very large analogy of chromosome banding between cebus capucinus (platyrrhini) and man.the karyotype of a platyrrhine, cebus capucinus, is compared with that of man and other catarrhines. it was found that a large degree of analogy of chromosome banding exists among the different species. a common origin for the platyrrhines and the catarrhines can thus be deduced. furthermore, it becomes possible to reconstruct, to a great extent, the karyotype of the last common ancestor of all of the simians.1979113176
host range characteristics of the primate coccidian, isospora arctopitheci rodhain 1933 (protozoa: eimeriidae).studies were conducted on 35 primates, 12 carnivores, and 2 marsupials to determine their susceptibility to the primate coccidian, isospora arctopitheci. patent oocyst infections resulted in 12 of the 14 species of animals investigated. these included 6 genera of new world primates native to panama: saguinus geoffroyi, aotus trivirgatus, ateles fusciceps, cebus capucinus, alouatta villosa, and saimiri sciureus. in addition 4 families of carnivores (2 domestic and 2 sylvatic) and 1 species of mar ...1977403270
[experimental studies on the schistosomicidal activity of the aminobenzaldehyde derivative 80.647 (author's transl)].in a group of aminobenzaldehyde derivatives the 2-cholor-4-(1)-piperazinobenalazine showed to be highly active in golden hamsters (mesocricetus auratus), mastomys natalensis and capucine monkeys (cebus capucinus capucinus) against schistosoma mansoni, slightly active against s. mattheei and inactive against s. haematobium and s. japonicum. the d.c.m. in mice and hamsters was 50 mg/kg body weight after a single oral dose and 20 or 50 mg/kg body weight respectively when dosed once daily on 5 conse ...1977404743
[communication signals of cebus capucinus monkeys (evolutionary aspect)]. 1977414485
vertebrate predation in cebus capucinus: meat eating in a neotropical monkey.a long-term study of two groups of white-faced capuchins (cebus capucinus) in santa rosa national park in costa rica provides evidence of unusually high levels of vertebrate predation compared to those reported in other field studies of cebus. the hunting techniques for different prey types are described, and several questions concerning vertebrate predation in primates are addressed. why is there variation between individuals and between groups in the rate of predation? why do males hunt more t ...19902391049
troop movement and food habits of white-faced monkeys in a tropical-dry forest.home-range, movement and activity patterns and diet of a group of 16 white-faced monkeys (cebus capucinus) were studied in a costa rican tropical dry forest at the end of the dry season (march and april) of 1982. the troop used an area of .67 km2 and moved an average of 4.5 km +/- 0.6 daily. three basic daily activities were identified: resting, moving and feeding. resting was greatest between 1000-1500 hours. movement, which was strongly correlated with feeding, occurred most between 0500-0900 ...19873454037
[a 5th filaria of the genus dipetalonema, parasite of south american monkeys].description of d. freitasi n. sp., a parasite of cebus capucinus: this species, close to d. caudispina, is distinguished by the slightly more complex structure of the vagina and right spicule, the lack of area rugosa on the tail and by the shorter microfilaria. additional morphological data on the male of d. robini petit et al., 1985 are given. a comparative table of 4 principal evolutive characters of the genus dipetalonema (vagina, left and right spicules, epithelio-muscular body wall) is give ...19873662331
the prevalence of trypanosomes and microfilariae in panamanian monkeys.a total of 3,523 wild caught monkeys from panama was examined for blood parasites from august 1968 through june 1972. trypanosomes or microfilariae were observed in the blood of 31.1% of the monkeys. mixed infections, with microfilariae and trypanosomes, were detected in 6.6% of the animals. trypanosoma cruzi was found in marmosets. saguinus geoffroyi (12.2%), in white-faced capuchins, cebus capucinus (5.0%), in squirrel monkeys, saimiri sciureus (1.7%) and in black spider monkeys, ateles fuscic ...19744217567
hematologic values of the black spider monkey (ateles fusciceps), red spider monkey (ateles geoffroyi), white face monkey (cebus capucinus), and black howler monkey (alouatta villosa). 19714329310
running on two or on four legs: which consumes more energy?disagreement exists over whether man's bipedal form of locomotion evolved as an economical means for covering long distances. there is also some disagreement about the energetic price man had to pay to free his hands. in an investigation of the relative energetic cost of bipedal and quadrupedal locomotion in primates, chimpanzees (pan troglodytes) and capuchin monkeys (cebus capucinus) were trained to run on a treadmill either on two or on four legs while their oxygen consumption was being measu ...19734629856
susceptibility of ateles fusciceps, ateles geoffroyi and cebus capucinus monkeys to plasmodium vivax. 19694893736
auditory sensitivity in the rhesus (macaca mulatta) and the white- throated capuchin (cebus capuchinus) monkeys: a comparison of three techniques. arl-tr-68-14. 19694980373
experimental infections of plasmodium falciparum in cebus capucinus (white faced capuchin) monkeys. 19694987054
dipetalonema gracile in a capuchin monkey (cebus capucinus). 19704992912
[mange from prosarcoptes (prosarcoptes pitheci philippe, 1948) in a capucine monkey (cebus capucinus)]. 19675628218
detection of g-c rich heterochromatin by 5-azacytidine in mammals.a new effect of 5-acr (5-azacytidine), observed in fibroblast or kidney cell cultures is described in the calf (bos taurus) and in some selected primates (cebus capucinus, erythrocebus patas, and cercopithecus cephus). this cytidine analogue, used at low doses during the last late s phase, prevents the condensation of r-band positive heterochromatin (g-c rich segments). thus, 5-acr treatment can be used as a simple method for the detection of g-c rich heterochromatin.19816164628
comparative gene mapping of man and cebus capucinus for pgd, eno1, pgm2, and sod1. 19806450031
new gene assignments in the rabbit (oryctolagus cuniculus). comparison with other species.nineteen cell hybrids were obtained by fusing rabbit (oryctolagus cuniculus, ocu) fibroblasts and a chinese hamster cell line hgprt-. eleven enzymatic markers were previously investigated (soulié and grouchy 1982); seven of these could be assigned (ldha, ldhb, tpi, pepb, np, itp, and g6pd). two assignments were uncertain (mdh2 and guk). two markers could not be assigned (mdh1 and pgd). seven further markers were investigated and are the subject of this report. six could be assigned: galt to chro ...19836572613
