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acute gastric dilatation and rickets in a pet spider monkey (ateles geoffroyi). 1978103273
social organization and food resources availability in primates: a socio-bioenergetic analysis of diet and disease hypotheses.data obtained during a field study of two species of nonhuman primates (alouatta villosa and ateles geoffroyi) living in the tikal national park in guatemala are used to suggest an answer to the question: to what extent is the existence of a particular form of social organization (group size, structure, and composition) an indication of the amount of energy in the form of food resources available to animals in a particular habitat? seven researchers working in teams spent 2,318 hours in the fiel ...1977403771
the unique kidney of the spider monkey (ateles geoffroyi).among nonhuman primates, the renal anatomy of the spider monkey (ateles geoffroyi) is unique, as it is multipyramidal and multipapillary. renal function parameters (glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow, and concentrating ability) are compared to man and other primates. the kidneys of the spider monkey are similar both anatomically and functionally to man.1977412972
the chromosomal location of rdna in selected lower primates.hybridization in stiu was used to identify the chromosomes that carry rdna in representative lower primates, including the baboons, papio cynocephalus and papio hamadryas; the colobus monkey, colobus polykomos; the tree shrew, tupaia glis; the lemur, lemur fulvis; the saki, pithecia pithecia; the marmoset, saguinus nigricollis, and the spider monkey, ateles geoffroyi. the marker chromosome, common to the cercopithecines studied to date, carries the rdna in the baboons. another marker chromosome ...1977414888
transmissible drug resistance in shigella and salmonella isolated from pet monkeys and their owners.during two dysentery outbreaks in primate pet owners, shigella and salmonella strains were isolated from the enteric flora. in both outbreaks the source of infection was traced to asymptomatic spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi). the spider monkeys and their owners shed multiply drug-resistant shigella and salmonella serotypes. six of the nine bacterial strains isolated from the animals were multiply drug-resistant and capable of transferring antibiotic resistance patterns.1975808621
an analysis of adult social spacing tendencies and related social interactions in a colony of spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi) at the san francisco zoo.observations on adult interindividual spacing and social interactions for 13 spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi) of an approximately 48 animal captive colony were made from mid-june through august 1972. in this analysis the interanimal distances, general activities, and social interactions per minute observation for each subject were compared for a sample of 7 sexually mature males and 6 sexually mature females. association tendencies between members of the same sex were significantly high as were ...1976817988
medical management of inflammatory bowel disease in a spider monkey.inflammatory bowel disease was diagnosed in a 3-year-old, captive-born, hand-raised, female spider monkey (ateles geoffroyi). the diagnosis was based on clinical signs, positive-contrast radiographic series, endoscopy, histologic appearance of intestinal biopsy specimens, and the monkey's response to treatment. treatment consisted of oral administration of prednisone, sulfasalazine, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. supportive care included a bland diet and an electrolyte solution given free ch ...19921351893
fetal recruitment of anthropoid gamma-globin genes. findings from phylogenetic analyses involving the 5'-flanking sequences of the psi gamma 1 globin gene of spider monkey ateles geoffroyi.we determined the nucleotide sequence of a 2.5 kb dna fragment (1 kb is 10(3) base-pairs) that includes exon 1, intron 1 and about 1.4 kb of 5'-flanking dna of the spider monkey gamma 1-globin pseudogene locus and compared this sequence to its homologous from other primates and rabbit. this region of the gamma 1 locus of spider monkey still retains conserved regulatory elements, suggesting that it became a pseudogene late in new world monkey phylogeny. in the 250 base-pair region immediately 5' ...19921569563
field methods for capture and measurement of three monkey species in costa rica.a total of 54 free-ranging monkeys were captured and marked in santa rosa national park, costa rica, during may 1985, and an additional 17 were captured during march 1986. the animals were darted using a blowpipe or a co2 gun. the drugs used were ketaset, sernylan and telazol. ketaset was effective for cebus capucinus but unsuccessful for alouatta palliata and ateles geoffroyi. sernylan was successful for a. geoffroyi and a. palliata but is no longer commercially available. telazol proved to be ...19911786909
invasive amebiasis in a spider monkey (ateles geoffroyi). case report and a short review of the literature of amebiasis in non-human primates.a spider monkey (ateles geoffroyi) studied at the san juan de aragon zoo died with symptoms of amoebic dysentery verified by coprologic investigation of the parasite, his female partner was cured with conventional antiamoebic treatment. at autopsy widespread ulcerations in the colon and multiple liver abscesses were found, containing trophozoites of entamoeba histolytica. both lesions were identical to those observed in human amoebiasis. a short review of the literature in nonhuman primates infe ...19911819979
a coprological survey of parasites of wild mantled howling monkeys, alouatta palliata palliata.fecal samples from 155 mantled howling monkeys (alouatta palliata palliata) examined at centro ecologico la pacifica, guanacaste province, costa rica, revealed 75 (48%) had parasitic infections. a sampling of nine howling monkeys from santa rosa national park. costa rica indicated only one infected animal (11%). only three of 19 (16%) spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi) also from santa rosa were infected. controrchis biliophilus, trypanoxyuris minutus, unidentified strongylid eggs and isospora sp. ...19902250334
ecological constraints on group size in three species of neotropical primates.the foraging strategies and association patterns of 3 species of primates (ateles geoffroyi, alouatta palliata, cebus capucinus) were studied over a 5-year period. the objective of the study was to provide a quantitative test of the hypothesis that the size, density and distribution of food resources influence the size of animal groups. in examining the assumptions of this hypothesis, it was shown that these primates used resources that occurred in patches, depleted the patches through their use ...19902394411
