drug biotransformation in microsomes from the fetal stumptailed macaque, macaca arctoides: hepatic n-demethylation.the kinetics of the n-demethylation of benzphetamine, ethylmorphine, meperidine, and methadone have been studied in microsomes isolated from livers of the fetal stumptailed macaque (macaca arctoides) during the last third of gestation. the apparent km for each substrate did not change during this time period. values were similar to those from livers of adult african green monkeys. the vmax for each substrate, when expressed per mg of microsomal protein, did not change during the last third of ge ...197610140
longitudinal study of experimentally induced periodontal disease in macaca arctoides: relationship between microflora and alveolar bone loss.macaca arctoides monkeys develop periodontal disease, and they harbor a periodontopathic indigenous flora largely similar to that of humans. this study showed that various haemophilus isolates and h2o2-splitting asaccharolytic bacteroides melaninogenicus strains constituted major segments of the monkey periodontal microflora. these organisms have not been previously identified among human isolates. furthermore, the present data revealed that asaccharolytic b. melaninogenicus strains increased in ...197933902
experimental design for the surgical relocation of the ovary into the vaginal fornix.after translocation into the vaginal vault while attached to a pedicle consisting of the infundibulo-pelvic ligament, the ovary was found to maintain its function in laboratory primates. in the majority of the baboons the ovulatory pattern returned within a few weeks after the surgical procedure. the only significant complication was a transitory, and self-limited, infection which was evident on inspection and on the biopsy specimens, but caused no clinical symptoms. by comparing the surgical ou ...197945099
acid mucopolysaccharides in hair papillae of the stump-tailed macaque (macaca speciosa).acid mucopolysaccharides in dermal papillae of hair follicles from both bald and on-bald regions of the scalp of stump-tailed macaques were studies histochemically. alcian blue, azure a and periodic acid schiff methods were used for staining mucopolysaccharides, and bromphenol blue for staining basic proteins. in an attempt to identify various polyanions, staining was carried out with alcian blue containing different concentrations of electrolytes. methylation, saponification, mild acid hydrolys ...197657948
sawtooth waves: concomitants of rapid eye movement sleep in monkeys.sawtooth waves, 2--3 c/sec activity of at least 40 micro v, occurred primarily during clusters of rems in stump-tailed macaques. on the average the activity began well after the onset of rems but occasionally occurred soon before or immediately after a cluster of rems. the activity was clearly defined but occupied less than 0.6% of an 8-h sleep record. a sawtooth burst was, on the average, 7.5 sec in duration.197878813
isolation and characterization of an endogenous type c virus of rhesus monkeys.a type c retrovirus was isolated from a continuous cell line established from a spontaneous esophageal carcinoma of a rhesus monkey (macaca mulata) by prolonged cocultivation with canine cells. a dna transcript of the viral rna hybridized to a high level and kinetic analysis indicated the presence of multiple copies of the viral genome in rhesus monkey dna, showing that the virus is endogenous in this species. the rhesus monkey virus closely resembles, in several respects, an endogenous type c v ...197987013
visual evoked potentials in monkeys.visual evoked potentials (veps) were recorded from 2 cortical sites in stump-tailed macaques. veps recorded from striate cortex were basically consistent between animals (especially at low light intensity), remained remarkably stable over time, and compared favorably to veps reported by other investigators. we concluded that the vep recorded from the striate cortex of day-active monkeys consists of 5 major peaks within the first 250 msec. the potentials recorded from post-central gyrus were simp ...197989947
identification of the primate papovavirus hd as the stump-tailed macaque virus.the recently isolated primate papovavirus hd is shown to be indistinguishable from the stump-tailed macaque virus by immunofluorescent reactivity, by restriction endonuclease analysis, and by nucleic acid hybridization assay.197990163
diet-induced atherosclerosis and experimental hypertension in stumptail macaques (macaca arctoides). effects of antihypertensive drugs and a non-atherogenic diet in the evolution of lesions.this study was carried out to determine the evolution of atherosclerotic lesions during a therapeutic period during which regression might be appreciated. we produced aortic and coronary atherosclerosis in 27 young adult stumptail macaques (macaca arctoides) by feeding a diet supplemented with 2% cholesterol and 25% fat. hypertension was produced by bilateral or unilateral narrowing of the renal artery. after six months of this regimen, four monkeys were killed (group 1) and 23 monkeys were divi ...197896844
diphenylhydantoin gingival hyperplasia in macaca arctoides: prevention by inhibition of dental plaque deposition. 1978100589
construction of hemibladders and cutaneous vesicostomies for bilateral renal function studies. a new technique in macaca arctoides.a surgical technique for the construction of hemibladders and permanent cutaneous vesicostomies in macaca arctoides is described. serial studies of renal function were performed in sedated monkeys before and 1 or more months after division of the bladder. the results of the studies confirm our previous observation that renal function in monkeys is comparable to that in man and show that (i) the surgical procedure is successful in the majority of instances; (ii) simultaneous determinations of ren ...1978101480
blood groups of macaques:a comparative study.distribution of the human-type and of the simian-type blood groups in rhesus, crab-eating, bonnet, pig-tailed and stump-tailed macaques revealed significant similarities and differences among these species. human-type a--b-o blood groups cut across taxonomic lines and seem less value for taxonomic purposes than the simian-type blood groups detected by cross-reacting isoimmune rhesus monkey sera.1978101667
some effects of living conditions upon the pattern of growth in the stumptail macaque (macaca arctoides).somatometric and weight measurements of stumptail macaques (macaca arctoides) bred in various environmental conditions are presented. environmental parameters may influence the pattern of growth in slowing down the 'growth rate' of monkeys bred in restricted laboratory environment as compared with monkeys bred in 'optimal' captive conditions: their subadult and adult linear dimensions are smaller.1978102573
an intracortical microstimulation study of output organization in precentral cortex of awake primates.we investigated the output organization of the forelimb control area in primate precentral cortex by using low-current (less than 30 microamperemeter) intracortical microstimulation (icms). movement about a joint was selected as the index of response. penetrations perpendicular to the cortical surface and deep into the rostral bank of the central sulcus were made in two awake unanesthetized monkeys (macaca arctoides). cortical areas were designated by the joint about which movements occurred. 1. ...1978102772
