorized calls according to the eliciting stimulus and whether their perception of calls coincided with the classification derived from the acoustic analysis. different playback designs using the habituation-dishabituation paradigm were created in which ca ...19989632468
behavioral responses of barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus) to variations in environmental conditions in this study, the behavioral responses of barbary macaques to seasonal and interhabitat variations in resource availability were analyzed over an entire annual cycle. two groups, one in an evergreen cedar-oak forest (djurdjura) and the other in a deciduous oak forest (akfadou), were observed. in this paper, references to data on resource availability published elsewhere are made. time budget has been studied. variations in foraging and moving time, in day-range lengths, and in time moving in tr ...19979403094
effects of tourists on barbary macaques at gibraltar.interactions between tourists and barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus) at queen's gate, gibraltar, are described. interaction rates are high, with 99.6 interactions/h at peak times. macaques spend 13.2% of their day interacting with tourists and 41.9% inactive. an overall ratio of 3.2:1 between human-initiated and macaque-initiated interactions was found. of interactions involving humans, 85% concerned tourists. diurnal activity patterns of the macaques were adapted to tourist visitation patterns. ...19938188123
concurrent central nervous system toxoplasmosis and simian immunodeficiency virus-induced aids encephalomyelitis in a barbary macaque (macaca sylvana). 19957725605
blood groups of barbary apes (macaca sylvanus).32 barbary macaques were all found to be secretors of the a and h blood group substances and to have an m-like agglutinogen on their red cells. hemagglutination tests for other human-type red cell specificities were negative. in contrast, several so-called simian-type specificities were detected on the erythrocytes of barbary apes by means of the cross-reacting rhesus and baboon antisera. among these, only the specificities of the graded drh blood group system were found to be polymorphic in thi ...19817319424
[demography and reproduction of macaca sylvanus in different habitats in algeria].usually described as a cedar forest monkey, the barbary macaque in effect has colonized a great variety of habitat types. at the moment, it is not known to what extent these different habitats are suitable for the species' survival. we tried to answer this question by comparing the demography of three monkey troops: one lives in a deciduous oak forest; the second lives in an nondeciduous cedar-green oak forest while the third is found on rocky ridges of mountains without any arborescent vegetati ...19854043874
seroprevalence of sv40-like polyomavirus infections in captive and free-ranging macaque investigate the seroprevalence of polyomavirus infections in macaques, we analyzed 1579 sera from nine different species for antibodies cross-reactive with simian virus 40 (sv40) in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. most samples were collected from captive animals, but we also investigated a colony of free-ranging barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus).200818194222
comparison of different enzyme-immunoassays for assessment of adrenocortical activity in primates based on fecal analysis.most studies published to date that used fecal glucocorticoid measurements to assess adrenocortical activity in primate (and many nonprimate) species applied a specific cortisol or corticosterone assay. however, since these native glucocorticoids are virtually absent in the feces of most vertebrates, including primates, the validity of this approach has recently been questioned. therefore, the overall aim of the present study was to assess the validity of four enzyme-immunoassays (eias) using an ...200616477600
phylogeography of barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus) and the origin of the gibraltar colony.the barbary macaque (macaca sylvanus) is the earliest offshoot of the genus macaca and the only extant african representative, all other species being asiatic. once distributed throughout north africa, m. sylvanus is now restricted to isolated forest fragments in algeria and morocco. the species is threatened; the maximum total wild population size is estimated at 10,000 individuals. relationships among surviving wild subpopulations in algeria (96 samples) and morocco (116 samples) were examined ...200515870193
plasticity of face processing in infancy.experience plays a crucial role for the normal development of many perceptual and cognitive functions, such as speech perception. for example, between 6 and 10 months of age, the infant's ability to discriminate among native speech sounds improves, whereas the ability to discriminate among foreign speech sounds declines. however, a recent investigation suggests that some experience with non-native languages from 9 months of age facilitates the maintenance of this ability at 12 months. nelson has ...200515790676
the use of vocal signals in the social play of barbary macaques.field studies in various species of macaca (cercopithecidae) provided evidence for specific visual displays that typically accompany playful interactions. the aim of our study was to examine whether and when playing individuals would use auditory displays, i.e. vocalizations that often occur during social play as well. the study was conducted on a population of semi-free barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus) with a special focus on the composition and dynamics of playful wrestling (synonymous term: ...200212091743
experimental transfection of macaca sylvanus with cloned human hepatitis b virus.due to the absence of easily accessible animal models for the study of hepatitis b virus (hbv), the possibility of using macaca sylvanus, a monkey originating from morocco, north africa, was investigated. three monkeys were intrahepatically inoculated with a replication-competent head-to-tail hbv dna plasmid dimer construct. the hbv surface antigen and hbv dna were detected prior to alanine aminotransferase elevation in the serum of two of three hbv-inoculated monkeys at day 2 post-transfection ...200212075082