nucleotide sequence, evolution, and expression of the fetal globin gene of the spider monkey ateles geoffroyi.the single gamma-globin gene of the new world spider monkey ateles geoffroyi is similar to other primate genes of the beta-globin gene cluster ("beta-like" globin genes). the number of nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions between the coding regions of ateles and other primate gamma-globin genes suggests that the platyrrhine and catarrhine evolutionary lines diverged approximately equal to 40 million years ago, an estimate reasonably consistent with the fossil record. however, the number of syn ...19852413451
the structure and evolution of the spider monkey delta-globin gene.we have isolated the delta-globin gene of the new-world spider monkey, ateles geoffroyi, and compared its nucleotide sequence with those of other primate delta- and beta-globin genes. among primate delta-globin genes, the rate of nonsynonymous substitutions is much less than the rate of synonymous substitutions. this suggests that primate delta-globin genes may remain under evolutionary conservation, perhaps because hemoglobin a2 has an as yet unknown physiological importance.19882833675
the spider monkey psi eta-globin gene and surrounding sequences: recent or ancient insertions of lines and sines?a phylogenetic comparison of the psi eta-globin dna sequence of the spider monkey (ateles geoffroyi) to orthologous sequences from other primates provides evidence for an evolutionarily recent (less than 17 million years ago (mya] insertion of a truncated l1 line (long interspersed repetitive element). an alu sine (short interspersed element), found 3 kb downstream of the poly(a) addition site, arose less than 40 mya subsequent to the divergence of platyrrhinies (new world monkeys) from catarrhi ...19882852163
analysis of primate dental microwear using image processing techniques.this paper introduces fourier transformation as a rapid, replicable means for characterizing and distinguishing patterns of microscopic wear on primate teeth. the two-dimensional power spectra obtained from numerical fourier transformation are shown to be different between two test patterns, one of which is composed of linear features and the other of randomly-spaced dots. a comparison is made, using fourier transformation, of dental microwear patterns of small samples of two primate species, at ...19873616563
a large allantoic sac in the placenta of the spider monkey ateles geoffroyi. 19854070181
reproduction in two species of spider monkeys, ateles fusciceps and ateles geoffroyi. 19734202565
studies on the primary structures of alpha and beta polypeptide chains of adult hemoglobin of the spider monkey (ateles geoffroyi). 19734215720
hematologic values of the black spider monkey (ateles fusciceps), red spider monkey (ateles geoffroyi), white face monkey (cebus capucinus), and black howler monkey (alouatta villosa). 19714329310
two new herpesviruses from spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi). 19724338773
susceptibility of ateles fusciceps, ateles geoffroyi and cebus capucinus monkeys to plasmodium vivax. 19694893736
transmission of experimental kuru to the spider monkey (ateles geoffreyi).clinical signs and pathological changes characteristic of kuru in man and experimental kuru in chimpanzees were observed in two spider monkeys, ateles geoffreyi, after inoculation with brain tissue from a kuru-affected chimpanzee. the incubation period for one of the monkeys was 23 months, and 26 months for the other.19685687819
intraocular granulomas associated with tuberculosis in primates.intraocular granulomas associated with tuberculosis were observed in 2 subhuman primates (ateles geoffroyi and macaca mulatta). bacterial cultures from lung tissues at the time of necropsy confirmed the presence of mycobacterium bovis and m tuberculosis, respectively. the absence of generalized clinical signs in spite of systemic dissemination of the organisms in these cases and the public health significance of tuberculous infections emphasize the importance of proper observation and diagnostic ...19816799470
comparative and functional myology of the prehensile tail in new world monkeys.the caudal myology of prehensile-tailed monkeys (cebus apella, alouatta palliata, alouatta seniculus, lagothrix lagotricha, and ateles paniscus) and nonprehensile-tailed primates (eulemur fulvus, aotus trivirgatus, callithrix jacchus, pithecia pithecia, saimiri sciureus, macaca fascicularis, and cercopithecus aethiops) was examined and compared in order to identify muscular differences that correlate with osteological features diagnostic of tail prehensility. in addition, electrophysiological st ...19957595958
play as physical flexibility training in five ceboid primates.instantaneous focal animal sampling of positional behavior (posture and locomotion) during the play and nonplay of adults and juveniles of 5 ceboid monkeys (alouatta palliata, ateles geoffroyi, cacajao calvus, cebus capucinus, and saimiri boliviensis) in an optimal design field study of the function of play as physical flexibility training produced a sample of 98,261 observations. analyses of 67 distinct modes of positional behavior demonstrated that significantly enhanced rates of suspension an ...19947924251
cranial growth and growth dimorphism in ateles geoffroyi.with the exception of the work of schultz (1960), cranial growth in ateles is not well documented. this paper describes the results of a detailed quantitative study of cranial ontogeny in male and female ateles geoffroyi. using euclidean distance matrix analysis (edma), local areas of form change due to growth within spider monkey crania are identified. we found substantial change local to the zygomatic region in the face, identified mediolaterally directed changes in the palate, detected relati ...19938291622
manual laterality in spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi) solving visually and tactually guided food-reaching tasks.the purpose of this study was to assess the occurrence of manual laterality in ateles geoffroyi and in particular to test the influence of visual and tactual control on preferential hand use. thirteen spider monkeys were presented with three different food-reaching tasks and assessed for hand preferences with a minimum of 100 reaches per animal. in all three tasks a significant lateral bias towards use of the left hand at the group level was found. performance in visually and tactually guided re ...19968954249
genetic relatedness and alloparental behaviour in a captive group of spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi). 19979170642
stable isotope ratios indicate diet and habitat use in new world monkeys.this paper demonstrates the use of stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen in animal tissue for indicating aspects of species behavioral strategy. we analyzed hair from individuals representing four species of new world monkeys (alouatta palliata, the mantled howler; ateles geoffroyi, the spider monkey; cebus capucinus, the capuchin; and brachyteles arachnoides, the woolly-spider monkey or muriqui) for delta 13c and delta 15n using previously developed methods. there are no significant diff ...19979185952
can spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi) discriminate vocalizations of familiar individuals and strangers?in a field experiment, tape-recorded vocalizations of spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi) were played back to investigate whether individuals were able to discriminate between group members and strangers. monkeys responded remarkably similarly in the two cases, with no significant difference found between the numbers of calls given by an individual, or the types of call given. however, a group was more likely to give some vocal reaction when hearing a stranger's call than when hearing one from an ...19979360309
mapping chromosomal homology between humans and the black-handed spider monkey by fluorescence in situ hybridization.we hybridized human chromosome-specific dna probes to metaphases of the new world monkey ateles geoffroyi to map the chromosomal homology between these two species. in the haploid ateles geoffroyi karyotype the total number of signals was 51 for the 22 human autosomal probes used. compared with old world monkeys, the number of translocations found in the black-handed spider monkey karyotype was quite striking. the majority of these translocations are apparently robertsonian and no reciprocal tra ...19979451952
the menstrual cycle of the spider monkey (ateles geoffroyi).the ovarian cycles of four adult female spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi) were followed daily throughout 30 days by means of vaginal swabs and blood samplings. cytological analyses of the vaginal swabs and radioimmunoassay determination of the daily levels of estradiol-17 beta (e2) and progesterone (p4) wer done in order to classify the kind of ovarian cycle of this species. our results show that ateles geoffroyi females display menstrual cycles of about 24 days on average. by comparison with th ...19989519238
laterality in the use of the prehensile tail in the spider monkey (ateles geoffroyi).the purpose of this study was to assess the occurrence of lateral biases in the use of the prehensile tail in ateles geoffroyi. 24 spider monkeys were presented with three food-reaching tasks designed to differ in the precision of motor control needed for successful food retrieval and assessed for lateral preferences in tail use with a minimum of 50 caudal reaches per animal and task. highly lateralized tail use was found in 16 animals, distributed almost equally between left- and right-preferen ...19989533998
isolation of a hepadnavirus from the woolly monkey, a new world primate.hepatitis b virus (hbv) infections are a major worldwide health problem with chronic infections leading to cirrhosis and liver cancer. viruses related to human hbv have been isolated from birds and rodents, but despite efforts to find hepadnaviruses that infect species intermediate in evolution between rodents and humans, none have been described. we recently isolated a hepadnavirus from a woolly monkey (lagothrix lagotricha) that was suffering from fulminant hepatitis. phylogenetic analysis of ...19989576957
habitat use, population density and subgrouping pattern of the yucatan spider monkey (ateles geoffroyi yucatanensis) in quintana roo, mexico. 199910050069
genetically engineered mengo virus vaccination of multiple captive wildlife species.encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv), has caused the deaths of many species of animals in zoological parks and research institutions. the audubon park zoo, (new orleans, louisiana, usa) attempted vaccination of several species with a killed emcv vaccine with mixed results. this paper reports an attempt at vaccination against emcv using a genetically engineered, live attenuated mengo virus (vmc0) at the audubon park zoo and miami metro zoo, (miami, florida, usa) from december 1996 to june 1997. seve ...199910231768
taste difference thresholds for sucrose in two species of nonhuman primates.the purpose of this study was to determine taste difference thresholds for sucrose in frugivorous spider monkeys and omnivorous baboons. using a two-bottle preference test of brief duration, we presented four ateles geoffroyi and four papio hamdryas anubis with six different reference concentrations (rcs) of 25, 50, 100, 200, 300, and 400 mm sucrose and tested their ability to discriminate these from lower concentrations of this carbohydrate. the just noticeable differences (jnds), expressed as ...199910333434
fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish) maps chromosomal homologies between the dusky titi and squirrel monkey.the platyrrhini are one of the most karyologically derived groups of primates and the evolution of their karyotypes is far from understood. the identification of the origin and direction of chromosome rearrangements will contribute to a better understanding of new world monkey phylogeny, taxonomy, and evolution. we mapped homology and identified translocations in the chromosomes of the dusky titi monkey (callicebus moloch, 2n = 50) and the squirrel monkey (saimiri sciureus, 2n = 44) by fluoresce ...200010676707
fur rubbing behavior in free-ranging black-handed spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi) in panama.members of the population of black-handed spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi) on barro colorado island, panama, use the leaves of three rutaceae species in a behavior that resembles fur rubbing in the white faced capuchin (cebus capucinus). this behavior has not been reported from other sites where ateles has been studied. during more than 1,200 hours of observation, 30 episodes of this behavior were recorded ad libitum. adult males engage in this behavior more than adult females. season did not i ...200010902669
fecal analysis of ovarian cycles in female black-handed spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi).an enzyme immunoassay (eia) was applied to characterize the reproductive endocrinology of adult female black-handed spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi). analysis of paired urine and fecal samples, collected from two females housed at san diego zoo, confirmed that the eias employed provided quantitative measurements of ovarian sex steroid hormones. fecal metabolite levels were significantly correlated with those in urine, confirming that feces are a valid source of steroid metabolites in this speci ...200111376446
telomere biology and cellular aging in nonhuman primate cells.to determine how cellular aging is conserved among primates, we analyzed the replicative potential and telomere shortening in skin fibroblasts of anthropoids and prosimians. the average telomere length of the new world primates ateles geoffroyi (spider monkey) and saimiri sciureus (squirrel monkey) and the old world primates macaca mulatta (rhesus monkey), pongo pygmaeus (orangutan), and pan paniscus (pigmy chimpanzee) ranged from 4 to 16 kb. we found that telomere shortening limits the replicat ...200211777339
sperm quality differences between the rainy and dry seasons in captive black-handed spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi).the present work provides an assessment of sperm measures (concentration, motility, viability, etc.) of three black-handed spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi) during the rainy and dry seasons in mexico city, as well as an evaluation of the between-subjects variability of sperm quality. twenty samples obtained by rectal electroejaculation and digested with trypsin were evaluated. the results showed that during the dry season (n = 9) the semen samples were of better quality than those obtained durin ...200211977125