purification and characterization of monkey salivary mucin.highly purified mucin was prepared from monkey (macaca arctoides) extraparotid saliva by sequential chromatography on sephadex g-200 (followed by reduction and alkylation of void volume materials), sepharose cl-2b with 6 m urea, and cm52 cellulose with 6 m urea. purity was critically ascertained by anion exchange chromatography, ultracentrifugal analysis, isoelectric focusing, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis, and crossed immunoelectrophoresis. use of crossed immunoelectroph ...1979105008
microbial composition of monkey dental plaque (macaca arctoides and macaca fascicularis).the supragingival and subgingival dental plaque flora of macaca arctoides and macaca fascicularis monkeys were examined using mylar strip impressions, direct smears, and culture techniques. in smears, samples generally contained 40--50% cocci, 20--30% rods 8--20% fusiform bacteria, and 4--5% each of filaments, vibrios and spirochetes. differences in the ratios of the various bacterial groups related to age and sex were found. several monkey bacterial species were similar to those in human dental ...1979106462
ontogeny of the visual evoked response in the stump-tailed macaque.visual evoked responses (ver's) of stump-tailed macaques were studied from birth to 80 weeks in an attempt to establish the utility of this species as a model of human neurophysiological development. although human subjects and monkeys share a unique complexity of the ver at birth, the postnatal development of their ver's does not appear to follow a parallel sequence. the relatively dynamic nature of the ver during the 1st few weeks in a monkey's life may limit the usefulness of this species as ...1979110637
drug metabolism by the fetal stump-tailed monkey (macaca arctoides). hepatic microsomal n-demethylation and glucuronidation as measured by radiometric assays.sensitive radiometric assays were adapted to study the development and kinetics of meperidine and methadone n-demethylation and morphine glucuronidation by microsomes isolated from livers of fetal stump-tailed macaques (macaca arctoides). times in development selected for study were midterm, three-quarter term, near term and newborn (0.5 h and 14 days). with appropriate attention to keeping blanks low, hepatic drug metabolism was demonstrable as early as midterm. vmax for the n-demethylation rea ...1979113790
immunofluorescent and immunoelectron microscopic demonstration of primate heart muscle antigens cross-reactive with streptococcus pyogenes.the presence of antigens in heart muscles cross-reactive with antibodies against streptococcus pyogenes were examined in heart samples of seven primate species (chimpanzee, rhesus macaque, stump-tailed macaque, hamadryas baboon, capuchin monkey, green monkey and patas monkey). cross-reactive antigens were localized by means of the indirect immunofluorescent technique in nearly all samples tested. the fluorescence pattern was the same as found in the heart muscle of other mammals. using the indir ...1979116866
the lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in macaca arctoides.the amniotic fluid lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio (l/s ratio) of stumptail macaque monkeys (macaca arctoides) was investigated by means of serial amniocenteses during the second half of pregnancy. ten dated pregnancies were studied in 9 individual monkeys. the mean number of successful amniocenteses per pregnancy was 4. a rapid increase in the l/s ratio suggesting maturation of lung surfactant synthesis occurred as early as 130--140 days of pregnancy in some animals, and as late as 150--160 days i ...1979118898
weights and heights of stump-tailed macaques (macaca arctoides) living in colony groups.weights and heights of adults, week-old infants, and animals of intermediate ages were obtained from colony groups of stump-tailed macaques and are compared with similar measurements of rhesus, japanese macaques, and other stump-tailed monkeys.1979120444
experimental congenital infection of toxoplasma gondii in macaca arctoides.congenital toxoplasmosis was studied in macaca arctoides as a model for primates. time-mated female monkeys were assigned to 5 experimental groups and inoculated with 4 different strains of toxoplasma gondii before pregnancy and during various stages of gestation. all monkeys showed a rise in indirect hemagglutination antibody (iha) titers following infection, and some had demonstrable parasitemia. of the 23 progeny, 2 were stillbirths and 2 died soon after birth, but only the one neonate born o ...1979120735
transmission of creutzfeldt-jakob disease to the stumptail macaque (macaca arctoides).the successful transmission of creutzfeldt-jakob disease from both affected human and chimpanzee brain to stumptail macaques has been accomplished. the incubation period of 5 yr was the same for both animals; however, the course of the disease was longer in the animal receiving the human brain. in both cases, initial mild symptoms slowly remitted only to reappear some 4 mo later. muscle biopsies revealed changes suggestive of a mild neuropathy. in addition, there appeared to be an increased abil ...1975124873
cell surface antigens detected in cell lines established from lymphomatous papio hamadryas and macaca arctoides monkeys.cell surface antigens associated with bone marrow cell cultures from leukemic monkeys of species papio hamadryas and macacus arctoides were visualized by means of an indirect immunofluorescence method with sera from leukemic baboons. the same immune serum gave two types of immunofluorescence, depending on the origin of the target cells. fluorescence of the ring-reaction type was seen with papio hamadryas bone marrow cell cultures growing in suspension and containing the baboon herpesvirus, where ...1976185533
mac-1, a new genetically transmitted type c virus of primates: "low frequency" activation from stumptail monkey cell cultures.a new class of endogenous primate type c virus has been isolated from a continuous tissue culture line of macaca arctoides cells by co-cultivation with a human cell line. the virus, designated mac-1, can be transmitted to human and feline cells in tissue culture, and is unrelated, by immunological and nucleic acid hybridization criteria, to previously characterized retroviral isolates of primates. in particular, mac-1 shows no detectable homology to the baboon type c viruses, even though viral g ...1978207440
sustained ingestion of methadone and the sleep of monkeys.methadone hcl was administered daily to four stump-tailed macaques. the animals' sleep was periodically examined throughtout a year of methadone maintenance and, in two animals, during eight months of withdrawal. rem sleep was substantially decreased by methadone treatment and gradually returned to predrug values over a 6- to 8-month period of maintenance. measures of non-rem sleep and awakenings showed similar disruption with no return to predrug values. these changes were not correlated with a ...1978216046
