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[cytogenetic study of six species or sub-species of mangabeys monkeys (papiinae, cercopithecidae) (author's transl)].chromosome banding patterns of six mangabey species or sub-species are studied and compared. by comparison with the other papiinae previously studied (papio and macaca) lophocebus albigena and l. aterrimus possess very similar karyotypes, differing a most by a pericentric inversion of the y chromosome. the other four, cercocebus torquatus torquatus, c. t. fuliginosus, c. galeritus galeritus and c. g. chrysogaster differ by a complex rearrangement of chromosome no. 10 and by acquisition of hetero ...1979115374
quantification and excretion profiles of pteridines in primate urine.biopterin, 6-hydroxymethyl-pterin, isoxanthopterin, neopterin and, pterin were quantified in stress-free collected spontaneous morning urine samples from callithrix jacchus, saguinus fuscicollis, saguinus labiatus, saimiri sciureus, presbytis entellus, cercopithecus albogularis, cercocebus torquatus, macaca fascicularis, hylobates concolor, pongo pygmaeus, and gorilla gorilla. in most species, biopterin was the most frequent urinary pteridine followed by neopterin. sex differences in biopterin a ...19921404333
experimental leprosy in monkeys. i. sooty mangabey monkeys: transmission, susceptibility, clinical and pathological findings.a total of 31 sooty mangabey monkeys (smm) (cercocebus torquatus atys) inoculated by various routes with differing numbers of smm-origin mycobacterium leprae (ml) and 4 smm inoculated with human-origin ml were observed for 4-12 years. smm-origin ml was more pathogenic in smm than human-origin ml. the spectrum of disease ranged from indeterminate to borderline and lepromatous in different animals. some animals developed pure neural leprosy. erythema nodosum leprosum (snl) was also observed. combi ...19957637533
learning to outwit a competitor in mangabeys (cercocebus torquatus torquatus).to investigate whether monkeys would be able to acquire the location of hidden food from the experimenter and later from an informed conspecific, a group of 7 mangabeys (cercocebus torquatus torquatus) was tested in an experimental design comparable to menzel's (1974) with chimpanzees. food was hidden in the presence of particular animals. an informed young male repeatedly lost his food to a dominant male. accordingly, the young male developed a pattern, when he alone was informed, of moving in ...19948026168
isolation and characterization of simian immunodeficiency virus from african white-crowned mangabey monkeys (cercocebus torquatus lunulatus).forty-eight of 236 sera from seven species of african non-human primates in kenya, including those of white-crowned mangabey monkeys (cercocebus torquatus lunulatus) had antibodies to simian immunodeficiency viruses (sivs). isolates of simian lentivirus were obtained from seropositive white-crowned mangabey monkeys which are indigenous in west africa. this virus, designated as sivwcm, appeared morphologically similar to hiv by electron microscopy, showed mg(2+)-dependent reverse transcriptase ac ...19938470959
genetic characterization of new west african simian immunodeficiency virus sivsm: geographic clustering of household-derived siv strains with human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtypes and genetically diverse viruses from a single feral sooty mangabey troop.it has been proposed that human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (hiv-2) originated from simian immunodeficiency viruses (sivs) that are natural infections of sooty mangabeys (cercocebus torquatus atys). to test this hypothesis, sivs from eight sooty mangabeys, including six new viruses from west africa, were genetically characterized. gag and env sequences showed that while the viruses of all eight sooty mangabeys belonged to the sivsm/hiv-2 family, each was widely divergent from sivs found earlie ...19968648696
hematology and serum chemistry in the white-crowned mangabey (cercocebus torquatus lunulatus) and in the mandrill (mandrillus sphinx).reference values of some hematologic and plasma chemical parameters were established in two species of clinically normal cercopithecidae. the following variables were studied in seven mandrills (mandrillus sphinx) and nine white-crowned mangabeys (cercocebus torquatus lunulatus): hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte and leucocyte counts, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, glucose, urea, uric acid, cholesterol, creatinine, ...19968906607
natural infection of a household pet red-capped mangabey (cercocebus torquatus torquatus) with a new simian immunodeficiency virus.a seroprevalence survey was conducted for simian immunodeficiency virus (siv) antibody in household pet monkeys in gabon. twenty-nine monkeys representing seven species were analyzed. by using human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (hiv-2)/sivsm, sivmnd, and sivagm antigens, one red-capped mangabey (rcm) (cercocebus torquatus torquatus) was identified as harboring siv-cross-reactive antibodies. a virus isolate, termed sivrcm, was subsequently established from this seropositive rcm by cocultivation ...19989420264
parallel evolution of ccr5-null phenotypes in humans and in a natural host of simian immunodeficiency virus.the c-c chemokine receptor ccr5 in humans and rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta) serves as the primary coreceptor for cellular entry by macrophagetropic strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) and all reported strains of simian immunodeficiency virus (siv) [1-6]. humans homozygous for a 32 bp deletion allele of ccr5, resulting in a null phenotype, are highly resistant to infection by hiv-1 [7-9], prompting development of therapies and vaccines targeting ccr5. we now report a novel d ...19989707408
sivrcm infection of macaques.in a prior report, we described the isolation and characterization of sivrcm, a distinct primate lentivirus found in a household pet red-capped mangabey (rcm) in gabon. sivrcm is divergent from hiv-1 and hiv-2/siv families of primate lentiviruses. in this report, additional in vitro replication studies and the results of sivrcm infection in macaques are presented. sivrcm causes little cytopathic effedct in molt 4 clone 8 cells and in rhesus and human pbmcs. in vivo, sivrcm is non-pathogenic afte ...19989747949