fossil macaca remains from rdb quarry (villafranca d'asti, italy): new data and overview.mentioned in faunal lists since the late 1960s, macaca remains from villafranca d'asti (early villafranchian, italy) were never described in detail. if some doubts were reported in the past about the related stratigraphic position, at present, partly thanks to the original acquisition labels, there is enough information to place these finds within the updated stratigraphic and biochronologic framework of the villafranca d'asti area. the reported sample consists of upper dentition and postcranial ...200111180985
demographic analysis of the washington regional primate research center pigtailed macaque colony, 1967-1996.this work presents the results of a demographic analysis of 30 years of breeding records from the university of washington's recently closed primate field station at medical lake, washington. summaries of population growth, age-specific fertility and mortality rates, first-year survival, and seasonality of reproduction are presented, as well as an analysis of survival by decade. in addition, we present data on interbirth intervals in this population. in general, pigtailed macaques represent a ty ...200011132112
monkey business in pompeii--unique find of a juvenile barbary macaque skeleton in pompeii identified using osteology and ancient dna techniques. 199910563020
eikenella corrodens-caused botryomycosis-type pneumonia in a barbary ape (macaca sylvanus).an 18-year-old female barbary ape in a safari park died from a mixed bacterial infection. staphylococus aureus was isolated from a purulent necrotic mastitis and from a chronic purulent granulomatous sialoadenitis of the sublingual glands, eikenella corrodens from a botryomycosis-type pneumonia. as judged by histopathology, mixed infection of s. aureus and e. corrodens was present in the sialoadenitis, and e. corrodens botryomycosis-type bacterial colonies were also present in the pancreatic par ...19979236863
rank relations of juvenile and subadult natal males of barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus) at affenberg salem.rank relations of more than 100 juvenile and subadult natal barbary macaque males were analyzed. hierarchical relations among individuals of the same age were established early during the first year of life. with few exceptions concerning infants from very high-ranking genealogies, males dominated female peers regardless of maternal rank. males started to outrank females from older cohorts during the second year of life and completed the process of rank reversal with adult females at 5-6 years o ...19883251819
mitochondrial dna sequence phylogeny of 4 populations of the widely distributed cynomolgus macaque (macaca fascicularis fascicularis).we studied the mitochondrial dna (mtdna) polymorphism of 304 macaca fascicularis fascicularis (m. f. fascicularis) individuals, representative of 4 cynomolgus macaque populations (indochina, indonesia, philippines, and mauritius). by sequencing a 590-bp fragment in the hypervariable ii region of the d-loop region, we defined 70 haplotypes. the homologous region was also characterized in 22 chinese macaca mulatta and 2 macaca sylvanus. the phylogenetic analysis confirms the monophyly of m. f. fas ...200818334507
mating skew in barbary macaque males: the role of female mating synchrony, female behavior, and male-male coalitions.a fundamental question of sexual selection theory concerns the causes and consequences of reproductive skew among males. the priority of access (poa) model (altmann, ann ny acad sci 102:338-435, 1962) has been the most influential framework in primates living in permanent, mixed-sex groups, but to date it has only been tested with the appropriate data on female synchrony in a handful of species. in this paper, we used mating data from one large semi-free ranging group of barbary macaques: (1) to ...201122448085
molecular phylogeny of macaques: implications of nucleotide sequences from an 896-base pair region of mitochondrial dna.we determined the nucleotide sequences of an 896-base pair region of mitochondrial dna (mtdna) from 20 primates representing 13 species of macaques, a baboon, and a patas. we compared these sequences and the homologous sequences from four macaques and a human against each other and deduced the phylogenetic relationships of macaques. the results from the phylogenetic analyses revealed five groups among the macaques: (1) barbary macaque, (2) two species of sulawesi macaques, (3) japanese, rhesus, ...19968752012
adult but not juvenile barbary macaques spontaneously recognize group members from pictures.for group-living animals, it is crucial to distinguish one's own group members from those of other groups. studies applying operant conditioning revealed that monkeys living in relatively small groups are able to recognize their own group members when tested with photographs of group members and other conspecifics. employing a simple looking time paradigm, we here show that barbary macaques living in two social groups comprising 46 and 57 individuals, respectively, at the enclosure 'la forêt des ...201121318387
when dispersal fails: unexpected genetic separation in gibraltar macaques (macaca sylvanus).barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus), now restricted in the wild to a few isolated forested areas of morocco and algeria, are present in a free-ranging colony on gibraltar. for many decades, the gibraltar colony was exposed to multiple bottlenecks due to highly nonrandom removal of animals, followed by repeated introductions of animals from north africa. moreover, because of complete isolation, gibraltar's several social groups of macaques provide an ideal system to study the genetic consequences ...200819238704
fallback foods of temperate-living primates: a case study on snub-nosed monkeys.only a few primate species thrive in temperate regions characterized by relatively low temperature, low rainfall, low species diversity, high elevation, and especially an extended season of food scarcity during which they suffer from dietary stress. we present data of a case study of dietary strategies and fallback foods in snub-nosed monkeys (rhinopithecus bieti) in the samage forest, northwest yunnan, prc. the snub-nosed monkeys adjusted intake of plant food items corresponding with changes in ...200919890849