ultrastructural organization of thrombocytes in normal monkeys (macaca arctoides) and in those with experimental viral malignant on platelet ultrastructure of 6 m. arctoides monkeys investigated before and during experimental viral malignant lymphoma are presented. it has been established that the inner structure of thrombocytes in healthy monkeys was almost similar to that of man. in experimental malignant lymphoma, irrespective of the clinical period of the disease, a decrease of alpha-, beta- and sigma-granules, a decrease of the functional activity of thrombocytes and an increase of delta-granules and glycogen gr ...1978217710
evolutionary relationships of the primate papovaviruses: base sequence homology among the genomes of simian virus 40, stump-tailed macaque virus, and sa12 virus.physical maps of the genomes of the two newly discovered primate papovaviruses, sa12 and stump-tailed macaque virus (stmv), were generated by restriction endonuclease analysis. the base sequence homologies among the genomes of sa12, stump-tailed macaque virus, and simian virus 40 (sv40) were studied by heteroduplex analysis. heteroduplexes between sa12 and sv40 dnas and stump-tailed macaque virus and sv40 dnas were constructed and mounted for electron microscopy in various amounts of formamide t ...1979224219
vaginal transposition of the ovary in primates (papio cynocephalus and macaca arctoides).experimental data indicate that the time and mechanism of ovulation play a significant role in some cases of infertility and in a broad range of reproductive abnormalities. in order to establish a new experimental model for the study of these phenomena in primates, transposition of the ovary from the pelvis into the vaginal fornix was attempted in 2 species of monkeys: (a) macaca arctoides and (b) papio cynocephalus. particularly in the latter species, ovarian relocation into the anterior and th ...1978278593
biochemical and immunological comparison of monkey (macaca arctoides) and human salivary secretions.1. salivary secretions of the stumptail monkey (macaca arctoides) were compared biochemically and immunologically with human salivas. 2. similarities in biochemical composition and antigenic profiles as seen by immunoelectrophoresis indicate that monkey salivas can provide an excellent model system to study the role of saliva in the oral ecology of man.1978318352
congenital transmission of a papovavirus of the stump-tailed macaque.stump-tailed macaque virus, a newly recognized papovavirus of the sv40 polyoma subgroup, was demonstrated in kidney cultures from each of five stump-tailed macaque fetuses in the second half of gestation and from six adult stump-tailed macaques. such regular presence of virus in the fetus is an unusual feature for a papovavirus.1977401546
endocrine characterization of the menstrual cycle of the stumptailed monkey (macaca arctoides).the endocrine characterization of the menstrual cycle of the stumptailed monkey was determined and compared with that of the rhesus monkey. serum concentrations of luteinizing hormone (lh), estradiol-17beta, and progesterone were determined on a daily basis from 5 monkeys. differences included: 1) basal and peak concentrations of lh 40% of those in rhesus monkeys, 2) an estraidol peak occurring on the day proceding lh peak, 3) an estradiol peak on the 3rd day after lh surge and representing t ...1977403966
the character and results of comparative experimental therapy of tuberculosis in macaca arctoides monkeys. 1977404782
diphenylhydantoin gingival hyperplasia in macaca arctoides: a new human model. 1977405470
field potentials in primate locus coeruleus following stimulation of the dorsal noradrenergic bundle.stimulation of the dorsal noradrenergic bundle, but not of adjacent areas, elicited field potentials in the locus coeruleus in the stumptail monkey (macaca arctoides). this result suggests a procedure for locating the dorsal noradrenergic bundle in vivo.1977407984
primate model for the evaluation of vaginal contraceptives.a good animal model that simulates the human subject has not been available for the evaluation of the in vivo effectiveness of vaginal contraceptives. after careful consideration. the stumptailed macaque (macaca arctoides) was studied for its applicability since it has a reproductive tract similar to that of the woman, is easy to handle, does not require tranquilization or anesthesia when the contraceptive is deposited, and breeds and conceives readily under caged conditions. the reported observ ...1977410295
mechanical work in terrestrial locomotion: two basic mechanisms for minimizing energy expenditure.the work done during each step to lift and to reaccelerate (in the forward direction) and center of mass has been measured during locomotion in bipeds (rhea and turkey), quadrupeds (dogs, stump-tailed macaques, and ram), and hoppers (kangaroo and springhare). walking, in all animals (as in man), involves an alternate transfer between gravitational-potential energy and kinetic energy within each stride (as takes place in a pendulum). this transfer is greatest at intermediate walking speeds and ca ...1977411381
blood groups of pig-tailed macaques (macaca nemestrina).the human-type a-b-o blood groups of 57 pig-tailed macaques (macaca nemestrina) were determined and the calculated gene frequencies, o = 0.8908, a = 0.0825 and b = 0.0267, gave excellent fit with the hypothesis of inheritance by triple allelic genes. in tests for simian-type blood groups with rhesus, baboon and crab-eating macaque immune antisera, it was shown that the red cells of pig-tailed macaques are polymorphic for several simian-type specificities defined by those cross-reacting sera. pig ...1978416724
preliminary observations on the effects of 19-hydroxy prostaglandin e-1 on the activity of the human myometrium in vitro.the principal prostaglandin of human semen, 19 hydroxy pge-1, inhibited spontaneous contractile activity of myometrium from non-pregnant women in vitro. this inhibition was similar to that caused by pge-1. the inhibitory effects of natural 19 hydroxy pge-1, prepared from semen of macaca arctoides, were similar to those of synthetic 19 hydroxy pge-1.1979469855
intrapulmonary airway morphology in three species of monkeys: a correlated scanning and transmission electron microscopic study.intrapulmonary airways were studied in rhesus (macaca mulatta), stumptail (macaca arctoides), and bonnet (macaca radiata) monkeys by correlated scanning and transmission electron microscopy. lobar, segmental, and subsegmental bronchi in all three macaques were lined by pseudostratified columnar epithelium composed primarily of ciliated cells, mucous cells, and basal cells. neuronal processes and cells containing dense-core vesicles were also observed. terminal bronchioles in bonnet and stumptail ...1975804810
scopolamine effects on visual discrimination: modifications related to stimulus control.stumptail monkeys (macaca arctoides) performed a discrete trial, three-choice visual discrimination. the discrimination behavior was controlled by the shape of the visual stimuli. strength of the stimuli in controlling behavior was systematically related to a physical property of the stimuli, luminance. low luminance provided weak control, resulting in a low accuracy of discrimination, a low response probability and maximal sensitivity to scopolamine (7.5--60 mug/kg). in contrast, high luminance ...1975810573