some gastro-intestinal parasites of zoonotic (public health) importance commonly observed in old world non-human primates in kenya.a study was undertaken to categorise some gastro-intestinal (git) parasites commonly observed in kenyan non-human primates (nhps) on the basis of their health implications for humans. six species of locally available non-human primates, namely olive baboons (papio cyanocephalus anubis), vervet monkey (cercopithecus aethiops), sykes monkey (cercopithecus mitis), black and white colobus (colobus abyssinicus), debrazzas monkey (cercopithecus neglectus) and grey and black mangabeys (cercocebus torqu ...19989776144
a novel simian immunodeficiency virus (sivdrl) pol sequence from the drill monkey, mandrillus leucophaeus.the drill monkey has been shown by serology and pcr to harbor a unique simian immunodeficiency virus (sivdrl). a pol sequence, amplified from uncultured peripheral blood cells, is most closely related to the equivalent siv sequences from the red-capped mangabey (sivrcm), the sabaeus african green monkey (sivagmsab), and the chimpanzee (sivcpz) and to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) sequence of humans. it is as yet unclear whether sivdrl has a mosaic genome like sivrcm and sivagms ...19989811781
natural infection of a homozygous delta24 ccr5 red-capped mangabey with an r2b-tropic simian immunodeficiency virus.a homozygous 24-bp deletion (delta24) was found in the cc chemokine receptor 5 (ccr5) of 11 out of 15 red-capped mangabeys (rcms), cercocebus torquatus torquatus, both in africa and in an american zoo. the ccr5 delta24 defect encompassed eight amino acids in frame in the fourth transmembrane region. unexpectedly, rcm-009, one of 11 homozygotes (delta24ccr5/ delta24ccr5), was found to be naturally infected with a divergent simian immunodeficiency virus (siv) strain, which was not r5-tropic, but u ...19989841919
genetically engineered mengo virus vaccination of multiple captive wildlife species.encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv), has caused the deaths of many species of animals in zoological parks and research institutions. the audubon park zoo, (new orleans, louisiana, usa) attempted vaccination of several species with a killed emcv vaccine with mixed results. this paper reports an attempt at vaccination against emcv using a genetically engineered, live attenuated mengo virus (vmc0) at the audubon park zoo and miami metro zoo, (miami, florida, usa) from december 1996 to june 1997. seve ...199910231768
use of inhibitors to evaluate coreceptor usage by simian and simian/human immunodeficiency viruses and human immunodeficiency virus type 2 in primary cells.we have used coreceptor-targeted inhibitors to investigate which coreceptors are used by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1), simian immunodeficiency viruses (siv), and human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (hiv-2) to enter peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc). the inhibitors are tak-779, which is specific for ccr5 and ccr2, aminooxypentane-rantes, which blocks entry via ccr5 and ccr3, and amd3100, which targets cxcr4. we found that for all the hiv-1 isolates and all but one of the hi ...200010888629
comparative expression of hedonic impact: affective reactions to taste by human infants and other primates.this study examines behavioral affective reactions elicited by tastes from eight newborn human infants, and from 27 other infant or adult primates. non-human primates belonged to 11 species: three great apes (chimpanzee, orangutan, gorilla), three old world monkeys (rhesus monkey, greater spot-nosed monkey, and red-capped mangabey), four new world monkeys (golden-handed tamarin, cotton-top tamarin, white tufted-ear marmoset, and humboldt's night monkey), and one lemur (mongoose lemur). the taste ...200111166078
wild mandrillus sphinx are carriers of two types of lentivirus.mandrillus sphinx, a large primate living in cameroon and gabon and belonging to the papionini tribe, was reported to be infected by a simian immunodeficiency virus (siv) (sivmndgb1) as early as 1988. here, we have identified a second, highly divergent sivmnd (designated sivmnd-2). genomic organization differs between the two viral types; sivmnd-2 has the additional vpx gene, like other sivs naturally infecting the papionini tribe (sivsm and sivrcm) and in contrast to the other sivmnd type (here ...200111435589
synthetic peptide strategy for the detection of and discrimination among highly divergent primate lentiviruses.we developed a simple, rapid, inexpensive, and highly sensitive and specific strategy for the detection and lineage differentiation of primate lentiviruses (piv-elisa). it is based on the use of two indirect elisa methods using synthetic peptides mapping the gp41/36 region (detection component) and the v3 region (differentiation component) of four lentivirus lineages, namely sivcpz/hiv-1 (groups m, o, n, and sivcpz-gab), sivmnd, sivagm, and sivsm/sivmac/hiv-2. this strategy was evaluated with pa ...200111461679
molecular and phylogenetic analyses of 16 novel simian t cell leukemia virus type 1 from africa: close relationship of stlv-1 from allenopithecus nigroviridis to htlv-1 subtype b strains.a serological survey searching for antibodies reacting with human t-cell leukemia virus type 1 (htlv-1) antigens was performed on a series of 263 sera/plasma obtained from 34 monkey species or subspecies, originating from different parts of africa. among them, 34 samples exhibited a typical htlv-1 western blot pattern. polymerase chain reaction was performed with three primer sets specific either to htlv-1/stlv-1 or htlv-2 and encompassing gag, pol, and tax sequences, on genomic dna from periphe ...200111531406
characterization of novel simian immunodeficiency viruses from red-capped mangabeys from nigeria (sivrcmng409 and -ng411).two novel simian immunodeficiency virus (siv) strains from wild-caught red-capped mangabeys (cercocebus torquatus torquatus) from nigeria were characterized. sequence analysis of the fully sequenced siv strain rcmng411 (sivrcmng411) and gag and pol sequence of sivrcmng409 revealed that they were genetically most closely related to the recently characterized sivrcm from gabon (sivrcmgb1). thus, red-capped mangabeys from distant geographic locations harbor a common lineage of siv. sivrcmng411 carr ...200111711592
complete sequence of a novel highly divergent simian t-cell lymphotropic virus from wild-caught red-capped mangabeys (cercocebus torquatus) from cameroon: a new primate t-lymphotropic virus type 3 subtype.among 65 samples obtained from a primate rescue center located in cameroon, two female adult red-capped mangabeys (cercocebus torquatus) (cto-602 and cto-604), of wild-caught origin, had a peculiar human t-cell lymphotropic virus type 2 (htlv-2)-like western blot seroreactivity (p24, rgd21, +/-k55). analyses of the simian t-cell lymphotropic virus type 3 (stlv-3)/cto-604 complete proviral sequence (8,919 bp) indicated that this novel strain was highly divergent from htlv-1 (60% nucleotide simila ...200211739691
