an analysis of adult social spacing tendencies and related social interactions in a colony of spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi) at the san francisco zoo.observations on adult interindividual spacing and social interactions for 13 spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi) of an approximately 48 animal captive colony were made from mid-june through august 1972. in this analysis the interanimal distances, general activities, and social interactions per minute observation for each subject were compared for a sample of 7 sexually mature males and 6 sexually mature females. association tendencies between members of the same sex were significantly high as were ...1976817988
pneumocystis carinii infections in zoo animals.pneumocystis carinii was found to be present in the lungs of twenty-three zoo animals in the netherlands. the following species were represented: red kangaroo, common tree shrew, senegal-galago, demidoff's-galago, brown howler monkey, woolly monkey, long-haired spider monkey, white-eared marmoset, chimpanzee, three-toed sloth, palm squirrel, red panda, fennec fox, tree hyrax and large-toothed hyrax.19751079994
observations on copulation and seasonal reproduction of two species of spider monkeys, ateles belzebuth and a. geoffroyi. 19715001016
foraging and ranging patterns in white-bellied spider monkeys.ranging and foraging patterns observed during a field study of the behavioral ecology of ateles belzebuth belzebuth are analysed in the context of temporal and spatial variation in the distribution of plant resources at the study site. the study group exhibited two basic patterns of foraging behaviour and habitat exploitation, which appeared to correlate with the observed variation in resource availability. during the dry season, when the relative abundance of fruit decreased, the spider monkeys ...19958707233
diet and feeding ecology of ateles belzebuth belzebuth at maracá ecological station, roraima, brazil.the diet and feeding behaviour of habituated group of free-ranging spider monkeys (ateles belzebuth belzebuth) were studied from 1987 to 1989. their dietary patterns were analysed in relation to the temporal and spatial distribution of food resources. the results indicate that ripe fruit was regularly eaten throughout the study period and that diet composition was significantly related to the overall availability of ripe fruit sources.19989583952
locomotor behavior of lagothrix lagothricha and ateles belzebuth in yasuní national park, ecuador: general patterns and nonsuspensory modes.field study of the locomotor behavior of sympatric woolly monkeys (lagothrix lagothricha) and spider monkeys (ateles belzebuth) in undisturbed rainforest of northern ecuador revealed similar patterns in use of plant forms (categorized tree and liana structure), and substantial differences in the frequencies of use of different grouped modes (aggregates of kinematically similar specific modes). lagothrix progressed more than ateles by leaping/dropping and quadrupedal walking/running, whereas atel ...200111437524
chromosomal homologies between cebus and ateles (primates) based on zoo-fish and g-banding comparisons.zoo-fish (fluorescent "in vitro" hybridization) was used to establish the chromosomal homology between humans (hsa) and cebus nigrivitatus (cni) and ateles belzebuth hybridus (abh). these two species belong to different new world monkey families (cebidae and atelidae, respectively) which differ greatly in chromosome number and in chromosome morphology. the molecular results were followed by a detailed banding analysis. the ancestral karyotype of cebus was then determined by a comparison of in si ...200212210670
seasonal variation in association patterns of wild spider monkeys (ateles belzebuth belzebuth) at la macarena, colombia.spider monkeys exhibit a fission-fusion type of social organization. i studied party size and party composition in wild long-haired spider monkeys (ateles belzebuth belzebuth) in three study periods at la macarena, colombia and found that overall party size was larger in the fruit-abundant season. mean party size in which males were observed was relatively stable across seasons. in contrast, the mean party size of females varied. females were observed in larger parties in the fruit-abundant seas ...200312687471
entamoeba histolytica infections in captive primates.a group based survey on the presence of entamoeba histolytica and entamoeba dispar using real-time pcr among 20 species of captive non-human primates was performed after diagnosis of e. histolytica dysentery in a spider monkey ( ateles belzebuth hybridus). e. histolytica dna was detected in three species of new world primates and in three species of old world primates. in five of six e. histolytica isolates, it was possible to amplify the srehp gene. they all revealed the same pattern after alui ...200312756542