chromosome banding analogies between a prosimian (microcebus murinus), a platyrrhine (cebus capucinus), and man.the comparative study of the karyotypes of microcebus (lemur, cheirogaleid) and cebus (platyrrhini, ceboid) shows important similarities between nearly all large chromosomes of these two genera. since a relationship has been previously found between the karyotypes of homo and cebus, a correspondence may be found between many chromosomes of man and those of lemurs. this study enlarges the field of comparative cytogenetics at the level of the primate order.19806768303
comparative gene mapping of man and cebus capucinus: a study of 23 enzymatic markers.a total 23 enzymatic markers were analyzed in cell hybrids obtained between cebus capucinus (cca) fibroblasts and a chinese hamster cell line. the following markers, or syntenic groups, could be localized in cca chromosomes homologous to human chromosomes or chromosome segments: pgd-eno1-pgm1, mdh1, idh1, pgm2, pgm3-me1, ak3, tpi-ldhb-pepb, gpi, and sod1. the following syntenic groups were observed but could not be localized: guk1-fh and mpi-pkm2. the following loci could not be localized with f ...19816951675
gene mapping of microcebus murinus (lemuridae): a comparison with man and cebus capucinus (cebidae).the karyotype of microcebus murinus (mim) (lemuridae) is considered by dutrillaux (1979) as the closest to the karyotype ancestral to all primates. a large number of homoeologies exists between the banding patterns of mim chromosomes and those of man (hsa). we report a comparison of the gene maps of these two species which confirms most of these homoeologies. fifteen cell hybrids were obtained by fusing mim fibroblasts and an hprt- chinese hamster cell line. twenty-seven enzyme markers were inve ...19826957281
recognition by man of the acoustic orienting signal of monkeys (cebus capucinus) with a change in order of its components. 19827185732
an outbreak of type c botulism in captive an outbreak of type c botulism in a group of captive primates, six squirrel monkeys, six white throated capuchin monkeys and two weeper capuchin monkeys succumbed rapidly and died. clostridium botulinum type c toxin was detected in the remains of the chopped chicken feed and in nine of 11 blood samples and one of three stomach contents samples from the affected animals.19807456297
play as physical flexibility training in five ceboid primates.instantaneous focal animal sampling of positional behavior (posture and locomotion) during the play and nonplay of adults and juveniles of 5 ceboid monkeys (alouatta palliata, ateles geoffroyi, cacajao calvus, cebus capucinus, and saimiri boliviensis) in an optimal design field study of the function of play as physical flexibility training produced a sample of 98,261 observations. analyses of 67 distinct modes of positional behavior demonstrated that significantly enhanced rates of suspension an ...19947924251
zoo-fish suggests a complete homology between human and capuchin monkey (platyrrhini) euchromatin.chromosome comparisons using in situ hybridization of all human chromosome-specific libraries on capuchin monkey (cebus capucinus, cebidae, platyrrhini) metaphases were performed with a new technique simultaneously revealing a g-banding and chromosome "painting." a complete homology between human (hsa) and c. capucinus (cca) chromosomes was demonstrated, except for constitutive heterochromatin. eleven c. capucinus chromosomes are homologous to 11 human chromosomes: cca 2 = hsa 4; cca 3 = hsa 6; ...19968884264
fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish) maps chromosomal homologies between the dusky titi and squirrel monkey.the platyrrhini are one of the most karyologically derived groups of primates and the evolution of their karyotypes is far from understood. the identification of the origin and direction of chromosome rearrangements will contribute to a better understanding of new world monkey phylogeny, taxonomy, and evolution. we mapped homology and identified translocations in the chromosomes of the dusky titi monkey (callicebus moloch, 2n = 50) and the squirrel monkey (saimiri sciureus, 2n = 44) by fluoresce ...200010676707
fur rubbing behavior in free-ranging black-handed spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi) in panama.members of the population of black-handed spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi) on barro colorado island, panama, use the leaves of three rutaceae species in a behavior that resembles fur rubbing in the white faced capuchin (cebus capucinus). this behavior has not been reported from other sites where ateles has been studied. during more than 1,200 hours of observation, 30 episodes of this behavior were recorded ad libitum. adult males engage in this behavior more than adult females. season did not i ...200010902669
white-faced monkey (cebus capucinus) ecology and management in neotropical agricultural landscapes during the dry season.habitat use by a c. capucinus troop was studied in an agricultural landscape during late dry season (march-april 1994) in northwest costa rica. riparian forests, palm canals and living fence rows accounted for 82% of observations, significantly more than the other six habitats present. the study troop consumed 24 species of plants and five animals. feeding concentrated on the introduced african oil palm (elaeis guineensis) (33.6%) and mango (mangifera indica) (27.2%), found mostly in palm canals ...200112189802
violent coalitionary attacks and intraspecific killing in wild white-faced capuchin monkeys ( cebus capucinus).during 12 years of observation, we have observed three confirmed and two inferred lethal coalitionary attacks on adult male white-faced capuchins ( cebus capucinus) by members of two habituated social groups at lomas barbudal biological reserve, costa rica. in one case, an alpha male was badly wounded and evicted from his group, and when later found by his former groupmates he was attacked by several of them and died less than 24 h later. in two other cases, lone extra-group males were mobbed by ...200312910384
spontaneous toxoplasmosis in the whiteface monkey, cebus capucinus, in panama. 195413207555
three apparent cases of infanticide by males in wild white-faced capuchins (cebus capucinus). 200415010584