distribution, population density, and status of sympatric cercopithecids in the campo-ma'an area, southwestern cameroon.a study on species composition, distribution, and population density of cercopithecids in the campo-ma'an area, southwestern cameroon, was undertaken from december 1997 until august 2000. a total of 665.5 km of line transects was used for the census. thirteen diurnal primate species including five endangered species (gorilla g. gorilla, pan troglodytes, mandrillus sphinx, colobus satanas, cercocebus torquatus) were recorded in the campo forest, the greatest part of which is a logging concession. ...200212145397
identification of trypanosomes in wild animals from southern cameroon using the polymerase chain reaction (pcr).one possible explanation of the maintenance of many historical foci of sleeping sickness in central africa could be the existence of a wild animal reservoir. in this study, pcr was used to detect the different trypanosome species present in wild animal captured by hunters in the southern forest belt of cameroon (bipindi). trypanosomes were also detected by a parasitological method (quantitative buffy coat: qbc). parasite could not be isolated in culture medium (kit for in vitro isolation: kivi). ...200212514949
a novel, divergent simian t-cell lymphotropic virus type 3 in a wild-caught red-capped mangabey (cercocebus torquatus torquatus) from nigeria.we present here a novel, distinct simian t-cell lymphotropic virus (stlv) found in a red-capped mangabey (cercocebus torquatus) (cto-ng409), wild-caught in nigeria, that showed an htlv-2-like western blot (wb) seroreactivity. the complete genome (8920 bp) of cto-ng409 stlv was related to but different from stlv-3/pha-ph969 (13.5 %) and stlv-3/ppa-f3 (7.6 %), and stlv-3/cto604 (11.3 %), found in eritrean and senegalese baboons, and red-capped mangabeys from cameroon, respectively. phylogenetic an ...200313679606
phylogenetic analysis of siv derived from mandrill and drill.sivmnd was isolated from mandrills in gabon in 1989 soon after the existence of simian counterparts of hiv such as sivmac and sivagm was known. since then the sivmnd has been long considered as an independent siv lineage and the natural host is the mandrill. however this initial finding turned out to be more complex by the recent finding of new siv isolated from mandrills living in northern mandrill habitat, and other siv isolated from drills and other species. one fact which made these findings ...200414766387
identification in gelada baboons (theropithecus gelada) of a distinct simian t-cell lymphotropic virus type 3 with a broad range of western blot reactivity.antibodies to simian t-cell lymphotropic virus (stlv) were found in serum or plasma from 12 of 23 (52.2 %) gelada baboons (theropithecus gelada) captive in us zoos. a variety of western blot (wb) profiles was seen in the 12 seroreactive samples, including human t-cell lymphotropic virus (htlv)-1-like (n=5, 41.7 %), htlv-2-like (n=1, 8.3 %), htlv-untypable (n=4, 33.3 %) and indeterminate (n=2, 16.6 %) profiles. phylogenetic analysis of tax or env sequences that had been pcr amplified from periphe ...200414769908
simian t-cell leukemia virus (stlv) infection in wild primate populations in cameroon: evidence for dual stlv type 1 and type 3 infection in agile mangabeys (cercocebus agilis).three types of human t-cell leukemia virus (htlv)-simian t-cell leukemia virus (stlv) (collectively called primate t-cell leukemia viruses [ptlvs]) have been characterized, with evidence for zoonotic origin from primates for htlv type 1 (htlv-1) and htlv-2 in africa. to assess human exposure to stlvs in western central africa, we screened for stlv infection in primates hunted in the rain forests of cameroon. blood was obtained from 524 animals representing 18 different species. all the animals w ...200415078952
influence of food dispersion on feeding activity and social interactions in captive lophocebus albigena and cercocebus torquatus torquatus.we analysed the impact of the distribution of food items on feeding activity and social interactions in captive red-capped and grey-cheeked mangabeys. three different feeding situations were presented: food items were either placed in a single heap or dispersed in several smaller heaps on the ground or in space. social interactions were estimated by the frequency of positive, as well as of negative social interactions and by the structure of visual social attention. feeding activity was estimate ...200515349792
vpx proteins of sivmac239 and hiv-2rod interact with the cytoskeletal protein alpha-actinin 1.vpx genes of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (hiv-2) and immunodeficiency viruses from macaques (sivmac), sooty mangabeys (sivsm) and red-capped mangabeys (sivrcm) encode a 112 aa protein that is packed into virion particles via interaction with the p6 domain of p55(gag). vpx localizes to the nucleus when expressed in the absence of other viral proteins. moreover, vpx is necessary for efficient nuclear import of the pre-integration complex (pic) and critical for virus replication in quiescen ...200415483243
hand preference in unimanual and bimanual tasks and postural effect on manual laterality in captive red-capped mangabeys (cercocebus torquatus torquatus).hand preference in 11 captive red-capped mangabeys (cercocebus torquatus torquatus) was examined under different conditions: a free situation during spontaneous food processing, three different postural conditions (brachiating, and bipedal and tripedal standing), and a situation involving bimanual processing. generally, individual laterality was found regardless of the task and behavior involved. however, the number of monkeys with hand preferences and the strength of the preference increased wi ...200616541442
sooty mangabey (cercocebus torquatus atys) ighg and igha genes.antibodies are adaptor molecules of the immune system that link antigen recognition with the effector mechanisms responsible for antigen clearance. several nonhuman primate species are widely used in biomedical research, especially for vaccine development and for aids-related studies. however, nonhuman primate antibody molecules have been characterized only partially and only in a few species. here, we describe sooty mangabey (cercocebus torquatus atys) ighg and igha genes, which encode the heav ...200617048039