an experimental investigation of referential looking in free-ranging barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus).the authors examined looking behavior between 15 barbary macaque (macaca sylvanus) infants and their mothers in the presence of a rubber snake (experimental period) and in the absence of the snake (control period). two of the 15 infants looked referentially at their mother in the experimental period. including both referential and nonreferential looks, the six older infants (aged 5 to 12 months) displayed a higher frequency of looks to mother than nine younger infants (aged 3 to 4.5 months) in t ...200818298286
hand preferences in barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus).nearly 90% of humans are right-handed, raising the question of the evolutionary origins of this trait. while lateralisation of certain actions appears to be widespread in vertebrates, the question of whether nonhuman primates exhibit hand preferences at the population level is often contested. we observed barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus) living in the outdoor enclosure "la forêt des singes" at rocamadour, france, while performing simple unimanual and coordinated bimanual tasks. for the unimanu ...200818302057
temporal resolution of dynamic angiography using flat panel volume ct: in vivo evaluation of time-dependent vascular pathologies.background and purpose: recently introduced fpvct scanners can capture volumetric (4d) time-varying projections enabling whole-organ dynamic cta imaging. the main objective of this study was to assess the temporal resolution of dynamic cta in discriminating various phases of rapid and slow time-dependent neurovascular pathologies in animal models. materials and methods: animal models were created to assess phasic blood flow, subclavian steal phenomena, saccular aneurysms, and neuroperfusion unde ...201121835945
intra- and interspecific variation in macaque molar enamel thickness.enamel thickness has played an important role in studies of primate taxonomy, phylogeny, and functional morphology, although its variation among hominins is poorly understood. macaques parallel hominins in their widespread geographic distribution, relative range of body sizes, and radiation during the last five million years. to explore enamel thickness variation, we quantified average and relative enamel thickness (aet and ret) in macaca arctoides, macaca fascicularis, macaca fuscata, macaca mu ...201425146639
fossil remains of macaca sylvanus florentina (cocchi, 1872) (primates, cercopithecidae) from the early pleistocene of quibas (murcia, spain).the macaque material from the early pleistocene site of quibas (albanilla, murcia, spain), including dentognathic remains, isolated teeth and some postcranial bone fragments, is described. both metrically and morphologically, this sample must be attributed to macaca sylvanus (the barbary macaque). this species is currently distributed through north africa and gibraltar, but was much more widely distributed during the plio-pleistocene, being represented by several european fossil subspecies. metr ...201122014683
grooming coercion and the post-conflict trading of social services in wild barbary animal and human societies, social services such as protection from predators are often exchanged between group members. the tactics that individuals display to obtain a service depend on its value and on differences between individuals in their capacity to aggressively obtain it. here we analysed the exchange of valuable social services (i.e. grooming and relationship repair) in the aftermath of a conflict, in wild barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus). the relationship repair function of post- ...201122046398
Intergroup variation in stable isotope ratios reflects anthropogenic impact on the Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) of Gibraltar.Interactions with humans impact many aspects of behavior and ecology in nonhuman primates. Because of the complexities of the human-nonhuman primate interface, methods are needed to quantify the effects of anthropogenic interactions, including their intensity and differential impacts between nonhuman primate groups. Stable isotopes can be used to quickly and economically assess intergroup dietary variation, and provide a framework for the development of specific hypotheses about anthropogenic im ...201121881959
reciprocation and interchange of grooming, agonistic support, feeding tolerance, and aggression in semi-free-ranging barbary macaques.evidence from a range of primate species indicates that grooming can be exchanged either for itself or for other rank-related "commodities," such as agonistic support, feeding tolerance, or reduced aggression. patterns of exchange behavior have been found to vary considerably between species, and understanding the causes of this variation is central to the study of the evolution of primate social systems. it is, therefore, essential that exchange behavior is examined in a wide range of species a ...201121769908
phylogenetic relationships of the macaques (cercopithecidae: macaca), as revealed by high resolution restriction site mapping of mitochondrial ribosomal genes.molecular phylogenetic relationships among all recognized species within the genus macaca, were assessed using high-resolution restriction site mapping of the mitochondrial ribosomal genes. by outgroup comparisons to other members of the cercopithecine subfamily, the macaques appear to be a monophyletic assemblage. within the genus, the relationships are in general consistent with previous genetic studies, though they are less concordant with the separation of the species into four distinct spec ...19989467779
seeing two faces together: preference formation in humans and rhesus macaques.humans, great apes and old world monkeys show selective attention to faces depending on conspecificity, familiarity, and social status supporting the view that primates share similar face processing mechanisms. although many studies have been done on face scanning strategy in monkeys and humans, the mechanisms influencing viewing preference have received little attention. to determine how face categories influence viewing preference in humans and rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta), we performed tw ...201424638876