primate population densities in three nutrient-poor amazonian terra firme forests of south-eastern colombia.we censused primate populations at three non-hunted 'terra firme' forests of south-eastern colombian amazonia. the aggregate biomass densities of diurnal primates at all sites were amongst the lowest recorded for any non-hunted forest in western amazonia and elsewhere in the neotropics. densities of red howler monkeys were low, as is typical in amazonian terra firme forests far removed from white-water rivers, and densities of woolly monkeys were 1.5-3.5 times lower than those estimated for this ...200515900101
a census of mammal populations in punta leona private wildlife refuge, costa rica.population sizes of six mammal species were estimated using the king method during the late dry season (march) of 1996 in the punta leona private wildlife refuge, costa rica. the white-faced monkey (cebus capucinus), coati (nasua narica) and nine-banded armadillo (dasypus novemcinctus) with 148, 46, and 8 sighted individuals, respectively, demonstrated the largest populations in the refuge. the central american spider monkey (ateles geoffroyi), tamandua anteater (tamandua mexicana), and variegat ...200212947599
the ecological role of the prehensile tail in white-faced capuchins (cebus capucinus).prehensile tails appear to have evolved at least twice in platyrrhine evolution. in the atelines, the tail is relatively long and possesses a bare area on the distal part of its ventral surface that is covered with der-matoglyphs and richly innervated with meissner's corpuscles. in contrast, the prehensile tail of cebus is relatively short, fully haired, and lacks specialized tactile receptors. little is currently known regarding tail function in capuchins, and whether their prehensile tail serv ...199910516564
object-use in free-ranging white-faced capuchins (cebus capucinus) in costa rica.chimpanzees and capuchins demonstrate greater varieties and higher rates of tool-use when compared to other non-human primates. although capuchins have been studied extensively in captivity, data on their tool-using behavior under free-ranging conditions are limited. this is the first long-term field research to systematically study complex object manipulation in capuchins. the aims of this research are 1) to examine the types, rates, and contexts of tool- and object-use in free-ranging capuchin ...19989696147
experimental field study of spatial memory and learning in wild capuchin monkeys (cebus capucinus).despite a large body of data on diet and ranging patterns in prosimians, monkeys and apes, little is known regarding the types of information that non-human primates use when making foraging decisions. in a series of controlled field experiments, we tested the ability of wild capuchins (cebus capucinus) at la suerte biological research station in north-eastern costa rica to remember the spatial positions of 13 feeding platforms and use olfactory and visual cues to identify baited (real bananas) ...19979360308
stable isotope ratios indicate diet and habitat use in new world monkeys.this paper demonstrates the use of stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen in animal tissue for indicating aspects of species behavioral strategy. we analyzed hair from individuals representing four species of new world monkeys (alouatta palliata, the mantled howler; ateles geoffroyi, the spider monkey; cebus capucinus, the capuchin; and brachyteles arachnoides, the woolly-spider monkey or muriqui) for delta 13c and delta 15n using previously developed methods. there are no significant diff ...19979185952
'peat-bathing' by captive white-faced capuchin monkeys (cebus capucinus). 19958713541
mirror-image responses in capuchin monkeys (cebus capucinus): social responses and use of reflected environmental information. 19938206423
experimental field study of hand preference in wild black-horned (cebus nigritus) and white-faced (cebus capucinus) capuchins: evidence for individual and species this experimental field investigation, we compare the degree to which wild capuchins in brazil (cebus nigritus) and costa rica (cebus capucinus) exhibit individual- and population-level handedness during three visually-guided tasks. these tasks required reaching to remove a large leaf covering a hidden food reward, seizing the food reward, and manipulating a tool (pulling a wooden dowel) in order to obtain access to an embedded food reward. studies in some populations of captive capuchins ind ...200818183435
failure to detect human t-lymphotropic virus antibody in wild-caught new world primates.we conducted a study to look for a simian counterpart of human t-lymphotropic virus (htlv) in wild-caught monkeys in the republic of panama. serum specimens were obtained from 102 monkeys (ateles fusciceps, n = 75; alouatta villosa, n = 18; and cebus capucinus, n = 9) captured in panama's darien rain forest in 1979-1980. specimens were screened for htlv antibody by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and reactive specimens were further tested by western blot. none of the 102 specimens were seropo ...19938102837
primary structure of adult hemoglobin of white-throated capuchin, cebus capucinus.the alpha and beta chains of white-throated capuchin (cebus capucinus) hemoglobin were separated and digested by trypsin. the tryptic peptides were isolated and sequenced by conventional methods. the peptides in each chain were aligned by the homology of their sequences with those of human adult hemoglobin. the primary structures thus deduced are compared with those of other primate hemoglobins, and we discuss the molecular evolution of hemoglobins, in particular the rate of evolution in new wor ...19863964444
human occlusofacial form commonality: race-related traits, ontogeny, paedomorphism, and functional correlates.previous cephalometric studies of occlusofacial angular and metric data show small variability within and between population samples of caucasian children and adults. comparable results were obtained by use of standardized x-ray cephalometry and direct craniometric measurements of skulls of mature specimens of alouatta caraya and cebus capucinus. these data measure facial and occlusofacial form and form relationships. identical measuring techniques are applied to compare data derived from headpl ...19892929735
ecological constraints on group size in three species of neotropical primates.the foraging strategies and association patterns of 3 species of primates (ateles geoffroyi, alouatta palliata, cebus capucinus) were studied over a 5-year period. the objective of the study was to provide a quantitative test of the hypothesis that the size, density and distribution of food resources influence the size of animal groups. in examining the assumptions of this hypothesis, it was shown that these primates used resources that occurred in patches, depleted the patches through their use ...19902394411