suspensory locomotion of lagothrix lagothricha and ateles belzebuth in yasuní national park, ecuador.a comparative field study of the locomotion of woolly monkeys (lagothrix lagothricha) and spider monkeys (ateles belzebuth) in undisturbed rainforest of northeastern ecuador reveals substantial differences in their use of suspensory modes. ateles performed both more brachiation (by forelimbs and tail, with trunk rotation), and forelimb swing (similar to brachiation, but without trunk rotation) than lagothrix. in contrast, in lagothrix 20% of suspensory movement was by pronograde forelimb swing, ...200312799159
identification of new world monkey mhc-drb alleles using pcr, dgge and direct sequencing.identification of new world monkey mhc-drb alleles has previously relied upon labor-intensive cloning and sequencing techniques. here we describe a rapid and unambiguous way to distinguish drb alleles in new world monkeys using the polymerase chain reaction (pcr), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (dgge), and direct sequencing. the highly variable second exon of new world monkey drb alleles was amplified using generic drb primers and alleles were separated by dgge. dna was then reamplified ...200414714152
phylogenetic inferences of atelinae (platyrrhini) based on multi-directional chromosome painting in brachyteles arachnoides, ateles paniscus paniscus and ateles b. marginatus.we performed multi-directional chromosome painting in a comparative cytogenetic study of the three atelinae species brachyteles arachnoides, ateles paniscus paniscus and ateles belzebuth marginatus, in order to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships within this platyrrhini subfamily. comparative chromosome maps between these species were established by multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish) employing human, saguinus oedipus and lagothrix lagothricha chromosome-specific probes. the ...200515545728
costs of twins in free-ranging white-bellied spider monkeys (ateles belzebuth belzebuth) at tinigua national park, colombia.a female spider monkey (ateles belzebuth belzebuth) that gave birth to twins was studied during 13 months, and her activity budget and diet were compared to those of females with single offspring and females with no offspring to assess selective pressures that could influence litter size. we recorded qualitative information on the development and social interactions of the twins and three other single infants. emi, the female that had the twins, had the highest proportion of resting time and the ...200616328591
predation of wild spider monkeys at la macarena, colombia.the killing of an adult male spider monkey (ateles belzebuth ) by a jaguar (panthera onca) and a predation attempt by a puma (felis concolor) on an adult female spider monkey have been observed at the ciem (centro de investigaciones ecológicas la macarena), la macarena, colombia. these incidents occurred directly in front of an observer, even though it is said that predation under direct observation on any type of primate rarely occurs. on the basis of a review of the literature, and the observa ...200817342352
route-based travel and shared routes in sympatric spider and woolly monkeys: cognitive and evolutionary implications.many wild primates occupy large home ranges and travel long distances each day. navigating these ranges to find sufficient food presents a substantial cognitive challenge, but we are still far from understanding either how primates represent spatial information mentally or how they use this information to navigate under natural conditions. in the course of a long-term socioecological study, we investigated and compared the travel paths of sympatric spider monkeys (ateles belzebuth) and woolly mo ...200717387530
intra-community infanticide and forced copulation in spider monkeys: a multi-site comparison between cocha cashu, peru and punta laguna, mexico.we describe two cases of infanticide, two suspected infanticides, and a forced copulation by familiar resident males in two populations of wild spider monkeys (ateles belzebuth chamek and a. geoffroyi yucatanensis). these are the first known infanticides and forced copulation in spider monkeys. data were gathered from four neighboring communities of spider monkeys in manu national park at the cocha cashu biological station, peru and two communities in the otoch ma'ax yetel kooh reserve at punta ...200818064591
male and female range use in a group of white-bellied spider monkeys (ateles belzebuth) in yasuní national park, ecuador.spider monkeys (ateles sp.) live in a flexible fission-fusion social system in which members of a social group are not in constant association, but instead form smaller subgroups of varying size and composition. patterns of range use in spider monkeys have been described as sex-segregated, with males and females often ranging separately, females utilizing core areas that encompass only a fraction of the entire community range, and males using much larger portions of the community range that over ...201019911424