coalition formation among male barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus).a coalition is formed when one animal intervenes in an ongoing conflict between two parties to support one side. since support of one party is also an act against the other party, coalitions are triadic interactions involving a supporter, a recipient, and a target. the purpose of this study was to test which of three possible theories explains coalition formation among male barbary macaques: 1) males support kin to enhance their indirect fitness (kin selection). 2) males support nonkin to receiv ...200010588434
colitis cystica superficialis: a report of a case in a barbary ape (macaca sylvana).a case of colitis cystica superficialis is described in a barbary ape. early mucosal herniations through the muscularis mucosae were identified, suggesting a possible relationship between this condition and colitis cystica profunda.2000102745
detection of cyclospora in captive chimpanzees and macaques by a quantitative pcr-based mutation scanning approach.cyclospora is a protistan parasite that causes enteritis in several species of animals including humans. the aim of this study was to investigate the presence of cyclospora in captive non-human primates.201525972100
encephalomyocarditis virus infection in macaca sylvanus and hystrix cristata from an italian rescue centre for wild and exotic animals.the encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv) is a small, non enveloped, positive sense single-stranded rna virus in the genus cardiovirus, family picornaviridae, with two known serotypes. it is spread worldwide and infects a huge range of vertebrate hosts with zoonotic potential for humans. the pig is the mammal most likely to be impacted on with the disease, but emcv occurrence has also been reported in non-human primates and in a variety of domestic, captive and wild animals. until now, human cases h ...201627894321
local variation in barbary macaque shrill barks.we examined vocalizations of barbary macaques, macaca sylvanus, given in response to a dog, in two populations, at rocamadour, france, and salem, germany. calls were recorded from 16 individuals in rocamadour and 23 individuals in salem. despite an overall similarity, an acoustic analysis revealed significant differences in the call structure between populations. to test the perceptual salience of these acoustic differences, we conducted playback experiments in both populations in which calls fr ...19989784211
brief communication: self-suckling in barbary macaque (macaca sylvanus) mothers before and after the death of their infant.we report here self-suckling in four wild female barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus), living in two troops (i.e. "flat face" and "large" troop) in the middle-atlas mountains, morocco. the four females lost their infants due to predation or for unknown causes. self-suckling was observed before and after the infants died in the four females living in the "flat face" troop. when the infants were still alive, self-suckling was of short duration and it was probably a method to improve milk flow when t ...200919591209
high rates of ctx-m-15-producing escherichia coli and klebsiella pneumoniae in wild boars and barbary macaques in algeria.the present study aimed to screen for the presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (esbl)-producing enterobacteriaceae in wild boars and barbary macaques in béjaïa and jijel, algeria.201727984780
facial expressions modulate the ontogenetic trajectory of gaze-following among monkeys.gaze-following, the tendency to direct one's attention to locations looked at by others, is a crucial aspect of social cognition in human and nonhuman primates. whereas the development of gaze-following has been intensely studied in human infants, its early ontogeny in nonhuman primates has received little attention. combining longitudinal and cross-sectional observational data from barbary macaques at 'la forêt des singes', we show here that gaze-following among conspecifics develops within the ...201020977562
first evidence of macaca sylvanus (primates, cercopithecidae) from the late pleistocene of lezetxiki ii cave (basque country, spain). 201121481922
seroprevalence of tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) in naturally exposed monkeys (macaca sylvanus) and sheep and prevalence of tbe virus in ticks in a tbe endemic area in a recently published study, a clinical case of severe tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) in a monkey (macaca sylvanus) was described after natural exposure (tick bite) in a tbe endemic area in germany, and from the tissue of this monkey the strain 'salem', closely related to the strain 'neudoerfl', was isolated and characterized. in this study, it was our aim to test all the available data for characterizing a tbe endemic area like tbe cases in humans and animals, tbe virus (tbev) in ticks, and tb ...201021771521
urban primate ranging patterns: gps-collar deployments for macaca fascicularis and m. sylvanus.the global increase in urbanization is leading to heavier interface between humans and wildlife. within these anthropogenic landscapes, little is known about ranging patterns, particularly with regard to urban primates. here we present the results of the first long-term deployment of multiple gps collars on two species of macaques to investigate the impacts of urbanization on urban primate ranging patterns in singapore and gibraltar. collars data acquisition were excellent with respect to the am ...201728419550
on the social life and motivational changes of aging monkeys.although nonhuman primates have been used in biomedical research to develop a better understanding of physiological aging processes, their value as models for studying age-related differences in motivation, cognition, and decision-making has only recently been appreciated. this paper reviews the state of the art, with a focus on a recent study on barbary macaques. a number of studies reported that with increasing age, old world monkeys spend more time resting, have fewer social partners, and/or ...201728624821