dietary differences between neighboring cebus capucinus groups: local traditions, food availability or responses to food profitability?the feeding patterns of three neighboring groups of cebus capucinus were documented over a 3-year period in santa rosa national park, costa rica. we describe the diets of the three groups and examine whether dietary differences between groups could be attributed to environmental differences in food abundances, to differences in the profitability of what was available or to learned local traditions. diets were variable among groups; group a primarily ate fruit (81.2% of feeding time) and spent li ...19902391047
increasing foraging opportunities for a group of captive capuchin monkeys (cebus capucinus).capuchin monkeys often employ complex manipulative skills while recovering food items. five captive cebus capucinus were presented with two identical feeders that required the monkeys to lift up flaps, search through hay, and perform coordinated hand movements in order to obtain food items. the intent of this study was not to merely increase the amount of time the animals spent feeding, but to provide opportunities for greater expression of species-typical foraging behavior. in addition to their ...19902170753
collective decision-making in white-faced capuchin group-living animals, collective movements are a widespread phenomenon and occur through consensus decision. when one animal proposes a direction for group movement, the others decide to follow or not and hence take part in the decision-making process. this paper examines the temporal spread of individual responses after the departure of a first individual (the initiator) in a semi-free ranging group of white-faced capuchins (cebus capucinus). we analysed 294 start attempts, 111 succeeding an ...200919605395
prevalence of fur mites (acari: atopomelidae) in non-human primates of costa rica.parasites have been investigated for some new world primates; however, very little is known about ectoparasites and specifically fur mites. in this study, alouatta palliata, cebus capucinus, saimiri oerstedii, and ateles geoffroyi monkeys from different areas of costa rica were searched for fur mites. a total of 276 monkeys were evaluated, and 51 of them were positive for mites of the family atopomelidae. listrocarpus alouattae was identified on 22.3% of a. palliata; listrocarpus capucinus on 12 ...200919637712
the effect of human development on mammal populations of the punta leona private wildlife refuge, costa rica.the effect of human development on six diurnal mammal species was studied using transects in the punta leona private wildlife refuge, puntarenas, costa rica during the dry season months of march and april 2006. individuals/km was recorded for each species in more developed (md) (near paved roads, buildings, construction, or deforested trees) and less developed areas (ld) (secondary forest). the white-faced capuchin monkey (cebus capucinus) (n = 233), coatimundi (nasua narica) (n = 46), and centr ...200919637721
systematic status of thominx platyrrhinorum barus, 1961 (nematoda: capillariidae).a reexamination of the type specimens of thominx platyrrhinorum barus, 1961, described from the small intestine of the monkey cebus capucinus from a zoo in czechoslovakia, has revealed that it belongs to the genus aonchotheca lópez-neyra, 1947. the minute refractile formations on the surface of the proximal part of the spicular sheath, originally described as spines in this species, are also present in aonchotheca annulosa parasitizing murid rodents. since there are no substantial morphological ...19911937274
field methods for capture and measurement of three monkey species in costa rica.a total of 54 free-ranging monkeys were captured and marked in santa rosa national park, costa rica, during may 1985, and an additional 17 were captured during march 1986. the animals were darted using a blowpipe or a co2 gun. the drugs used were ketaset, sernylan and telazol. ketaset was effective for cebus capucinus but unsuccessful for alouatta palliata and ateles geoffroyi. sernylan was successful for a. geoffroyi and a. palliata but is no longer commercially available. telazol proved to be ...19911786909
[dermatophytosis, pseudo-dermatophytosis and healthy cutaneous portage observed in platyrhini and cynomorpha monkeys (author's transl)].the most frequent tinea of the subhuman primates are microsporosis due to microsporum canis or trichophytosis at trichophyton mentagrophytes and t. simii. the t. mentagrophytes, an anthropo-zoophilic species must be differenciated from t. rubrum and t. interdigitale, dermatophytes of the man; due to the importance of that diagnosis in primate mycology, some tests are used for the differenciation. between the 226 monkeys investigated it was registered: 2 trichophytosis at t. mentagrophytes (an on ...1977418728
[presence of abundant heterochromatin in the karyotype of cebus: c. cappucinus and c. nigrivittatus].the karyotypes of cebus capucinus and c. nigrivittatus (primates, platyrrhini) are compared after applying several banding techniques. the chromosomes have abundant intercallary heterochromatin which can be stained by r-, t- and c-band techniques and which are late replicating. the x chromosome resembles that of man and of numerous primates. however, the late replicating pattern of the x in female lymphocytes resembles that of the late replicating x of human fibroblasts rather than of human lymp ...1978115370
human perception of an acoustic orienting signal of monkeys (cebus capucinus) with artificially modified temporal parameters. 1979109388
color-vision polymorphism in wild capuchins (cebus capucinus) and spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi) in costa world monkeys are unique in exhibiting a color-vision polymorphism due to an allelic variation of the red-green visual pigment gene. this makes these monkeys excellent subjects for studying the adaptive evolution of the visual system from both molecular and ecological viewpoints. however, the allele frequencies of the pigments within a natural population have not been well investigated. as a first step toward understanding the relationship between vision and behavior, we conducted color-visi ...200516342069
behavioral indicators of ovarian phase in white-faced capuchins (cebus capucinus).in many primate species, conspicuous behavioral and/or morphological changes are indicators of the fertile phase of the female cycle. however, several primate species, such as the white-faced capuchin, lack these cues. this is referred to as "concealed ovulation," and is argued to be a reproductive strategy that confuses paternity and lowers the risk of infanticide. we studied 10 adult female white-faced capuchins in santa rosa national park, costa rica, from january to june 2002. we determined ...200516163719