mangabeys (cercocebus torquatus lunulatus) solve the reverse contingency task without a modified procedure.problem solving often relies on generating new responses while inhibiting others, particularly prepotent ones. a paradigm to study inhibitory abilities is the reverse contingency task (boysen and berntson in j exp psychol anim behav process 21:82-86, 1995), in which two different quantities of food are offered to an individual who receives the array he did not choose. therefore, mastery of the task demands selecting the smaller quantity to obtain the larger one. several non-human primates have b ...200717318622
postural effect on manual laterality in different tasks in captive grey-cheeked mangabey (lophocebus albigena).the authors examined the effects of task complexity and posture on laterality and compared lateralization during different tasks in 9 captive grey-cheeked mangabeys (lophocebus albigena) during spontaneous food processing and 3 experimental tasks. comparisons with data of red-capped mangabeys (cercocebus torquatus torquatus; semiterrestrial species) were used. less than half the monkeys were lateralized for simple everyday activities, but 6 were lateralized for complex daily activities. moreover ...200717516799
note on drill (mandrillus leucophaeus) ecology and conservation status in korup national park, southwest cameroon.we report preliminary findings on drill population ecology, feeding ecology, primate associations and conservation status in korup national park, cameroon, based on analysis of data collected during 1,346 km (620 field hours) of trail patrols from february to june 2006. we encountered drills on 25 occasions and collected 304 fecal samples. group size was estimated on four occasions (> or =25, > or =40, > or =67, > or =77), and multiple males were heard emitting the characteristic two-phase grunt ...200817922527
nonpathogenic ccr2-tropic sivrcm after serial passage and its effect on sivmac infection of indian rhesus macaques.the natural host of sivrcm is the red-capped mangabey (cercocebus torquatus torquatus). although this virus infects macaques and human pbmcs, its pathogenic potential is unknown. we serially passaged sivrcm through 9 rhesus macaques to assess its potential for virulence. sivrcm infected all macaques with peak viremia 2 weeks postinfection yet viral loads decreased to undetectable levels about one month after inoculation. remarkably, sivrcm replication and virulence did not increase following 7 s ...200818662820
lethal pneumonia in a captive juvenile chimpanzee (pan troglodytes) due to human-transmitted human respiratory syncytial virus (hrsv) and infection with streptococcus pneumoniae.during an outbreak of respiratory disease in captive chimpanzees (pan troglodytes), gorillas (gorilla gorilla), bornean orangutans (pongo pygmaeus), and red-capped mangabeys (cercocebus torquatus) also staff members showed non-specific upper respiratory signs. one infant female chimpanzee with severe respiratory symptoms died despite immediate medical treatment and was submitted for necropsy.200919239572
dental topography and diets of four old world monkey species.dental topographic analysis allows comparisons of variably worn teeth within and between species to infer relationships between dental form and diet in living primates, with implications for reconstructing feeding adaptations of fossil forms. although analyses to date have been limited mainly to the m(2)s of a few primate taxa, these suggest that dental topographic analysis holds considerable promise. still, larger samples including a greater range of species and different tooth types are needed ...200919367586
extensive survey on the prevalence and genetic diversity of sivs in primate bushmeat provides insights into risks for potential new cross-species transmissions.to evaluate the risk of cross-species transmissions of sivs from non-human primates to humans at the primate/hunter interface, a total of 2586 samples, derived from primate bushmeat representing 11 different primate species, were collected at 6 distinct remote forest sites in southeastern cameroon and in yaoundé, the capital city. siv prevalences were estimated with an updated siv lineage specific gp41 peptide elisa covering the major part of the siv diversity. siv positive samples were confirme ...201019393772
simian immunodeficiency virus sivrcm, a unique ccr2-tropic virus, selectively depletes memory cd4+ t cells in pigtailed macaques through expanded coreceptor usage in vivo.simian immunodeficiency virus sivrcm, which naturally infects red-capped mangabeys (rcms), is the only siv that uses ccr2 as its main coreceptor due to the high frequency of a ccr5 deletion in rcms. we investigated the dynamics of sivrcm infection to identify specific pathogenic mechanisms associated with this major difference in siv biology. four pigtailed macaques (ptms) were infected with sivrcm, and infection was monitored for over 2 years. the dynamics of in vivo sivrcm replication in ptms ...200919493994
status of diurnal primate populations at the former settlement of a displaced village in cameroon.to understand whether or not primate populations recover in areas of abandoned human settlements, data are required that allow for site-specific comparison over time. here, we present baseline information on the presence/absence and relative abundance of primate species at the abandoned settlement of the ekundukundu village, relocated out of the korup national park in 2000. between july 2007 and march 2008, 62 km of transects was surveyed for sightings and calls of primates. all eight species of ...201020198684
full-length genome sequence of a simian immunodeficiency virus (siv) infecting a captive agile mangabey (cercocebus agilis) is closely related to sivrcm infecting wild red-capped mangabeys (cercocebus torquatus) in cameroon.simian immunodeficiency viruses (sivs) are lentiviruses that infect an extensive number of wild african primate species. here we describe for the first time siv infection in a captive agile mangabey (cercocebus agilis) from cameroon. phylogenetic analysis of the full-length genome sequence of sivagi-00cm312 showed that this novel virus fell into the sivrcm lineage and was most closely related to a newly characterized sivrcm strain (sivrcm-02cm8081) from a wild-caught red-capped mangabey (cercoce ...201020797968
associations between the drill (mandrillus leucophaeus) and sympatric monkeys in korup national park, cameroon.studies of polyspecific associations among african forest primates have primarily focused on arboreal cercopithecus and procolobus/colobus species. we examined the association frequency of the terrestrial drill (mandrillus leucophaeus) with six sympatric monkey species in korup national park, cameroon, testing reports that mandrillus associations are infrequent and transient. we conducted 3,284‚ÄČkm of trail walks for 12 months (february-june 2006; july 2007 to january 2008), recording species com ...201120853399