using individual attributes to predict hierarchical position in a macaca sylvanus group at 'la forêt des singes', rocamadour.the macaca genus is a biological model for animal societies, known for its social structuration by age, sex, and kinship. we managed to establish a mathematical model, through multiple regression tests, that emphasizes the relationship between several individual attributes (sex, age, matrilineal belonging) with hierarchical rank among a barbary macaque (macaca sylvanus) group (n=50) observed during 11 months at 'la forêt des singes' in rocamdour, france. we established two models according to se ...201525562191
evidence of direct reciprocity, but not of indirect and generalized reciprocity, in the grooming exchanges of wild barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus).reciprocity is one of the mechanisms that have been proposed to explain the exchange of social behaviors, such as grooming, in animals. reciprocity assumes that individuals act as the donor and recipient of grooming and switch roles over time to balance the benefits and costs of this behavior. three main patterns of reciprocity may follow a grooming given: (i) direct reciprocity, where the former recipient returns the grooming to the former donor; (ii) indirect reciprocity, where another individ ...201728598515
experience-based human perception of facial expressions in barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus).facial expressions convey key cues of human emotions, and may also be important for interspecies interactions. the universality hypothesis suggests that six basic emotions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise) should be expressed by similar facial expressions in close phylogenetic species such as humans and nonhuman primates. however, some facial expressions have been shown to differ in meaning between humans and nonhuman primates like macaques. this ambiguity in signalling em ...201728584731
social networks dynamics revealed by temporal analysis: an example in a non-human primate (macaca sylvanus) in "la forêt des singes".this study applied a temporal social network analysis model to describe three affiliative social networks (allogrooming, sleep in contact, and triadic interaction) in a non-human primate species, macaca sylvanus. three main social mechanisms were examined to determine interactional patterns among group members, namely preferential attachment (i.e., highly connected individuals are more likely to form new connections), triadic closure (new connections occur via previous close connections), and ho ...201728464245
age, but not anthelmintic treatment, is associated with urinary neopterin levels in semi-free ranging barbary macaques.studying host parasite interactions and their implications for evolution and ecology recently received increasing attention, particularly with regard to host physiology and immunity. here we assess variation of urinary neopterin (uneo), a marker of cellular immune activation and iummunosenescence, in response to age and anthelmintic treatment in semi-free ranging barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus). urinary neo levels were measured via enzyme-immunoassay from 179 urine samples of 43 individuals b ...201728155915
triadic awareness predicts partner choice in male-infant-male interactions in barbary knowledge beyond one's direct relationships is a key in successfully manoeuvring the social world. individuals gather information on the quality of social relationships between their group companions, which has been termed triadic awareness. evidence of the use of triadic awareness in natural contexts is limited mainly to conflict management. here we investigated triadic awareness in wild barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus) in the context of bridging interactions defined as male-infant-mal ...201727734208
motivational shifts in aging monkeys and the origins of social humans age, they become more selective regarding their personal goals [1] and social partners [2]. whereas the selectivity in goals has been attributed to losses in resources (e.g., physical strength) [3], the increasing focus on emotionally meaningful partners is, according to socioemotional selectivity theory, driven by the awareness of one's decreasing future lifetime [2]. similar to humans, aging monkeys show physical losses [4] and reductions in social activity [2, 5-7]. to disentangle a ...201627345168
insights into the genetic foundation of aggression in papio and the evolution of two length-polymorphisms in the promoter regions of serotonin-related genes (5-httlpr and maoalpr) in papionini.aggressive behaviors are an integral part of competitive interactions. there is considerable variation in aggressiveness among individuals both within and among species. aggressiveness is a quantitative trait that is highly heritable. in modern humans and macaques (macaca spp.), variation in aggressiveness among individuals is associated with polymorphisms in the serotonergic (5-ht) neurotransmitter system. to further investigate the genetics underlying interspecific variation in aggressiveness, ...201627287312
assessing the effects of tourist provisioning on the health of wild barbary macaques in morocco.feeding wildlife is a very popular tourist activity, largely because it facilitates the close observation of animals in their natural habitat. such provisioning may benefit animals by improving their survival and reproductive success, especially during periods of natural food shortage. however, provisioning by tourists may also have negative impacts on the health of the animals involved; to date such impacts are poorly understood. here, we investigated the effects of tourist provisioning on the ...201627203861
behavioral responses to injury and death in wild barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus).the wounding or death of a conspecific has been shown to elicit varied behavioral responses throughout thanatology. recently, a number of reports have presented contentious evidence of epimeletic behavior towards the dying and dead among non-human animals, a behavioral trait previously considered uniquely human. here, we report on the behavioral responses of barbary macaques, a social, non-human primate, to the deaths of four group members (one high-ranking adult female, one high-ranking adult m ...201627194051