social influences on the acquisition of sex-typical foraging patterns by juveniles in a group of wild tufted capuchin monkeys (cebus nigritus).foraging traditions in primates are becoming the subject of increasing debate. recent evidence for such a phenomenon was recently provided for wild cebus capucinus [fragaszy & perry, 2003]. to better understand the bases of animal traditions, one should examine intrapopulation behavioral variability and the influence of social context on within-group transmission of specific foraging patterns. we studied the variability of foraging patterns across age and sex classes, and the proximity patterns ...200515834890
variability in food-processing behavior among white-faced capuchins (cebus capucinus) in santa rosa national park, costa rica.observed patterns of variability in the food-processing behavior of white-faced capuchins (cebus capucinus) across populations may reflect foraging traditions. however, there has been relatively little attention given to intrapopulation variability in food processing among groups and age/sex classes, making recent cross-population comparisons difficult to interpret. in this paper, we provide data on patterns of object use in foraging that we observed at santa rosa national park, costa rica, for ...200515779073
chromosome painting comparison of leontopithecus chrysomelas (callitrichine, platyrrhini) with man and its phylogenetic position.using human probes of whole chromosomes, the homoeologies between human and leontopithecus chrysomelas (platyrrhini) karyotypes were established. thirty-three conserved segments were observed between the two species. intrachromosomal rearrangements between the two species were identified using hybridization of chromosome arm probes of human chromosomes 1 and 3. we also used chromosomal data to investigate phylogenetic relationships of callitrichines. these data were encoded using cebus capucinus ...200415505404
wild capuchins (cebus capucinus) fail to use tools in an experimental field study.from september through november 2000 we conducted an experimental field study of tool use in a group of 15 wild white-faced capuchins (cebus capucinus) in costa rica. the problem presented to the capuchins involved the use of wooden dowels as probes to obtain a food reward (two bananas) located inside a clear plexiglas box. specifically, the task required the capuchins to manually insert a dowel into any of six holes drilled into the box in order to push the bananas off a shelf. the banana could ...200415027090
rescue behavior in white-faced capuchin monkeys during an intergroup attack: support for the infanticide avoidance this work we report the first published observational evidence of rescue behavior during an intergroup interaction in white-faced capuchin monkeys (cebus capucinus). the study groups (groups aa and rr) inhabit the forest of lomas barbudal biological reserve in guanacaste, costa rica, and have been under investigation since 1990 and 1997, respectively. here we report a single interaction in which a victim mother-infant pair was rescued from potential injury or death by the intervention of an a ...200616892414
rise to power: a case study of male fecal androgen and cortisol levels before and after a non-aggressive rank change in a group of wild white-faced capuchins (cebus capucinus).we examined fecal androgen and cortisol levels in three adult male white-faced capuchin monkeys (cebus capucinus) before and after a non-aggressive rank increase in one habituated group residing in the santa rosa sector of the área de conservación guanacaste, costa rica. fecal samples (n = 116) were collected opportunistically between july 2006 and july 2007. alpha males had higher mean androgen levels than subordinates, and acquisition of the alpha position was linked to an immediate increase i ...201122488354
predicting the frequency of food-related agonism in white-faced capuchin monkeys (cebus capucinus), using a novel focal-tree abundance and distribution have played a central role in the conceptual theory of primate socioecology [janson, behaviour 105:53-76, 1988; isbell, behavioral ecology 2:143-155, 1991; sterck et al., behavioral ecology and sociobiology 41:291-309, 1997; van schaik, in: standen v, foley ra, editors, comparative socioecology. oxford: blackwell. p 195-218, 1989]. this theory predicts that agonistic ("contest") competition should occur when food is distributed in discrete, defensible patches; in ...200717177313
an enzootic outbreak of acute disease associated with pathogenic e. coli in adler monkey spring 2009 in adler colony of the institute of medical primatology, a large enzootic outbreak of acute intestine infection associated with pathogenic e. coli occurred and caused 5% mortality of population (209 animals).201526215538
medical management of toxoplasma meningitis in a white-throated capuchin (cebus capucinus).a 32-yr-old white-throated capuchin monkey (cebus capucinus) was presented for paraparesis. a diagnosis of protozoal meningitis was made on the basis of a lymphocytic pleocytosis with elevated protein in cerebrospinal fluid and a positive serum titer to toxoplasma gondii of 131,072 using an indirect hemagglutination test. treatment with clindamycin and trimethaprim-sulfamethoxazole resulted in improvement within 3 days and complete clinical resolution within 2 wk.200617319145
distribution, ecology, life history, genetic variation, and risk of extinction of nonhuman primates from costa rica.we examined the association between geographic distribution, ecological traits, life history, genetic diversity, and risk of extinction in nonhuman primate species from costa rica. all of the current nonhuman primate species from costa rica are included in the study; spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi), howling monkeys (alouatta palliata), capuchins (cebus capucinus), and squirrel monkeys (saimiri oerstedii). geographic distribution was characterized accessing existing databases. data on ecology a ...200417361561
look before leaping: foraging selectivity of capuchin monkeys on acacia trees in costa rica.acacia trees in costa rica have an obligate mutualism with three species of pseudomyrmex ants, which vigorously defend their host tree from insect and mammalian herbivores. depending on the size and species of ant colony, individual acacia trees may be differentially protected. for animals able to discern between weakly and highly aggressive ant colonies, costs of ant stings from less active colonies might be offset by nutritional value acquired from feeding on acacia fruit or ant larvae in swol ...200817965887