successful acquisition of an olfactory discrimination paradigm by spider monkeys, ateles geoffroyi.the present study demonstrates that an operant conditioning paradigm-originally designed for assessing olfactory performance in an old world primate, the pigtail macaque-can successfully be adapted for use with a new world primate, the spider monkey. using a task based on a food-rewarded, two-choice discrimination of simultaneously presented odor stimuli, ateles geoffroyi is capable of learning to discriminate between objects on the basis of odor cues. moreover, animals could readily transfer to ...200312576131
a census of mammal populations in punta leona private wildlife refuge, costa rica.population sizes of six mammal species were estimated using the king method during the late dry season (march) of 1996 in the punta leona private wildlife refuge, costa rica. the white-faced monkey (cebus capucinus), coati (nasua narica) and nine-banded armadillo (dasypus novemcinctus) with 148, 46, and 8 sighted individuals, respectively, demonstrated the largest populations in the refuge. the central american spider monkey (ateles geoffroyi), tamandua anteater (tamandua mexicana), and variegat ...200212947599
primates as pets in mexico city: an assessment of the species involved, source of origin, and general aspects of treatment.the large human populations in cities are an important source of demand for wildlife pets, including primates, and not much is known about the primate species involved in terms of their general origin, the length of time they are kept as pets, and some of the maintenance problems encountered with their use as pets. we report the results of a survey conducted in mexico city among primate pet owners, which was aimed at providing some of the above information. we used an ethnographic approach, and ...200314582127
survey of black howler (alouatta pigra) and spider (ateles geoffroyi) monkeys in the mayan sites of calakmul and yaxchilán, mexico and tikal, guatemala.surveys of populations of spider and howler monkeys were conducted at the mayan sites of calakmul and yaxchilán, mexico and tikal, guatemala. the forests in which these sites are found are part of the largest landmass of tropical rain forests present in mesoamerica, encompassing about 4 million ha. triangulation of monkey vocalization combined with ground surveys was used to determine the presence of howler and spider monkey groups. howler monkey mean troop size at these sites varied from 6.6+/- ...200414586803
olfactory sensitivity for aliphatic esters in spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi).using a conditioning paradigm, the authors investigated the olfactory sensitivity of 3 spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi) for a homologous series of aliphatic esters (ethyl acetate to n-octyl acetate) and isomeric forms of some of these substances. with all odorants, the monkeys significantly discriminated concentrations below 1 ppm from the odorless solvent, and in several cases, individual monkeys even demonstrated thresholds below 1 ppb. the results showed spider monkeys to have a high olfacto ...200314674835
construction and characterization of bacterial artificial chromosome library of black-handed spider monkey (ateles geoffroyi).the large-insert genomic dna library is a critical resource for genome-wide genetic dissection of target species. we constructed a high-redundancy bacterial artificial chromosome (bac) library of a new world monkey species, the black-handed spider monkey (ateles geoffroyi). a total of 193 152 bac clones were generated in this library. the average insert size of the bac clones was estimated to be 184.6 kb with the small inserts (50-100 kb) accounting for less than 3% and the non-recombinant clone ...200415060576
patterns of behavior across reproductive states of free-ranging female black-handed spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi).reports on the behavior of spider monkeys (genus ateles) describe a suite of 5-6 behaviors that are indicative of an estrous female. this study presents hormonal data as an independent measure of reproductive state to determine if these behaviors are associated with any particular reproductive state or stage of the ovarian cycle. fecal samples collected from 6 free-ranging female black-handed spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi) over the course of 11 months were assayed for estrogen (e1c) and proge ...200415160369
[ecological affinity and current distribution of primates (cebidae) in campeche, mexico].we carried out surveys realized field work from march to september 2000 to get the current distribution of cebids in the state of campeche, mexico. based on interviews and direct observations. we defined the distribution of ateles geoffroyi yucatanensis and alouatta pigra and we documented the first time localities where allouata palliata is found in the state. we made distributional maps of each species using vegetation overlays from inventario nacional forestal (inv for) and each point documen ...200315162751
effect of polymorphic colour vision for fruit detection in the spider monkey ateles geoffroyi, and its implications for the maintenance of polymorphic colour vision in platyrrhine monkeys.most platyrrhine monkeys have an x-linked tri-allelic polymorphism for medium and long wavelength (m/l) sensitive cone photopigments. these pigments' sensitivity maxima (lambdamax) range from 535 to 562 nm. all animals also have an autosomally coded short-wavelength-sensitive (s) cone pigment. in populations with three m/l alleles there are six different colour vision phenotypes. heterozygous females have trichromatic colour vision, while males and homozygous females are dichromats. the selectiv ...200415184518
expansion and divergence of the gh locus between spider monkey and chimpanzee.growth hormone (gh) has been previously described as showing distinct evolutionary stories between primates and other mammals. a burst of changes and successive amplification events took place in the primate lineage giving rise to a multigene family in the three anthropoidea lineages. polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was used to obtain the genes and the intergenic regions comprising the gh loci of the spider monkey (ateles geoffroyi), a new-world primate, and of the chimpanzee (pan troglodytes), ...200415246530
astronomical and meteorological parameters and rest-activity rhythm in the spider monkey ateles geoffroyi.all animals including primates show regular variations in their behavioural activities and physiological functions. in numerous species diel, ultradian, infradian, annual and/or lunar rhythms have been established; however, the use of the focal sampling method does not provide information on hour-to-hour nor day-to-day variations. in behavioural field studies dealing with primate activity rhythms and their modulation by environmental variables the possible dual, synchronizing and/or masking effe ...200415501497