male mating tactics in spider monkeys: sneaking to compete.i investigated the mating system and male mating tactics for a population of wild spider monkeys (ateles belzebuth chamek), to identify the behaviors males used to achieve and maintain access to sexually receptive females, and to examine if some males used more tactics than other males and/or had differential access to females. results show that the mating system mostly involved scramble competition polygyny and that males used a range of mating tactics and behaviors, previously unreported for s ...201020653005
patterns of mineral lick visitation by spider monkeys and howler monkeys in amazonia: are licks perceived as risky areas?mineral licks--also known as "salados," "saladeros," or "collpas"--are specific sites in tropical and temperate ecosystems where a large diversity of mammals and birds come regularly to feed on soil. although the reasons for vertebrate geophagy are not completely understood, animals are argued to obtain a variety of nutritional and health benefits from the ingestion of soil at mineral licks. we studied the temporal patterns of mineral lick use by white-bellied spider monkey (ateles belzebuth) an ...201021328597
geophagy in brown spider monkeys (ateles hybridus) in a lowland tropical rainforest in colombia.spider monkeys and howler monkeys are the only neotropical primates that eat soil from mineral licks. not all species within these genera visit mineral licks, and geophagy has been restricted to populations of ateles belzebuth belzebuth,ateles belzebuth chamek and alouatta seniculus in western amazonian rainforests. with the aid of a camera trap we studied the visitation patterns of a group of brown spider monkeys (ateles hybridus) to a mineral lick at serrania de las quinchas, in colombia. spid ...201121494049
distribution and abundance of white-fronted spider monkeys, ateles belzebuth (atelidae), and threats to their survival in peruvian amazonia.the white-fronted spider monkey, ateles belzebuth, is listed as 'endangered' according to the iucn classification. in peru it is found in the departments of loreto, san martín, amazonas and cajamarca, but detailed data on its geographic distribution, population densities and conservation status are scarce. in order to obtain such information, we conducted transect censuses on the río aushiri and río san antonio (right bank of río napo), and between the río curaray and the río arabela and río nas ...201223296267
molecular typing of giardia duodenalis isolates from nonhuman primates housed in a brazilian zoo.giardia infections in captive nonhuman primates (nhp) housed at a brazilian zoo were investigated in order to address their zoonotic potential. fresh fecal samples were collected from the floors of 22 enclosures where 47 primates of 18 different species were housed. the diagnosis of intestinal parasites after concentration by sedimentation and flotation methods revealed the following parasites and their frequencies: giardia (18%); entamoeba spp. (18%); endolimax nana (4.5%); iodamoeba spp. (4.5% ...201524553608
development and annotation of shotgun sequence libraries from new world monkeys.the draft genome sequences of several primates are available, providing insights into evolutionary and anthropological research. however, genomic resources from new world monkeys are conspicuously lacking. to date, the genomes of only two platyrrhine species, the common marmoset and the bolivian squirrel monkey, have been fully sequenced. this is especially limiting for comparative genomics research, considering that new world monkeys are the most speciose primate group, and platyrrhine genetic ...201222715851
successive radiations, not stasis, in the south american primate fauna.the earliest neotropical primate fossils complete enough for taxonomic assessment, dolichocebus, tremacebus, and chilecebus, date to approximately 20 ma. these have been interpreted as either closely related to extant forms or as extinct stem lineages. the former hypothesis of morphological stasis requires most living platyrrhine genera to have diverged before 20 ma. to test this hypothesis, we collected new complete mitochondrial genomes from aotus lemurinus, saimiri sciureus, saguinus oedipus, ...200919321426
bimodal evolution of the killer cell ig-like receptor (kir) family in new world primates.the immunoglobulin-like receptor (kir) gene family in new world primates (platyrrhini) has been characterized only in the owl monkey (aotus sp.). to gain a better understanding of the kir system in platyrrhini, we analyzed a kir haplotype in ateles geoffroyi, and sequenced kir complementary dnas (cdnas) from other three atelidae species, ateles hybridus, ateles belzebuth, and lagothrix lagotricha. atelidae expressed a variable set of activating and inhibitory kirs that diversified independently ...201323846852