comparison of visually guided reaching in normal and deprived infant monkeys.a stump-tailed macaque, deprived of sight of its hands and body since shortly after birth, appears to be deficient in the accuracy and precision of its visually guided reaching. these deprived monkeys quickly develop adequate reaches if they are allowed to view their hands. to assess the deficit, we developed a method of open-loop testing (no sight of the reaching limb) for use on both an experimental group deprived of sight of limbs and a control group raised under identical restraints but allo ...1975811753
sustained ingestion of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and the operant behavior of stump-tailed macaques.three stump-tailed macaques were trained to press a lever for liquid reinforcement on a tandem schedule which required the animal to delay responding for at least 30 sec after each reinforcer. if the animal responded during that interval, a clock was reset thus re-establishing the delay requirement. if he delayed responding appropriately, the monkey was shifted to a fixed-interval schedule of 135 sec duration. the fi component was terminated with a drop of flavored liquid at which point the dela ...1975817298
erythroid and myeloid regeneration after nitrogen mustard therapy, autologous bone marrow transplantation, and treatment with an anabolic steroid.stumptailed monkeys (macaca arctoides) received a lethal nitrogen mustard injection. autologous bone marrow reinjection resulted in survival of the majority of animals. treatment with an anabolic steroid accelerated erythropoietic and leukopoietic recovery. this appears to be related to increased erythropoietin production and increased number of colony forming units in the bone marrow.1976819607
trypanocidal effect of diamidine 98/202 in experimental trypanosoma rhodesiense infection of the stumptailed macaque (macaca arctoides).the trypanocidal effect of preparation 98/202, a 6-amidino-2-(4'-amidinophenyl)-thionaphthene dilactate, was investigated in 4 stumptailed macaques (macaca arctoides) infected with trypanosoma rhodesiense (strain: hamburg, 1962), of which 2 animals had been treated previously with diminazene and pentamidine, respectively. the curative treatment with preparation 98/202 was carried out in all cases in the late stage of infection; at the beginning of treatment 3 of the 4 animals had already shown m ...1976821190
effect of halothane and halothane-nitrous oxide on hematocrit and plasma protein concentration in dog and monkey.hematocrit and plasma protein concentration in healthy dogs and monkeys (macaca arctoides) awake and anesthetized with halothane-oxygen and halothane-nitrous oxide oxygen were compared during conditions of spontaneous and controlled ventilation. both hematocrit and plasma protein concentration decreased within 15 minutes following anesthetic induction. this decrease persisted throughout constant- or variable-depth anesthesia and did not vary appreciably with ventilation, anesthetic dose, or intr ...1976821370
antenatal sex determination in macaca arctoides.transabdominal amniocentesis was performed on 11 macaca arctoides, between the 10th and 20th weeks of gestation, for the purpose of antenatal sex determination. the technique employing y-chromatin fluorescence was unsuccessful in predicting sex, but the sexes were differentiated with complete accuracy by examining amniotic cells stained by a modified papanicolaou technique. of the cells from male fetuses, fewer than 10% contained x-chromatin (barr bodies); of those from females, more than 45% co ...1976823052
behavioral effects of stimulation of the nucleus locus coeruleus in the stump-tailed monkey macaca arctoides. 1976824026
homosexual behavior in a laboratory group of stumptail monkeys (macaca arctoides): forms, contexts, and possible social functions.observations of stumptail monkeys revealed frequent prolonged, intensive genital stimulation between individuals of the same sex, both males and females, adults and infants. these homosexual interactions occurred in positive emotional contexts, were accompanied by positive emotional facial expressions, and often were evidently elictied by the observation of heterosexual behavior. infants' first copulations were performed with adults of the same or opposite sex who actively aided them. this sugge ...1976827276
the occurrence of free vs. conjugated mhpg in non-human and human primate has been found that in the brain of the non-human primate (macaca arctoides) mhpg occurs principally if not exclusively in the free rather than the conjugated form. it has also been found that in all areas of human brain examined mhpg is present in the free form rather than the conjugated form. the quantity of free mhpg present in various structures of human brain ranged from 46.4 to 69.8 microng/gm of tissue.1976828967
heterosexual copulatory patterns in stumptail macaques (macaca arctoides) and in other macaque species.a comparison of the mating behavior patterns of several macaque species reveals that the mating behavior of macaca arctoides exhibits several unique features. the laboratory groups of stumptail monkeys observed had exceptionally long single-mount copulations characterized by a large number of pelvic thrusts, a slow thrusting rate, and an unusually salient male orgasmic pattern (characterized by body rigidity followed by body spasms and a typical facial expression and vocalization). the frequency ...19751119937
intramembrane organization of specialized contacts in the outer plexiform layer of the retina. a freeze-fracture study in monkeys and rabbits.freeze-fracture analysis of the neural connections in the outer plexiform layer of the retina of primates (macaca mulatta and macaca arctoides) demonstrates a remarkable diversity in the internal structure of the synaptic membranes. in the invaginating synapses of cone pedicles, the plasma membrane of the photoreceptor ending contains an aggregate of a-face particles, a hexagonal array of synaptic vesicle sites, and rows of coated vesicle sites, which are deployed in sequence from apex to base o ...19751127010
ultrastructure of the developing fetal hepatocyte of macaca arctoides: a proposed model for studies of fetal drug metabolism.the ultrastructure of the hepatocyte of the fetal stumptail monkey was examined with the aim of defining a possible model for studies of fetal drug metabolism. hepatocytes from fetuses of 80 and 160 days gestation, as well as from one animal one week of postnatal age, were examined and compared to human fetal hepatocytes at 12 and 16 weeks gestation. marked variation was observed in the amount of lipid and the distribution of organelles within the cytoplasm of the hepatocyte in the monkey popula ...19751155786
electrocardiographic studies in the stumptail macaque (macaca arctoides).our study has defined normal electrocardiographic standards for macaca arctoides. it appears that certain species differences exist in the electrocardiogram (ecg) in monkeys and that different criteria for normality may be necessary. thus, in apparently normal macaca arctoides a high frequency of q waves and st segment elevations of the j point type are present compared to macaca mulatta. it is suggested that normal ecg criteria be established for each species of monkeys to allow accurate interp ...19751159349