social facilitation of fur rubbing behavior in white-faced their natural environment, capuchins select certain plants, containing secondary compounds with bactericide, insecticide or fungicide properties, to rub their pelage energetically (i.e. fur rubbing). fur rubbing can be performed in solitary, or collectively in subgroups of variable size and composition, and most of the time fur rubbing happens in synchrony with other group members. the aim of this study is to understand the underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon, and, more particularly, to ...200817823917
the effects of observer presence on the behavior of cebus capucinus in costa rica.we report on the responses of cebus capucinus in the santa rosa sector of the area de conservación guanacaste, costa rica, to the presence of observers over a 4-week period. study groups were habituated to different degrees: (1) cerco de piedra (cp): continuous observations began in 1984; (2) exclosure (ex): focus of an 18-month study on males from 1998 to 1999; and (3) nbh: never studied/followed but the group frequently encounters researchers. we collected three types of data: group scans (gro ...200818076061
interaction location outweighs the competitive advantage of numerical superiority in cebus capucinus intergroup contests.numerical superiority confers a competitive advantage during contests among animal groups, shaping patterns of resource access, and, by extension, fitness. however, relative group size does not always determine the winner of intergroup contests. smaller, presumably weaker social groups often defeat their larger neighbors, but how and when they are able to do so remains poorly understood. models of competition between individuals suggest that location may influence contest outcome. however, becau ...200818184811
how much is a lot? seed dispersal by white-faced capuchins and implications for disperser-based studies of seed dispersal systems.the quantity of seeds dispersed is considered one of several means to determine the dispersal effectiveness of an animal. however, there is little consistency in the manner in which quantities are measured or presented. here, we quantify seed dispersal by white-faced capuchin monkeys (cebus capucinus) in santa rosa national park, costa rica by measuring: degree of frugivory, number of plant species consumed, the number of seeds consumed per unit time, the number of seeds dispersed intact per uni ...200818463948
behavioral adaptations to heat stress and water scarcity in white-faced capuchins (cebus capucinus) in santa rosa national park, costa rica.we examined thermoregulatory behaviors in a wild population of white-faced capuchins (cebus capucinus) inhabiting a highly seasonal dry forest in santa rosa national park (srnp), costa rica. the dry season in srnp lasts approximately 5 months and is characterized by high ambient temperatures regularly exceeding 37 degrees c, low relative humidity, and the near absence of precipitation. this study demonstrates that capuchins rest more and travel shorter distances during the hottest and driest hou ...200918711741
the effects of infant births on male-female relationships in cebus capucinus.most primates are characterized by cohesive male-female bonds that are maintained year round. while recent studies have addressed the selective pressures influencing the evolution of male-female relationships in primates, we know relatively little about the proximate mechanisms affecting them. it has been demonstrated that newborn white-faced capuchins (cebus capucinus) attract the attention of other group members and this may be an important mechanism influencing male-female relationships. we s ...200919235758
conformism in the food processing techniques of white-faced capuchin monkeys (cebus capucinus).researchers of "culture" have long been interested in the role of social learning in establishing patterns of behavioral variation in wild animals, but very few studies examine this issue using a developmental approach. this 7-year study examines the acquisition of techniques used to process luehea candida fruits in a wild population of white-faced capuchin monkeys, cebus capucinus, residing in and near lomas barbudal biological reserve, costa rica. the two techniques for extracting seeds (pound ...200919455357
life history and locomotion in cebus capucinus and alouatta an individual matures from birth to adulthood, many factors may influence the positional repertoire. the biological and behavioral changes that accompany a growing individual are expected to influence foraging strategy, social status and interaction, diet, predator avoidance strategies, and ultimately positional behavior as a behavioral link between anatomy and the environment. in this work, positional behavior is considered as an important feature of life history in juvenile and adult white- ...200919530076
female and male life tables for seven wild primate species.we provide male and female census count data, age-specific survivorship, and female age-specific fertility estimates for populations of seven wild primates that have been continuously monitored for at least 29 years: sifaka (propithecus verreauxi) in madagascar; muriqui (brachyteles hypoxanthus) in brazil; capuchin (cebus capucinus) in costa rica; baboon (papio cynocephalus) and blue monkey (cercopithecus mitis) in kenya; chimpanzee (pan troglodytes) in tanzania; and gorilla (gorilla beringei) i ...201626928014
genus cebus q- and g-band karyotypes and natural hybrids.the q- and g-band analyses of cebus capucinus, cebus albifrons and cebus apella are presented. the study is based on the results obtained from 18 specimens of the genus. for almost all of them, their exact locality is known. the data presented include the statement of two natural hybrids from c. capucinus and c. albifrons. on an evolutionary basis our results agree with the taxonomic concepts which postulate more similarity between c. capucinus and c. albifrons than between c. capucinus and c. a ...1976827485
a foraging advantage for dichromatic marmosets (callithrix geoffroyi) at low light intensity.most new world monkey species have both dichromatic and trichromatic individuals present in the same population. the selective forces acting to maintain the variation are hotly debated and are relevant to the evolution of the 'routine' trichromatic colour vision found in catarrhine primates. while trichromats have a foraging advantage for red food compared with dichromats, visual tasks which dichromats perform better have received less attention. here we examine the effects of light intensity on ...201019740895