brief communication: enamel thickness and durophagy in mangabeys revisited.the documentation of enamel thickness variation across primates is important because enamel thickness has both taxonomic and functional relevance. the old world monkeys commonly referred to as mangabeys have figured prominently in investigations of feeding ecology and enamel thickness. in this article, we report enamel thickness values for four mangabey taxa (cercocebus atys, cercocebus torquatus, lophocebus aterrimus, and lophocebus albigena), offer revised interpretation of the significance of ...201122101774
gastrointestinal parasites of captive and free-roaming primates at the afi mountain primate conservation area in calabar, nigeria and their zoonotic implications.a study on the gastrointestinal parasites among free-living and captive primates at the afi mountain, primate conservation area in calabar, nigeria was undertaken for the first time to ascertain their zoonotic implications. faecal samples were subjected to direct smear, floatation, quantitative estimation of helminth eggs (epg) and oocysts (opg), larval isolation and identification by modified baerman's technique and oocyst sporulation for specie identification. out of the 108 primates examined, ...201122308652
the red crowned mangabey, cercocebus torquatus, in western nigeria. 20144212444
phyloepidemiological analysis reveals that viral divergence led to the paucity of simian immunodeficiency virus sivmus/gsn/mon infections in wild populations.human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) is the result of cross-species transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus from chimpanzees (sivcpz). sivcpz is a chimeric virus which shares common ancestors with viruses infecting red-capped mangabeys and a subset of guenon species. the epidemiology of siv infection in hominoids is characterized by low prevalences and an uneven geographic distribution. surveys in cameroon indicated that two closely related members of the guenon species subset, must ...201728077632
vpx overcomes a samhd1-independent block to hiv reverse transcription that is specific to resting cd4 t cells.early after entry into monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and resting cd4 t cells, hiv encounters a block, limiting reverse transcription (rt) of the incoming viral rna genome. in this context, dntp triphosphohydrolase sam domain and hd domain-containing protein 1 (samhd1) has been identified as a restriction factor, lowering the concentration of dntp substrates to limit rt. the accessory lentiviral protein x (vpx) proteins from the major simian immunodeficiency virus of rhesus macaque, so ...201728228523
down-modulation of primate lentiviral receptors by nef proteins of simian immunodeficiency virus (siv) of chimpanzees (sivcpz) and related sivs: implication for the evolutionary event at the emergence of sivcpz.it has been estimated that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 originated from the zoonotic transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus (siv) of chimpanzees, sivcpz, and that sivcpz emerged by the recombination of two lineages of sivs in old world monkeys (sivgsn/mon/mus in guenons and sivrcm in red-capped mangabeys) and sivcpz nef is most closely related to sivrcm nef. these observations suggest that sivrcm nef had an advantage over sivgsn/mon/mus during the evolution of sivcpz in chimpanzees ...201526041873
characterization of the interactions between sivrcm vpx and red-capped mangabey samhd1.samhd1 (sam domain- and hd domain-containing protein 1) inhibits hiv-1 infection of myeloid cells and resting cd4+ t-cells. two lineages of primate lentiviruses, the sooty mangabey siv (simian immunodeficiency virus) (sivsm)/macaque siv (sivmac)/hiv-2 lineage and the red-capped mangabey siv (sivrcm) lineage, carry a samhd1 antagonist called vpx. vpx recognizes samhd1 and recruits a ubiquitin e3 ligase complex that is composed of cul4 (cullin4), ddb1 (damaged dna-binding protein 1) and a member o ...201525791246
characterization of red-capped mangabey tetherin: implication for the co-evolution of primates and their lentiviruses.primate lentiviruses including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) and simian immunodeficiency viruses (sivs) evolved through the acquisition of antagonists against intrinsic host restriction factors, such as tetherin. it is widely accepted that hiv-1 has emerged by zoonotic transmission of siv in chimpanzee (sivcpz), and that sivcpz nef protein antagonizes chimpanzee tetherin. although nef of sivcpz shares a common ancestor with that of sivrcm, an siv in red-capped mangabey (cercocebus ...201424984862
new stlv-3 strains and a divergent sivmus strain identified in non-human primate bushmeat in gabon.human retroviral infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) or human t-cell lymphotropic virus (htlv) are the result of simian zoonotic transmissions through handling and butchering of non-human primates (nhp) or by close contact with pet animals. recent studies on retroviral infections in nhp bushmeat allowed for the identification of numerous simian immunodeficiency viruses (siv) and simian t-cell lymphotropic viruses (stlv) to which humans are exposed. nevertheless, today, data on ...201222462797
lung fluke (paragonimus africanus) infects nigerian red-capped mangabeys and causes respiratory disease.eggs of the lung fluke genus paragonimus were detected in red-capped mangabeys (cercocebus torquatus) in nigeria. we assess the role of these primates as potential sylvatic hosts and the clinical effects of the parasite on monkeys. dna sequenced from eggs in feces were 100% identical in the its2 region to paragonimus africanus sequences from humans in cameroon. paragonimus-positive monkeys coughed more than uninfected monkeys. experimental de-worming led to reduction in parasite intensity and a ...201526543803
ménétrier's disease-like hypertrophic gastritis in two red-capped mangabeys (cercocebus torquatus).chronic lymphoplasmacytic gastritis in two red-capped mangabeys (cercocebus torquatus) at a zoological facility progressed to severe hypertrophic gastropathy similar to ménétrier's disease that affects humans. clinical signs included emesis, diarrhea, hunched posture consistent with abdominal pain, anemia, and hypoproteinemia. large gastric masses were present and in one case created a gastric outflow obstruction. both cases were positive for simian immunodeficiency virus and helicobacter spp. w ...201424625015