alkylmercurial encephalopathy in the monkey (saimiri sciureus and macaca arctoides): a histopathologic and autoradiographic study.histopathologic and autoradiographic studies were performed on monkeys of the genera saimiri and macaca after acute and chronic oral exposure to several dosage regimens of methylmercuric chloride (mehg). neuropathologic changes were primarily cortical, although subcortical lesions also were observed. autoradiographic localization of 203-hg was greatest within glial cells (particularly nissl-pump astrocytes, subependymal glia and bergmann's glia) and mast cells. high levels of label within normal ...19751170707
evidence for a lentiviral etiology in an epizootic of immune deficiency and lymphoma in stump-tailed macaques (macaca arctoides).a retrospective study determined that an epizootic of immune suppression and lymphoma in stump-tailed macaques (macaca arctoides) that began in 1976 was associated with a horizontally spread lentivirus infection. this conclusion was based on serology, epidemiology, pathology, and virus isolation. the lesions found in the stump-tailed macaques were more compatible with lesions seen in siv-infected rhesus than those seen in rhesus macaques infected with type d retroviruses. a lentivirus, isolated ...19921318381
serological survey of a captive macaque colony in china for antibodies to simian type d retroviruses.sera from 510 macaques consisting of macaca mulatta, macaca assamensis, macaca fascicularis, macaca nemestrina, and macaca arctoides were investigated for antibodies to simian aids type d retrovirus (srv) by elisa and western blot with viral antigens purified from supernatants of srv-1 infected cell cultures. of these monkeys, 104 were seropositive by elisa; only 23 were confirmed by western blot. the true positive reaction to srv was found in 15 of 463 (3.2%) m. mulatta and eight of eleven (72. ...19921339171
increased sexual behavior in male macaca arctoides monkeys produced by atipamezole, a selective alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist.the effect of a highly selective and potent alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, atipamezole, on sexual behavior was studied in three stumptail macaques (macaca arctoides). following im administration of atipamezole or saline control, the behavior of the male monkey with a female monkey was observed for 30 min. atipamezole dose dependently (0.01-0.15 or 0.30 mg/kg) produced a significant increase in the number of ejaculations in all three monkeys, including an old one with decreased sexual activity ...19921356274
studies on tumor induced angiogenesis.methods were developed to test angiogenic response to human tumor implants and various biologic agents in the cornea of rabbits and non-human primates (macaca arctoides). crude pdgf preparations were found to have significant angiogenic effect. purified, recombinant pdgf preparations were also effective inhibitors (e.g. pentoxifylline (px) (which also were found to release pgi2 and t-pa) inhibited human tumor implant induced angiogenesis and reduced spontaneous metastases in 3 transplantable mur ...19921377568
shared antigenic epitopes of the major core proteins of human and simian immunodeficiency virus isolates.antigenic epitopes on the major core (gag) protein of isolates of simian and human immunodeficiency virus (siv and hiv) were compared using a panel of eleven mouse monoclonal antibodies (mabs) that recognized nine distinct gag epitopes. viral isolates used for comparison were hiv-1iiib, hiv-2rod, and siv isolates from macaque (sivmac), sooty mangabey (sivsm-ucd), african green monkey (sivagm), and stump-tailed macaque (sivstm-ucd). the relatedness of the various hiv and siv isolates, as determin ...19921383547
pharmacokinetics of the organic nitrates trans-2-amino-2-methyl-n-(4- nitroxycyclohexylmethyl)-propionamide in dogs, and of 4-(2-nitroxyethyl)-piperidine in dogs and in monkeys.the plasma concentrations of the organic nitrates (nitric acid esters) trans-2-amino-2-methyl-n-(4-nitroxycyclohexylmethyl)-propionamide (bm 12.1200) and of 4-(2-nitroxyethyl)-piperidine (bm 12.1173, cas 129999-77-5) were determined in dog plasma by capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection (gc-ecd). intra- and interassay variation coefficients of the gas chromatographic analysis lay between 2.9 and 8.8%; recoveries amounted to 50-62%. both nitric acid esters were absorbed qui ...19921472139
altered precision grasping in stumptail macaques after fasciculus cuneatus lesions.patterns of precision grasp are described in stumptail macaques (macaca arctoides) before and after lesions of the fasciculus cuneatus (fc). three monkeys were videotaped while reaching for and grasping small food items. from these videotapes, records were made of the style and outcome of each grasp. kinematic measurements were also made to describe grip formation and terminal grasp. during grip formation, grip aperture was measured as the distance between the tips of the index finger and the th ...19921595322
alterations of natural hand movements after interruption of fasciculus cuneatus in the part of a series of investigations on the control of fine finger movements in the macaque, spontaneous use of the hand in grooming, scratching, and manipulation was observed before and after interruption of fasciculus cuneatus (fc). videotaped observations were made of four stumptail macaques (macaca arctoides) living outdoors in social groups. the monkeys were followed for 1 to 3 years postoperatively. for the first 2 weeks following surgery, all monkeys neglected the affected hand and did n ...19921595323
immunoneutralization and immunocytochemical localization of inhibin alpha subunit during the mid-luteal phase in the stump-tailed macaque.the putative endocrine role of inhibin in the control of fsh secretion during the luteal phase in the primate was investigated by immunoneutralization. antisera against the 1-23 amino acid sequence of the n-terminus of the human inhibin alpha subunit were raised in a ewe and three macaques. antisera (10-20 ml) were administered to macaques on day 8/9 of the luteal phase and serum samples collected during the treatment cycle and post-treatment cycle for determination of fsh, oestradiol and proges ...19921613435
characterization of monoclonal antibodies that distinguish simian immunodeficiency virus isolates from each other and from human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2.two monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against p27 and one against p17 of simian immunodeficiency virus (siv) from rhesus macaques were produced and characterized by reacting with disrupted, viral antigens on immunoblots. human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1), hiv-2 and siv isolates from sooty mangabey, stump-tailed macaque, rhesus macaque and african green monkey (sivsm, sivstm, sivmac and sivagm) were used for comparative analysis. the p27 monoclonal antibodies he3 and fa2 reacted with sivmac ...19901689369