phylogenetic inferences of atelinae (platyrrhini) based on multi-directional chromosome painting in brachyteles arachnoides, ateles paniscus paniscus and ateles b. marginatus.we performed multi-directional chromosome painting in a comparative cytogenetic study of the three atelinae species brachyteles arachnoides, ateles paniscus paniscus and ateles belzebuth marginatus, in order to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships within this platyrrhini subfamily. comparative chromosome maps between these species were established by multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish) employing human, saguinus oedipus and lagothrix lagothricha chromosome-specific probes. the ...200515545728
olfactory sensitivity for aliphatic alcohols and aldehydes in spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi).using a conditioning paradigm, the olfactory sensitivity of five spider monkeys for homologous series of aliphatic 1-alcohols (1-propanol to 1-octanol) and n-aldehydes (n-butanal to n-nonanal) was investigated. with the exception of 1-propanol, the animals significantly discriminated concentrations below 1 ppm from the odorless solvent, and in several cases, individual monkeys even demonstrated detection thresholds below 10 ppb. the results showed 1) spider monkeys to have a well-developed olfac ...200616245343
color-vision polymorphism in wild capuchins (cebus capucinus) and spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi) in costa rica.new world monkeys are unique in exhibiting a color-vision polymorphism due to an allelic variation of the red-green visual pigment gene. this makes these monkeys excellent subjects for studying the adaptive evolution of the visual system from both molecular and ecological viewpoints. however, the allele frequencies of the pigments within a natural population have not been well investigated. as a first step toward understanding the relationship between vision and behavior, we conducted color-visi ...200516342069
sugar concentration of fruits and their detection via color in the central american spider monkey (ateles geoffroyi).although most arguments explaining the predominance of polymorphic color vision in platyrrhine monkeys are linked to the advantage of trichromacy over dichromacy for foraging for ripe fruits, little information exists on the relationship between nutritional reward and performance in fruit detection with different types of color vision. the principal reward of most fruits is sugar, and thus it seems logical to investigate whether fruit coloration provides a long-distance sensory cue to primates t ...200516342072
copulation in free-ranging black-handed spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi).i report ad libitum data on 18 copulations involving free-ranging black-handed spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi) on barro colorado island, panama. all copulations were performed in a dorsoventral position, as is typically reported for this genus. intromission often appeared difficult to achieve, possibly as a result of the large size of the glans penis in these animals. the average length from intromission to termination of thrusting exceeded 17 min, followed by an average period of almost 2 min ...200616541440
scale-free foraging by primates emerges from their interaction with a complex environment.scale-free foraging patterns are widespread among animals. these may be the outcome of an optimal searching strategy to find scarce, randomly distributed resources, but a less explored alternative is that this behaviour may result from the interaction of foraging animals with a particular distribution of resources. we introduce a simple foraging model where individual primates follow mental maps and choose their displacements according to a maximum efficiency criterion, in a spatially disordered ...200616790406
seasonal variations of fecal progesterone and 17beta-estradiol in captive female black-handed spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi).a number of studies in free-ranging and captive spider monkeys (ateles spp.) have shown that this genus is able to reproduce throughout the entire year. nonetheless, it is still controversial whether births, and therefore conceptions, tend to be more frequent during certain seasons. in the present study, we monitored changes in fecal 17beta-estradiol and progesterone for approximately 1 years in five female black-handed spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi) kept in captivity in mexico city. the obje ...200616814854
evolution of an intronic microsatellite polymorphism in toll-like receptor 2 among primates.nonhuman primates express varying responses to mycobacterium tuberculosis: new world monkeys appear to be resistant to tuberculosis (tb) while old world monkeys seem to be particularly susceptible. the aim of this study was to elucidate the presence of the regulatory guanine-thymine (gt) repeat polymorphisms in intron 2 of toll-like receptor 2 (tlr2) associated with the development of tb in humans and to determine any variations in these microsatellite polymorphisms in primates. we sequenced the ...200616912902
functional morphology of the first cervical vertebra in humans and nonhuman primates.the cervical vertebral column bears or balances the weight of the head supported by the nuchal muscles that partly originate from the cervical vertebrae. the position of the head relative to the vertebral column, and consequently locomotion and posture behavior, could thus be associated with the form of the cervical vertebrae. in spite of this assumption and some empirical indications along these lines, primate vertebral morphologies have been reported to be very similar and not clearly related ...200616955497
artificial insemination in black-handed spider monkey (ateles geoffroyi).artificial insemination (ai) was performed in spider monkeys; these primates are vulnerable to extinction and usually do not reproduce spontaneously in captivity. uterine cycles were followed by daily assessment of vaginal cytology, and corroborated a posteriori by concentrations of 17-beta estradiol and progesterone, measured by radioimmunoassay (ria), in fecal samples collected once daily. five females between 13 to 27 years old were inseminated intravaginally (with fresh semen) twice each dur ...200717023040
lethal intragroup aggression by adult male spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi).i report three cases of coalitionary aggression by adult male black-handed spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi) against subadult males within their community on barro colorado island (bci), panama. two of these cases were followed by the disappearance and presumed death of the victim. similar behavior was recently reported by valero et al. [in press], who suggested that this behavior may be the result of intense male reproductive competition. like the single instance they reported, the cases i repo ...200617096429