studies on experimental pneumonia : x. pathology of experimental influenza and of bacillus influenzae pneumonia in monkeys.1. virulent influenza bacilli, when injected into the nose and throat of monkeys (cebus capucinus and macacus syrichtus), excite an acute inflammation of the upper respiratory tract, characterized by swelling and hyperemia of the mucous membrane, infiltration of the mucosa and subrnucosa with leucocytes, desquamation of epithelial cells, and the production of a mucopurulent exudate. the accessory sinuses are often implicated in the infection. 2. experimental bacillus influenzae infections of the ...192019868471
letter to the editor: yawning as a behavioral adaptation to heat stress and water scarcity in white-faced capuchins (cebus capucinus). 201020607700
the effects of provisioning and crop-raiding on the diet and foraging activities of human-commensal white-faced capuchins (cebus capucinus).non-human primates are coming into increasingly frequent contact with humans and with human-modified environments. the potential for monkeys to survive in such modified landscapes is questionable, and is likely related to a species' behavioral plasticity, particularly as it relates to diet. in this study, i explore the ways in which white-faced capuchins (cebus capucinus) adjust their diet and foraging behaviors in response to anthropogenic impact. i compare a troop of human-commensal monkeys an ...201121432873
social and environmental factors affecting fecal glucocorticoids in wild, female white-faced capuchins (cebus capucinus).assessing glucocorticoid levels in free-ranging nonhuman primates provides a means to determine the social and environmental stress load for individuals. we investigated the effect of four proximate variables-reproductive state, season, male rank stability, and dominance rank-on the level of fecal glucocorticoids (cortisol metabolites) in eight adult female white-faced capuchin monkeys in costa rica. reproductive state, season, and male rank stability significantly affected fecal glucocorticoids ...201121506140
aggression, grooming and group-level cooperation in white-faced capuchins (cebus capucinus): insights from social networks.the form of animal social systems depends on the nature of agonistic and affiliative interactions. social network theory provides tools for characterizing social structure that go beyond simple dyadic interactions and consider the group as a whole. we show three groups of capuchin monkeys from barro colorado island, panama, where there are strong connections between key aspects of aggression, grooming, and proximity networks, and, at least among females, those who incur risk to defend their grou ...201121590698
anointing variation across wild capuchin populations: a review of material preferences, bout frequency and anointing sociality in cebus and sapajus.the frequency of anointing bouts and the materials used for self- and social anointing vary across capuchin species in captivity, but there is little published data on capuchin anointing in the wild. here we present previously unpublished data on anointing behaviors from capuchin monkey populations at ten different field sites and incorporate these data into a review of the anointing literature for captive and wild capuchins. using a comparative phylogenetic framework, we test four hypotheses de ...201121769906
paternal kin recognition and infant care in white-faced capuchins (cebus capucinus).evidence for paternal kin recognition and paternally biased behaviors is mixed among primates. we investigate whether infant handling behaviors exhibit paternal kin biases in wild white-faced capuchins monkeys (cebus capucinus) by comparing interactions between infants and genetic sires, potential sires, siblings (full sibling, maternal, and paternal half-siblings) and unrelated handlers. we used a linear mixed model approach to analyze data collected on 21 focal infants from six groups in secto ...201626815856
male endocrine response to seasonally varying environmental and social factors in a neotropical primate, cebus capucinus.circannual variation in reproduction is pervasive in birds and mammals. in primates, breeding seasonality is variable, with seasonal birth peaks occurring even in year-round breeders. environmental seasonality is reportedly an important contributor to the observed variation in reproductive seasonality. given that food availability is the primary factor constraining female reproduction, predictions concerning responsiveness to environmental seasonality focus on females, with studies of males focu ...201626739266
cheating monkeys undermine group strength in enemy many social animals, group-mates cooperate to defend their range against intrusion by neighboring groups. because group size tends to be highly variable, such conflicts are often asymmetric. although numerical superiority is assumed to provide a competitive advantage, small groups can generally defend their ranges, even when greatly outnumbered. the prevailing explanation for this puzzling phenomenon is that individuals in relatively large groups experience a greater temptation to flee from c ...201122203978
contexts and behavioral correlates of trill vocalizations in wild white-faced capuchin monkeys (cebus capucinus).primate vocalizations that appear to occur independently of specific contexts typically are considered to be contact calls. however, results from several recent studies indicate that these calls function to facilitate social interactions. white-faced capuchin monkeys (cebus capucinus) emit a high-frequency vocalization, termed a "trill," in social interactions and during travel. in this study, immatures emitted most trills, but adult females also trilled; by contrast, adult males rarely trilled. ...200212210671
a coprological survey of parasites in white-faced capuchins (cebus capucinus) from sector santa rosa, acg, costa rica.neotropical primate parasitology has been dominated by studies of howler monkeys (alouatta spp.), whereas the literature on the parasites of other platyrrhines is relatively sparse. we analysed the faeces of white-faced capuchins (cebus capucinus) in a costa rican tropical dry forest and recovered 8 parasite taxa (filariopsis barretoi,giardia duodenalis, strongyloides sp., prosthenorchis sp., a spirurid nematode, a subulurid nematode, a strongylid nematode and a cestode). f. barretoi and strongy ...201323571310