siv of stump-tailed macaque (sivstm) is a divergent asian isolate.analysis of molecularly cloned dnas of sivs isolated from asian rhesus macaque (macaca mulatta; sivmac) and pig-tailed macaque (macaca nemestrina; sivmne) has indicated a high degree of sequence homology between these viruses. thus sivmac and sivmne might have originated from the same or very closely related viruses. we have cloned and sequenced a pcr-amplified segment containing the ltr sequences of siv originating from a stump-tailed macaque (macaca arctoides; sivstm). comparative sequence ana ...19911719204
studies on tumor induced angiogenesis.methods were developed to test the angiogenic response to human tumor implants and various biologic agents in the cornea of rabbits and non-human primates (macaca arctoides). human malignant melanoma tissue and crude platelet derived growth factor (pdgf) preparations had significant angiogenic effects. purified, recombinant pdgf preparations were also effective initiators. hemorheologic agents which also inhibit platelet aggregation [e.g. pentoxifylline (px) (trental) (also found to release pgi2 ...19911725679
siv from stump-tailed macaques: molecular characterization of a highly transmissible primate lentivirus.over the past 6 years, simian immunodeficiency viruses (sivs) have been isolated from four distinct species of macaques (macaca mulatta, m. fascicularis, m. nemestrina, and m. arctoides) in captivity in the united states. however, the epidemiologic and genetic relationships among sivs from the four species are not well understood. siv from stump-tailed macaques (m. arctoides) (sivstm) is unusual in that it has been associated with outbreaks of infection characterized by aggressive spread within ...19921733112
effect of perivascular sympathectomy on distal adrenergic innervation in the hands of monkeys.perivascular sympathectomy has been thought to cause distal adrenergic denervation. we performed perivascular sympathectomy for a distance of 1 cm. on two common digital arteries in the right hands of two anaesthetised macaca arctoides monkeys. four days later, samples were taken for glyoxylic acid-induced fluorescence examination of the operated and opposite control hand. the distal adrenergic nerves were morphologically normal in appearance after the perivascular sympathectomy. the operation s ...19911779148
atherogenic effect of barotrauma on in situ saphenous veins in monkeys.the objectives of this study were to determine whether veins subjected to barotrauma in situ undergo lipid uptake and morphologic changes to the same extent as veins grafted into the arterial circulation. saphenous veins in seven stump-tailed macaque monkeys were exposed bilaterally and were circumferentially dissected free from surrounding tissue only at isolated sites. segments of the veins were distended for 1 minute at hydrostatic pressures of 125 or 350 mm hg. an undistended segment served ...19911881183
synergistic effects of kinship, sex and rank in the behavioural interactions of captive stump-tailed almost all non-human primate species kinship, sex and rank bias the patterning of interactions among subjects, seemingly in a way that favours the individual's fitness. a number of studies have been done in order to study separately the effects of these variables, concluding that an adequate model of interactions cannot be developed assuming preponderance of a single variable. the 'willingness' of one animal to interact with another can be explained as the result of assessing the possible out ...19911937281
a highly divergent simian immunodeficiency virus (sivstm) recovered from stored stump-tailed macaque tissues.we report here the results of molecular analysis of a simian immunodeficiency virus (designated sivstm) which was isolated from a rhesus monkey inoculated with stored lymph node tissue of an asian stump-tailed macaque. the latter monkey had died in 1977 during an epidemic of acquired immunodeficiency and lymphoma at the california regional primate research center (l. j. lowenstine, n. w. lerche, p. a. marx, m. b. gardner, and n. c. pedersen, p. 174-176, in m. girard and l. valette, ed., retrovir ...19911942258
x-ray induced translocations in premeiotic germ cells of monkeys.the induction of reciprocal translocations by various x-ray exposures was studied in spermatogonial stem cells of rhesus monkeys (macaca mulatta) and stump-tailed macaques (macaca arctoides) by means of spermatocyte analysis many cell generations after irradiation. the yields of translocations recovered from irradiated stump-tailed macaques were lower than those observed in rhesus monkeys and represent in fact the lowest induction rates per gy ever recorded for experimental mammals. in the rhesu ...19911944375
[comparative analysis of genomes of oncogenic b-lymphotropic herpesviruses reproducing in cell lines obtained from different monkey species].the aim of this work was to study genomes of b-lymphotropic oncogenic herpesviruses of macaca arctoides (hvma), papio hamadryas (hvp) and cercopithecus aethiops (hvgm). blot-hybridization detected inter- and intraspecific genome heterogeneity of investigated viruses in restriction sites ecor1, pst1 and hind111. virus-specific sequences in two-cell lines obtained from hvma-induced rabbit tumours can prove hvma a role in malignant tumour induction in rabbits.19901964615
[therapy of salmonellosis in macaca arctoides].four clinically normal m. arctoides shed salmonella infantis after the stress of transportation. one animal developed diarrhea and died. after therapy with 30 mg chloramphenicol/kg bw orally for two times eight days, thereafter 10 mg neomycin/kg bw orally for eight days and finally 2 mg gentamicin/kg bw i. m., they still shed s. infantis. oral application of daily 100 mg ofloxacin (tarivid) for 10 days and repetition of that same therapy for seven days after one week without therapy terminated s ...19902080512
effects of dominance rank on d-amphetamine-induced increases in aggression.previous research has suggested that certain social factors, e.g., dominance rank, can determine the behavioral effects of drugs in individual members of a social group. in the present experiment, the effects of d-amphetamine were studied in two adult male monkeys with dominance rankings that changed during a reorganization of the social hierarchy in a captive group of stumptail macaques (macaca arctoides). a range of doses of d-amphetamine was administered to each subject, and dose-effect curve ...19902087491
neural control of eye growth and experimental myopia in primates.macaque monkeys become myopic when raised with fused lids to expose the retina to formless shadows during the period of postnatal eye development. the effect of the abnormal visual input is an excessive expansion of the posterior segment of the eye, a process that seems to be controlled by the nervous system. the mechanism by which the nervous system influences eye growth appears to be different in the stumptailed macaque (macaca arctoides) and the rhesus macaque (m. mulatta). lid-fused arctoide ...19902088678