self-anointing behavior in free-ranging spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi) in mexico.during 250 h of observation, a total of 20 episodes of self-anointing, that is, the application of scent-bearing material onto the body, were recorded in a group of free-ranging mexican spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi). the animals used the leaves of three species of plants (brongniartia alamosana, fabaceae; cecropia obtusifolia, cecropiaceae; and apium graveolens, umbelliferae) two of which have not been reported so far in this context in any new world primate species. the findings that only t ...200717103123
high population density of black-handed spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi) in costa rican lowland wet forest.the main objective of this study was to estimate the population density and demographic structure of spider monkeys living in wet forest in the vicinity of sirena biological station, corcovado national park, costa rica. results of a 14-month line-transect survey showed that spider monkeys of sirena have one of the highest population densities ever recorded for this genus. density estimates varied, however, depending on the method chosen to estimate transect width. data from behavioral monitoring ...200717265010
spider monkey ranging patterns in mexican subtropical forest: do travel routes reflect planning?although it is well known that frugivorous spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi yucatanensis) occupy large home ranges, travelling long distances to reach highly productive resources, little is known of how they move between feeding sites. a 11 month study of spider monkey ranging patterns was carried out at the otochma'ax yetel kooh reserve, yucatán, mexico. we followed single individuals for as long as possible each day and recorded the routes travelled with the help of a gps (global positioning s ...200717297617
aggression and conflict management at fusion in spider monkeys.in social systems characterized by a high degree of fission-fusion dynamics, members of a large community are rarely all together, spending most of their time in smaller subgroups with flexible membership. although fissioning into smaller subgroups is believed to reduce conflict among community members, fusions may create conflict among individuals from joining subgroups. here, we present evidence for aggressive escalation at fusion and its mitigation by the use of embraces in wild spider monkey ...200717311775
distribution, ecology, life history, genetic variation, and risk of extinction of nonhuman primates from costa rica.we examined the association between geographic distribution, ecological traits, life history, genetic diversity, and risk of extinction in nonhuman primate species from costa rica. all of the current nonhuman primate species from costa rica are included in the study; spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi), howling monkeys (alouatta palliata), capuchins (cebus capucinus), and squirrel monkeys (saimiri oerstedii). geographic distribution was characterized accessing existing databases. data on ecology a ...200417361561
nonhuman anthropoid primate femoral neck trabecular architecture and its relationship to locomotor mode.functional analyses of human and nonhuman anthropoid primate femoral neck structure have largely ignored the trabecular bone. we tested hypotheses regarding differences in the relative distribution and structural anisotropy of trabecular bone in the femoral neck of quadrupedal and climbing/suspensory anthropoids. we used high-resolution x-ray computed tomography to analyze quantitatively the femoral neck trabecular structure of ateles geoffroyi, symphalangus syndactylus, alouatta seniculus, colo ...200717514766
demographic survey of black howler monkey (alouatta pigra) in the lachuá eco-region in alta verapaz, guatemala.guatemala harbors three species of primates (alouatta palliata, alouatta pigra and ateles geoffroyi), but the distribution and state of conservation of populations of these species are poorly documented. in the case of a. pigra, populations have been studied recently and documented in several sites in mexico and belize, and only in one site in guatemala (tikal national park). in this study, we report first-time population data for a. pigra existing in the lachuá eco-region in northwestern guatem ...200817823920
olfactory sensitivity for putrefaction-associated thiols and indols in three species of non-human primate.using a conditioning paradigm, the olfactory sensitivity of four spider monkeys, three squirrel monkeys and three pigtail macaques to four thiols and two indols, substances characteristic of putrefaction processes and faecal odours, was assessed. with all odorants, the animals significantly discriminated concentrations below 1 p.p.m. (part per million) from the odourless solvent, and in several cases individual animals even demonstrated thresholds below 1 p.p.t. (part per trillion). the detectio ...200718025016
seasonal emission of seminal coagulum and in vivo sperm dynamics in the black-handed spider monkey (ateles geoffroyi).the ejaculate of diverse primate species consists of two portions, liquid and solid; the latter, known as the seminal coagulum, is thought to sequester large numbers of sperm. in the black-handed spider monkey (ateles geoffroyi), ejaculates collected by electroejaculation did not always contain seminal coagulum. the objective of the present study was to determine seasonal emission of seminal coagulum and in vivo sperm dynamics in the black-handed spider monkey. seminal coagulum emission was rela ...200818068757
[germination of ficus insipida (moraceae) seeds from toucan (ramphastos sulfuratus) and spider monkey (ateles geoffroyi) feces].to test the null hypothesis that two vertebrate fructivores, toucans (ramphastos sulfuratus) and spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi), are equally specialized in germinating ficus insipida seeds after these have passed through their digestive tracts, we fed fruits to captive individuals. we extracted seeds from feces and placed them on filter paper in petri dishes under controled light, temperature and humidity. control seeds had not passed through a digestive tract. we found that a greater proport ...200618494309
predicted and verified distributions of ateles geoffroyi and alouatta palliata in oaxaca, mexico.primate conservation requires a better knowledge of the distributions and statuses of populations in both large areas of habitat and in areas for which we currently have no information. we focused on spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi) and howler monkeys (alouatta palliata) in the state of oaxaca, mexico. this mexican state has protected large tracts of forest, and has historical records for both primates, although very little is known about them. to update our knowledge of the distributions of th ...200818523840
taste difference thresholds for monosodium glutamate and sodium chloride in pigtail macaques (macaca nemestrina) and spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi).the purpose of this study was to determine taste difference thresholds for monosodium glutamate (msg) and sodium chloride (nacl) in pigtail macaques (macaca nemestrina) and spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi). using a two-bottle preference test of brief duration, three animals of each species were presented with four different reference concentrations of 50, 100, 200, and 400 mm of a tastant and tested for their ability to discriminate these from lower concentrations of the same tastant. the just ...200818615485