the influence of gender, age, matriline and hierarchical rank on individual social position, role and interactional patterns in macaca sylvanus at 'la forêt des singes': a multilevel social network approach.a society is a complex system composed of individuals that can be characterized by their own attributes that influence their behaviors. in this study, a specific analytical protocol based on social network analysis was adopted to investigate the influence of four attributes (gender, age, matriline, and hierarchical rank) on affiliative (allogrooming) and agonistic networks in a non-human primate species, macaca sylvanus, at the park la forêt des singes in france. the results show significant dif ...201627148137
metabolic strategies in wild male barbary macaques: evidence from faecal measurement of thyroid hormone.selection is expected to favour the evolution of flexible metabolic strategies, in response to environmental conditions. here, we use a non-invasive index of basal metabolic rate (bmr), faecal thyroid hormone (t3) levels, to explore metabolic flexibility in a wild mammal inhabiting a highly seasonal, challenging environment. t3 levels of adult male barbary macaques in the atlas mountains, morocco, varied markedly over the year; temporal patterns of variation differed between a wild-feeding and a ...201627095269
investigating potential effects of the contraceptive implanon on the behavior of free-ranging adult female barbary recent years, the use of hormonal contraception in captive, free-ranging, and wild mammal populations has increased, but the effects on these nonhuman animals' behavior and the associated welfare impacts remain poorly understood. this study of free-ranging adult female barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus) at trentham monkey forest compared females implanted with the progestin-only contraceptive implanon to those not receiving contraception. females with contraceptive implants had higher rates o ...201626466916
cooperation in wild barbary macaques: factors affecting free partner choice.a key aspect of cooperation is partner choice: choosing the best available partner improves the chances of a successful cooperative interaction and decreases the likelihood of being exploited. however, in studies on cooperation subjects are rarely allowed to freely choose their partners. group-living animals live in a complex social environment where they can choose among several social partners differing in, for example, sex, age, temperament, or dominance status. our study investigated whether ...201626350639
primates' behavioural responses to tourists: evidence for a trade-off between potential risks and benefits.the presence of, and interactions with tourists can be both risky and beneficial for wild animals. in wildlife tourism settings, animals often experience elevated rates of aggression from conspecifics, and they may also be threatened or physically aggressed by the tourists themselves. however, tourist provisioning of wild animals provides them with highly desirable foods. in situations of conflicting motivations such as this, animals would be expected to respond using behavioural coping mechanis ...201627628213
social climber: independent rise in rank by a female barbary macaque (macaca sylvanus). 20072227725
occurrence of carbapenemase-producing enterobacteriaceae isolates in the wildlife: first report of oxa-48 in wild boars in algeria.the aim of the present study was to screen for the presence of carbapenemase-producing enterobacteriaceae (cpe) isolates from wild boars and barbary macaques in algeria. fecal samples were collected from wild boars (n = 168) and barbary macaques (n = 212), in bejaia, algeria, between september 2014 and april 2016. the isolates were identified and antimicrobial susceptibility was determined. carbapenem resistance determinants were studied using pcr and sequencing, while clonal relatedness was per ...201728799835
differential kinship effect on reconciliation in three species of macaques (macaca fascicularis, m. fuscata, and m. sylvanus).macaque societies are typically characterized by despotic dominance styles and strong bonds between related individuals. interspecies variation in dominance style, however, has been recently documented. this study investigated whether kinship effects on social interactions vary depending on the species dominance style. reconciliation was chosen as as a measure of relationship quality between group members. groups of japanese (macaca fuscata) and long-tailed (m. fascicularis) macaques were select ...19979090139
correlates of androgens in wild male barbary macaques: testing the challenge hypothesis.investigating causes and consequences of variation in hormonal expression is a key focus in behavioral ecology. many studies have explored patterns of secretion of the androgen testosterone in male vertebrates, using the challenge hypothesis (wingfield, hegner, dufty, & ball, 1990; the american naturalist, 136(6), 829-846) as a theoretical framework. rather than the classic association of testosterone with male sexual behavior, this hypothesis predicts that high levels of testosterone are associ ...201728833343
social interactions through the eyes of macaques and primates frequently interact with each other to maintain social bonds as well as to compete for valuable resources. observing such social interactions between group members provides individuals with essential information (e.g. on the fighting ability or altruistic attitude of group companions) to guide their social tactics and choice of social partners. this process requires individuals to selectively attend to the most informative content within a social scene. it is unclear how no ...201323457569