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii infection in captive mammals in three zoos in mexico city, mexico.antibodies to toxoplasma gondii were determined in 167 mammals in three zoos in mexico city, mexico, using the modified agglutination test (mat). overall, antibodies to t. gondii were found in 89 (53.3%) of the 167 animals tested. antibodies were found in 35 of 43 wild felidae: 2 of 2 bobcats (lynx rufus); 4 of 4 cougars (puma concolor); 10 of 13 jaguars (panthera onca); 5 of 5 leopards (panthera pardus); 7 of 7 lions (panthera leo); 2 of 3 tigers (panthera tigris); 2 of 3 ocelots (leopardus par ...201324063119
[genetic methods for the reintroduction of primates saguinus, aotus and cebus (primates: cebidae) seized in bogota, colombia].primates are one of more confiscated taxa by the environmental authorities in bogota, colombia. during 2008, 133 monkeys were confiscated; samples from 115 of them were sequenced by the mitochondrial cythocrome oxidase ii gene (mtcoii) and 112 sequences obtained were of high quality. these sequences were compared with those obtained by our research group from individuals directly sampled in the field, with precise geographic origin. so, a more specific geographic area of the colombian territory ...201020737854
[intestinal parasites in white-faced capuchin monkeys cebus capucinus (primates: cebidae) inhabiting a protected area in the limón province of northeastern costa rica].deforestation of tropical forests is threatening monkey biodiversity and their health status, dependent of an ecologically undisturbed area. to asses this relationship, we analyzed parasite occurrence in their intestines. the study was conducted at the estación biológica la suerte (ebls), limón, costa rica. the group of white-faced capuchin monkeys (cebus capucinus) was observed between march and december of 2006. a total of 75 feces samples were obtained. once a sample was collected, the eaten ...201021250480
social traditions and social learning in capuchin monkeys (cebus).capuchin monkeys (genus cebus) have evolutionarily converged with humans and chimpanzees in a number of ways, including large brain size, omnivory and extractive foraging, extensive cooperation and coalitionary behaviour and a reliance on social learning. recent research has documented a richer repertoire of group-specific social conventions in the coalition-prone cebus capucinus than in any other non-human primate species; these social rituals appear designed to test the strength of social bond ...201121357221
integrating feeding behavior, ecological data, and dna barcoding to identify developmental differences in invertebrate foraging strategies in wild white-faced capuchins (cebus capucinus).invertebrate foraging strategies in nonhuman primates often require complex extractive foraging or prey detection techniques. as these skills take time to master, juveniles may have reduced foraging efficiency or concentrate their foraging efforts on easier to acquire prey than adults.201727704526
extraction of hermit crabs from their shells by white-faced capuchin monkeys (cebus capucinus).we observed two capuchin monkeys (cebus capucinus) feeding on hermit crabs (coenobita compressus) on the coast, and the tactics they used to extract this well-protected prey. the observations took place during the dry season at playa escondida beach, puntarenas, costa rica. the capuchins descended from trees at the back edge of the beach to capture passing hermit crabs. both capuchins extracted the hermit crabs from their protective shells by holding the shell with one hand and pulling the crab ...201727682241
seasonal importance of flowers to costa rican capuchins (cebus capucinus imitator): implications for plant and primate.our goal is to investigate flower foraging by capuchin monkeys, a behavior rarely studied in wild primates. we ask what drives seasonal variation in florivory rates: flower quality and abundance or fluctuations in fruit and invertebrate abundances. we explore how capuchins affect the reproductive success of flower food species by quantifying the potential pollination rate.201627492752
permanent genetic resources: isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers in the white-faced capuchin monkey (cebus capucinus) and cross-species amplification in other new world monkeys.seventeen polymorphic microsatellite loci were identified for white-faced capuchin monkeys from an enriched genomic library in addition to one locus found through cross-species comparisons. in a sample of 187 wild individuals, these loci exhibited an average of five alleles and an observed heterozygosity of 0.62. the combined probability of exclusion of a random individual from parentage was 0.99. these loci were screened in 23 other new world monkeys and an average of seven loci was variable pe ...200821585803
ontogeny of foraging competence in capuchin monkeys (cebus capucinus) for easy versus difficult to acquire fruits: a test of the needing to learn hypothesis.which factors select for long juvenile periods in some species is not well understood. one potential reason to delay the onset of reproduction is slow food acquisition rates, either due to competition (part of the ecological risk avoidance hypothesis), or due to a decreased foraging efficiency (a version of the needing to learn hypothesis). capuchins provide a useful genus to test the needing to learn hypothesis because they are known for having long juvenile periods and a difficult-to-acquire d ...201526372642
quantifying seasonal fallback on invertebrates, pith, and bromeliad leaves by white-faced capuchin monkeys (cebus capucinus) in a tropical dry forest.fallback foods (fbfs) are hypothesized to shape the ecology, morphology, and behavior of primates, including hominins. identifying fbfs is therefore critical for revealing past and present foraging adaptations. recent research suggests invertebrates act as seasonal fbfs for many primate species and human populations. yet, studies measuring the consumption of invertebrates relative to ecological variation are widely lacking. we address this gap by examining food abundance and entomophagy by prima ...201526010158
[population viability of alouatta palliata (primates: atelidae) and cebus capucinus (primates: cebidae) at refugio de vida silvestre privado nogal, sarapiquí, heredia, costa rica].habitat destruction may cause wildlife population fragmentation and is considered an important factor in small population species extinction. as wildlife populations become smaller, threats to their stability and persistence arise as a result of demographic, environmental and genetic stochastic factors. the aim of this work was to study the effects of population fragmentation on the long term viability of alouatta palliata and cebus capucinus populations, at refugio de vida silvestre privado nog ...201223894948
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