the complete nucleotide sequence of bovine polyomavirus.the complete sequence of the genome of bovine polyomavirus (bpyv), formerly known as the ck isolate of the stump-tailed macaque virus, is presented. the genomic organization of bpyv is similar to that of the non-rodent polyomaviruses. with a genome size of 4697 bp, bpyv has the smallest polyomavirus genome known so far. when compared to simian virus 40 (sv40), the shortness of the bpyv genome is due mainly to differences in the coding capacity of the bpyv early region. the first exon of the prop ...19902167926
[analysis of b-lymphotropic oncogenic herpesvirus of macaca arctoides].some physico-chemical and molecular-biological parameters of b-lymphotropic herpes virus of macaca arctoides (hvma) have been analyzed. the buoyant density of virions and nucleocapsids in a gradient of the percoll density is 1.10 and 1.14 g/ml, respectively, while that of dna in cscl gradient is 1.717 g/ml, which is typical for herpes viruses of primates. at the same time the homology of dna hvma with dna ebv and dna hvp is 30-45%. differences in restrictions sites between dna hvma, dna hvp and ...19902175699
dose-response effects of pentoxifylline on erythrocyte filterability: clinical and animal model studies.ten patients with chronic occlusive arteriosclerosis received single oral doses of 100, 200, 400, 800, and 1200 mg pentoxifylline in a single-blind, placebo-controlled study. blood samples were drawn at baseline and at 2 hour intervals for 6 hours. drug and metabolite levels, as well as red cell filterability (deformability), were determined on all blood samples. statistically significant dose-response increases of red cell filterability were found 4 and 6 hours after oral medication with the do ...19902196145
histologic, morphometric, and biochemical evolution of vein bypass grafts in a nonhuman primate model. ii. modification of early changes by platelet inhibition with aspirin and dipyridamole.the objective of this study was to determine the early influence of platelet inhibition on the histologic, morphometric, and biochemical evolution of vein bypass grafts in a nonhuman primate model. cephalic vein grafts were interposed bilaterally in the femoral arteries of 15 stump-tailed macaque monkeys fed a diet that sustains plasma cholesterol levels of approximately 225 mg/dl. all animals received in combination aspirin, 80 mg/day, and dipyridamole, 50 mg/day. grafts were excised from five ...19902294342
histologic, morphometric, and biochemical evolution of vein bypass grafts in a nonhuman primate model. i. sequential changes within the first three months.the objective of this study was to define the histologic and morphometric evolution that accompanies the increase in cholesterol content of vein bypass grafts in a nonhuman primate model. cephalic vein grafts were interposed bilaterally in the femoral arteries of 15 stump-tailed macaque monkeys (macaca arctoides), which were fed a diet that sustains plasma cholesterol levels of approximately 225 mg/dl. grafts were excised from five animals for analysis on each of postoperative days 3, 7, 14, 30, ...19902294369
effects of morphine on colonic myoelectric and motor activity in subhuman primates.we investigated the effects of numerous doses of morphine on colonic myoelectric and motor activity in monkeys. in each of four monkeys (macaca arctoides), combined strain gauge transducers and bipolar electrodes were chronically implanted at four defined sites in the colon and recordings were made for 3 h in fasted, unanesthetized animals before and after intravenous administration of morphine sulfate (10-1,000 micrograms/kg). the basal fasting pattern of colonic motility was characterized by r ...19902305891
histologic, morphometric, and biochemical evolution of vein bypass grafts in a nonhuman primate model. iii. long-term changes and their modification by platelet inhibition with aspirin and dipyridamole.the objectives of this study were to elucidate the long-term influence on vein bypass grafts of platelet inhibition and its late discontinuation. cephalic vein grafts were interposed bilaterally in the femoral arteries of stump-tailed macaque monkeys fed a diet that sustains plasma cholesterol levels of approximately 225 mg/dl. fifteen animals were divided into three groups of five animals each. group i received no medications and served as a control group. group ii received for the full duratio ...19902308360
temporomandibular joint forces measured at the condyle of macaca arctoides.forces were measured at the articular surface of the temporomandibular joint (tmj) condyle in two stump-tail monkeys (macaca arctoides) during chewing, incisal biting, and drinking and also during aggressive behaviors. force was measured with a thin piezoelectric foil transducer, which was cemented over the anterior and superior surfaces of the condyle. wires from the upper and lower surfaces of the foil were insulated between two layers of teflon tape and run subcutaneously to a telemetry unit, ...19902353676
the pharmacology of nedocromil sodium.the pathophysiology of obstructive airways disease involves, in varying degree, components of reversible bronchoconstriction, inflammation and bronchial hyperreactivity. this multifactorial aetiology is the probable reason why no single animal model exists which is predictive of therapeutic efficacy in airway diseases, including asthma. nedocromil sodium has therefore been profiled in a number of systems ranging from simple in vitro tests and in vivo models of passive anaphylaxis to complex mode ...19862429854
characterization of primate bronchoalveolar mast cells. i. ige-dependent release of histamine, leukotrienes, and prostaglandins.large numbers of functional mast cells were obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (bal) of macaca arctoides monkeys that had been infected with the nematode ascaris suum. these lavage cells, of which 21% were mast cells, released histamine, ltc4, and pgd2 in a concentration-dependent fashion when challenged with ascaris antigen or antibody to human ige. however, there was no release of histamine when these cells were challenged with compound 48/80. the amount of mediator released was highly depende ...19862431048
characterization of primate bronchoalveolar mast cells. ii. inhibition of histamine, ltc4, and pgd2 release from primate bronchoalveolar mast cells and a comparison with rat peritoneal mast described in the preceding companion paper, bronchoalveolar lavage (bal) of the primate macaca arctoides infected with the nematode ascaris suum yields a population of cells containing a high proportion of mast cells (21%). nedocromil sodium, a new drug undergoing clinical evaluation for the treatment of reversible obstructive airways disease, inhibited the release of histamine, ltc4, and pgd2 from these cells challenged with antigen (with ic30 values of 2.1 x 10(-6) m, 2.3 x 10(-6) m, and 1. ...19862431049
increase in retinal vasoactive intestinal polypeptide after eyelid fusion in primates.lids were fused in six neonatal and one adult macaque monkey (macaca mulatta and macaca arctoides) and were kept fused for 1 to 18.5 months. the juvenile macaques, but not the adult one, developed myopia due to excessive elongation of the eye. in all animals, the immunohistochemical reactivity of the retina for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (vip) was much higher in the closed than in the open eyes. the neuropeptide was localized to the perikaryon and dendrites of amacrine cells. no differenc ...19882448769