whom to groom and for what? patterns of grooming in female barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus).grooming is one of the most conspicuous social interactions among nonhuman primates. the selection of grooming partners can provide important clues about factors relevant for the distribution of grooming within a social group. we analyzed grooming behavior among 17 semi-free ranging female barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus). we tested whether grooming is related to kinship, rank and friendship. furthermore, we tested whether grooming is reciprocated or exchanged for rank related benefits (i.e. l ...201525668722
the functions of non-reproductive mounts among male barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus).same-sex, non-reproductive mounts have been observed in a number of primate species and in various social contexts. however, the function of non-reproductive mounts is still largely unknown. we aimed to test whether non-reproductive mounts function to assert dominance and as appeasement behavior in male barbary macaques. we analyzed post-mount behavior in 54 macaques belonging to two captive groups at trentham monkey forest in staffordshire, using 10 min post-mount/matched-control focal sessions ...201526204882
rank-dependent grooming patterns and cortisol alleviation in barbary macaques.flexibly adapting social behavior to social and environmental challenges helps to alleviate glucocorticoid (gc) levels, which may have positive fitness implications for an individual. for primates, the predominant social behavior is grooming. giving grooming to others is particularly efficient in terms of gc mitigation. however, grooming is confined by certain limitations such as time constraints or restricted access to other group members. for instance, dominance hierarchies may impact grooming ...201525759208
dental shape variability in cercopithecoid primates: a model for the taxonomic attribution of macaques from roman archaeological contexts.morphometric variation of biological structures has been widely used to determine taxonomic affinities among taxa, and teeth are especially informative for both deep phylogenetic relationships and specific ecological signals. we report 2-dimensional geometric morphometrics (gm) analyses of occlusal crown surfaces of lower molars (m1, n = 141; m2, n = 158) of cercopithecoid primate species. a 12-landmark configuration, including cusp tips and 8 points of the molar crown contour, were used to eval ...201425720443
is diet flexibility an adaptive life trait for relictual and peri-urban populations of the endangered primate macaca sylvanus?habitat loss, fragmentation and urban expansion may drive some species to marginal habitats while others succeed in exploiting urban areas. species that show dietary flexibility are more able to take advantage of human activities to supplement their diet with anthropogenically abundant and accessible resources. the barbary macaque (macaca sylvanus) is an endangered species due to the loss of its habitat, and human pressure. the population of gouraya national park (algeria) lives in a relictual h ...201525714476
reproductive success in relation to dominance rank in the absence of prime-age males in barbary some primate species dominance rank of males is correlated with reproductive success, whereas in other species this relationship is inconsistent. barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus) live in a promiscuous mating system in which males are ranked in a dominance hierarchy that influences their access to females. high-ranking males usually monopolize fertile females during their estrous period and show increased mating activities. subadult males generally rank below adult males. for barbary macaque ...200817583557
influence of perineal swellings on behavior and stress reaction in levonorgestrel implanted macaca sylvanus females.contraceptives are common tools in controlling the reproductive physiology in primates. levonorgestrel, a synthetic gestagen, can usually enable contraception and does not suppress the extension of perineal swellings.201316648796
patterns of anogenital swelling size and their endocrine correlates during ovulatory cycles and early pregnancy in free-ranging barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus) of macaques and other cercopithecoid primates, large anogenital swellings (as) are generally found only in those species in which reproduction is not seasonally restricted. in this respect, the barbary macaque is unusual because while it shows a marked degree of reproductive seasonality, it also exhibits a striking, exaggerated swelling of the circumanal region and labia. information on the characteristics of as in female barbary macaques is limited in that it is largely based on semiquantitativ ...200516104035
responses to social and environmental stress are attenuated by strong male bonds in wild humans and obligatory social animals, individuals with weak social ties experience negative health and fitness consequences. the social buffering hypothesis conceptualizes one possible mediating mechanism: during stressful situations the presence of close social partners buffers against the adverse effects of increased physiological stress levels. we tested this hypothesis using data on social (rate of aggression received) and environmental (low temperatures) stressors in wild male barbary ma ...201425489097
an overview of the barbary macaque, macaca sylvanus, vocal repertoire.this study provides an overview of the vocalizations of barbary macaques, macaca sylvanus. spectrographic displays of calls are presented along with photographs of the accompanying facial gestures. we give a general description of the contexts in which the different calls are uttered, with special regard to the age and sex of the caller. the vocal repertoire of barbary macaques mainly consists of screams, shrill barks, geckers, low-frequency pants and grunts, with gradation occurring within and ...200312065939
testing the reliability of noninvasive genetic sampling by comparing analyses of blood and fecal samples in barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus).genetic studies of wild animal populations are often hindered by difficulties in obtaining blood samples. recent advances in molecular biology have allowed the use of noninvasive samples as sources of dna (e.g., hair or feces), but such samples may provide low-quality dna and prevent the determination of true genotypes in subsequent dna analysis. we present a preliminary study aimed at assessing the reliability of using fecal samples for genotyping in barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus). the test ...200111746278