public health significance of zoonotic bacterial pathogens from bushmeat sold in urban markets of gabon, central africa.wild animal meat represents an important source of protein for many people in central africa. also known as bushmeat, this meat commodity is derived from wild animals hunted under uncontrolled conditions, transported to distant markets under rudimentary or no hygienic methods, and often eviscerated >24 hr after death. considering the plausible role of wildlife as a reservoir for bacterial zoonotic pathogens, bushmeat may be an important public health risk in central africa. this cross-sectional ...201222740547
mangabey x and b wave electroretinogram components: their dark-adapted luminosity functions.the temporal separation of x and b components in the electroretinogram of the dark-adapted eye of the sooty mangabey, cercocebus torquatus atys, permits, an uncomplicated calculation of luminosity functions. flicker electroretinogram studies indicate enhancement of the photopic blue sensitivity.196414208582
primate reinfection with gastrointestinal parasites: behavioural and physiological predictors of parasite acquisition.infectious disease transmission is a cost of sociality in humans and other animals. nevertheless, the mechanisms linking social behaviour to infection risk are poorly known. we conducted a field experiment to examine how host intrinsic traits, behaviour and physiology affect infection of nonhuman primates with gastrointestinal parasites. we measured rate to reinfection in a social group of red-capped mangabeys, cercocebus torquatus, following chemotherapeutic treatment for parasite infections. b ...201628163324
how many for lunch today? seasonal fission-fusion dynamics as a feeding strategy in wild red-capped mangabeys (cercocebus torquatus).for group-living primates, social organization hinges upon multiple factors, including group size, group cohesion, and the group's age and sex composition. fission-fusion dynamics reduce the risks of living in a large group, which can include feeding competition related to the seasonality of resources. here we report on the group dynamics (i.e. formation of parties) of a population of red-capped mangabeys (cercocebus torquatus) located in sentier nature forest, south loango national park, gabon, ...201627728912
changes in physiological stress and behaviour in semi-free-ranging red-capped mangabeys (cercocebus torquatus) following antiparasitic treatment.parasites are ubiquitous in wildlife populations, but physiological and behavioural responses of hosts to infection are difficult to measure. we experimentally treated semi-free-ranging red-capped mangabeys (cercocebus torquatus) in nigeria with antiparasitic drugs and examined subsequent changes in glucocorticoid production and individual behaviour. because both parasites and stress impact energy balance and health, we measured (i) behavioural time re-allocation via activity budgets, (ii) socia ...201627466454
high rates of infection with novel enterovirus variants in wild populations of mandrills and other old world monkey species.enteroviruses (evs) are a genetically and antigenically diverse group of viruses infecting humans. a mostly distinct set of ev variants have additionally been documented to infect wild apes and several, primarily captive, old world monkey (owm) species. to investigate the prevalence and genetic characteristics of evs infecting owms in the wild, fecal samples from mandrills (mandrillus sphinx) and other species collected in remote regions of southern cameroon were screened for ev rna. remarkably ...201424623420
social complexity parallels vocal complexity: a comparison of three non-human primate species.social factors play a key role in the structuring of vocal repertoires at the individual level, notably in non-human primates. some authors suggested that, at the species level too, social life may have driven the evolution of communicative complexity, but this has rarely been empirically tested. here, we use a comparative approach to address this issue. we investigated vocal variability, at both the call type and the repertoire levels, in three forest-dwelling species of cercopithecinae present ...201323847565
manual laterality and strategy use for a coordinated bimanual task requiring precise and power grip in guenons and mangabeys.bimanual tasks have been repeatedly shown to elicit manual asymmetries supposed to reflect hemispheric specialization. and yet, a coordinated bimanual task, the box task, appears to be inefficient in detecting biases of hand preferences. the box task involves two sequential actions requiring a precise grip, lift the lid of a box and grasp a small item inside the box (while holding the lid). in the present study, we compared manual laterality exhibited for the classic bimanual box task and for a ...201323776065
which are the features of the tube task that make it so efficient in detecting manual asymmetries? an investigation in two cercopithecine species (cercopithecus neglectus and cercocebus torquatus).in the last decade, the tube task has been repeatedly shown to be highly efficient in detecting manual asymmetries that are strong hand preferences reflecting hemispheric specialization, in non human primates. the tube task was thus classified as a high-level task, presumably because it involves bimanual coordination. however, this task also requires a precise action made by digit(s), which may also be a crucial feature in eliciting manual asymmetries. in the present study, we compared hand pref ...201323772799
emergent patterns of social organization in captive cercocebus torquatus: testing the groofiworld agent-based model.we empirically applied the groofiworld agent-based model (puga-gonzalez et al. 2009) in a group of captive redcapped mangabeys (cercocebus torquatus). we analysed several measurements related to aggression and affiliative patterns. the group adopted a combination of despotic and egalitarian behaviours resulting from the behavioural flexibility observed in the cercopithecinae subfamily. our study also demonstrates that the groofiworld agent-based model can be extended to other members of the cerc ...201222922202
to beg, or not to beg? that is the question: mangabeys modify their production of requesting gestures in response to human's attentional states.although gestural communication is widespread in primates, few studies focused on the cognitive processes underlying gestures produced by monkeys.201222815969
acoustic variability and individual distinctiveness in the vocal repertoire of red-capped mangabeys (cercocebus torquatus).acoustic variability and individual distinctiveness of vocal signals are expected to vary with both their communicative function and the need for individual recognition during social interactions. so far, few attempts have been made to comparatively study these features across the different call types within a species' vocal repertoire. we collected recordings of the six most common call types from 14 red-capped mangabeys (cercocebus torquatus) to assess intra- and interindividual acoustic varia ...201221875177