crying tapir: the functionality of errors and accuracy in predator recognition in two neotropical high-canopy primates.predation is often considered to be a prime driver in primate evolution, but, as predation is rarely observed in nature, little is known of primate antipredator responses. time-limited primates should be highly discerning when responding to predators, since time spent in vigilance and avoidance behaviour may supplant other activities. we present data from two independent studies describing and quantifying the frequency, nature and duration of predator-linked behaviours in 2 high-canopy primates, ...201425791040
response of frugivorous primates to changes in fruit supply in a northern amazonian forest.few attempts have been made to understand how spatiotemporal changes in fruit supply influence frugivores in tropical forests. the marked spatiotemporal variation in fruit supply can affect frugivore abundance and distribution, but studies addressing the effects of this variation on primates are scarce. the present study aimed to investigate how the spatiotemporal distribution of fruits influences the local distribution of three frugivorous primates in the eastern part of the maracá ecological s ...201425296224
ecological factors predictive of wild spider monkey (ateles belzebuth) foraging decisions in yasuní, ecuador.because fruiting trees are uncommon in tropical forests, frugivorous primates experience selective pressure to incorporate knowledge of where to find feeding trees, what to expect when they arrive there, and when they can return after depleting a tree. i investigated these abilities in wild spider monkeys (ateles belzebuth) in yasuní, ecuador, by analyzing the characteristics of feeding trees that drive foraging decisions. foraging data were derived from four 2-week follows of focal adult female ...201424865445
a comparison of computer-generated and naturally occurring foraging patterns in route-network-constrained spider monkeys.the attribution of goal-directed behavior to observations of primate foraging and ranging requires that simpler explanations for observed behavior patterns be eliminated. computer-generated simulations of non-goal-directed foraging behavior can be used as null models for higher complexity cognitive foraging, and can provide quantifiable data against which to compare the observed behavioral patterns in wild primates. in this paper, we compare the results of two variations of computer simulated nu ...201424166824
effects of predation risk on the grouping patterns of white-bellied spider monkeys (ateles belzebuth belzebuth) in western amazonia.predation is proposed to be one of the most important factors influencing the evolution of mammalian societies. although predation risk is thought to influence both the behavior and grouping patterns of most diurnal primates, evidence supporting this hypothesis is still limited. the spatial and temporal patterns of mineral lick use by one group of white-bellied spider monkeys (ateles belzebuth) were evaluated, based on the growing evidence that mineral licks are perceived as areas of relative hi ...201323504960
sperm morphology in neotropical primates.the morphological and morphometric characterization of spermatozoa has been used as a taxonomic and phylogenetic tool for different species of mammals. we evaluated and compared the sperm morphometry of five neotropical primate species: alouatta caraya, ateles belzebuth and ateles chamek of family atelidae; and cebus cay (=sapajus cay) and cebus nigritus (=sapajus nigritus) of family cebidae. after the collection of semen samples, the following parameters were measured on 100 spermatozoa from ea ...201931640171
initiation of feeding by four sympatric neotropical primates (ateles belzebuth, lagothrix lagotricha poeppigii, plecturocebus (callicebus) discolor, and pithecia aequatorialis) in amazonian ecuador: relationships to photic and ecological factors.we examined photic and ecological factors related to initiation of feeding by four sympatric primates in the rain forest of amazonian ecuador. with rare exceptions, morning activities of all taxa began only after the onset of nautical twilight, which occurred 47-48 min before sunrise. the larger spider and woolly monkeys, ateles belzebuth and lagothrix lagotricha poeppigii, left their sleeping trees before sunrise about half the time, while the smaller sakis and titi monkeys, pithecia aequatoria ...201930673746
demography and life history of a group of white-bellied spider monkeys (ateles belzebuth) in western amazonia.species-specific demographic parameters and life history variables are important for understanding how individual primate taxa have adapted to evolutionary and ecological pressures and for conducting interspecific comparisons as well as for conducting population viability analyses and for managing captive populations. here, we describe results from a 12+ year study of the demographic dynamics of a wild group of white-bellied spider monkeys (ateles belzebuth belzebuth) living near the tiputini bi ...201830047998
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