sequence conservation of nine barbary macaque (macaca sylvanus) microsatellite loci: implication of specific primers for genotyping. 200411490133
structural architecture of the social network of a non-human primate (macaca sylvanus): a study of its topology in la forêt des singes, rocamadour.for a decade, technological or natural networks have appeared to have a common mathematical architecture. this type of architecture has a node connectivity which follows a power law distribution. this architecture confers to these networks a resistance property to the loss of nodes. such properties are advantageous for evolutional networks through time. thus, this architecture can be expected in animal social networks. another characteristic commonly met concerns the structuration of the network ...201424902777
perception of female reproductive state from vocal cues in a mammal species.while acoustic signalling by males is known to affect male-male competition, mate attraction and the timing of ovulation, the extent to which sexual selection has shaped the evolution of female acoustic signals is poorly understood. among mammals, experimental evidence indicates that females attract mating partners by using olfactory and visual signals to advertise their reproductive state. whether or not males ascertain female reproductive state from vocal signals has, however, never been syste ...200010821617
concealing of facial expressions by a wild barbary macaque (macaca sylvanus).behavioural research on non-vocal communication among non-human primates and its possible links to the origin of human language is a long-standing research topic. because human language is under voluntary control, it is of interest whether this is also true for any communicative signals of other species. it has been argued that the behaviour of hiding a facial expression with one's hand supports the idea that gestures might be under more voluntary control than facial expressions among non-human ...201424770588
genetic differentiation within and between isolated algerian subpopulations of barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus): evidence from microsatellitesthis study of wild-living algerian barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus) was designed to examine genetic variability in subpopulations isolated in residual forest patches, in an attempt to obtain data on the effects of habitat fragmentation. the wild population of this species (estimated at a maximum of 15,000) is vulnerable and this study therefore has direct relevance for conservation measures. data from five microsatellite loci were analysed for 159 individuals from nine different groups living ...199910199007
vigilance during foraging and allogrooming in semi-free-ranging barbary macaques. 19989885342
preference for human eyes in human infants.despite evidence supporting an early attraction to human faces, the nature of the face representation in neonates and its development during the first year after birth remain poorly understood. one suggestion is that an early preference for human faces reflects an attraction toward human eyes because human eyes are distinctive compared with other animals. in accord with this proposal, prior empirical studies have demonstrated the importance of the eye region in face processing in adults and infa ...201424581972
the socioecology of infant handling in primates: is the current model convincing?a strong interest shown by females towards infants other than their own is one of the most consistent behavioral traits found in primates, including humans. species differences exist, however, in the extent mothers allow other group members to interact with their offspring. socioecological theory predicts that in species characterized by relaxed, egalitarian dominance relations mothers should allow extensive interactions between their infants and other individuals from the first weeks of life, w ...199923179530
the function of barbary macaque copulation a wide variety of animal species, females produce vocalizations specific to mating contexts. it has been proposed that these copulation calls function to incite males to compete for access to the calling female. two separate advantages of inciting male-male competition in this way have been put forward. the first suggests that as a result of calling, females are only mated by the highest ranking male in the vicinity (indirect mate choice hypothesis). the second proposes that copulation callin ...19989523431
effect of habitat quality on diet flexibility in barbary macaques.barbary macaques live in extreme temperate environments characterized by strongly seasonal resource availability. they are mainly terrestrial while foraging, harvesting food from the herbaceous layer. these monkeys are threatened mainly because of anthropogenic habitat degradation. we studied the adaptive capacities of wild groups of barbary macaques that lived in different cedar forests undergoing varying extents of grazing pressure from domestic livestock. in all three sites, diet varied seaso ...201424573596
parentage analysis within a semi-free-ranging group of barbary macaques macaca sylvanus.this study of a group of semi-free-ranging barbary macaques macaca sylvanus aimed to determine paternity, to establish whether any individual male achieved prominent mating success and to assess genetic variability. analyses involved electrophoresis of 15 blood protein systems and multilocus dna fingerprinting (isotopic and nonisotopic). genetic variability was low; only two blood protein systems were polymorphic. although all dna-fingerprints were individual-specific, they showed a high average ...19957711950
barbary macaques challenge theory of female choice. 19921631553
dna fingerprinting reveals that infant care by male barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus) is not paternal investment. 19921612538
birth of a barbary macaque (macaca sylvanus): acoustic and behavioural features. 19892807096
the world's first surviving macaca sylvanus twins in a semifree-ranging colony. 19873454341
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