task complexity, posture, age, sex: which is the main factor influencing manual laterality in captive cercocebus torquatus torquatus?behavioural asymmetries reflect brain asymmetry in nonhuman primates (nhp) as in humans. by investigating manual laterality, researchers can study the evolution of brain hemisphere specialisation. three dominant theories aim to establish an evolutionary scenario. the most recent theory relates different levels of manual laterality to task complexity. our investigation aimed to evaluate the importance of two extrinsic factors (posture and the need for manual coordination) and two intrinsic factor ...201121298589
sex differences in the vocal repertoire of adult red-capped mangabeys (cercocebus torquatus): a multi-level acoustic analysis.sex differences in the vocal behavior of nonhuman primates can take various forms: sex-specific call types, differential production of shared call types, or sex discrepancy in phonation. also, a growing literature is evidencing that systematically analyzing the vocal repertoires of primates at the call level might lead to underestimating their communicative abilities. here, we present an extensive multi-level analysis of the still unknown vocal repertoire of adult red-capped mangabeys (cercocebu ...201020052691
visual laterality responses to different emotive stimuli by red-capped mangabeys, cercocebus torquatus torquatus.hemispheric asymmetry in emotional perception has been put forward by different theories as the right hemisphere theory or the valence theory. but no consensus was found about the role played by both hemispheres. so, in order to test the different theories, we investigated preferential use of one eye in red-capped mangabeys, at the individual as well as at the group level. in this study we investigated the influence of the emotional value of stimuli on the direction and strength of visual prefer ...200918566841
craniomandibular morphology supporting the diphyletic origin of mangabeys and a new genus of the cercocebus/mandrillus clade, procercocebus.previous studies have noted skeletal and dental differences supporting the diphyletic origin of the mangabeys. documented postcranial and dental characters are congruent with molecular data and thus support a close relationship between cercocebus and mandrillus (mandrills and drills) on the one hand and lophocebus, papio (baboons), and theropithecus (geladas) on the other. most of these characters, however, are postcranial and difficult to assess in the papionin fossil record because associated ...200717521704
female sooty mangabeys (cercocebus torquatus atys) respond differently to males depending on the male's residence status-preliminary data.i tested the hypothesis that free-ranging female mangabeys (cercocebus torquatus atys) differentiate between males depending on their residence status. adult males in this species employ two group-membership strategies: they are either full-time residents or part-time residents (i.e., present for several weeks at a time, then gone for several weeks, then present again, etc.). in a playback experiment i tested whether adult females with young infants responded differently to calls of adult males ...200515834893
food competition in captive female sooty mangabeys (cercocebus torquatus atys).we studied the social and foraging behavior of two captive groups of sooty mangabeys under two different spatial food situations. these food conditions were clumped (food was placed in a box) and dispersed (food was dispersed over the entire enclosure). in each group five adult females and two adult males were observed. as a criterion for food competition, individual differences in the relative food intake were used. adult female mangabeys had a linear, stable, and unidirectional dominance hiera ...200312884111
variability in social visual attention in the red-capped mangabey (cercocebus torquatus torquatus) and the grey-cheeked mangabey (cercocebus albigena albigena). 200810567831
does allogrooming serve a hygienic function in cercocebus torquatus lunulatus?to test the hygienic functional hypothesis of allogrooming in the white-crowned mangabey (cercocebus torquatus lunulatus), we analyzed the distribution of such behavior over the body surface in the individuals of two captive groups of this species (n = 9 and n = 8). to sample the data, we used focal animal sampling and continuous recording. before analyzing the data, we measured a representative subject in order to calculate the body surface area occupied by each site, defined accessibility rigo ...199910512542
patterns of social visual attention in the red-capped mangabey (cercocebus torquatus torquatus) in the context of food competition 199910394071
facial growth in cercocebus torquatus: an application of three-dimensional geometric morphometric techniques to the study of morphological variation.this paper presents a study of 3-dimensional growth in the facial skeleton of the mangabey, cercocebus torquatus. the pattern of facial cortical remodelling in this species is already well mapped from an earlier study. in this paper we consider the extent to which these remodelling maps relate to ontogenetic changes in size and shape of the face. this study is based on 31 facial landmarks taken from 49 adult and subadult faces. our analysis draws on some of the tools of geometric morphometrics a ...19989827641
size and shape of the mandibular condyle in primates.the relationships between the size of the articular surface of the mandibular condyle and masticatory muscle size, tooth size, diet, and biomechanical variables associated with mastication were studied by taking 12 measurements on skulls of 253 adult female anthropoid primates, including three to ten specimens from each of 32 species. in regressions of condylar length, width, or area against body weight, logarithmic transformations substantially improve the fit of the equations compared with unt ...19836620392
the distribution of the white-collared mangabey, cercocebus torquatus, in nigeria. 19734203425
comparative ecology of cercocebus albigena (gray) and cercocebus torquatus (kerr) in rio muni, west africa. 19684972700
left-sided postcaval vein and associated anomalies in a white-collared mangabey (cercocebus torquatus). 19674974472