predictive structure-activity relationships in a series of pyranoquinoline derivatives. a new primate model for the identification of antiallergic activity.a new primate model has been developed for the evaluation of antiallergic agents. compounds are tested for their ability to inhibit anti-ige induced histamine release from the bronchoalveolar mast cells lavaged from the lungs of macaca arctoides infected with the parasite ascaris suum. a number of 6-substituted pyranoquinoline derivatives have been evaluated and the activities were subjected to hansch analysis. a highly significant correlation with lipophilicity (pi) and hammett sigma p values w ...19882455052
complete primary structure of statherin, a potent inhibitor of calcium phosphate precipitation, from the saliva of the monkey, macaca arctoides.human saliva, which is supersaturated with respect to basic calcium phosphate salts, is stabilized primarily by the presence of two classes of phosphoproteins, statherin and the acidic proline-rich proteins (prp). these molecules act by inhibiting both primary (spontaneous) precipitation of calcium phosphates in saliva and secondary (surface induced) precipitation of these salts onto dental enamel. the complete amino-acid sequences of several human prp and the n-terminal sequence of prp from sal ...19892613439
scanning electron microscopy of monkey secretory- and transitional-stage enamel organ cells.this scanning electron microscope (sem) study of secretory- and transitional-stage enamel organ cells of the permanent dentition of macaca mulatta and macaca arctoides was undertaken because the topography of these cells in primates has not been described in the literature. comparison of our results with murine enamel organ morphology reported previously revealed not only many similarities, but also some significant differences. tooth buds of the permanent dentition were routinely prepared for s ...19892632602
[microbiological development studies in a clinically healthy, closed primate colony (macaca mulatta, macaca arctoides) after the establishment of a salmonella infection].a case of a salmonella infantis septicemia in a primate (macaca mulatta) probably induced by shipment stress gave rise to microbiological examination of fecal samples from all animals of a since 1976 closed colony of macaca mulatta and macaca arctoides. during 3 investigations carried out in 3 week intervals salmonella-positive animals were separated immediately from the stock. at the first examination 3 of 52, and at the second 2 of 49 samples were found to be salmonella-positive. at the third ...19892781877
deprived somatosensory-motor experience in stumptailed monkey neocortex: dendritic spine density and dendritic branching of layer iiib pyramidal cells.infant macaque monkeys (macaca arctoides) were individually raised to age 6 months in large clear cubes built into one wall of a control colony that allowed them visual access to it but not tactile contact. the two deprivation conditions (cond 2 and cond 3) were equal both in physical size and with respect to partial social isolation. they differed in the degree of somatosensory-motor opportunity available during development in that the cond 2 chamber was empty, whereas cond 3 contained ladders, ...19892794116
[signs of natural infection with hepatitis a in brown macaques (macaca arctoides)].the results of examinations of stump-tailed monkeys (m. arctoides) held in captivity are presented. the presence and levels of anti-hav and anti-hav class m in the blood sera of monkeys were determined by the enzyme-immunoassay (eia), and alanine aminotransferase (aiat) activity was measured. hav in stool specimens collected from the monkeys was detected by immune electron microscopy and eia. in the first examination, 2 out of 10 monkeys were found to have anti-hav and one of them to have anti-h ...19872829437
[the immune structure and specific laboratory indices of acute hepatitis a in lower monkeys of the sukhumi nursery].the study of the rate of occurrence of hepatitis a (ha) markers among monkeys, both newly arriving and those born and living for long periods (aboriginals) in the sukhumi farm, was carried out. the rate of detection of antibody to hav (anti-hav) was shown to vary from 47% (papio hamadryas) to 100% (macaca arctoides and macaca fascicularis). the level of infection with hav varied among different groups of the same species: macaca rhesus from 30% to 96%, papio hamadryas from 0 to 82%. during a lon ...19882854676
[monkey b-lymphocyte subpopulations transformed by baboon herpes virus in vivo and in tissue cultures].baboon herpes virus (bhv) similarly to human epstein-barr virus shows tropism to b cell subpopulation. in lymphoblastoid cultures transformed in vitro by bhv no e-rfc (t cells) are found but there are b cells with surface and cytoplasmic immunoglobulins. in a number of cultures igm could be detected only in the cell cytoplasm. e-rfc are detectable in cultures in early passages but not after 17 passages which may be due to their elimination. the time course of cell-mediated immunity values was st ...19853000082
cloning and characterization of budgerigar fledgling disease virus, an avian polyomavirus.the dna of a virus isolated from fledgling budgerigars, designated bfdv, was cloned and analyzed with regard to its relationship to the polyomavirus subgroup of the papovavirus family. under relaxed conditions, the dna of bfdv cross-hybridized with the dnas of members of the polyomavirus subgroup, such as the mouse polyomavirus, the monkey viruses simian virus 40, stump-tailed macaque virus, and lymphotropic papovavirus, and the human viruses jcv and bkv. under stringent conditions, however, no ...19863010557
sleep in macaca arctoides and the effects of prazosin.polygraphic (eeg, eog, emg) 12-hr recordings were made in 3 adult monkeys (macaca arctoides) to document their normal sleep pattern and to examine the effects of prazosin, an alpha-1-adrenoceptor antagonist. in comparison to man, rem episodes appeared at shorter intervals (50 min) and they always ended in movement arousal or waking up. as in man the proportion of deep sleep decreased and the proportion of rem sleep increased towards morning. during eight hours after parenteral administration of ...19863016775
monkeys infected with ascaris suum (a new in vivo model of airway disease): protective effect of nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate against bronchial antigen challenge.the experimental infection of macaca arctoides monkeys with the nematode parasite ascaris suum induces an ige-mediated immediate hypersensitivity reaction similar to that seen in naturally sensitive animals. in the present study, the effects of inhalation of ascaris suum antigen on lung function in infected monkeys were investigated, together with the effects of aerosolized nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate (each 4 mg) given 5 min prior to antigen challenge. ascaris suum-infected macaca ...19863021491
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