the seminal coagulum favours passage of fast-moving sperm into the uterus in the black-handed spider monkey.in addition to gametes, mammalian internal fertilisation has required the evolution of assorted anatomical, physiological and biochemical devices to deal with intra- and inter-sexual conflict such as sperm competition and female cryptic choice respectively. the seminal coagulum of primates and other mammals is viewed as one of such devices. among primates, the seminal coagulum characteristically occurs in multi-male and multi-female species, leading us to suppose that it intervenes in sperm comp ...200818647842
importance of achromatic contrast in short-range fruit foraging of primates.trichromatic primates have a 'red-green' chromatic channel in addition to luminance and 'blue-yellow' channels. it has been argued that the red-green channel evolved in primates as an adaptation for detecting reddish or yellowish objects, such as ripe fruits, against a background of foliage. however, foraging advantages to trichromatic primates remain unverified by behavioral observation of primates in their natural habitats. new world monkeys (platyrrhines) are an excellent model for this evalu ...200818836576
sex differences in the social behavior of wild spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi yucatanensis).competition for resources and the need for cooperation are reported to affect patterns of social interactions and thus the quality of social relationships in primates. relationships may be described as high quality when both individuals behave in a way that benefits their partner. we investigated the distribution of a wide range of social behaviors across sex partner combinations of adult spider monkeys with specific reference to contested resources. data were collected from two communities of w ...200918942094
diet of spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi) in mesoamerica: current knowledge and future directions.here we review all published articles and book chapters, as well as unpublished theses and data of ateles geoffroyi diet to (1) summarize the literature; (2) synthesize general feeding patterns; (3) document plant taxonomic similarity in diet across study sites; and (4) suggest directions for future research and conservation priorities. we found 22 samples from five countries: mexico, guatemala, el salvador, costa rica and panama. tropical wet forest is the most studied habitat (n=13 samples), f ...200918942095
seasonality of lh, testosterone and sperm parameters in spider monkey males (ateles geoffroyi).there are no reported data on hormonal fluctuations in black-handed spider monkey males. on previous research about the reproductive physiology of this monkey we have found that during the dry season females show ovulatory estrogen peaks and males present the best quality semen. as part of an ongoing research, in this study we assessed seasonal variations in the concentration of serum luteinizing hormone (lh) and testosterone (t) in three adult spider monkey males to corroborate the seasonal rep ...200919235873
pheochromocytoma in six new world primates.six new world primates, including 2 golden lion tamarins (leontopithecus rosalia), 2 cotton-top tamarins (saguinus o. oedipus), 1 black howler monkey (alouatta caraya), and 1 black-handed spider monkey (ateles g. geoffroyi), were diagnosed with unilateral (4/6) or bilateral (1/6) adrenal or extra-adrenal (1/6) pheochromocytoma by light microscopy and immunohistochemical staining for chromogranin a. overt invasive behavior or metastases were not observed in any primate, and thus these neoplasms w ...200919276065
tool use in wild spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi).tool use has been observed in a variety of primate species, including both new and old world monkeys. however, such reports mainly address the most prodigious tool users and frequently limit discussions of tool-using behavior to a foraging framework. here, we present observations of novel and spontaneous tool use in wild black-handed spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi), where female spider monkeys used detached sticks in a self-directed manner. we introduce factors to explain ateles tool-using abi ...200919370386
gustatory responsiveness to six bitter tastants in three species of nonhuman primates.gustatory responsiveness of six adult squirrel monkeys, four spider monkeys, and five pigtail macaques to six bitter tastants was assessed in two-bottle preference tests of brief duration (2 min). animals were given the choice between a 30-mm sucrose solution and defined concentrations of a bitter tastant dissolved in a 30-mm sucrose solution. with this procedure, saimiri sciureus, ateles geoffroyi, and macaca nemestrina were found to significantly discriminate concentrations as low as 0.2, 0.05 ...200919399556
prevalence of fur mites (acari: atopomelidae) in non-human primates of costa rica.parasites have been investigated for some new world primates; however, very little is known about ectoparasites and specifically fur mites. in this study, alouatta palliata, cebus capucinus, saimiri oerstedii, and ateles geoffroyi monkeys from different areas of costa rica were searched for fur mites. a total of 276 monkeys were evaluated, and 51 of them were positive for mites of the family atopomelidae. listrocarpus alouattae was identified on 22.3% of a. palliata; listrocarpus capucinus on 12 ...200919637712
the effect of human development on mammal populations of the punta leona private wildlife refuge, costa rica.the effect of human development on six diurnal mammal species was studied using transects in the punta leona private wildlife refuge, puntarenas, costa rica during the dry season months of march and april 2006. individuals/km was recorded for each species in more developed (md) (near paved roads, buildings, construction, or deforested trees) and less developed areas (ld) (secondary forest). the white-faced capuchin monkey (cebus capucinus) (n = 233), coatimundi (nasua narica) (n = 46), and centr ...200919637721
visual expertise does not predict the composite effect across species: a comparison between spider (ateles geoffroyi) and rhesus (macaca mulatta) monkeys.humans are subject to the composite illusion: two identical top halves of a face are perceived as "different" when they are presented with different bottom halves. this observation suggests that when building a mental representation of a face, the underlying system perceives the whole face, and has difficulty decomposing facial features. we adapted a behavioural task that measures the composite illusion to examine the perception of faces in two nonhuman species. specifically we had spider (atele ...200919815323
spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi) and capuchin monkeys (cebus apella) follow gaze around barriers: evidence for perspective taking?gaze following is an adaptive skill that might have been selected in social species, such as many nonhuman primates, to obtain information about food location, predators, and social interactions. the authors investigated the ability of spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi) and capuchin monkeys (cebus apella) to follow the gaze of a human around barriers and the presence of "looking back" behavior. in the 1st experiment, a human looked to a target location inside the testing room, whereas in the 2nd ...200919929105
age-dependent changes in fecal 17beta-estradiol and progesterone concentrations in female spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi).the objective of this study was to investigate whether sex steroids decreased with age in female black-handed spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi). fecal concentrations of 17beta-estradiol and progesterone (five samples/wk) and the number of ovulatory and anovulatory cycles were compared between adult (n=3) and aged females (n=2). all animals (regardless of age) had higher 17beta-estradiol concentrations during the fertile than the nonfertile phases. however, during the fertile phase, concentration ...201019963259
evidence of human-like, holistic face processing in spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi).human subjects build mental representations of facial identity that are "holistic." this has been clearly demonstrated with the composite effect where the representation of a whole face interferes with the recognition of features. very few studies have sought evidence of holistic representations being built by nonhumans. this study tested captive, black-handed spider monkeys (n = 2) on a standard composite task, comparable to those run previously on human subjects. in experiment 1, the monkeys w ...201020175597
novelty-seeking temperament in captive stumptail macaques (macaca arctoides) and spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi).novelty-seeking temperament is defined as the reaction to novel or risk situations and objects, and by the global disposition to explore such stimuli. our purpose was to describe and compare this trait in primates. for this purpose, a risk-taking index, a curiosity index, and a novelty-seeking index were correlated to several biosocial variables using 22 captive stumptail macaques (macaca arctoides) and 7 captive spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi). spider monkeys scored higher than macaques, male ...201020476821
multicystic bone disease (gorham-stout syndrome) in a spider monkey (ateles geoffroyi ).in april 2000, a 2.5-year-old pet female geoffroyi's spider monkey presented for reduced activity, a subdued demeanor, and boney enlargement involving both radii.201021158869
to whom the play signal is directed: a study of headshaking in black-handed spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi).spider monkeys shake their heads so as to facilitate amicable social contact. this occurs frequently during vigorous play fighting, and so is common during the juvenile period. occasionally, juvenile spider monkeys use headshakes during nonsocial locomotor play. in this study, head shaking in early infancy and in adulthood was studied in a captive troop of spider monkeys, with a total of 8 infants studied from shortly after birth to just before weaning. three hypotheses to account for these nons ...201121341911
inferential reasoning by exclusion in great apes, lesser apes, and spider monkeys.using the cups task, in which subjects are presented with limited visual or auditory information that can be used to deduce the location of a hidden reward, call (2004) found prima facie evidence of inferential reasoning by exclusion in several great ape species. one bonobo (pan paniscus) and two gorillas (gorilla gorilla) appeared to make such inferences in both the visual and auditory domains. however, common chimpanzees (pan troglodytes) were successful only in the visual domain, and bornean ...201121341913
traditions in spider monkeys are biased towards the social domain.cross-site comparison studies of behavioral variation can provide evidence for traditions in wild species once ecological and genetic factors are excluded as causes for cross-site differences. these studies ensure behavior variants are considered within the context of a species' ecology and evolutionary adaptations. we examined wide-scale geographic variation in the behavior of spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi) across five long-term field sites in central america using a well established ethnogr ...201121373196
potential distribution of mexican primates: modeling the ecological niche with the maximum entropy algorithm.we developed a potential distribution model for the tropical rain forest species of primates of southern mexico: the black howler monkey (alouatta pigra), the mantled howler monkey (alouatta palliata), and the spider monkey (ateles geoffroyi). to do so, we applied the maximum entropy algorithm from the ecological niche modeling program maxent. for each species, we used occurrence records from scientific collections, and published and unpublished sources, and we also used the 19 environmental cov ...201121404094
Wood consumption by Geoffroyi's spider monkeys and its role in mineral supplementation.Wood consumption is a rare behavior in frugivorous primates; however, it can be necessary for nutritional balancing as it may provide macro and/or micronutrients that are scarce in the most frequently eaten items (fruits). We tested this hypothesis in six spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) communities inhabiting continuous and fragmented rainforests in Lacandona, Mexico. We investigated the importance of both live and decayed wood in the diet of the monkeys, and assessed if wood consumption is rel ...201121969868
universal behaviors as candidate traditions in wild spider monkeys.candidate traditions were documented across three communities of wild spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi) using an a priori approach to identify behavioral variants and a statistical approach to examine differences in their proportional use. this methodology differs from previous studies of animal traditions, which used retrospective data and relied on the 'exclusion method' to identify candidate traditions. our a priori approach increased the likelihood that behavior variants with equivalent func ...201121949715
age related variation in male-male relationships in wild spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi yucatanensis).in social organizations characterized by male philopatry, social relationships between males are argued to be the strongest. little is known about the social relationships of philopatric male spider monkeys. to address this limitation, we investigated social relationships among individually recognized wild adult male spider monkeys from two well-habituated communities in the yucatan peninsula, mexico, focusing on affiliative behaviors important in regulating male social relationships, including ...201121881958
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