voice discrimination in four primates.one accepted function of vocalisations is to convey information about the signaller, such as its age-sex class, motivation, or relationship with the recipient. yet, in natural habitats individuals not only interact with conspecifics but also with members of other species. this is well documented for african forest monkeys, which form semi-permanent mixed-species groups that can persist for decades. although members of such groups interact with each other on a daily basis, both physically and voc ...201323800631
cross-taxa similarities in affect-induced changes of vocal behavior and voice in arboreal monkeys.measuring the affective state of an individual across species with comparable non-invasive methods is a current challenge in animal communication research. this study aims to explore to which extent affect intensity is conveyed in the vocal behaviours of three nonhuman primate species (campbell's monkeys, de brazza's monkeys, red-capped mangabeys), which vary in body size, ecological niche and social system. similarly in the three species, we experimentally induced a change in captive social gro ...201222984618
hand preference and its flexibility according to the position of the object: a study in cercopithecines examining spontaneous behaviour and an experimental task (the bishop qhp task).the extant literature on manual laterality in non-human primates is inconclusive, plagued by inconsistent or contradictory findings and by disturbing methodological issues (e.g. uncontrolled influential factors, comparability issues). the present study examined hand preference and its flexibility in 15 red-capped mangabeys (c. t. torquatus) and 13 campbell's monkeys (c. c. campbelli), two species that differ in their degree of arboreality. we investigated the influence of the spatial position of ...201222718414
social laterality and 'transversality' in two species of mangabeys: influence of rank and implication for hemispheric specialization.individuals in social groups monitor many relationships by adapting their activities to the sex, age, social status, behaviour as well as the position of conspecifics. here, we investigated the influence of the relative positions of the members of two groups of mangabeys on social visual laterality (right/left) and 'transversality' (frontal/rear) in two contexts: (1) 'one-to-one' interactions and (2) a 'one-to-many' context allowing potential observation of all group members. we discuss our data ...200919095012
eye preferences in red-capped mangabeys. 200616088192
red-capped mangabeys (cercocebus torquatus) adapt their interspecific gestural communication to the recipient's behaviour.sensitivity to recipient's attention and responsiveness are critical markers of intentional communication. although previous research showed that ape gestures can be intentional, few studies have yet addressed this question concerning monkeys. here, we characterise the effect of a recipient's presence, attentional state and responsiveness on the interspecific gestural communication of captive red-capped mangabeys (cercocebus torquatus). previous reports showed that they produced learnt begging g ...202032732945
structural basis for a species-specific determinant of an siv vif protein toward hominid apobec3g antagonism.primate lentiviruses encode a vif protein that counteracts the host antiviral apobec3 (a3) family members. the adaptation of vif to species-specific a3 determinants is a critical event that allowed the spillover of a lentivirus from monkey reservoirs to chimpanzees and subsequently to humans, which gave rise to hiv-1 and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (aids) pandemic. how vif-a3 protein interactions are remodeled during evolution is unclear. here, we report a 2.94 å crystal structure of ...201931830442
first molecular identification of buxtonella ciliates from captive-bred mangabeys (cercocebus torquatus) from china.buxtonella species are large cyst-forming ciliates that infect ruminants and monkeys, and are morphologically similar to balantidium coli ciliates that infect pigs, humans, monkeys, and other animals. in this study, we isolated spherical cysts of ciliates that were similar to those of balantidium and buxtonella species within collared mangabeys (cercocebus torquatus) from the wangcheng zoo of luoyang in the henan province of central china. the cysts were further identified and designated as belo ...201830215137
decision-making under risk of gain in young children and mangabey monkeys.in contrast to human adults, risk proneness in the gain domain is usually observed in both young children and non-human primates. it is currently unclear what mechanism might be underlying such economic preferences. we investigated decision-making under risk of gain in toddlers and monkeys. the choices of 2.5-year-old children and red-capped mangabeys (cercocebus torquatus torquatus) were examined in a gambling task for food reward in which participants have to choose between two options, a secu ...201829152731
allogrooming behavior incercocebus torquatus: the case for the hygienic functional hypothesis.the hygienic functional hypothesis of allogrooming behavior was examined in two captive groups (n=9 andn=8) of white-crowned mangabeys (cercocebus torquatus lunulatus) by analyzing: (1) the corporal distribution of manipulation type according to hair density, and (2) the corporal distribution of allogrooming according to presence of wounds. in both groups the sites with higher hair density received more bouts of superficial grooming, which implies a tactile screening of a fragment of the body su ...200030545171
information content of sexual swellings and fecal steroids in sooty mangabeys (cercocebus torquatus atys).the accuracy and precision of sexual swellings and fecal steroids as measures of ovarian function and the periovulatory period were compared in 4 sexually mature, individually housed, sooty mangabey females. fecal samples were collected daily over a 10-week period during the normal breeding season. serum was collected 3×/week, daily during peak swelling, and sex skin was rated 5×/week on a 0-5 relative scale. both fecal estradiol (fe2) and progesterone (fp4) were significantly correlated with se ...199631918512
reproductive parameters in the sooty mangabey (cercocebus torquatus atys).data obtained over a 7.5 year period from a captive group of sooty mangabeys were analyzed to examine the relationship between demographic variables and reproductive events. perineal swelling and reproductive data collected from 67 females contributed to the analyses. sexual maturation, as marked by the onset of swelling cycles, was recorded at an average age of 36.4 ± 1.1 (mean ± sem) months and first parturition at 56.5 ± 1.8 months, indicating a period of adolescent sterility of over 1 year. ...199031952419
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